Pages PREFACE v-xi

Plan of the Work ... . xii

GLOSSARY ...... 1-294

Additions during Printing . . . 295-319


A. Signs and Abbreviations ..... 322

B. The Pronunciation of Latin and Latinized Words . 322

C. The Use of the Terms "Right" and "Left" . . 323

D. Bibliography . .... 324-326

ERRATA ...... 327 " Every other authout may aspire to praise, the lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach." De Samuel Johnson. PEEFACE

Nearly thirty-nine years ago Dr M. C. Cooke published his " Manual,'' which reached a second edition nine years afterwards. Since then no botanic dictionary has been published in Britain, while during the period which has passed since then has undergone a momentous change. While systematic botany has been actively prosecuted, the other departments of morphology, and minute have been energetically pursued by the help of improved appliances and methods of investigation. One result has been a large increase of technical terms, which are only partially accounted for in the various text-books. The time seemed therefore ripe for a new Glossary which should include these terms, and, encouraged by the help of many botanic friends, I have drawn up the present volume. After the work had been partly written, and announced for publication, Mr Crozier's " Dictionary " first came under my notice. I have consequently compared it with my manuscript, and inserted many words which had not come within my knowledge, or had been rejected by me, as will be seen by the acknowledgment in each case. Mr Heinig's " Glossary " only reached London after the early sheets were printed. The task of selecting what terms should be included in any of ofiers many difiiculties : in the case of botany, it is closely linked on with and general , with geology as regards fossil , with , , and the cultivation of plants in the or the field. How far it is advisable to include terms from those overlapping which lie on the borderland is a question on which no two people might think alike. I have given every word an indepen- dent examination, so as to take in all which seemed needful, all, in fact, which might be fairly expected, and yet to exclude technical terms which really belong to another science. Words PREFACE in common use frequently have technical meanings, and must be included ; other technical words are foreign to botany, and must be excluded. Thus " entire " must be defined in its botanic sense, and such purely geologic terms as Triassic and Pleistocene must be passed by. The total number of rare and similar bodies recorded in pharmacologic and chemical works, if included, would have extended this Glossary to an inconvenient size ; I have therefore only enumerated those best known or of more frequent mention in literature, or interesting for special reasons. Many words only to be found in dictionaries have been passed by ; each dictionary I have consulted contains words ap- parently peculiar to it, and some have been suspected of being purposely coined to round oflf a set of terms. The foundations of the list here presented are A. Gray's " Botanical Text-Book,'' Lindley's " Glossary," and Henslow's "Dictionary," as set forth in the Bibliography. To these terms have been added others extant in the various modern text-books and current literature, noted in the course of reading, or found by special search. The abstracts published in the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society have afforded many English equivalents of foreign terms. In drawing up definitions, the terms used to denote colour were found to be so discordant that I was compelled to make a special study of that department, and the result will be found in the Jowrnal of Botany, xxxvii. (1899) 97-105, where are also noted some unusual colour-terms not brought into the present work. The total numbers included in this Glossary amount to nearly 15,000, that is, nearly three times as many as in any other previous work in the language. The derivations have been carefully checked, but as this book has no pretension to be a philological work, the history of the word is not attempted; thus in "etiolate " I have contented myself with giving the proximate derivation, whilst the great Oxford dictionary cites a of intermediate forms deduced from stipella. The meaning appended to the is naturally a rough one, for to render adequately all that may be conveyed by many of the roots is manifestly impossible when a single word must serve. The accent has been added in accordance best with the discoverable usage ; where pronunciation varies I ;

PREFACE have tried to follow the best usage; in some words such as " medullary " I have given the accent as it is always spoken, though all the dictionaries, except Henslow's, accent it as " med'ullary." When words have become thoroughly anglicised, it would have been mere pedantry to accent them otherwise ; we say or'ator, not as in Latin, ora'tor. The accent does not imply syllabic , but

when the accent immediately follows a vowel, that vowel is long if one or more consonants intervene, then the vowel is short ; thus ca'nus, cas'sus, as though they were printed ca-nus, cds-sm ; in a few instances the pronunciation is also given when the word would otherwise be doubtful as to sound. The word having grown so much under my hands, it has been my duty to condense the definitions, a difficult matter in many cases, when a longer explanation would have been far easier to draw up. I trust that I have in each case succeeded in setting out the main or central meaning, but many writers have their own modified or restricted meaning of even well-known terms. To still further economise space, words drawn from the same leading word have been grouped into paragraphs, thus obviating the necessity of repeating the leading word with its meaning many times over, and only requiring the additional to be given; occasionally this has led to the intentional neglect of strict alphabetic sequence.

The names of groups of plants have given much trouble ; whilst all proposed terms manifestly could not be included, many have be-

come so often quoted as to demand recognition ; as a rule I have not admitted groups of even ordinal value, still less of lower rank. Compound terms have been left out when intermediate between the included seem to require mention meaning of the primitives ; those on special grounds. Authors' names in parentheses, following definitions, are those who have been taken as authority for such definition, and when the actual language is used, it is indicated by quotation marks the authority sometimes coincides with the inventor of the term. Substantives in the headings have been shown by the use of a capital letter, adjectives and other parts of speech by a small letter exceptions being adjectives drawn from a proper name as "Dar- winian," and those which form part of such terms as "Conjoint PREFACE

Bundle." Greek is quoted in the original characters, Latin in

italic, or where otherwise it would be doubtful, it is indicated ; this

is further explained on the page facing page 1 of the Glossary ; the use of small capitals refers the reader to the word so printed for a definition of the term, or to a correlative term. The Appendixes hardly need any detailed explanation; it will be seen that the Bibliography is a selected list of works chiefly in alphabetic form, arranged chronologically. General dictionaries, and large works in which technical terms form only a small pro- portion of the whole, have been omitted. The progress of the work through the press has occupied twelve months ; advantage has been taken of this to record new terms which have been published during that time, as well as those con- tributed by friends from obscure sources, some previously rejected, and a few which had been overlooked ; many in the last category are directly due to the defective indexes in certain standard works. No attempt has been made to bring the book beyond the date of 1st January 1900, but I have done my best to include all valid terms up to the first day of this year. The pleasant task now remains of acknowledging most heartily and gratefully the invaluable help I have derived from a host of friends during the progress of the work. Dr D. H. Scott, F.R.S., not only encouraged me to undertake the labour, but has always been ready to help with his advice, and has read a part of the proofs ; Mr A. Gbpp, of the British , has read the whole in proof and part in revise ; he has spared neither time nor trouble to ascertain the correctness of the derivations and accents throughout, as well as in the special branch of descriptive botany which is under his charge ; Professor Haktog, D.Sc, of , has had the entire proof through his hands, and has improved many definitions; Mr H. H. W. Pearson has read nearly all the slip-proof, sug- gested improvements, and helped in the compilation of the work in many ways. To these four gentlemen I am especially indebted for their kindly undertaking a very troublesome and irksome task. Other friends at Kew and the British Museum have also generously aided me in response to questions when drafting the manuscript. Mr G. Massee, Mr C. B. Clarke, F.R.S., and Dr PREFACE

Otto Stapf have constantly been under requisition ; Mr I. H. BuKKiLL, Mr 0. H. Weight, Mr G. Murray, F.E.S., and Mr N. E. Brown, have given me help with the greatest readiness and kindness ; other specialists to whom I have occasionally ap- pealed, and never in vain, are Mr J. G. Baker, F.E.S., Professor I. B. Balfour, r.R.S., Mr L. Boodle, Dr H. T. Brown, F.E.S., Mr F. Darwin, F.R.S., Mr F. Escombe, Professor J. B. Farmer, Mr W. B. Hemsley, F.R.S., Mr E. A. Eolfe, Mr E. S. Salmon, Professor J. W. H. Trail, F.R.S., and Professor H. M. Ward, F.E.S. To each and all my indebtedness for their kindness is great, the value of this Glossary being largely due to their ready aid. This does not exhaust the list of helpers who have kindly answered single questions on special points. In every volume of similar character to this which I have had to consult, I have found errors, sometimes numerous, occasionally serious. This much larger volume offers a greater chance of error, and it would be vain for me to expect to escape scathless.

Still I trust that comparatively few errors will be found ; some are likely to be due to accidents, as that on p. 76, where "helicoid" is printed " Delicoid," from the misunderstanding of a mark in the press-proof; the word was correctly spelled in both proof and revise. I hope that the volume will be useful to the student and the expert; to the former as supplying a concise definition, without

pretending to supplant the fuller information of the text-book ; to the latter acting as a reminder of some obscure term, or word employed in a special sense. If I have succeeded in this my aim, I shall have reason to be glad at the result of nearly two years' continuous labour, and may look forward at some future time to improve the work. B. DAYDON JACKSON.

Clapham, 10th April 190.0. EXPLANATION

Headings in black ; substantives are shown by the use of an initial capital

letter ; adjectives and adverbs by the use of a small initial letter

(exceptions are explained in the preface) ; the sign ~ is used to avoid

repetition of the heading ; J was used by Lindley to denote a word which is obsolete or improperly formed, and is used here for un- doubtedly obsolete terms.

Latin words are shown by being in Italic where practicable, elsewhere by the

abbreviation Lat. appended ; other languages are indicated by Fr, for French, Ger. or Germ, for German, Ital. for Italian.

Cross-references in small capitals are employed to spare repeated defini-

tions ; they are usually preceded by the sign of equality, =, When variants do not differ save by the termination, that only is given, but if the accent varies, they are spelled out in full. A few well-known abbreviations are also employed, such as dissyll. for dissyllable, pr. for pronounced, and the like. =; ;


a, privative; in Greek compounds abjolnt' (a6 -I- joint), to delimit by without, as apetalous, without septa or joints ; a word. ; modified into an- or am- Abjnnc'tion {abjunctus, unyoked), for euphony. cutting off on portions of ab (Lat.), from; as abnormal, a growing hyphae by septa. deviation from rule. Ablacta'tion {ablacto, I wean), in- abax'ial {ab, axis, an axle); (1) ap- arching. plied to an which is out of Ablaquea'tlon, Ablaquea'tio, loosening the axis of the by one-sided the soil round . thickness of the albumen ablast'lc ; (2) the (a, not ; ^Xacrrbs, a or side of a lateral away from ), applied to parts of a the axis. or other organ which have not been

abbre'viated, abhrevia'tus, shortened, developed ; ablas'tous, without germ as when one part is shorter than or bud.

another ; Abbrevia'tion, a, selection Abuoda'tlon (abnodo, to clearof knots), of those most frequently used will cutting away knots from trees. be found in the Appendix. abnorm'al, abnorma'lis {dbnormis, ir- aber'rant, aher'ra'm {aberro, I go regular), deviating from rule, as astray), diflfering from usual struc- when are opposite the ture, departing from the type. petals instead of being alternate.

Aberra'tion, non-typical . aborig'inal (ah, from ; origo, a source),

abiet'lc {Abies, a fir-), used of indigenous ; not introduced. certain coniferous products which Abor'tton {abortio, a miscarriage), are not exclusively from Abies ; ~ non-formation or incompletion of

Anliy'dride, the in turpentine a part ; abort'lve, aborti'vus, im- ~ Ac'id, a compound of the last with perfectly developed, as abortive water, forming a large proportion stamens when filaments only

of the constituents of frankincense : abort'iens, becoming abortive. Ab'letln, resin from Abies pectinata, abra'ded, abra'sus, rubbed or scraped DC, and Ab'letite, a from off the of the same abrupt', ahrup'tus, suddenly ending ableti'nus (Lat., made of fir), ap- as though broken off; abrupt'ly- plied to which (1) acu'minate, having a point arising grow on firs, or (2) resemble a from abroad extremity; — pln'nate, fir-tree in , as Alsia abietina, a pinnate ending with » pair SuUiv. of leaflets. Ab'scisa-lay'er, a layer of Ablogen'esls (a, not ; /Sios, ; y4ve

tion ; the assumed origin of living phenomena of defoliation. from non-living matter. Abscis'sion (abscissus, cut off), detach- Abjeo'tion {abjectio, throwing away), ment of spores from a sporophore easting off spores from a sporo- by the disappearance of a connect- phore. ing zone.

1 ; = . ;

Absintliic acetabullform

AbBinth'lo, referring to aecess'ory {accessio, something added), - , Absinthium, Linn. ; Absinth'in, a an addition or appendage ; bitter principle obtained from the those additional to the axillary and same. normal buds, and frequently as- ab'Bolute(a6soZM'ft(S,p6rfeot,complete), suming their ;- , actual, the opposite of relative. those which spring from the fore-

The absolute direction of an embryo going ; ~ , the sister-cell of a ~ , may be inverted, but erect rela- guard-cell of a ; tively to the carpel. parts which are conspicuous but Absorp'tion {absorp'tio, a beverage), form no part of the pistil, as the the act of imbibing liquids or gases. enlarged torus of the ,

Abstrle'tlon {ab, from, strictus, drawn a pseudo-carp ; ~ Gonid'ia, forma- together), a term which covers both tions occurring in Mucorini besides Abj unction and . the typical gonidia.

acalyca'lls (a, not ; (cdXul, a cup) ; (1) acoident'al = adventitious.

) having no calyx ; (2) having no ad- acci'sus (Lat. denotes an end having hesion to the calyx ; acal'yclne, an acute sinus between two rounded acalyc'inous, acaXyci'nus, acal'ycis, angles. destitute of calyx. Accommoda'tion {accommodatio, an

acana'ceous {aKavos, a thistle-head ; -I- adjustment) . aceous), prickly plants, such as aocreso'ent, accresc'ens, increasing in thistles. size with age, as the calyx of some Acanth'a, Aoau'thon {axavSa, a thorn), plants after flowering.

a spine or prickle ; acantha'eeous accrete' [accre'tus, grown together),

( + aceous), (1) armed with prickles agglutinate, naturally grafted. (2) belonging to the natural Accre'tion, Accre'tio, (1) growing to

Acantha'ceae, the typical one another ; (2) increase by addi- heing Acanth'iis,TouTn; aoanth'lne, tion of particles to the outside,

pertaining to that genus ; acau- accumb'ent, accumh'ens, lying against

thocarp'ous {Kapiros, ), having another body ; ~ Cotyle'dons, those

spiny fruit ; acanthocla'dous {kKdSos, having their edges against the a branch), acanthoda'dus, with , thus o =

spiny branches ; acanthoph'orouB, aoellera'tus (Lat.), somewhat acerose. (ipipu}, I bear), acanthoph'orus, Acen'ium Achbnb. spine-bearing; acantbop'odous (ttous, aceph'alous, aceph'cdus (a, without iroSos, a foot), having or Ke^dMi, a head), headless ; used for furnished with spines or an which is not terminated prickles; Acanth'ospUeres (cr(/>ai/)a, by the , as in Labiatae. a sphere), ciliated bodies in the acePic, pr. a-ser'-ik, pertaining to the cells of Nitella, termed " Staohel- genus Acer, the Maple or Sycamore. " kiigeln by the Germans. a'oerose, a'oerous, acero'sus {acer, Acaro-doma'tla (Acarv^, the typical sharp), needle-shaped, like the genus of mites ; Su/jAriov, a little leaves of Pinus ; Acero'sae, a term house),formations adapted proposed by A. Braun for the to shelter Acari when of service to Coniferae. ^ the host. aoer'vate (acervus, a heap), heaped (a, not, xa/jiros, fruit), acarp'ous des- up ; Aoer'TtQUB (Lat., a little heap), titute of fruit. pi. Aoer'viill, small clusters, as of aeaxilesc'ent, acaulesc' eiis, becoming Fungi appearing on bark or leaves. stemless ; acaul'lne, acaul'ose, acetab'ullform, acetabuUform'is (Ace- acaul'ous, acavl'is, stemless or tabulum, a cup or vinegar cruet seemingly so. Acaulo'sia, abnor- forma, shape), saucer-shaped, used mal deficiency of stem. of the fructification of some ; ;;; +; ;;

acetabulous acondylous

aoetab'iUouB, acetahu'leus, acetabu- achro'muB, aoh'roos {axpoea, to be lo'sus are variations in form of the without colour, pale), colourless

word ; Acetabulum (Lat.) the re- hyaline ; Aohroode2'trin( -1- Dextrin) ceptacle of some Fungi. one of the group of dextrins not aceta'rlous {acetaria, with coloured by iodine ; cf. Ebythro- DEXTRIN, AMYLODEXTRIN. vinegar), relating to salad ; Ac'etary, Grew's term for salading. Acic'ula {acus, a needle), the bristle- ace'tic, pertaining to vinegar, ace- like continuation of the rhaohilla

tum ; ~ Fermenta'tion, oxidation of of a grass ; Acic'ulae, tooth-like alcoholic liquids, caused by the processes of the hymenium of compound , popularly known certain Hymenomycetous Fungi ; as " Mother of Vinegar," Bacte- acic'ular, acicula'ris, slender or

rium xylinum, A. J. Brown ; ac'e- needle-shaped ; aoio'ulate, acicu- tose, aceto'aus, sour, acid. la'tus, aciculi'nus, superficially -a'ceus, a Latin suflfix of resemblance, marked as if scratched with a

as folia'ceus, leaf-like ; in English pin ; aoicu'Uform {forma, shape), it becomes -aceous. needle-like, Acliae'na, Achae'nium, = Achenb. acido'tus (okiSmtos, pointed), when Achae'nocarp (axai'Tjs, not gaping branches or organs end in a spine Kapirhs, fruit), or Ache'nocarp, any or hard point. dry indehiscent fruit. A'cies (Lat. edge), the edge or angle Aohascophy'tuni (a, privative, xdffKu, of certain stems.

I open, (pvTov, a ), a plant ac'iform {aciis, a needle ; forma, with indehiscent fruit. shape) = acioular. ^ acina'ceous (acimts, a seeded acheil'ary (a, without ; x^^'^i lip), wanting a lip, as some Orchids. aceous), full of kernels, Achene, pr. a-ken', Ache'nium [a, not acinac'ifollas (acinaces, a scimitar Xatvoi, I gape), a small, hard, dry, folium, a leaf), a fleshy leaf, curved

indehiscent fruit, strictly of one like a scimitar ; acinac'lfonu, acina- free carpel as in the buttercup cifortnUs, soimitar-shaped. occasionally consisting of more than aoina'rius [acinus, a grape-seed), one carpel as in Composites, in the when a stem is covered with latter case with adnate calyx. Also vesicles resembling grape- Ac'inus (Lat.), spelt Akene, Ake'nium, etc. ; Aoheno'- Ac'ine, a single dlvun, a double achene, as the cre- member of such fruits as the mocarp of Umbelliferae. raspberry, a drupel ; formerly aclilamyd'eous, achlamyd'eus {a, with- used for a bunch of fruit, as of cloak), destitute of grapes ; Acinoden'drus {dei/dpop, a. out ; xXa/xi)s, a , as in . tree), a plant whose fruit is in ao'inose, acino'sim, like Achyropliy'tiim (dxvpov, ; cpwov, bunches ; a plant), a plant with glumaceous grapes, or of granular bodies re- , as grasses. sembling them. (dxr;, a point, cj>i\\ov, achromat'ic (a, without; XP^M") aciphyl'lUS without colour, ach- a leaf), a linear and pointed colour) ; (1) leaf. roous (2) not readily taking colour ; ; KKeWpov, .~ Spindle, the thread-like proto- Aclythrophy'tum (a, without, plasmic figures in karyokinesis, a door, (fivrhv, a plant), plants whose seeds are supposed to be naked, between the poles ; Achro'matin, Flemming's term for the basic sub- without a pericarp, acond'ylous (a, stance of the nucleus, less sus- acond'ylose, without, or finger-joint), ceptible of staining than the chro- (cocSuXos, a knuckle mosomes, the Nuolein of Stras- said of plants which have no joints burger. or nodes. ;

Aconitln Actinomycosis

Acou'itin, the derived from turned away), having an elastic monkshood, Aconitum Na/pellus, ring at the point (Lindley) as in Linn. Schizaea. A' com, the fruit of the . Ac'ronus (perhaps from &Kpov, the Acotyle'don (a, without, KorvK-qiiiv, highest point), Necker's term for used for seed-lobe), a plant desti- an ovary without a basal disk. tute of cotyledons or seed-lobes aoronyoli'lus (d'/c/jos, apex, 6m^, a claw), Cryptogams and such plants as curved like the claw of an . ; acrop'etal {&Kpos, apex peto, I seek), Gxbscuta adj. acotyle'donous, ; acotyledo'Tieus. produced in a succession towards acrajnpMb'ryous {axpos, apex, i.fKpl, the apex, as applied to develop-

on both sides, ^pvu, to bud), plants ment of organs ; the antithesis

producing lateral as well as apical of basipetal ; Acrosaro'um {(rdp^,

buds ; AcrampMb'rya, a division (Tap/cos, flesh), Uesvaux's term for proposed by Endlicher to em- a berry from an ovary with adnate

brace and Gymno- calyx, as the currant ; acroscop'ic sperms. {(TKoireoi, I see), looking towards

Acroblaste'sis (aftpos, apex, p\a

a bud), when the germ-tube of scopic ; Acrospenn'eae (airepixa, a Lichens proceeds from an end of seed), Ac'rosperms, those Angio- the ; acroblas'tic, Celakov- sperms which are presumed to sky's term for the branch of an have begun with simple poro-

which arises from a gamous mode of impregnation ; cf.

terminal bud ; Acrob rya (/3piJw, to Pleurospeem; Ac'rospire (o-ireipa, bud), plants growing at the point a coil), Grew's name for the first only, as all Acrogens having a, sprout of a germinating seed, the

distinct axis ; adj. acrob'ryous. extruded radicle ; acrospi'red, ger- acrocarp'ous (o/tpos, apex, Kapirbs, minated, as in malting ; Ac'rospore fruit), terminal fruited ; a main (o-TTopA, a seed), a spore formed at the

division of ; aorod'romous summit of a sporophore or fila-

(5p6|Uos, a course), venation-strands ment ; acrot'onous {tovos^ a cord), uniting at the apex of the leaf, as the of the -sac in

in Plantago ; acrog'amous {yd/ios, Orchids prolonged to the upper marriage), plants producing the end of the anther.

egg-apparatus at the summit of the Actinench'yma (dfcWs, a ray ; eTxu/^a, embryo-sac, as in most Angiosperms an infusion), cellular tissue formed (Van Tieghem) ; Aorog'amy, may in a star-shaped manner, as seen in be double, as when the pollen-tube a cross- of Jwncus ; actin'ic, and egg-apparatus are both apical used of certain rays of the spectrum, or partly basigamic, either of male which have a powerful effect on

(pollen-tube) or female (egg-ap- growth ; Act'inism, the chemical

paratus) (c/. BASiGAMons) ; acrog'- action of sunlight ; Act'inocarp, a enous {yhos, ), (1) used of fruit which is actinooarp'ic (ko/pttos, plants growing at the apex, such fruit), having the carpels or pla- produced as Ac'rogens, ; (2) centas radiating like the spokes of filament, as at the end of a some a wheel ; actinomorph'lo, -ous, fungus spores ; Acrogonld'ium (^o/)0j), shape), having flowers of {yovos, offspring, elSos, form), a a regular or star pattern, capable gonidium formed at the apex of a of bisection in two or more planes {yvyi], gonidiophore ; acrog'ynouB a into similar halves ; Actinomyoo'sis, woman), having the stem termin- a disease in the jawbone of man and ated by female organs, as arohe- attributed to a Fungus gonia ; acrogyra'tus {gyratus, Oocardia Actinomycosis, Trev. • ; ;

Actinostomous Adhesion

actinost'omous ((XTOfia, a mouth), Adducto'res, Hedwig's term for arche- radiate structure round the ostiolea gonia. of Lichens and other Cryptogams. Adelph'ia {aSeXtpos, a brother) ; (1) a

Actinoph'ryds {Actinophrys, Ehrenb., fraternity ; a collection of stamens

a genus of fihizopods), Gobi's term by their filaments into one bundle ; for globes with radially-arranged pi. Adelpb'iae, two or more similar pseudopodia in Pseudospora, a, bundles ; (2) used by Galton for

parasite on Vaucheria. fraternities in variation ; adelph'ic, ac'tive, in a growing condition ; not adelph'icus ; adelph'ous, adelph'vs, dormant. having of brotherhoods stamens ; acu'leate, aculea'tus (aculeus, a sting Adelpbotax'y (rdfis, order), used or prickle), armed with prickles as by Hartog to express the mutual

the stem of a rose ; acu'leolate, attraction of spores of Achyla and

aculeola'tus, somewhat prickly ; of Pedastreae after extrusion.

aculeo'sus, decidedly prickly ; Ade'lome (possibly from dSrfKos, con- acu'leiform, acvleiform'is (fm-ma, cealed) = ALBOENUM (Lindley).

shape), prickle-shaped ; Acu'leus Aden (dS^i', a gland), a gland or

(Lat.), a sharp epidermal emerg- tubercle : aden'iform (forma, shape),

ence, a prickle ; pi. Acu'lei a hybrid term for gland-shaped

Acu'leolus, a diminutive of the last. adenoca'lyz (/caXif , a cup), where the Acu'men (Lat., a point), a tapering calyx is studded with glandular

point ; acu'minate, acumiina'tus, spots ; ad'enoid (elSos, like), gland- ~- having a gradually diminishing like ; Or'gan, Williamson's term

point ; acumiiilfo'llus (folium, a for the ligule of Lepidodendron

leaf), with acuminate leaves ; Adenopet'aly {ir4Ta\ov, a flower acu'minose, acumino'sus, approach- leaf), a term proposed by C. Morren ing acuminate; acumin'ulate, having for the transformation of nectaries a small terminal point. into petals, or similar acutang'ular, acutang'ulus (Lat.), Aden'ophore ((popia, bear), a stalk

when stems are sharply angular supporting a gland ; adenoph'orous,

acutate' (acu'tus, sharp), slightly bearing glands ; adenophyl'lous ((piWoi', sharpened, as at the apex ; acu'te, a leaf), glandular leaved ; acu'tus, distinctly and sharply adenop'odous, aden'opus (Trovs,iroSis,

pointed, but not drawn out ; acu- a foot), with the petiole or ped- tlflor'us (Lat., flos, floris, a flower), uncle glandular; adenoste'mon

with acute perianth segments ; {(TTTi/jLov, a ), having glands

acutifo'lius (Lat., folium, a leaf), on the stamens ; ad'enose, ad'enous,

with pointed leaves ; acutilo'bus glandular.

(Lat., lobus, a lobe), composed of Ades'my (a, without ; Seir/ioj, a bond),

lobes which are acute ; acutius' cuius Morren's term for congenital separ- (Lat.), somewhat acute. ation of parts normally united. aoyc'lio (a, not ; kOkXos, a circle), used Adflux'ion {ad, to ; fluo, I flow), the of flowers whose parts are arranged attraction by which is drawn spirally, not in whorls. towards the leaves. Adapta'tion (adaptatus, fitted), the adglu'tinate, adglutina'tus (ad, to, means by which an adapts glutino, I glue), grown together, itself to changed surroundings. accrete. (adhaereo, to stick adax'ial [ad, to ; axis, an axle), the adhe'rent, adhe'rens side or face next the axis, ventral. to), the union of parts usually adducent'la Va'sa {ad, to ; duco, I separate ; ~ Vema'tion, when the lead), the spirals in , bases of - are continu- which spirals were formerly sup- ous with the caudex ; Adhe'rence, posed to be vessels. Adlie'sion, the state of union with ;;; ;;

Adlpocelluloses Aeroblum

Adynaman'dry (aSwaii-la, weakness some other organ or part ; Goebel &v^p, dvSpos, a Delpino's restricts it to union of dissimilar man),

term for self-sterility ; that is, parts ; c/. Cohesion. when a flower does not set seed Adlpoeel'luloses (adeps, adipis, fat, + ), a group of bodies which from its own pollen. Aecid'lospore (Aecidium, infra awoph, constitute the cuticular tissues of ; a seed), a spore formed in the fol- leaves and fruits ; cf. Cellulosb.

lowing : Aecid'ium (probably from adiaca'll3(a, without ; SIo-kos, a quoit), destitute of a disk. oUlhov, a little house), a. sporocarp consisting of a cup-shaped envelope, adli'gaus (ad, to ; Ugo, I tie), holding fast or binding, as the aerial hold- its interior surface consisting of a fasts of Ivy. hymeuium, from whose basidia Admlnlo'ulum (Lat., a prop) = Ful- the aecidiospores are successively crum. thrown off; the name was pro- pounded by Persoon as a genus of admoti'vus {ad, to ; moveo, I move), when in the albumen Fungi, but it is now regarded as remains attached to the sheath of only a form -genus of Uredineae. the cotyledon. Aecol'ogy= or Oeoologt. adnas'cent, adnas'cens [adnascor, to ae'neus (Lat. bronze), used for brass- grow to), growing to or upon some- coloured ; sometimes for verdigris. aequa'lla, ae'quans (Lat.), equal or thing else ; Adnas'cens; (1) a young equalling similar in size, , as a "clove" of garlic; (2) ; uniform ; a sucker of some . aequilat eral, aequUatera'lis, equal- sided, of ad'nate, adna'tus {adnascor, to grow equal length ; aequali- to), attached the whole length, flor'us (Lat.), with flowers alike in

~ Anth'ers have the lobes attached form and character ; aequlmag'nus

their entire length to the filament X (Lat.), equal sized ; aequinoc'tial, aequinoctia'lis, pertaining to the Adna'tion, the state in question ; adnexed' {nexo, to tie), used of the equinox ; used of flowers, which lamellae of some Agarics, which open or close at stated hours reach the stem, but are not adnate aequivalv'is (Lat.), having valves of flowers or to it; ad'pressed, adpresefus = AF- fruit of similar size ; PRBSSED; adseend'ent = ASCESDBNT aequlve'niuB (Lat.), all the veins of adsurg'ent, adsurcfens = assurqent. equal distinctness. aduiio'ate,adunc'ous (aduncus, hooked) ae'rating (aer, air) Roots, peculiar bent or crooked as a hook. roots rising out of the mud, covered adust'ua (Lat.), soot-coloured, fuli- with a loose, corky tissue, and having large ginous. intercellular spaces ; adventit'ious, adventit'ius ifld, to ae'rial, ae'rius, plants (or parts of venio, I come), applied to plants plants) living above the surface of

lately introduced ; ~ Buds, those the ground or water ; ~ Plants, produced abnormally, as from the epiphytes, as Tillandaia and many

stem instead of the axils of the tropical orchids ; ~ Roots, those leaves ; ~ Roots, those which do which vegetate altogether above

not arise from the radicle or its the ground ; Aerench'yma (eyxv/ia, subdivisions, but from other part that poured out), Schenk's term advent'ive = adventitious. for a tissue of thin-walled cells,

; large ad'verse (ad, to verso, I turn) ; (1) and inter-cellular spaces, found in the stems opposite ; (2) facing the main axis of some marsh- or other object; advers'us (Lat.), plants, serving for aeration or

opposite ; adverslfo'liate, adversi- floating tissue ; ASro'blum (/SIos, folius (folium, a leaf), having oppo- life), an organism which thrives only site leaves. in the presence of air or free oxy- 6 ;; "

aerohlotlc agrarian

gen ; applied to certain afSx'ed (affix'us, fastened to), fixed aeroblo'tlc, needing air for exist- upon. ence; Aerobio'sis, life in atmo- Ag'amae (a, without, yd/ios, marriage) spheric iir ; Ae'rocyst (/ciio-Tis, a bag = Cryptogamae ; agam'io, ag'amous, or pouch;, the air-bladders of such Necker's term for cryptogamous ; as Fucris vesiculous, Linn. Agamogen'eais {yevereproduction by buds, plant, epipbyte ; Aerotax'is (to|is, gemmae, etc. ; Agamophy'ta {

aerotact'ic ; Aerot'ropisni (t^oitt;, a duced asexually. turning), the inluence of gases on A'gar, a gelatinous product from growth and owvature, it is a Agar-agar, or Agal-agal, which

form of Chemotbopism ; adj. aero- consists of various marine Algae trop'lo. from tropical Asia ; also called aeru'ginose, aerug'injuB, aerugin'eus, "Ceylon " and " aerugino'sus (aerufp, the rust of Isinglass. brass), the blue-gieen colour of Agar'io Acid (Agaricus, Tourn., a verdigris. genus of Fungi), found in Polyporus Aesc'uUn, an alkaloid fiom the horse- officinalis, Fr.; iigariclc'ola {colo, chestnut; AesciUus I{'&;ypoccLstanu7nj I inhabit), applied to a parasite

Linn. on Hyraenomycetous Fungi ; Hens- Aesthe'sia (ai'tr^T/tris, peiception by low prints it as agaric'olus. sense), Czapek's expreaion to de- agen'ius X (", without, yevoi, sex, race)

note the capacity of ai organ to = neuter ; a'genus, used of cellular respond to definite physiial stimuli. Cryptogams, " which are enlarged aes'tival, aestiva'lis, belongiig or pecu- by the addition of new parts."

liar to summer ; Aestlva'tiin, Aesti- Agged'ula (derived by Necker from va'iio, the manner in wiioh the d-yyeiSiov, a little vessel), the spor- parts of a flower are folded vp before angium of Mosses, and of Puccmia. expansion. Ag'geres (Lat.), banks or rockwork Aete'rio = Etabeio. in botanic . Aetha'lium (oWoXos, soot), a com- agglom'erate, agglom'erated, agglom- pound sporiferoua body, brmed era'tus (Lat. crowded together), col- from a combination of plasnodia lected into a head, as the flowers

in Myxogastres ; Ae. septicum Fr., of Scabious. " of " glue), is known as Flowers Tin ; agglu'tinate (agglutino, I glued aetha'lioid {etSos, form), like the together, as the pollen-masses of

last. Asclepiads or Orchids ; accrete. aetbe'os (diJffTjs, unusual), in om- ag'gregate, ag'gregated, aggrega'ius

pounds = unusual ; aetheoganllc, (Lat. assembled), collected to- aetlieog'amous (70/ios, marriag), gether, as the flowers of CusciUa ; synonymous with cryptogamic. •-Flowers, those gathered into a aethe'reua (Lat.), aerial. head, as Dipsacus, but not as in

Aetiol'ogy {alnov, cause ; \iyos, Ai- Compositae, which are capitulate ; oourse), the doctrine of the oausi ^ Fruits, collection of separate of disease, as of Galls carpels produced by one flower, also spelled Aitlology and Etiology. the product of a polycarpellary Affln'ity {affin'itas, near alliance), the apocarpous gynaecium ; Aggre- closeness of relation between plants ga'tion, condensation of cell -con- as shown by similarity of import- tents under some stimulus. organs. agrarian {agrar'ius, pertaining to agrestal Albwaoses

the field). H. C. Watson's term for true cell-formation, or re/uvene- Great Bcence. the cultivable portion of , -- formerl/an axil, Britain ; Region, divided into three A'la (Lat. wing), (1)

r~ Zones, the super-, mid-, and infer- but now obsolete in that,^ense ; (2) agrarian zones. a lateral of a papilionaceous membranoas expansion agrest'al (agrestis, belonging to the flower ; (3) a field) (1) Watson's term for plants of any kind, as in the seed of ; employed by growing in arable ground ; (2) rural Bignoniaoeae ; (4) generally. Wm. Smith for the' marginal pro- agricult'ural Bot'any {agricvltura, cesses in Surirellai (5) the outer husbandry), that part of economic segment of the corneal lobes in some Mosses, the a'lar botany which relates to farm plants. Asclepiads ; (6) ii/

dypoiirTi s, cells those

writing), the description of grasses ; of a leaf. Agrostol'ogy (\670s, discourse), the Alabas'trum (Lat/bud), a flower-bud. botany of grasses. a'lar, ala'ria {ala/wing), (1) formerly axii/aRIS {2)~CeUs, agyna'riUB J (a, without, yvvri, a used for ; cf.

woman) ; agyn'lcus ; (1) said of Ala (6). stamens which are free from the alate', ala'tus (Jkt. winged), furnished exiansion, as a stem or ovary ; (2) pistils wanting, desti- with an

tute of pistils ; ag'ynous, monstrous petiole; aUteplnna'tus, when the flowers with pistils missing. common paiole of a pinnate leaf is Ai'gret (Fr. Aigrette, tuft of feathers), marginally winged.

the pappus of Compositae ; Eng- alba'tUB (l/t.), whitened ; Albe'do lished by T. Martyn as E'gret. (Lat.) whiteness; Albefac'tlon {facio, alophyl'luB {al&v, eternity, 4>'^Wop, I make/, blanching ; albes'cent,

a leaf), . awes' cert, becoming white ; al'bicant, alma, in Greek oompounds=blood- al'hicari, tending to white ;

coloured ; properly hxma, (from albid'wus, al'bidus, albin'eus,

aT/xa, blood). whiti» ; Al'blniBm, a disease from Air-Blad'ders, intercellular spaces in absen/e of normal colouring, dis- -- some Algae, serving as floats ; playing itself as an Albi'no ; albi'nus,

CaVity = ~ Chambbbs (2) ; ~ -Cells, ~ al'buUB (Lat.), somewhat white. -Cliambers, (1) intercellular spaces Al'bunen (Lat., white of an egg), the occurring in aquatic plants, usually nutliti ve material stored within the prismatic in form, (2) the inter- see/, and in many cases surrounding

cellular space beneath a stoma ; ~ th/ embryo. (Note. Not to be

Passage, = ~ -Chamber ; ~ -Plants, co/founded with animal Albumen.) epiphytes, as Bromeliads and some AJbumln, in plants, the proteids

Orchids ; ^ Pore, = Stoma ; ~ Sacs, lioh readily coagulate from their cavities in the pollen-grains of jueous solutions by the action of

Pinus ; ~ Vessel, term formerly feat or acids ; Albu'minoids {ddos, applied to empty tracheids, etc. /esemblance), nitrogenous organic

Akeue', Ake'nlum, =AcHENB, Achbn- Bubstauces, proteids ; albumlno'se, IU"M. /albu'mlnoUB, albumino'stis, contain- AMne'sls (a, without, Klvriffi^, move- fing albumen, a term restricted to

ment), increase without the phenom- seeds ; Albu'minates, nitrogenous

ena of karyokinesis ; A'Mnetes, in substances insoluble in water, , single cells whose soluble in dilute acids or alkalis, walls thicken and separate from e.g., gluten of ; Albumo'ses, the thallus, corresponding to the similar to albuminates, but soluble

of ; in chlamydospores Fungi immotile water ; common constituents of reproductive cells, formed without aleuron. ;; = ;

Albumitas AUoolysiB

Albur'nitas {alburnum, sap-), a Allmo'nia J (Lat. nourishment) = disease in trees, a tendency to ascending sap. remain soft like the recent wood -alis, Latin termination indicative of

albur'nous, relating to the sap- belonging to ; thus radic-alis, be-

wood ; Albur'num, the outermost longing to the root, radix. and youngest portion of the wood, alisma'eeous {Alis'ma, Dill. , -f eeous), still permeable by fluids. belonging to the order Alismaceae, al'bus (Lat.), dead white, without of which the genus named is the type. lustre. Aliz'arine (Fr. Alizari, madder-root), aloohorio Fermenta'tlon, see Fermen- the colouring matter of the root of tation. madder, Rubia tinctoria, Linn. aleotor'iold {Alectoria, Ach., cWos, Alkachlor'opliyU (Alkali -)- Chloro- resemblance), filamentous, as the phyll), a presumed constituent of thallus of the genus after which it , produced by the

is named. action of an alkali ; alkales'cent, of alepido'tus, J (a, not, XeiriSwris, scaly), the of an alkali ; Allc'alolda destitute of scurf or scales. {etSos, resemblance), general term Aleu'ron, orAleu'rone {SXeupoi', wheaten for the organic bases in many flour), proteid granules of globulins plants, markedly medicinal or and peptones, present in seeds, poisonous, as Morphia, Strychnia. ~Lay'er, a special peripheric layer allagophyU'ous {iXXayit, a change, in seeds, ipOWoy, most especially in grasses ; a leaf), alternate-leaved adj., aleuron'ic. allagoste'mon, allagostern'onouB, Alex'ine {a\4(u, I ward oflf), a sub- when stamens are attached alter- stance hypothetically assumed to nately to the petals and the torus. be formed by plants for protection allanto'dlold, applied to ferns which

against bacteria ; antitoxine. resemble the genus Allantodia, Al'gae {cdga, seaweed), chlorophyll- R. Br. in habit or fructification. containing Thallophytes, which allant'oid (dXXas, a sausage, eZSos, usually grow immersed in water, form), sausage-shaped.

fresh or marine ; known popu- allassGton'lc (dWdo-o-u, to vary, rbvos, larly as "Seaweeds," or "Water- turgesoenoe), movements of mature

weeds " ; al'gal, relating t o Algae ; ~ organs, caused by augmentation of -Layer, the green band of gonidia in turgor with diminution of volume. the thallus of heteromerous lichens, aJlla'ceous, -ceus {allium, garlic, + also styled —Zone ; algi'nus J re- aceus), having the smell of garlic or sembling a thread-like Alga ; Al'gist onions ; allia'rius (Lat, ) is a = Algol'ogist, a student of Algae synonym. al'goua = algal; Algol'ogy, (\6yos, Alli'ance, a group of Orders, now discourse), the science of Algae usually styled Cohort. Alga, F. von Mueller's word for Alliga'tor (alligo, I bind) Fulcrum. Algae. alloch'rous, (dWos, another, xpAa, A'lien, used by H. C. Watson for complexion), changing from one

introduced plants which have be- colour to another ; AUocar'py come naturalised in Britain. {Knpiros fruit), fruiting from cross-

bear), fertilized ; Allog'amy {yd/ios, alif'erous {ala, a wing ; fero, I flowers

having wings ; al'iform {forma, marriage), cross-fertilization ; sub-

shape), wing-shaped ; alig'erous divided into Geitonogamt, from {gero, I bear) = alifbrous (Crozier). another flower on the same plant, alig'ular {a from, ligula, strap), and Kbnooamt, from another

Bussow's term for that leaf-face in plant of the same species ; adj. Sdaginella which is turned away allog'amous. from the ligule and stem. Alliiol'ysls (ctXXoios, different, \iiris, ; ;

allotropous ambiparouB

loosing), applied to the mode in Al'theine, a principle from the marsh- which natural diaetaae acts oa the mallow, Althaea, Tourn., analogous endoeperm of the date, and the to Asparagin. changes thereby caused. Alt'ltude, Altitu'do (Lat. height), used allot'Topous (dWos, another, rpoirj), a to specify the height above the sea turn), MacLeod's term for plants of the in question. having stores of honey open to all aluta'ceouB, aluta'ceua [alula, soft

inseot-visitors ; Allot'ropy, other- leather -1- CBOUS), (1) the colour of wise turned or formed. buff leather, or light tan ; (2) alpes'trine, alpes'tris, strictly ap- leathery in texture, coriaceous. plicable to plants growing above Alve'ola {alveolus, a hollow vessel),

the limits of forest growth, on the pi. Alveolae ; cavities on the sur- Alp, but practically synonymous face, as the pits on the with Alpine; alpes'ter{Lat.)isused of many Compositae, honey-combed by some botanists for the more usual (2) the pores of such Fungi as form. Polyporus; (3) the perithecia of alphitomor'plious {&\

meal ; applied to certain fungi. many Diatomaceae ; Alve'olar- alp'igene (alpig'eiia, bred in the Alps) plasma (irKi,aixa, modelled), term = alpine. used by Strasburger in place of alp'ine, alpi'nus, properly denoting Teophoplasm, granular protoplasm plants belonging to the Alps {cUpes, al'veolate, alveola'tus, alveola'ris, mountains), but frequently used in marked as though honey combed. a wider sense, embracing alpestrine, Amadou' (Fr.), (1) thesubstance of cer- as well as the higher situated plants. tain Fungi used as tinder, as Poly- alsina'ceous {Alsine, Tourn. -t-CBons), porusfomentariii.

ambisporan^ate ampMcarpogenous

I bring forth), producing two kinds, Amlto'sis (a, without, yniros, a web), as when a bud contains both flowers defined as degenerate , and leaves, as the Horse-chestnut when nuclear division takes place

amblsporang'iate ( + ), directly without the phenomena

flowers, otherwise of karyokinesis ; adj. amito'tic. macro- and mioro-sporangiate, that Am'modytes (d/A^os, sand, Stiw, I sink

is, bearing and pollen-sacs. in), living in sandy places ; ammo- Amb'itua (Lat. a going round), the ph'ilouB, -his {(plXeta, I love), sand- outline ol a figure, as of a leaf. loving. amtleocar'pus (a/xp\6aj, to be abortive, Ammo'nia (Ammon, the Libyan Kaprds, fruit), when most of the Jupiter, first found near his

ovules abort, a few only becoming temple), a pungent gas ; the so- perfect seeds. called volatile alkali. ambros'iacus (aii^pbaio^, divine food), Am'nion, Am'nios {dfivlos, foetal mem- possessing a strong scent of brane), a viscous fluid which sur- Ambrosia; fragrant. rounds certain ovules in an early

Ambula'crum (Lat.), a walk in a stage ; amnlot'ic Sac, = Embryo- Sac. botanic garden. amoe'boid (d/ixoi/3aios, interchanging), ame'lloratlng (Fr., amelioration, an applied to the jelly-like plasmodium improvement) ~ Plants, those of Myxogastres when in motion, bacteria which cause nodules on resembling an Amoe'ba, a protean-

the roots of Leguminosae. shaped rhizopod ; Amoeboid'eae, Am'ent, Ament'um (Lat. a strap), a used by Gobi for the lowest forms , a spike of flowers usually of plant-life which are destitute of bracteate,andfrequently ; chlorophyll. -ceiis cetis) ament'i- amorph'us (a, without, amenta'ceous, ( + amorph'ouB, form {forma, shape), amentif'erous fn-optpTi, form), shapeless, the form definite Amorpli'- i/ero, I bear), catkin-bearing ; cat- not regular or ; ((jtvrbv, plant), a plant with kin-like ; Ament'ula (diminutive) opbyte a the so-called of the male anomalous flowers. inflorescence in Sphagnum. Amphanth'imn J {&p-i, around, S.v6os, ameris'tic (a, not, /lephros, divisible) flower), the dilated receptacle of ~ Ferns, are those whose prothalli an inflorescence, as in Dorstenia {aarrip, a being insufficiently provided with clinanthiura ; Am'phlaBter nutriment aredestitute of , star), the combined nuclear-spindle also for the com- and produce antheridia only. and cytasters ; amethyst' eus, amethyst'inus (Lat.), bined cytasters only (Crozier) the colour of amethyst, violet. amphib'iouB (/3£os, life), growing on ametoe'clous (a, not, fiera,, with, after, dry land or in water equally well oTkos, house), a parasite which does ~Altema'tion, the adaptation of organism, originally of aquatic not change its host ; the reverse of conditions METOECIOUS. habit, to subaerial ; Am'ides (Am[-monia]-l-ide) certain amphib'ryous, -yus (Ppiu, to substances occurring in plants, sprout), growing by increase over soluble in water, diffusible, cry- the whole surface ; Ampbib'rya, stallizable, not coagulating on Endlicher's name for Monocotyle- amphicarp'ic, -pous, -pua boiling ; those of common occur- dons ; rence are Asparagin, Leucin, and (Kapirbs, fruit), possessing two kinds , of fruit, differing in character or Tyrosin ; Amid'ulln, soluble AmpMoarp'lum, existing in small quantity in ord- time of ripening ; inary starch-grains. an persisting as a fertilization Ami'doplast (TrAao-Tds, modelled), an fruit-envelope, after error for . ampbicarpog'enous {yeyvda, I bring 11 ; ;;

Amphicotyledon AmylogenesiB

forth), producing fruit above when it is curved so that both other ground, which is subsequently ends are brought near to each Amphit'rophy, Wiesner's term for buried beneath ; cf. htpooarpo- GBNons Amphicotyle'don growth when greatest in the {KOTvXTiSiiv, a hollow), De Vries's and buds on the sides of the mother term for cotyledons united so as shoot. to form a cup. Am'phora (Lat. a wine-jar) the lower amphlgae'us, amphige'an {d/upt, part of a pyxis, as in Henbane. plants amplect'ant, amplect'ans, amplecti'vus, around, yrj, the earth) ; (1) which are natives of both Old and amphx'ans ( Lat. ) embracing ; am- New worlds (2) used of flowers plex'us, in Vernation, when two ; sides of one leaf overlap the two which arise from the rootstoek ;

it ; amplex'- as in Krascheninilcovia, Turoz. ; Am- sides of the one above phig'amae {yd/jios, marriage), plants icaul, amplexicau'Us (caidis, stem), whose fructification is unknown, stem-clasping, when the petiole-

possibly of both sexes ; ampbi- leaf, or , is dilated at the gam'eous, amphig'amouB, supposed base, and embraces the stem.

) enlarged to be destitute of sexual organs, or am'pllate, ampUa'tus (Lat. ; where their presence has not yet ampllatiflor'uB J {flos, flower), Com- ray-florets been ascertained ; it has been ap- posites having the plied to Cryptogams; Amphigast'er, enlarged, as in the Corn-flower. proposed alteration of the follow- Ampul'la, (Lat. a bottle), the flasks Utri- ing ; Amphlgast'ria {yatrriip, belly), found on aquatics such as

stipular organs in Hepaticse, which cvlaria ; ampulla'ceous, -ceua, am-

clasp the stem ; amphig'enous pul'liform, amptdlijor'mis, swollen {yepviu, I bring forth), growing out in flask-shape, as the corolla all round an object, used of Fungi in some Heaths. when the hymenium is not re- Amyg'dala [amygdalum, a kernel), an

; amygd'alifonn (forma, stricted to any particular surface ; almond

~ CaBtra'tion, the action of Ustilago shape), almond-shaped ; Amyg'da- antherarum, DC, when it mingles Un, a gluooside found in the fruit

the characters of both sexes by of many Rosaceae ; amyg'daline, developing in each, some of the pertaining to or resembling an

characters of the other ; Amphi- almond. mix'is (/i£|ts, intercourse), sexual amyla'ceous (aiM\ov, fine flour+ao-

reproduction (Weismann) ; Amphi- eou8),starchy ; Am'ylase, an ,

py'renin {irup-iiv, stone of fruit), the same as Diastase ; amylife-

the membrane of the pyrenin, the rous {,ipii>, I bear), starch-bearing ;

body of the nucleus ; Amphisarc'a Am'ylin, a product of the action

(i7o/)|, (rapKbs, flesh), an indehisoent of diastase on starch ; Am'yliteB, multilocular fruit, dry without, skeletons of starch-granules com-

pulpy within, as a melon ; Amphl- posed of amylodextrin (Belzung) ; sper'mlum {avipim, a seed), a fruit Amylobacte'ria [^aKrrjpiov, a little which is amphlsper'mous, when the rod), microbes producing butyric pericarp closely invests the seed and fermentation, ascribed to the action

assumes its shape ; Ampbitlie'cium oi Bacillus Amylobacter, Ya,n Tiegh. (BiiKTi, a case), peripheral layer of Amylooel'lulose (-H Cellulose), a cells surrounding the endothecium supposed constituent of starch-

in the early stage of the develop- granules ; Amylodex'trin ( -f Dex-

ment of the moss- ; adj. trin) an intermediate in converting

amphlttae'dal : amphlt'ropal, or starch into dextrin ; cf. Aohroodbx-

more correctly amphlt'ropous -pv^ TBIN ; Amylogeu'esis {yive

amylogenic anametadromouB

Eunylogen'ic {ycvvda , I bring forth), anacanth'ous (av, without, S.KavBa, a producing starch ~ thorns ; Bodies, Letio- thorn), without or spines.

OPLASTIDS ; Amylohy'drolist (iSup, anacardia'oeous, resembling Anacar- water, Xia-is, a loosing), an enzyme dium, Linn., as to arrangement of which transforms starch by hydro- fruit, etc.

lysis ; Amyloliydrorysis, the act in AnacliOTe'siB (dfax'^/njo'is, a going

question ; am'yloid (eI5os, resem- back), retrograde metamorphosis of

blance), analogous to starch ; an organ or . Amyloleu'oites (Xeufcos, white), plas- anacrog'ynous {av, not, &Kpos, apex,

- tids producing starch granules ; yvvTI, woman), said of Hepatics in Amylol'ysia (Xuo-is, a loosing), trans- which archegonia do not arise at formation of starch into other the extremity of the shoot, which

bodies, as sugar ; amylolyt'ic continues to grow ; xylem- segment of the is given off , when it contains on the upper side of the midrib

starch ; Amy'lon, Amy'lum, in com- towards the apex, as in Aspidium,

position = Starch ; Amy'lum-Bod'yi Asplenium, etc. a rounded body in a chlorophyll Anaero'be, Anaero'blum, pi. Anaero'bla band or plate, which is a centre of {av, without, d/i]p, air, §los, life), an

starch formation ; ~ Cen'tres, Stras- organism able to live in the absence

burger's term for Pykbnoids ; of free oxygen, as many bacteria — Grains, or "- Gran'ules, the lamin- fac'ultative ~ , organisms which can ated bodies which are formed of live as Anaerobes; ob'llgate ~ , those starch as reserve material in plant- which can exist or thrive only in cells ;~Star, a -like organ in the absence of free oxygen. Ohara stelligera, Bauer, which is anaero'bian, -blous, -bic, auaerobio'tic,

closely packedwith starch, it consists adj. ; Anaerobio'sia, the state of subterranean node living without oxygen ; Anae'ro- of an isolated ; Am'yloplast (irXacrris, moulded) = phyte {(j>vTbv, plant), a plant which Leucoplastid, a colourless granule does not need a direct supply of of protoplasm, which generates a air. - {avaXoyla, proportion), re- starch granule ; amyloplast'ic, Anal'ogy

starch-forming ; Am'yloses (Amyl, semblance in certain points, as in a chemical term-l-ose), a group of form not function, or function not substances of which cellulose and form, as the of the , starch are the commonest. Smilax, or ; "that resem- structures An'ahix, pi. Anab'lces ( &a/3iou, I blance of which depends " revive), those vegetative parts of upon similarity of function (Dar- Cryptogams which perish below, win) ; anal'ogous, resembling, but but vegetate above, as Lycopodium, not homologous ; An'alogues, struc- Lichens, and Hepatics. tures corresponding to previous anabolic {i-vti, up, /3oX^, a throw, definition. stroke), adj. of Anab'olism, con- Anal'ysls (dpdXucris, releasing), (1) the structive of the proto- examination of a plant to deter- its aflBnities and position plasm, the building up of more mine ; (2) complex from simpler substances the details of the flower, etc., on a "Baustoflfwechsel " of the Germans. botanic drawing. (dvA, up, Meta- Anacamp'yla X {dvaKdfiirTU, I bend anametad'romous + back), lacerations of the epidermal DBOMous), in the venation of Ferns, pinnules layer as in some Agarics. when the weaker are ana- 13 ,; ;

AnamorplilBin audropetalous

dromous, and the stronger are oata- Anohu'slu, the colouring matter of

dromous ; Anainorpli'iBm (Crozier), Anchusa Hnctoria, Linn., now re- — Anamorph'oaism, Auamorpho'sls ferred to the genus Alkanna. (/ud/)0if>iris, a shaping), (1) a gradual anols'trus {ir/KiaTpiov, a small hook), change of form in a group of plants barbed.

in geologic time ; (2) a similarohange ander, -dra, -dro, -drum (avTjp, aviphs,

in a group now existing ; (3) a strik- a man), in Greek compounds = the

ing change in form, the result of male sex ; Androclia'ium {kKiv^], bed), changed conditions of growth the bed of the anther in Orchids, (Crozier); anandrar'ious, -rias, an- an excavation on the top of the and'rouB {av^ not, dWjp, dvdpbSf a , usually written Clinan-

man), having no stamens, but with DRiuM ; androdioe'cioiis {SU, twice, floral envelopes and pistils. oIkos, house), used of a species with ananth'erous, Ananthe'rum {av, with- two forms, one male only, the other

out, avSripSs, flowering), applied to hermaphrodite ; andrody'namous filaments destitute of anthers. {diva/Ms, power), of Dicotyledons in anauth'ous, -thus {ax, without, fiySos, a which the stamens are highly de-

flower), ; wanting the flower An'a- veloped ; Androe'cium {oUos, house), phase, Anaph'asis {(pda-is, appear- the male system of a flower, the sta- ance), the formation of daughter- mens collectively ; Androgametan'- nuclei in karyokinesis, following gium (yapir-qs, a spouse ; dyyitov, a the Metaphasis ; An'aphyte {vTdv, vessel), = Antheridium, the organ plant), the potential independence in which the male sexual cells are of every branch or shoot ; An'aplast formed ; And'rogametes, zoosperms, {irXaffTis, moulded), A. Meyer's male sexual cells ; Androgam'eto- term for Leucoplastid ; Anasar'oa phore {ipepu, I bear), male sexual (ffci/jf, a-apxis, flesh), dropsy in form of a plant, as in plants; anastat'ic (o-rio-is, a stand- androg'enous [yewdui^ I bring ing), reviving, as certain plants forth), male-bearing ; ~ Castra'tion, after desiccation. the action of Ustilago antherarum, Anastomo'sis (dpacro/tow, I form a DC, when inciting production of mouth), union of (1) one vein with male organs ; Androgonld'ium (-)- another, the connection forming a Gonidium) = ANURospoBB; androg'- reticulation Vuillemin'a ; (2) term ynal, androg'ynous - nus (yw^, for in conjugation Mucor, two woman), (1) hermaphrodite, having equal conjugate and are male and female flowers on the same out o£f from the parent hypha by a inflorescence, as in many species septum. of Garex ; (2) occasionally used for Anat'omy (ipa, up, rofibsi cutting) in MONOECIOUS ; androgyna'ris (Lat. ) of botany, the study of structure double flowers in which both stamens anat'ropal, more correctly anat'- and pistils have become petaloid; ropous, anat'ropus (tpotttt), a turn), androgyn'lcus t (Lat.), belonging the reversed, with mioropyle to, or of an hermaphrodite flower close to the side of the hilum, and ; androgyniflor'us J {fios, flons, a the at the opposite end. flower), a hybrid term for when An'bury, Am'berry, a disease caused by the head of a composite Plasmodiophora Brassicae, Woron. hermaphrodite flowers ; Androg'y- in Crucifers, the root becoming nism, a change from monoecious to clubbed. dioecious ; andromonoe'cious (p,l)vos sm'ceps (Lat. two-headed), ancip'ital, alone oTkos, ; house), having perfect ancip'itous, two-edged, flattened or and male flowers, but no female compressed, as the stem of Sisym- flowers; andropet'alous, andrope- hriv/m anceps, Cav. tala'rius {triToKov, » flower leaf), 14 ;; ;;

Androphore Anime

flowersdouble.thestamenspetaloid, al, belonging to the plants classed

the pistils unchanged ; An'dxopllore, as Angiosperma ;~type of Stomata, Androph'oruni {

a leaf), a male , a stamen ; angios'porous, used of Cryptogams An'drophyte {(pvrhv, a plant), a male producing spores in a closed recep-

plant in the sexual generation tacle ; Angiosp'orae, plants so Androsporan'gium {ciropti,, a seed characterised. d77eroi', a vessel), sporangium con- An'gle, An'gvXus (Lat., a corner), in taining An'drospores, swarmspores botany not limited to the inclina- of Oedogoniae, which give rise to tion of two lines, but often refers to Dwarf-males, destined to produce the meeting of two planes to form

spermatozoids ; aai'drous, staminate, an edge, as in angular stems; •-of male. Deviation, that which a branch or

; ifKcKrpov, Anelectrot'onus (o;',without similar organ makes with its axis ; "- amber ; rdvos, stress), the diminished of Divergence ; that measured in excitation produced on the vital the cycle between successive mem- movements of plants by a constant bers in the same spiral or whorl. current of electricity from the anode. angulllulaeform'is (Lat., shaped like Anem'onin, an acrid substance a small eel), applied by Koerber to from several species of Anemone, -spores which are worm-like Tourn. in shape.

anemoph'ilous {&y£ij.os, wind ; (piX^a, I ang'ular, angular'is, angula'tus, love), applied to flowers which are angulo'sus {angidus, a corner), used wind-fertilized, the pollen being when an organ shows a determinate

conveyed by the air ; Anemopli'llae, number of angles, as the quadran-

wind-fertilized plants ; Anemo'sis, gular stems of Labiatae ;~ Diver- wind-shake, a disease of timber- gence, in , is given under

trees. Angle of divergence ; ang'nlate, anfraot'uose, anfractvo'sus, anfrac'- angula'tus, more or less angular tou3, anfrac'tiis (Lat., a curving), angulinerv'ed, angulinerv'iua J {ner- sinuous, as the anthers of gourds vus, a nerve), when veins form an also spirally twisted. angle with the midrib, as in most

Anglench'yma (a77eio>', a vessel ; Dicotyledons; angulodeut'ate {dens, lyxv/m, an infusion), vascular dentis, a tooth), having angular

tissue of any kind ; anglocar'plc, teeth (Crozier). angiooarp'ous, -pus (Kafm-bi, fruit), angustlfo'liate, -lious, -lius {angustus, invested narrow folium, a leaf), narrow (1) having the fruit by ; some covering which masks it, as leaved ; angustlsept'al, angustisep- with tatus {septum, a division), having in the Cupuliferae ; (2) spores enclosed in some kind of a narrow-partitioned fruit, as the silicic of Thlaspi; Angustiaep'tae, receptacle ; a closed apotheoium in Lichens; Angiog'amae, Ardissone's plants so characterised. group for Angiosperma and Gymno- Anhalo'nine, a poisonous alkaloid sperms; Angi'olum,the spore-case of from Anhalonium L&winii, Hen- it resembles Strychnine. certain Fungi (Lindley) ; angiomo- nings ; An'ilophyll, a product from Chloro- nosperm'ous {iiovoi, one ; (nvipfia, seed), having only one seed in the phyll after treatment with Aniline, An'gio- whence the name. carpel ; Anglosperm'se, sperms, plants having their seeds An'ime, » transparent resin from Hymenaea Gowrbaril, Linn. enclosed in an ovary ; angiosperm'- 15 ;; ;

anisatus Anomodromy

anisa'tus, partaking of the scent applied to branches of last year's of Anise, Pimpinella Anisum, growth. Linn. annual, annua'lis, an'nuvs (Lat. year), within one year anisob'rious, anisoVrius % (dvicros, un- lasting a ; equal, IfjL^pvov, embryo), a name (1) used of plants which perish

given to Endogens, from one side within that period ; (2) of the being supposed to possess greater rings in wood which denote the

developing force than the other, year's growth ; Annual Ring, the hence only one cotyledon is marks seen on cross-section of wood,

formed ; anlsody'namous, -mus, which show the respective in-

{Sivafus, power) = anisobrious ; crement during each year ; ^ Shoot, Anlaogam'etes {ya/ieTiis, a spouse), = ramus annotinus. sexual cells, showing a difference an'nular, annularis, annnlar'ius

between male and female ; anis- {annidus, a ring), used of any

og'ynous {yvvii, woman), with fewer organs disposed in a circle ; ^ Duct,

carpels than ; anlsom'erous, ~ Vessel, one in which the second- anisomer'icus {/J^pos, a part), where ary thickening has taken place in

the parts of a flower are not all the form of rings ; an'nulate,

regular, unsymmetrical ; Aniso- annula'tus, annuliform'is (forma, mor'phy {fiop^ii, shape), change in shape), ring-shaped ; Annula'tlon,

form of an organ, caused by its posi- a ring or belt (Crozier) ; annulat'i- tion in relation to the horizon of the form, ring-like, as the apex of the

mother-axis ; anisopet'alouB, -Zms, thecae of Schizcea. leaf), having (TeraXov, a flower un- Aa'nulus (Lat. a ring) ; (1) in Ferns,

equal-sized petals ; anisopliyll'ous the elastic organ which partially {tpiWov, a leaf), when the two leaves invests the , and at maturity are diverse in or of a pair shape bursts it ; (2) in Fungi, a portion

size ; Ani'sophylly, used by Krasser of the ruptured marginal veil, for the different forms of leaf- forming a frill upon the after structure due to difference of expansion of the the pileus ; (3) position, as in aquatic plants, the in Mosses, the ring of cells between submerged or floating - leaves the base of the peristome or orifice Anisopby'teB {(pvrov, a plant), of the capsule and the formerly used for Muscineae (4) in Diatoms, used by W. Smith aniaosep'alous.-ZMS (Sepalum, calyx- for a compressed rim of silex

leaf), the sepals unequal ; anlsosta- within the frustules of such genera m'enous (Grozier), anisoste'monous, as RhahdoiMTna, Kiitz. ; (5) in Bqui- nus {arriniav, a thread) = having setaceae, the imperfectly developed

stamens of different size ; aniao- foliar sheath below fruit the spike ; atemopet'alua = anisostemonous ; (6) the fleshy rim of the corolla in aniaotrop'ic, anlaotrop'ous, (rpoirj;, Asclepiads, as the genus Stapelia ; a turn), endowed with different — Inferus, —mobllis, as defined in

kinds of irritability ; Aniso- 1. , ~ superus, = Akmilla. trop'lBm, Anlsot'ropy, the quality anod'al, anod'ic {dvA,, up, 6S6i, a way), itself, as shown in leaves and roots in the upward direction following which respectively seek and shun the genetic spiral. light. anom'alous, -lus (a, not, S/xaXos, Anla'ge, (Ger.) may be variously equal), unlike its allies in certain rendered as rudiment, inception, points, contrary to rule ; anomaloe'- primordium. olouB J (oIkos, a house), = polygam- annex'us (Lat, fastened to), annex'ed, ous ; Anom'aly, variation from =adnate. normal character. annot'inous, -nus (Lat. a year old), Anomod'romy {irofua, without law, 16 ; ;

Anophyta Anthochlorin

Spo/ios, a course), venation which the Antheridium ; ~ Cap, ~ Case, in cannot be assigned to any special Orchids, the outer deciduous case order (Prantl). or bag, which is virtually the anther Anophy'ta, An'opbytes (dvi), upward, minus the poUinia; ~ Dust = Pollen; vT6v, plant), = Bryophyta. <- Lobes, the cells which contain the An'sae [ansa, a handle), the partial pollen; ~ Wings, the horny, lateral leaf stalks of a compound leaf ; an'- expansions of the anther-lobes in

anlate, coiled at the apex and then Asclepiadeae : antheril'erous, -rus bent over in loop, a as the shoots in i/ero, I bear), anther-bearing ; an'- some Cuourbitaceae (Crozier). tlierless,destitute of anthers, female

Ant-plants, plants utilized by for or neuter flowers ; antherog'enous, habitation ; see mtrmecophilous nus {yevvda, I beget), applied to plants. double flowers arising from the antagonl3t'ic(d;'Ta7a)vi(TTr)s,adversary) transformation of anthers (De Can- SymMo'sis, where the symbionts doUe); an'theroid {eUos, like) anther-

are not mutually helpful or neutral, like ; Antheroma'nia {mania, mad- but hurtful, at least on the part of ness) an inordinate development of one. anthers. An'techamber, {ante, before), the space An'therid, Antherld'lum {dveiipos, immediately flowering, elSos, below the guard-cells resemblance) ; (1) of a stoma ; antemarg'inal {margo, the male sexual organ in Crypto- edge) used of sori which are a little gams, the analogue of the anther in

within ; the margin anteme'dlus J Phanerogams ; (2) in Hymenomy- {medius, middle) standing cetes, an for before the old term Cystidium ; middle of another body, opposite. Antheridan'gia {dyyeioi>, a vessel), Anten'na (Lat. sail-yard) Darwin's of Marsilea and allied

term for the slender process of the plants ; Antherid'iophore {ipopioi, I rostellum in Catasetum, borrowed bear), a unisexual ,

from entomology ; autennaeform'ls bearing antheridia only, a special- t {forma, shape) used of the fruit of ised branch in Sphagnum and Ammi majus, Linn., the two styles Hepaticae. suggesting the antennae of . Antherophyl'ly {dve-qpos, flowering, anteplacen'tal (amie, before, + Pla- v\\ov, a leaf), the virescence

centa) in front of the placentae and phyllomorphy of anthers ;

cf. Intbrplacbntal ; Anteposit'lon Antherosporan'gimn [niropb,, a seed, {pono, positum, placed) = Super- dyyeiov, a vessel), a synonym for

position. Microsporangium ; Antherozo'a aute'rior (Lat. that before) (1) of time, Antherozo'lds {iSiov, an animal, eXSos, resemblance), male motile previous ; (2) of place, position in front, or turned away from the cells provided with cilia, produced axes. in antheridia. an'tero-poste'rior (Lat. later), median. Anthe'sia {dvOijini, flowering), the Anthe'la {dvdi^\i.ov, a little flower), the expansion of the flower, the time panicle of Juncus, where the lateral when fertilization takes place. axes exceed the main axis. Anthesmol'yais J (Avdos, a flower, Anth'emy, Anthe'mia {avBiiiov, flower- Xiiffis, a loosing), the metamor- pattern), a flower-cluster of any phosis of inflorescence (Lindley)

kind. Anthes'mus % an inflorescence ; An'ther, Anthe'ra {ivBTipos, flowering). anthocarp'ous, -pus {Kapirbs, fruit), (1) that portion of a stamen which fruits with accessories, sometimes contains the pollen, usually bilocu- termed pseudocarps, as the Straw- lar, and sessile, or attached to a fila- berry or ; AnthocMor'in in Fungi, for (xXw/Jos, pale green), the yellow ment ; (2) an old terra 17 ;;

Anthoclinium antipodal

of colouring of flowers ; xanthein a cluster of flowers at the end a Anthoclin'lum {k\Ivii, a bed), the long stalk ; An'thus, of old authors =

receptacle of a Composite ; Antlio- Corolla. cyanin {kvupos, dark blue), the antl-, in composition = against. blue, sometimes red, colouring of An'tiarine, the active poisonous prin-

flowers ; Antho'dium (d'vfluSijs, ciple of the upas tree, Antiaris flower-like), the capitulum of the toxicaria, Lesch. Compositae, by some restricted to Antibi'onts (&vtI, against, |8(os, life),

the involuorum ; Anthoeool'oglst antipathetic organisms ; Antiblo'sis, {oUos, house, X670S, discourse), antipathy, a, term proposed by a student of plant-life in its en- Vuillemin.

vironment ; an'thoid {eUos, resem- antl'cal, anti'cous, aviVcua (Lat. fore-

blance), flower-like, as the male most), the fore-part ; that most re-

inflorescence of Polytrichum ; An- mote or turned away from the axis ; tholeu'oin (Xeukoj, clear), the so- Spruce uses antioal to denote the called colouring matter of white upper (dorsal) face of a stem in

flowers; An'thollte (KlSos, a, stone), Hepatioae. a fossil plant which has the ap- anticU'nal [AvtI, against, /cXfceu, I in-

pearance of a flower ; Anthol'ysis cline), perpendicular to the sur- {\v

plied to plants with flower-visiting vesicles ; Vesque further subdivides insects which aid cross-fertilization. them into (a) inert, (6) active or

Anthoph'ilus, a florist, a cultivator albuminigenous, (c) cotyloid ; <-

of garden flowers ; An'thophore, Planes, ~ Walls, those which cut the Anthoph'orum, -tts, {

a, short stalk which sometimes right angles ; anticUnan'thous (avBos, occurs between the calyx and petals, flower), the inferior scaly parts of supporting the interior organs, as in someComposite flowers; antid'romal, Silent ; anthoph'orous, -rus, bearing antid'romous (dp6iws, a course), the flowers, floriferous ; Anth'ophyta direction of a lateral spiral laeing {tj>vTov, plant), B. Brown's term for difierent to that of the main stem ; ]?hanerogams ; Authop'tosls (Trrairis, ~ Tors'lon, a twist against the

a falling), the fall of flowers. direction of twining ; Antid'romy,

An'thos, Anthus {&vdos, a flower,) used diverse twining ; used also when

in Greek compounds ; An'thosperm different individuals of the same (airepiM, a seed), " a little coloured species display right and left-hand

concretion scattered in the tissues torsion ; antimycot'lc {liiKij!, niKryroi, of certain Fucoids," (Lindley). fungus), fungicidal; antipathetic ADthotax'is, Anthotax'y {tAIi-s, (iroBos, suffering), applied to plants order), the arrangement of the which do not easily unite by graft-

flower ; Anthoxan'thin (facffos, ing (Crozier) ; antipeduno'nlar yellow), the colouring matter of (pedmiodus, a stalk), placed oppo-

yellow flowers, site a peduncle ; antipet'alous anthrac'inus (Lat.), coal-black. [iriToKov, a flower leaf), opposite or Anthrao'nose [avBpa^, coal, cdo-os, dis- superposed to a petal, not alternate, ' ease) the ' Birds-Eye Rot " of the An'tiphyt ((pvrov, plant), in alter- Vine, caused by Phoma ampelinum, nation of generations, that gen- Berk, et Curt. ; An'thrax, disease eration which produces reproductive in animals due to Bacillus Anihracis, cells asexually; antlp'odal (Trour, Oohn. woSos, foot) ~ Cells, three cells at Anthu'rus J {avBos, flower, ovpk, tail). the base of the embryo sac, formed 18 ;

antisepalous AphyUy

by division of the primary nucleus, alose, without petals, or with a when surrounded by protoplasm single perianth, as in Clematis,

and finally cell walls ; antlsep'alous where the coloured sepals simulate

(sepalum, calyx-leaf), opposite to, or petals ; apet'alousness, being with- upon a , that is, not alternate out petals.

with it ; autisep'tio [crqwnKbs, put- A'pexjpl. A'pioes (Lat. summit) (1)

refying), preventing putrefaction. an old name for Anther ; (2) the

Antispenn'y (dvTl, against, c-vipfm, ostiole of Fungi (Lindley) ; (3) the a seed), Delpino's term for the growing point of a stem or root; coalescence of the fertile divisions (4) the tip of an organ. of the phyllome into a single fertile Aphan'isis {d<(>dvia-is, disappearance), body opposed and superposed to the suppression of parts.

sterile division, in Phanerogams ; in Aphan'eri, pi. (o, not, ', vessel). (Maggi). antithet'lc (acrWecris, opposition), in Aphanocy'clae {d^avris, unseen, k6k\os, alternation of generations op- a circle), Sachs's name for certain posed to homologous, implying that plants where the whorls are not very the two generations are different in manifest, as Nymphaeaceae. origin. Apheliot'roplsm (dxo, from, •ffXios, the antit'ropal.antit'ropous, -pus {Tpoirrj, a Sun, TpoTTT], a turning), turning away turn), a synonym of Orthotropal as from the light, negative heliotrop-

applied toovules;Antitox'in(TofiKo>', ism, as in roots ; adj . aphellotrop'ic. poison), a substance secreted by Aphleb'la (a, without, 0Xe^, (^Xe/Sos, the plant to protect itself against vein), used generically by C. Presl,

harmful bacteria ; adj. antltox'ic ; but by Solms-Laubach for anom-

antizym'ic, antizymot'ic (fi)/»»i, alous pinnae on the rhachis of yeast), preventing fermentation. certain fossil ferns, and the existing an'trorse, antror'sus {antero-, before, Hemitelia capensis, R. Br. versus, turned towards), directed Aphotis'tes J (a, without, ^wt-iittt;!, upwards, opposed to betrokse. one who gives light), a plant Ant'rum t (Lat. a cave) = Pomum. growing in the absence of light, apag'ynust(aira{, once, yvvn, woman), as a TruiHe. monocarpio. aphotomet'rlc (a, not, 0ws, ipuTos, Apan'dry {diro, without, avrip, dvdpos, light, pirpov, measure), applied by man), M'Nab's term for fusion of the Strasburger to phototactic zoo- constantly antheridium with the oogonium ; spores, which turn the also applied to the pollen-tube. same extremity to the light; aparaph'ysate (a, without, irapd,, near, opposed to PHOTOMETRIC. tpdo/mi, I am born), destitute of Apli'rostase % {d^pos, froth, ffTaais, paraphyses; aperisperm'ic, aperi- standing), cellular tissue. sperma'tus (+ Perisperm) = exal- Aph'thae {dtpSai, ulcerations in the buminous. mouth), the disease known as Aper'tio (Lat. unfolding) = Anthesis. Thrush, ascribed to Saccharomyces

Apertu'ra (Lat. opening), (1) formerly albicans, Reess ; Apthaph/tes {(puTov, plant), the Fungi mentioned used of the dehiscence of anthers ; the disease. (2) the ostiole of certain Fungi above as causing apert'uB (Lat. opened), exposed, Aphyll'ae (o, without,

apical ApoBtazis

a'plcal, apica'lis {apex, a/picis, Bum- carp'ous, -pius, that is, when the car-

are separate ; mit), at the point of any structure ; pels of a Gynaeoium ^ Axis, in Diatoma, the line through apooy'tial {k6tos, a hollow), multi- the centre of the pervalvar axis in nucleate and unicellular ; Apoc'yty, the direction of the raphe, at equal Vuillemin's term for non-cellular distances from homologous points tissue in Fungi and Algae, the cells of the girdle band surfaces, and being reduced to several nuclei through the apices ; '~ Cell, the within the cell- wall, single cell in many plants which apodog'ynus J (a, without, irovs, is the origin of all longitudinal TToSos, foot ywrj, woman), applied

growth ; ^ Cone=PuNCTnM Vege- to a disk which is not adherent to

TATIONIS ; r^ Growth, extension in the ovary. (p-^pvov, the length of the axis ; ~ Plane, in Apoem'bryony (Atto, from, Diatoms, the plane at right angles an embryo), the embryo-stage sup- to the valvar plane, which passes pressed, the oosphere giving rise through the pervalvar and apical immediately to the vascular mem-

axes; c/.PBBvalvar ~ ; tbansapical bers; Apog'amy (y&p.os, marriage),

~ : apicicirciima'tus J {circinnatus, abnormal budding and production turned round), ending in a ciroin- of a bion by a prothallus without

nate manner ; apicil'lary, apicilla'- sexual intervention ; adj. apog'-

ris, inserted on, or pertaining to the amous ; Apogfeny {yivos, offspring), summit, as in the dehiscence of the loss of power for sexual reproduc- capsule of Gerastium. tion, the function of both male and Apic'ula, Apic'ulum (Lat. a little female organs being destroyed. point), a sharp and short, but not Apogeot'ropism (dTro, from, yf;, the stiff point, in which a leaf may earth, rpoirTj, a turn), growing away

end ; apio'ulate, apicula'tus, fur- from the earth, as normal stems nished with an apioula. apogeotrop'ic, negatively geotropic A'pllary (a, without, inKoi, hat), sup- Apog'yny (711^7;, woman), loss of pression of the upper lip in such reproductive power in the female

flowers as Calceolaria; Apian'oga- organ ; apopet'alous (Tr^raXoi', a metes (ttXApos, wandering, yaiiert}!, flower leaf), having free petals

a spouse), a non - ciliated , polypetalous ; apophyU'ous {(piiWor,

which may or may not be set free ; leaf) applied to parts of a single

Aplan'osporea {a-jroph, a seed), non- perianth whorl when free ; Apoph' motile cells which are detached for ysis (0u'w, I grow) (1) the swelling propagation, formed aaexually by below the capsule of Splachnum and and rejuvenes- true cell-formation other Mosses ; (2) also in the cone (7r\a

aplasmodioph'orus (TrXair/xa, largement ; aposep'alous (sepalum, moulded, elSos, resemblance, opew, calyx-leaf) having free sepals I bear), used of Myxogastres which Aposp'ory {(TTopcL, seed), suppression do not produce plasmodia. of spore-formation, the prothallus Aploperist'omi (dxXdos, simple, irepl, developing direct from the asexual

around, trrofia, mouth). Mosses hav- generation ; direct .~, is normal but

ing a single row of teeth in the prolonged ; induced ~, theprothalli or none ; adj. aploperi- produce peristome, buds forthwith (Lang) ;

stom'atouB. adj. aposp'orous ; Apost'asis Ap'oWast (dTTo, up, pXaa-rbs, a germ), a {<7Td

lows ; Ap'ooarp, Apocarp'ium, (nap- Apostax'is (Tdfis, order) the abnormal Tos, fruit), a fruit which is apo- loss of nutritive or secreted fluids 20 Apostrophe araclmoid

by bleeding, gumming etc. ; Apoat'- folious ; Apposlt'ion, side by side rophe (ffrpo^Ti, turning) the position or close to ; ~ Theory, of the assumed by the chloroplastids growth of the cell-wall, as due to during intense light, along the sides repeated disposition of layers of of the cell-walls, instead of the substance on the internal surface

outer surface ; negative ~, is caused of the original cell-wall. by weak light, as at night, and appress'ed, appress'it^,{ad, to, jyresstos,

positive - , by strong light ; apot'ro- kept under), lying flat for the whole

pous (rpiiros, direction) used of an length of the organ ; Appres'sors, anatropous ovule, which when pen- organs of attachment of germinating dulous has the raphe averse. filaments of parasite to host. Ap'othece=Apothe'cium {ffvKij, a case), approx'imate, approxima'tus {ad, to, an organ of fructification peculiar proximo, I approach), drawn close to lichens, and usually cup-shaped together, but not united. "Shields." Aprioa'rlum {apricus, lying open), the Appen'dag-e, Appen'dix (Lat. an ad- summer habitation of plants in dition), (1) apart added to another, botanic gardens, for exposure to

as leaves are appendages to the sun and air ; aprl'cus (Lat.), living stem, (2) a name given to processes in open sunny places.

of any kind, especially those of the ap'terouB, -rus (a, without, Trrepiv, a,

perithecia of fungi ; (3) in the wing), wingless, used of petioles,

plural the term Appen'dices was seeds, and the like ; apyre'nus formerly applied to suckers, such {irvfrqv, seed), applied to fruit which as the oflfsets of the Pineapple. is seedless, as cultivated varieties appen'dent, appen'dens {ouppendo, I of the pineapple, orange, or grape. hang by), when the hilum is Aquar'ium (Lat. relating to water), a directed towards the upper part tank for aquatics in botanic of the seed, which is sessile or gardens. nearly so on the placenta, as in aquat'io, aquat'icus {aq%m, water),

stone-fruits. living in water ; aquat'ilis, has been appendic'ulate, appendicvla'tus (ap- defined as living under water ; the pendicula, a small appendage), first category would include Lem,na,

furnished with appendages ; ap- and Typha, the second, Cerato- pen'dicled. phyllum, Ghara, etc. Appendic'ulum J, diminutive of Ap- aq'ueous, aq'ueus, aquo'sus (Lat. pendix. watery) indicates some colour- ; (1) appense' (appen'sus, weighed), being less structure, hyaline having ; (2) ^ hung up as a hat is upon a peg, an much water in the tissues ; aq'ueous approach to pendulous (Lindley Tissue, consists of one or more in Loudon, Encyc. PI. 1095). layers of thin walled parenchy- ap'planate, applana'tus {ad, to, plan- matous cells, destitute of chloro- atus, made flat), flattened out or , with much watery sap, horizontally expanded. without interspaces, and acting as

Ap'ple, a fleshy, inferior, plurilocular, water-reservoirs ; aquiferous {fero, two to five-seeded fruit, technically I bear) Tissue, is a synonym.

styled a Pome. Ar'abln, a, substance derived from applioa'tus (Lat. close to, or at- Gum Arabic, defleotingthepolarised

tached), applicati'vus, applied face beam to the left ; Ar'aWnose, a to face, without folding. obtained from it, also from ap'poBlte, appos'itus (Lat, applied to), cherry-gum ; Arabinox'ylan, a hemi- when similar parts are placed close cellulose, found in the bran of wheat

to or side by side ; apposifo'liar and rye. {folium, leaf), an error for oppositi- araoh'noid, arach'noideus {ipix^v 21 ; ;

arallaceoas Archoplasm

, or spider's web, eWot, re- central part but not at the poles,

semblance), like a cobweb, from as in ; archego'niate,

an entanglement of fine whitish possessing archegonia ; Arche- hairs. gonia'tae, plants producing arche- aralia'ceous, resembling the genus gonia, applied to and

Aralia, or the order of which it is ; AreUego'niopliore the type. {(popea, I bear), the supports of ara'ueoua f, araneo'sus %, ara'neose archegonia in certain ferns, out- {aranea, a spider), have the same growths of the prothalli, also meaning as arachnoid. specialised branches on Sphagnum

Ar'ljor (Lat. tree), a woody perennial with the same function ; Archego'- plant, having a bole from which nium, the female sexual organ

the branches spring ; arbores'cent, in Cryptogams, containing the arbores'cens (+ esoens), attaining oosphere, which after fertilization the size or character of a tree develops within the venter Ar'boret, a small tree or Archene'ma (v^/m, a thread), term Arbore'tum, a place assigned for proposed by C. Macmillan for the culture of trees, usually in gametophytic structures in Thallo-

systematic order ; also the title of phytes ; Arcli'espore, Archespor'ium

a book devoted to trees ; arbor'eous (o-TTo/ji, a seed), the cell or cells

arbor'eus, tree-like ; arboric'oline, from which the spores are ultim- arborio'olouB (-1- suffix -cola, in- ately derived as in the pollen sac,

habitant), dwelling on trees, as or its homologue ; archespor'ial, the of Fungi or epiphytes belonging ~ ; to the same ; Cells, the ar'boroid {eldos, resemblance), a first eight cells in spore-formation hybrid word for dendroid, tree- ~ Pad, Bower's term for a mass of like. cells developing beneath the sporo- Arbus'cula (Lat.), a small shrub with genous tissue in certain Pteridophy- aspect the of a tree, as some heaths ; tes ; Arch'etype (jiiros, a type), an Ar'buscle is an old term for the original simple type; restricted to same ; Arbus'culus (Lat. ), a small a of forms from the simplest tree ; arbus'cular, arbuscula'ris, to complicated, with common type shrubby, and branched like a tree. of structure and phylogenetic con- arbus'tive, wrhusti'vus (Lat. planted nections ; Arch'lcarp (/capTrJs, fruit) with trees), coppiced. in ascomycetous Pungi, the begin- Arbus'tum (Lat.), (1) a shrub, ning of a fructification, the cell or a branched woody perennial plant, group of cells fertilized by a sexual but wanting distinct a bole ; (2) act ; Arohiclilamyd'eae {x^a/xis, applied to an account of the woody -uSos, a mantle), a term to include plants of a country, a Sylva. the Polypetalae and Inoompletae Arces'thide, Arces'tbida {dpKevdU, -ISos, of Phanerogams. juniper berry ) = Galbulus. aroh'ing, curved like a bow. archa'lc (d^xai'tis, antiquated), used ArGll'l8perm([t/jx'?, beginning; airepim, with reference to a type of a former seed), (1) another name for Gymno- age, as Casuarina. sperm, from their presumed an- Archebio'sls [dpur], beginning ^(os, ; tiquity ; (2) Boulger's term for life), origin of life; Arcli'egone = structures formed before fertiliza- arcbego'nlal Archbgonium ; (70^-);, tion, or at an early stage in race), applied by Tschirch to the maorospore ; Archlstrep'tes stomata, whose outer walls of the {ffTpeirTos, twisted), the principal guard cells are thickened, inner spirals formed in phyllotaxis. walls only a thin lamella, the Arch'oplasm (dpxos, chief; irXda-fia, guard cells separated in their moulded), Boveri's term for KlNO- 22 );- ;

archoplasmlc arthrosporous

PLASM ; adj. archoplas'mlc ; -< arl'nus (dppriv, male), Necker's sufBx Sphere = achromatic spindle. to words enumerating stamens, in- arct'ic, a term applied by H. C. Wat- stead of the Liunean -androus. son to a British region, compris- A'ril, Arill'us (Ft., arille), an expan- ing three zones, styled super-, mid-, sion of the funicle, arising from the and infer- zones, relating to placenta, and enveloping the seed, plants growing above the limits of mace is the aril of the ; cultivation. ar'lllate, arilla'tus, possessed of an axc'uate, arcua'tus (Lat.), bent like a aril ; arilliform'ist [forma, shape),

bow, curved ; aioua'to-areola'tus, bag-shaped ; A'riUode, Arillo'dium,

divided into spaces by curves ; ~ a false aril, a coat of the seed, and contort'us, forming a depressed not arising from the placenta. spiral, as in some . Aris'ta (Lat.), an , the beard of

Ardell'a {apSoi, I sprinkle), small com ; arist'ate, arista'tus, awned ; apothecia of certain lichens, as arls'tulate, ai-istula'tus, bearing a Arthonia, seemingly dusty. small awn. A'rea (Lat., a space), (1) a bed in aristolochia'ceous, resembling the

botanic gardens ; (2) in Diatoms, genus Ariatolochia, Tourn. the surface of a valve when circular Ar'ma (Lat.), Ar'mature, any kind of

and destitute of a stauroa ; (3) J the defence, as prickles or thorns receptacle of certain Fungi (Lind- armed, bearing thorns or similar ley). defence. arena'ceous, arena'rious, arena'rius, armenia'ceous,armem'MicMS, (l)apricot- areno'sua {arena, sand), growing in coloured, a dull orange, named from

sandy places. Prunus Armeniaca, Linn. ; (2) a

, diminutive Are'ola (Lat. of Area) ; ( 1 native of Armenia.

a space marked out on a surface ; Annill'a (Lat., bracelet), the frill of

(2) a small cell or cavity ; (3) a the stipe of Agarics left attached tessellation in the thallus of some on the expansion of the pileus, at Lichens; ar'eolar, ar'eolate, areola' first it forms a covering of the tus, marked with areolae, divided hymenium.

into distinct spaces ; Areola'ticn, in Amat'to, also written, Amotto and Mosses, the arrangement of the Aunotto, the red colouring matter cells. from the pulp of the fruit of arg'entate, argent' eua (Lat., silvery), Bixa Orellana, Linn. silvery as to tint and lustre Aro'ma (Lat., spice), the perfume of

argenta'tus (Lat.), silvered. a plant ; aromat'ic, -cus, possessing argllla'oeous, -ceus (Lat.), clayey, a spicy smell or taste. growing in clay, or clay-coloured airect', arrectlus (Lat. set upright), arglllo'sus (Lat.), living in clayey stiffy erect. places. Arrest', sporal, see Sporal Arrest. arg'os, in Greek compounds = white ; arrM'zoua = ARHizous, etc. in Latin, candidus. Ar'row-head'ed, ~ shaped, barbed like argute', argu'tus (Lat.) sharp, as an arrow, sagittate. argute' -serra'tus sharply serrate. arth'onoid, of the form or consistence arg'yros, in Greek compounds = sil- of the apothecia in the genus

very ; Lat., argenteus. Arthonia, Aoh. a, joint, airoph, a arhi'zal, arhi'zus (a, without ; ^/fa, a Arth'rospore {apdpov, root), rootless, wanting true roots seed), one of spores like a chain of ArhizoWaa'tus J (/SXatrrds, a germ), beads, formed by fission ; arthro- an embryo which has no radicle. spor'ic, arthrosp'orous, applied to Ar'lcine, an alkaloid from cinchona Schizomycetes, in those species bark, obtained from Arioa, in Chili. which have no endogenous spores 23 ;,;

Artbrosterlgmata aseptate

leaf, become formation ; Arthrosterig'mata phosed lamina of the {ffTtjpiy/jia, -aros, a prop.), jointed tubular, usually with » lid, which sterigmata in Bome Lichens, made isadevelopmentoftheapical portion certain up of rows of cells from which of the leaf ; (2) the asoi of

spores are abstricted. Fungi ; ascid'ifonu (forma, shape), Art'lcle, Artic'ulus (Lat.), a joint pitcher-shaped. artic'ulated, articula'tus, jointed, asclferous {d(rK6s, a wine-skin, fero, I

separating freely by a clean scar, bear), bearing asci ; ascig'erous

as in leaf-fall ; Artioula'tlon, a joint, igero, I produce) = asoiferous ; popularly applied to the nodes of Aa'cocarp (Kapvos, fruit), the sporocarp of Ascomycetes produc-

Art'ifact (ars, art, factvji, made), a ing asci and aecospores ; its three substance not naturally existing, kinds are termed Apothecium,

but resulting from laboratory treat- Perithbcium and Cleistooarp ;

ment ; artiflc'lal, artificia'lis (Lat. As'cooysts (kiVtis, a bag), erect sac- according to rules of art) applied to like secreting cells on the creeping

any scheme of classification which filaments oi Ascocychm ; ascog'enoiia is based on one set of characters, as (yevvaoi, I bring forth), producing

opposed to a natural scheme, which asoi, asciferous ; As'cogone, takes all characters into account. Ascogo'nlum (yovT), race), a syno- artlphyll'ous, -his [apri, forthwith, nym of Arohicakp. tjyiWov, leaf), used of nodes which Ascoll'clieneB, Lichens producing bear manifest buds. asci. arundlna'oeous, arwndina'ceus, reed- Asc'oma (do^Kos? a wine-skin) Wall- like, having a culm like tall grasses roth's term for Receptacle and

anmdin'eous, reedy, abounding in Hymenium of Fungi ; Ascomyce'tes reeds. (/tuKTjs, fungus), Sachs's name for arven'sis {arva, arable land), applied a large group of Fungi, forming to plants of cultivated land, espec- ascospores and stylospores. ially of ploughed fields. Ascop'ora (deriv.?) sporangia of certain Asafoet'ida (aza, Persian for mastic, Fungi (Lindley).

foetidus, stinking), a gum-resin, Asc'ophore (Aitkos, wine-skin ; tjiop^a, I yielded by Fertda Narthex, Boiss., carry), the ascus-bearing hyphae

and other allied Umbelliferae, of a within an ascocarp ; ascoph'orous

persistent alliaceous odour and ascus-bearing ; Ascoph'yses (ifniu, I taste. make grow), the hyphae which con- As'arlne, a crystallised substance from stitute the ascogenous cushion in Asarum europaeum, Linn,, resemb- Ohaetomium ; As'oospore {a-iropi,, a ling camphor. seed), a spore produced by an ascus,

Asoell'us (1) diminutive of Ascus ; (2) sometimes termed sporidium or

( the spores of certain Fungi Lindley ). sporule ; Aa'eus, pi. As'ci (pr. as'si), ascend' ent, -ens, ascen'ding ; (1) a large cell, usually the swollen end

directed upwards, as the stem ; the of a hyphal branch, in the ascocarp ascending axis is oblique at first, of which normally eight spores are

then erect ; (2) opposed to descend- developed ; ~AppaTa'tus, a portion ing. of the sporocarp, comprising the -asoens, suflSx, a denotes a tendency asci and the ascogenous cells ; ~ towards something, as ciner-ascens, suffalto'rius, Corda's term for Bas- becoming ash-coloured, cinereus. IDITTM. aBcldia'tus (Lat.), furnished with ascy'plious (a, without, ctku^os, a AsoiDi ; Ascid'ium {ia-KiSiov, a little A beaker) without Sctphi ; asep'tate pitcher), pi. Asoid'ia, (1) the pitcher [septum, an enclosure), without of Nepenthes etc., the metamor- partitions or cross-divisions ; asep'- 24 ;;

asexual Astrospheres

tlo (o-ija-TiKo's, putrefying), not oxide and water by green plants

liable to become rotten ; asex'ual in sunlight. (sei'MaKs,pertainingtosex),destitute asp'erous (asper, rough), scabrous, of male or female organs, neuter harsh to the touch. ~ Genera'tlon, in alternation, that Asslm'inum (Fr. Assiminier, a name

generation which produces spores of Asiniina triloba, Dun. ), Desvaux's asexually, but is itself the product name for Synoarpium.

of a sexual act ; thus, in Ferns, the Associa'tions. Plant ; term proposed full-grown form is the asexual form to supersede Plant Formations or

or , the prothallus the Plant Societies ; Dan. Plantesam- sexual form or . fund, Ger. Pflanzenverein. Ash, the mineral residue of plants Assumen'ta (pi. of asaumentum, a after complete combustion. patch), the valves of a siUqua. Asim'ina = Assiminum. assur'gent, assur'gens {ad, to, swgo, I

Aspar'agi {d(rirdpa.yos, asparagtis), for- rise), rising upward : ascending. ' merly used for TuRiONES or suckers, Astath'e X {dffradris, unstable), ' a sub- young shoots emerging from the stance supposed by Harting to lie rootstock under ground, and at between the outer and inner lining first bearing scales only, as in As- of a cell " (Lindley).

paragus ; Aspar'agln, a commonly Aste'ly (a, without,

obtained from Asparagiis officinalis, cylinder of tissue, <•/. Sohizostelt ; Linn., hence its name; asparag'l- adj. aste'llc. uana, applied to plants whose young Ast'er {dffTTip, a star), used in composi- shoots ar? ftaten as asparagus. tion for star-shaped structure as in as'per (Lat. rough), as'perate, as'- DiASTEE, etc. ; ast'erold (elSos, re-

perous, rough with hairs or points. semblance), (1) star-shaped ; (2) like asperguriform, aspergilliform' is {as- the genus. Aster, Tourn. pergillum, holy-water brush, /orma, ast'lchous, as'tichvs X (". without, shape), tufted, brush-shaped as the o-rixos, row, line), not arranged in

stigmas of grasses ; AspergiU'in, rows.

pigment of the spores of Aspergillus astlp'ulate (a, without, -I- Stipula) = niger, Van Tiegh., now known as EXSTIPDLATB. Sterigmatocystis nigra, Sacc. Astlg'matae (a, without, + Stigma), asperlfo'llate, asperifo'llous (asper, Van Tieghem's name for the

rough, folium, leaf), rough leaved, Archeooniatab ; cf. Stigmatae. Linn, astom'atal (o, without, + Stoma), as Borrago officinalis, ; Aaper'ity (asperitas), roughness. wanting stomata ; ast'omous Asporomyce'tes (a, without, airoph, a ast'omus (ardixa, mouth), not having seed, iwKTis, fungus), Marchand's an orifice. name for Fungi imperfecti. Astrooen'ters (da-riip, a star, centrum, as'plenoid {Asplenium, elSos, re- centre), C. Macmillan's term for semblance), like the Fern genus, the bodies variously known as Asplerdum. Attraction - spheres. Directive etc. asperm'ous (a, without, tnripim, seed), spheres, Tinoleucites, ; seedless. Astroscle'reids [a-KKripos, hard) thick- Assimila'tion, AssimUa'tio (assimulo, walled star-shaped cells occurring I make like), the process by which in the leaves of Camellia, and fre- extraneous matter, crude food, is quently in bark amongst the sur- converted into plant substance rounding parenchymatous cells

; Ast'rospheres {a-atpa, constructive metabolism ; used (Tschirch) especially for the formation of a sphere), Strasburger's term for organic substance from carbon di- ASTBOCBNTERS. 25 ; ;

asymmetric aurantlaceous

asymmet'rlc, aaynunet'rioal (a, not, being darkened ; atric'olor {color, colour), aifj-Htrpos, symmetric) ; (1) irregular inky-black. in preferably at'ropous (a, not, outline or shape ; (2) used of a at'ropal, flower which cannot be divided in rpoTii, a turn), a synonym of OR-

any vertical plane into two similar THOTROPOUS ; applied to the ovule. (a, nourish- halves ; (3) dissimilarity of the At'rophy without, Tpori, number of the members in calyx, ment), wasting away, abortion or

corolla or genitalia. degeneration of organs ; Atrophy'- asyngam'lc (a, not, (xiv, together, tes ((pVTOv, a plant), those Fungi 7(i/ior, marriage), used of plants which cause atrophy of important prevented from intercrossing by organs of the host-plant. their flowering at different times. At'ropine, a poisonous alkaloid ob- At'avism (atavus, an ancestor), an- tained from Atropa Belladonna, cestral resemblance, reversion to Linn. an older type. atro-purpu'reus (Lat.), black-purple, ataxmom'ic (a, not, rdjis, order, the colour of Sweet Scabious, 'Soyos, discourse), teratologic, ab- Scabiosa atropicrpurea, Linn.; —

normal structures not represented -violaceus (Lat. ), very dark violet among plants in a normal con- —virens, ^ -virldis(Lat.), darkor dition, as Pasciation, Chloranthy, blackish green. etc. atten'uate, attemia'tus (Lat. thinned), a'ter (Lat. ), pure, lustreless black narrowed, tapered. in composition, atro-. Att'ire, Grew's term for stamens and athaVamous (a, without, ddXa/^os, pistils. bride-chamber), said of Lichens Attrac'tion-spberes, the same as At- without apotheoia on their thallus. trac'tive-spheres, Centbospheees, athall'iue (o, without, 8a\\6s, young or Tinoleucites. shoot), without thallus. a'tus, a suffix indicating the presence

Atll'era {a8ijp,-ipos, beard of corn), of an organ, thus : foli-atus, having in Greek compounds = awn or stiff leaves. bristle. auo'tus (Lat. increased) ; (1) enlarged Atlant'io type of Distribution, after flowering, accrescent ; (2) Watson's term for British plants augmented by an addition. which occur most frequently to- Aug'ment-Cells, a modification of an wards the west of Great Britain. auxospore in Diatoms, after divi- A'tom (o, not, ri/xixji, I cut), de- sion becoming transformed into fined by Nageli as the ultimate daughter-cells, and the starting-

particle of a chemical element ; in points of new generations ; Aug- botanic parlance it means the menta'tlon, increase beyond the smallest divisable portion of any normal number of parts. substance. Aulae'um t (Lat., a curtain), used Atomogyn'ia (drojuis, cannot be cut, occasionally for Corolla by Lin- -yvvTj, woman), the elder Richard's naeus. name for the Anoiospbrmia of Aulog'amae (aiXds, a tube, 7a,uos, mar- Linnaeus. riage), employed by Ardissone for Atracten'chyma J {ArpaKTos, a spindle, Muscineae. kyXv/M, that poured in), prosen- Aul'ophyte {aiXij, abode, (pvTon, a ohyma, tissue of fusiform cells. plant), one plant living in the atramenta'riUB (atramentum, inky cavity of another for shelter fluid), inky ; black. only, not parasitic; the German atra'tUB (Lat.), garbed in black; is "Baumparasit." blackened, as in some species of aurantia'ceouB, mcran'tiaciis, auran'- Ca/rex, the apex of the glumes tins (Lat.), orange-coloured. 26 ;; ;

Aurautluin autoxidizable

Auran'tium (Lat, , an orange), a succu- Autog'amous {yd/Mos, marriage),

lent superior fruit with a rough self-fertilization ; Autog'amy, when

rind, such as the Orange. a, flower is fertilized by its own auxa'tUB (Lat. gilt), metallic yellow, pollen ; Autogen'esis {y^yecris, be-

shot with gold ; au'reus (Lat. gold- ginning), a synonym of Spon-

en), glowing yellow, not metallic. taneous Generation ; auto- Aur'icle, Auric'ula (Lat. -lap), (1) genet'ic Fertilization = self - pol -

a small lobe or ear, an appendage lination ; autog'enous (y4ms, race), to the leaf, as in Sage, or the self-derived, used of diseases, etc., Orange; (2) the lobule, or minor which have their origin within

lobe of the leaf of Hepaticae, often the organism ; autog'enus, term

balloon-shaped ; (3) formerly and proposed in place of monotypic, erroneously used forAmphigasteia; to show that the genus contains (4) a small lobe or special patch of but a single species (Crozier). cells at the basal angle of the leaf automatic, {airo/uiTos, self-moving),

in Mosses ; auric'ular, auricvXa'ris, spontaneous movement of certain auricled; -- Cells, the cells in the parts, as the leaflets of Desmodium leaf described above (4), also termed gyrans, DC. alar cells. antonom'lc, auton'omous, {aironofios, aur'iform (auris, the ear), ear-shaped independent), used of plants which (Crozier). are perfect and complete in them- auror'eus (Lat.), the colour of dawn, selves, and not simply phases of rosy or golden. other forms. austere' (aiiste'rus, harsh), astringent autonyctitrop'ic (oi)tos, self, vilf, to the taste, as a sloe. fvKTos, night, rpoTTi'/, a turn), spon- austra'Us (Lat. southern), occasionally taneously assuming the position

applied to plants which are natives usual during the night ; Auto- of warmer countries, even if not phyllog'eny (^liXXoK, leaf, yheais, from the southern hemisphere. beginning), the growth of one leaf Aut'ohlast (aiiros, self, p\avToi>, plant), aplantnot

blast" (Schlater) ; Autocarp'ian, dependent on humus, as opposed to

autocarp'ic, autocarpea'nus (ra/jTros, Saprophyte ; Aut'oplast (TrXao-ros, fruit), (1) a superior fruit, not ad- moulded), a synonym of chloro- Autop'sla {Sil/it, herent to the pericarp ; (2) see next phyll granule ; Autocarp'y, the fruiting of a self- sight), actual inspection of the

fertilized flower, the product of plant or phenomenon in question ;

autogamy ; adj. autocarp'ous autotrophic {Tp6

autoe'clous {oTkos, a house), ap- without aid of commensalism ; auto- plied to a parasite which runs its tem'nous (re/icu, I cut), capable of whole course on a single host of a spontaneous division, as cells in {^evos, particular species ; this state of growing tissue ; autox'enoua

things is Autoe'oism ; autol'cous, in a host or guest) = AUTOBCions ; Bryophytes, the male and female Autox'eny, the autoecious condi- {d^is, sharp), on the same plant tion ; Autox'idators - which at a low the following modifications occur ; cell substances, cla'do- ~ (/cXdSos, a branch) the male temperature, and with absorp- inflorescence on a proper branch tion of molecular oxygen, can be go'nio- ~ (76^05, offspring), the male oxidised by decomposing water inflorescence bud-like and axillary Autozida'tion, the phenomenon in question ; autozidi'zable, the on a female branch ; rhiz- — (^/fa, a root), the male branch very short, property of readily undergoing cohering to the female by a this transformation. 27 ,;;

autumnal axoBpermous autum'nal, autumna'Us (Lat.)i beloDg- longations of the frustules, recal-

ing to autumn ; flowering at that ling the awns of grasses ; awned,

season ; ~ Wood, wood formed at having awns ; bearded. the close of the growing season and axe-shaped, dolabriform, as the leaves notable for its smaller cells. of some species of Mesembryanihe- Auzau'agTammes (ai)^i7, increase, &va., mum. up, ypifi/ia, an outline), bacterian ax'ial {axis, an axle), relating to the

fields of increase, marked by greater axis ; ~ Wood, the normal central

development within the cylinder of xylem ; axiferous {fero, area of the nutrient substance I bear), bearing an axis, but with-

(Beyerinok) ; Auxanom'eter {/iirpov, out leaves or other appendages. measure), apparatus for measuring Ax'il, Axill'a (Lat. arm-pit), the angle increase of growth in plants. formed between the axis and any Anxe'sis (aOfijiris, growth), (1) dilata- organ which arises from it, espe- tion or increase in the valves of cially of a leaf. etc. [axis, axle), the Diatoms, ; (2) new formation ax'Ue an belonging to of organs (Czapek). axis, as axile placentation. Auxil'iary (auxUiaris, helpful) Cell, a asHl'aJit (axilla, arm-pit), subtending

cell borne by a specialised branch an angle ; axill'ary, axilla'ris, grow-

in certain Algae, which unites with ing in an axil ; axilla'tus, having the conjugating tube emitted by axils. the fertilized triohophore, and then Ax'is (Lat. an axle), an imaginary giving rise to filaments which bear line, round which the organs are

the spores (Osterhout). developed ; ~ of Inflores'cence, Auz'ospore (ailfi;, increase, tnroph, that part of the stem or branch

seed), in Diatoms, the spore formed upon which the flowers are borne ;

by the union of two frustules, aoeess'ory ~ , an axis of secondary

or the excessive growth of a single rank ; a'pical "- of Diatoms, is frustule, whence arises a new bion, that line which passes through

larger than the parents ; auxoton'lo the centre of the pervalvar axis in (tIivos, ), applied to the move- the direction of the raphe and ments incident to increase of grow- at equal distances from homo- ing organs, as , nuta- logous points of the girdle-band

tion, etc. surfaces ; Append'ages of the ~ avellan'icus {avellana, a filbert), such organs as leaves, flowers, etc. ; r- drab, the colour of the fresh shell ascend'ing , = the stem ; descend'- of the Hazel-, Oorylus Avellana, ing ~,=theroot; pervalv'ar ~ , the Linn. main longitudinal axis of Diatoms avena'ceous, -ccm-s (avetia, oats), relat- trausa'plcal ~, the axis which

ing to oats ; AVenlue, a substance passes at right angles to the apical derived from oats. axis of Diatoms, and through the (a, ave'nlus without, vena, vein), vein- centre of the pervalvar axis ; trans-

less, or seemingly so. vers'al ~ , the axis which lies in the averse', aver'sus (Lat.), turned back transversal plane of Diatoms, cut- or away from. ting the pervalvar axis. Averrunoa'tion {averrunco, I remove), Axog'amy (ajui', axis,7a/ios,marriage), uprooting. (1) ; (2) plants bearing sexual organs on awl-shaped, narrow and tapering to a the leafy stem ; adj. axogam'ic point ; subulate. Axophy'ta {ipvToi', a plant) = Cormo-

Awn, a bristle-like appendage, es- PHYTA ; plants having an axis, that

pecially occurring on the glumes is, stem and root ; axosperm'ous of grasses ; '-' of Chaetoceras, a, (airipiia, seed), with axile placenta- diatomaoeous genus, having pro- tion of ovules. 28 ;

azonal Band

azo'nal (a, not, f(I>vri, girdle), C. Mao- small staff), Cohn's name for low millan'a term for Plant-assooiations forms of organic life, multiplying

which show no well-marked radial by fission, Schizomycetes ; bac'- symmetry ; Azote' (fu^j, life), La- teroid {elSos, resemblance), re- -' voisier's name for , still sembling bacteria ; Tissue, ap-

used in French works ; azo'tised, plied to the root-tubercles of

compounded with nitrogen. various plants ; Bac'terolds or Bac- Az'ure azu'reus {late Lat., sky-blue), ter'ioids, organisms found in nitri- blue as the sky. fying tubercles on the roots of Azy'goapenn, (a, not, fifyds, a yoke, plants, especially Leguminosae, at-

which is not matched on the oppo- bacteria ; Bacterio'sla, disease due site side of the rhaohis. to the attack of bacteria. bacuUferous (baculum, a staff; fero, bear), Bac'ca (Lat.), a berry, a succulent I bearing canes or reeds ; fruit with seeds immersed in the baca'liform, hacvliform'is {forma,

pulp, as the Gooseberry ; ^ cor- shape), stick-shaped, rod-like, as tica'ta, berry with a rind, the terra the ascospores of certain Lichens. ~ has been applied to the ovary ; bad'lous, bad'ius (Lat. ), dark reddish-

slcc'a,J succulent while unripe, dry brown ; chestnut-brown. " when mature ; ~ spu'rla, t any Balus'tra, sometimes applied to fleshy fruit which is not a true fruits like the pomegranate" berry, as raspberry and strawberry; (Orozier). bao'oate, bacca'tus, berried; "se- Balaus'ta {^oKaicTiov, pomegranate mina baccata," seeds having a flower), the fruit of Punica Orana- pulpy skin, as in Cycas ; Baccau- twm, Linn., with firm rind, berried lar'ls, Baocaulax'lus, % (deriv. ?), within, crowned with the lobes of

Desvaux's name for Carcerule ; an adnate calyx.

Bacoau'sus = Etaerio ; Bacce'tum, bald, destitute of pubescence or downy

Dumortier's term for Syncaep ; appendages. bacciferous, bac'cifer, {fero, I Bale X (Fr. Bale), cited by S. F. Gray bear), berry-bearing, the fruit a for the outer glume of grasses. berry, usually applied when the Ball'lug, in nuclear development, the normal fruit of the genus is fusion of nuclei into one nucleus. (/StiXo-a/iOK, otherwise ; bac'ciform, hacciform'is Balm balsam), pr. Bahm, {forma, shape), like a berry in a thick, usually resinous exudation shape. of reputedmedicalefBcacy; Bal'sam,

BaoiU'uB, pi. Baeill'l (baciUum, a pr. Bawls'm ; a similar exudation, staff), (1) J young bulb; (2) the generally of resin mixed with frustules of certain Diatomaceae, volatile ; balsam'io, having the as Bacillaria; (3) rod-shaped Bac- qualities of balsam ; balsamiferous, bacil'li- -rus, {fe.ro, I bear), producing teria ; bac'lllar, bacUla'ni, form, {forma, shape), rod- or club- balsam. shaped. Bamb'oo, the name applied to the Back, that side which is turned from culm of arborescent grasses, not- the part or substratum to which ably species of Bambxisa. space between two ridges in an organ is attached ; the dorsal Band, (1) of Umbellifers a stripe surface. the fruit ; (2) •- sliaped, of long Bacter'lam, pi. Bacte'ria {^aKTi^pcov, a generally ; used 29 ; ;

banded Basistonus

narrow leaves, linear ; band'ed, oospore in into an

marked with stripes of colour. anterior and a posterior half ; Ban'ner, the standard of a papilion- Base, the extremity of attach- aceous flower. ment, by which takes Barb, hooked hairs, frequently doubly- place. Bas'id = Basid'ium, pi. (basi- hooked ; Basid'ia

Barba (Lat. ), a beard; bar'bate, barba'- dium, a little pedestal), the mother- tus, bearded, having long weak cells of Hymenomycetous and Gas-

hairs in tufta ; Barbell'ae t, the toromycetous Fungi, having little short stiflf straight hairs of Com- points from which spores are thrown

posite pappus ; adj. barbell'ate ; off ; basidiogenet'ic (y^yos, race, de- in scent), Barbell'ulae, J similar structures produced upon a basidium ; the pappus of Aster; adj. bar- Basidiogonld'lum [yovrj, race, off- bell'ulate, barbdlula'tiis ; Barb'ule, spring), proposed emendation of ' " Barb'ula, (1) the inner row of teeth ' basidiospore ; Basidiomyce'tes in the peristome of such Mosses as (/tferjs, niK-qroi, fungus). Fungi pro-

Tortula ; (2) a small barb (Crozier). ducing spores on basidia ; Basid'- Baxlll'a, the crude soda from Salsola iophore {

and allied genera. phore bearing a basidium ; Basl- Bark, (1) the outer integuments of dlorM'zae {plfa, root), Vuillemin's

the wood and exterior to it, name for Basidiomycetes ; Basid'io-

all tissues outside the cambium spore (ffiro/ad, a, seed), a spore pro-

(2) frequently restricted to the duced by a, basidium ; basidio- periderm and tissues external to sp'orous, producing such spores.

it ; — bared, stripped of the bark ; basifl'xed, basifix'us (basis, foundation, <~ bound, having the bark too fixus, fast), attached by the base '- tense, thus impeding growth ; basif'ugal (/agro, I put to flight), galled, having the bark injured. developing from the base upwards ; Barm, the floating yeast as used in basig'amous (7(i/nos, marriage), when bread-making, the "Oberhefe" of the normal position of egg-apparatus

the Germans ; banu'y, containing and antipodals is reversed ; the oo- yeast. sphere and synergidae being at the barred, crossed by lines approx- lower end of the mother-cell of the

parallel. - imately (embryo sac) ; Van bar'ren, unproductive, infertile ; ap- Tieghem contemplates ihe possible plied to the male inflorescence of occurrence of double Basig'amy certain Mosses ; ~ Flow'er, the male Basigyn'iiun {yvv^, a woman), a the- or staminate flower. oaphore, the stalk of an ovary Barymorpbo'siB ((SapiJs, heavy, fidpipa- above the stamens and petals ffis, term for shape), Sachs's the bas'llar, basila'ris, basal ; basln- changes produced in organisms in er'ved (nerous, a nerve), veined from consequence of gravitation. the base ; basUa'tua J arising from ba'sal {basis, foundation), at the base a broad base as certain hairs ; basi- of an organ or part ; ~ Cell, the first p'etal (peto, I seek), growth in the cell of an angiospermous embryo direction of the base.

which becomes attached to the wall Ba'sis (Lat.) the base ; ^ basiacop'lc of the embryo-sac ; Growth, in- [aKoiria, I look), looking towards the crease near the base, as distin- base, the reverse of acroscopio guished from apical growth ; — basisolu'tus X {solutus, unbound), nerved, basiner'vis, with nerves used of such leaves as those of from the base of the leaf ; ~ Pla- Sedum which are prolonged down- oen'ta, the placenta at the base of the wards beyond their true origin ; ovary ; ^ Wall, the division of the Basist'onuB {t6vos, a cord), the pro- 30 ; ;

basophil bicipital

longation of the tissue of the poUen- Bee-bread, the pollen of flowers, col- sao to the lower end of the anther lected by bees as food for the young in Ophrydineae ; bas'opMl (0iXeai, I larvae. love), readily taking stain from basic bell-shaped, tubular and inflated, as substances. the corolla of Campanulaoeae. Bass, the inner fibrous bark of the bell'ying, swelling on one side as in lime, used by cultivators for tem- many Labiatae. porary ties ; the liber. Benzoin', a, fragrant resinous exuda- Bast, the (1) same as in the last ; (2) tion from Styrax Benzoin, Dryand.

; (3) fibrous tissues serving called also Gum Benjamin. for mechanical support ; "- Cells, Ber'berlne, a yellow bitter principle the components of the bark ; ~ Ool- from the root of Berberis vulgaris, lench'yma, tissue with the walls of Linn. the sides thickened on all sides ber'ried, baccate, possessing .

(G. Mueller) ; ~ Fibres, = liber- Ber'ry, a pulpy fruit, with immersed

fibres ; ~ Sheath, layer of thin- seeds ; cf. Baooa. walled cells surrounding the fibro- Bes'imen, J pi. Besim'ina (/Sicio-ifios, vasoular cylinder next within the having the power of living) Necker's

, the periphloem ; ~ Tissue, name for a spore. ~ Vessel, sieve - Be'taln, phloem ; tube ; an 'amide-like substance from

Hard ~ , liber - fibres ; Soft ~ , the Beta, the beet. sieve-tubes, with the thin-walled Bet'ulln, a substance derived from part of the phloem. Betula, the birch. Bass'orin, a product of Bassora Gum, bl-, bis-, in compound words meaning Tragacanth, etc., which does not "twice." dissolve like C*um Arabic, but swells biacu'minate, biacumina'tus (bi + acu- up when placed in water, and forms minate), having two diverging a pasty mass. points, as the hairs of Malpig-

bathymet'rical (^affte, deep or high, hiaceae, attached by the centre ; /lerpov, measure), used of the dis- biang'ulate (angulus, a corner),

tribution of plants on the sea- having two corners or angles ; bi-

bottom ; and the depths at which artic'ulate, biarticida'tus {articidus, they grow. a joint), two-jointed. Batorogist (/SttTos, a bramble, X67os, biator'ine, resembling the Lichen discourse), a student of brambles, genus Biatora. the species and forms of Ruhus. biaurlc'ulate {bi, twice, aurimda, the

Beak, a pointed projection ; beaked, ear lobe), with two auricles or ear-

used of fruits which end in a, long like appendages ; blauri'tus (Lat.) point. is substantially the same ; bibract'- beard'letted, having small awns. eate, bibractea'tus [bractea, a thin

Beard, synonymous with Awn plate), having two ; bibrac- beard'ed, (1) awned, as bearded t'eolate, with two braoteoles ; bical- wheat having tufts of hairs, as c'arate {calcar, a spur), having two ; (2)

on the lip of Pentstemon barbatus, spurs ; blcall'ose bicallo'sus {, Roth. hardened skin), withtwo callosities; Bear'ers, used by Blair for flower- bieap'sular {capsida, a small box) (1) having buds. with two capsules ; (2) a

Bebeer'in, a tonic alkaloid from the capsule which is bilooular ; blcar'- Greeuheart, Nectandra Rodiaei, inate, bicarina'tus (carina, a keel),

Hook., native name, Bebeeru. with two keels ; bicar'peUary ( -I- pistils Bedeguar', a fibrous gall produced on carpellum), of two carpels or ; bl'ceps a rose-bush by the puncture of a biceph'alous {Kea\ri head) ; bicip'ital, species of Oynips. (Lat.) two-headed ; with 31 ; ;;

biciUate bijugate

two heads or two supports ; bloi- tissue on the lower face, and com- I'late, hicilia'tua {cilium, an eyelash), pact tissue on the upper sides with two oilia, as many zoospores opposed to centric. ; blcollat'eral {con, + latus, lateris, bifa'riam (Lat. in two parts), arranged side), applied to a in two rows ;~imbrloa'tus, imbri-

with two groups of phloem lying cated in two rows ; bifa'rious, bi- upon opposite sides of xylem fa'rius, distichous. the ; Blcollateral'lty, is the state just Bi'fer {bi, fero, I bear), a plant which described. ripens fruit twice a year (Crozier) blc'olor (Lat.) two-coloured, parti- biferoua, biferus, double bearing, coloured. in producing two one season ; biconcen'trlc (hi, con + centrum, a bi'fld, bij'idus (findo,fidi, to cleave), point), Poulsen's term for the fibro- twice-cleft, divided halfway into

vascular bundles in Eriocauloneae ; bif'idate = bifid (Crozier) ; two ; round the axial hadrome bundle is biflst'ular {fistula, a pipe), with a layer of leptome, which is again two tubular openings (Crozier)

enclosed by a hadrome layer ; bl- biflor'ate (Crozier), blflor'ouB, -rus con'Jugate, biconjuga'tus, (conjuga- {flos, floris, a flower), having two tus, joined), twice-conjugate, that flowers ; bifo'liate, bifolia'tus {fo- is, when each of two secondary lium, a leaf), two-leaved ; bifo'Uo- petioles bears a pair of leaflets late, bifoliola'tus, having two leaf- blconjuga'to-piniia'tus, similar to lets ~ ; Leaf, binate ; blfolllc'ular, the last, but each petiole pinnate ; possessing a BifolUc'ulus {follicu- Bioor'nes (cornw, ahoro), the heaths, lus, a small sack), a double .

from their horned anthers ; bicor'nls bifo'rate, bifora'tus {biforis, having (Lat.) bicom'ute, bicomu'tus, two- two doors), with perforations two ; homed, as the siliqua of Matthiola Blforlne, an oblong cell, opening at bicornis, DC; blcre'nate {crena, a, each end, containing raphidea ; notch) (1) having; two crenatures or bifo'rous = biforate. (Crozier) rounded teeth ; (2) doubly biform'is (Lat. ), two formed ; in two

orenate ; blcru'ris (Lat. ) two legged,

as the pollen-masses of Asclepiads ; bi'frons (Lat.), (1) having two faces blcusp'id [ciispis, spear-point) ; bi- or aspects; (2) growing on both cusp'ldate, having two sharp points; surfaces of a leaf, amphigenous. bident'ate, bidenta'tus (dens, dentis, blfurc'ate, bifurca'tus {bi/urcus, two- a tooth), (1) having two teeth pronged ; (2) or forked), twice forked ; doubly dentate, as when the mar- Bifurca'tion, division into two

ginal teeth are also toothed ; bl- branches. dlglta'tUS (Lat.)=BICONJUGATB. bigem'inate, bigtmina'tus {geminua, bld'uous, biduus {biduum, two days a twin) = BicoNjUGATB ; blgem'inus, long), lasting for two days. in two pairs, as in the placentae of Bienn'ial, {biennium, a period of two many plants. years), a plant which requires two Bl'gener (Lat. a hybrid), mule plants years to complete its life-cycle, obtained by crossing different growing one year, and flowering genera, usually spoken of as a bigeneric Cross. and fruiting the second ; signs or blgland'ular {bi, two, glandvla, a 0; bien'nia,!, biennis =monoca,Tpic. gland), with two glands. Blere'mus {bi, twice, eremits, a hermit), biglu'mis {gluma, a ), consisting a two-celled fruit, the cells so far of two glumes, the components of separate, as in the perianth apart as to seem of grasses ; bihila'tus Cerinthe; blfa'cial (/acies,an appear- t (-l-HlLUM), having two soars as

ance), when the leaf has spongy in certain pollen ; blju'gate bijuga'- 32 ;

bijugous bipeltate

ttis, biJu'gouB {jugum, a yoke), or free existing bioblasts, and applied to a pinnate leaf, with two oytoblasts or colonies of such bio- pairs of leaflets ; blla'blate, Mabia'- blasts as have lost their independent tus [labium, lip), divided into two existence ; cf. Biophob. lips,as are many gamopetalous corol- bloc'ellate (bi, two, ocellus, a little las, etc. ; bilam'ellar, bilam'eUate, eye), marked with two eyespots. bilamella'tua {lamella, a thin plate), Blogen'esis (/3(o?, life, yivea-is, begin- consisting of two plates, as some ning), the doctrine of life from life, placentae ; bllat'eral, bilatera'Us the production of organisms from (latus, side), arranged on opposite others already in existence ; in sides, as the leaves of the yew ; opposition to Spontaneous Genera- bllo'bate, bUoba'tns, - bilo'bed (Xo/3os, tion ; biog'enons (ycvos, race), grow the ear-flap), divided into two ing on living organisms ; biog'en]', lobes, as most anthers, or the the of living forms, in- leaves of ; bilocell'ate cluding Ontogeny and Phtlogbny; (locellvs, a small compartment), Biol'ogy (XoYos, discourse), the

made up of two locelli ; biloc'ular, science which investigates vital hitocvlar'is {locvZu^, a compart- phenomena, both of plant and

ment), two-celled ; bimac'ulate animal ; biolyt'ic (Xuo-is, a loosing), (mac'vla, spot), a with two spots. destructive of life ; Bi'on, an indi- blmes'trls (Lat.), of two months' vidual, morphologically and physi-

duration. ologically independent ; Bionom'lcs bi'mus (Lat. ), lasting for two years. (m/io!, a law), Geddes's term to bl'nary bina'rivs {bini, by twos), con- express Phytobiology, the oeoology

sisting of two members ; bi'nate, of plants ; in German, Pflanzen-

bina'tus {Xja,t.), (1) where a leaf is biologie ; bioph'agous ((pdyos, a composed of two leaflets at the glutton), feeding on living organ-

end of a common petiole ; (2) a isms, truly parasitic ; Bi'oplasm simple leaf nearly divided into (irXda-fia, moulded), Scale's name

two ; bina'tim (Lat.), in pairs for Protoplasm; bloph'ilous (^iXe'w, ; bina'to-piima'tus J = bipinnatb. I love), used of Fungi which are blner'vate (bi, two, nervus, a nerve), parasitic on leaves or stems of

with two nerves, especially if pro- living plants ; Bl'ophor (^opea, I

minent ; binervula'tus J (Lat.), carry), G. C. Bourne's name for the having two vascular strands. cell, as the vital unit. bi'ni (Lat.), two together, twin ; as bipal'eolate, bipaleola'tus (bi, +pale- biniflor'us, bearing flowers on pairs. ola), consisting of two paleae, or blno'dal, bino'dis {bi, ^two, nodus, a small scales in grasses ; bipal'- knot), consisting of two nodes. mate, bipcdma'tus (palma, the palm bino'mlal (bi, two, nomen, a name), in of the hand), twice palmate, palm-

botanic nomenclature, the use of a ately compound ; bip'arous (pario, generic and specific name to con- I bring forth), bearing two ; ~ Cyme,

note a given organism ; used also Bravais's expression for a normal

for Newtonian Curve. dichotomous inflorescence ; bipar- bi'uous, bi'nua (Lat.), in pairs ; cf. t'ible, bipartib'ilis, bipaytile (par- BINI. filis, divisible), capable of ready blnu'clear, blnu'cleate (bi, two, division into two similar parts ; nucleus, a kernel), having two bipart'ite, biparti'tus (Lat. ), divided nuclei; binu'cleolate, binudeola'tus nearly to the base into two portions of dividing into (Lat. ), with two nuclei. Bipartit'ion, the act

Bl'oblast {0ios, life, ^Xao-ros, a shoot), two ; bipeot'lnate {pecten, a comb),

term proposed by Schlater for the toothed like a comb on two sides ; unit of life, comprising autoblasts, bipelt'ate {pelta, a shield), having 33 ;; ;

biperenniaJ Bladder

two shield-shaped parts (Crozier) tose, bise'tous {, a bristle), with biperen'nlal {perennis, perpetual), two bristles; blsex'ual, bisex- used of a part that two years, ua'lia {sexus, sex), having both sta- but reproduces itself indefinitely mens and pistils, possessing perfect, flowers - (Crozier) ; Wpet'alous {tt^toKov, a that is, hermaphrodite ; flower leaf), Blair's term for two- Hered'lty, transmission of qualities

petalled flowers as Circaea ; Wpen- of both parents ; bispathel'lulate, bispathelMa'tus Spathella), tapliyll'us {irivTTi, five ; ^uXXoi', leaf), t ( + having from two to five leaflets. consisting of two glumes (Lindley). bi'pes (Lat., two-footed) =bioeubis. bispi'noae {spino'svs, thorny), having

Ijipln'nate, bipinna'tus (pinnatua, fea- two spines ; biBpi'rous {airecpa, a thered), when both primary and twist), term used by Spruce for secondary divisions of a leaf are elaters having two spirals, cf. Dis-

pinnate ; bipimiat'ifld, bipinnatif- PIROUS ; Bl'spore {

natifid ; blpinnatipart'ed = bipin- of the normal eight; biste'lic (o-tiJXtj,

natifid ; biplnnat'isect, bipinnati- a pillar), having two steles ; bistlp'

8ect'u8 {8eclu8, cut)=bipinnate ; bi'- ulate( -I- Stipula),with two ; pllcate, biplica'tus (plico, I fold), biBtra'tose {stratum, a layer), cells doubly folded in a transverse disposed in two strata or layers manner,as some cotyledons; bipolar blstri'ate {striatvs, striped), marked {polus, the end of an axis), having with two parallel lines or striae two poles, the usual number in blsulc'ate, bisulca'tus {sulcus, a

nuclear division ; bipolymor'ious J groove), two-grooved; bisymmet'ric

{iroXiis, many ; iiopiov, a small por- (ffifiiicTpo!, commensurate), bilateral

tion), consisting of two or many symmetric, each side alike ; Biteg-

parts ; bipo'rose, biporo'aus (porus, mina'tae {legmen, a, cover). Van channel), opening by two pores Tieghem uses this for Phanerogams as the anthers in Erica ; biprophyl- whose seeds have double integu-

la'tus ( -f Pbophylla) Buohenau's ments ; bltem'ate, bitema'tus {tern- term for possessing two prophylla •us, by threes), compound temate,

(Vorblatter) ; bipuno'tate, {punc- as a leaf. tum, a point), having two spots bit'ten, abruptly ended, of roots or bira'diate, biradia'tits {radius, the leaves, praemorse. spoke of a wheel), of two rays, bi'valve bival'vis {bi, two, valvae, leaves as in certain ; biri'mose, of a door), having two valves, as birimo'sus {rima,a, chink), opening some capsules; Bi'valve, "a capsule " by two slits, as most anthers of two valves (Crozier) ; bival'ved, bisac'cate {saccus, a bag), having (1) used of Diatoms, as possessing two pouches. two valves ; (2) the indusiaof certain bisooctiform'is {bis, twice ; coctus, ferns, as Dicksonia ; bival'vular= biscuit- cooked ; forma, shape), bivalve; bivasc'ular {vascidnm, a applied to shaped, by Koerber some vessel), with two vessels ; bivit'tate Lichen-spores. {vittae, fillets), having two parti- ViBep'taXeMsepta'tus (Z)i,two, septum, a tions which appear as bands or

wall), having two partitions ; biae'- fillets. rial, biseria'lis, bise'riate, biseria'tus Blad'der, (1) Grew's term for a cell; {series, a succession), arranged in (2) a hollow membranous appendage two rows as on a flat surface on the roots of Utricvlaria, which biser'rate, biserra'tus {serra, a saw), entrap water insects ; (3) similar twice serrate, as when the serra- growths in the frond of some Algae, tures are themselves serrate ; bise'- serving as floats; (4) an inflated 34 bladdery boUed

membranous pericarp, as in Phy- Blea, pr. blee ; the liber or inner salis ; ~ Plums, an abortion of the bark. fruit of plums, the stone being Bleb, Hill's term for a pith-cell. wanting, and a thin bladder repre- Bleed'ing, applied to an extravasation senting the rest of the fruit ; of sap, such as occurs in if Wad'dery, thin and inflated. injured in spring during leaf ex- Blade, the limb or expanded portion pansion. of a leaf. Blendl'ing, a hybrid between races, blanched, (1) the whitened appearance not species. of leaf or stem from the want of Blepb'arae, pi. {^'\ia.poti, an eyelash),

iron ; (2) artiiicially produced by the teeth belonging to the peristome

exclusion of light, the green chloro- of a Moss ; Bleph'aroplast (TrXacrros, phyll pigment not being developed moulded), the specialised proto- in either case. plasm which gives rise to the motile Blaste'ma (/SXdo-rT/^a, a sprout), (1) cilia of the antherozoids as in Zamia originally the axis of an embryo, and Gycas; Blepharoplast'oids (elSos, the radicle and plumule, excluding resemblance), in nuclear division,

the cotyledons ; (2) % the Lichen- two bodies appearing between the 2- thallus ; blaste'mal, rudimentary ; and 4-celled stage at each pole of

blastemat'icus, thalloid ; Blaste'sis, the two spindles, disappearing into the reproduction of the thallus of the cytoplasm before the rise of the Lichens by gonidia (Minks). blepharoplasts themselves (Shaw). Blastid'ia (fiXaa-ros, shoot), Sohleiden's Blet, a soft spot on fruit ; Blet'ting, term for secondary cells generated the change in consistence without in the interior of another cell, putrefaction, of certain fruits, as

daughter cells ; Blast'idules, the medlar. M'Nab's expression for all repro- Blight, popularly applied to an epi- ductive bodies which are not spores, demic, either of minute Fungi, or of but produced asexually, as gemmae, aphides.

propagula, etc. ; blastocarp'oua Bloom, (1) synonymous with ; (Kafnros, fruit), applied to those (2) the white waxy or pruinose fruits which germinate within the covering on many fruits and

pericarp ; Blastocol'la (mXXa, glue), leaves. the balsam which is produced on Bloa'aom, the flower, especially of fruit buds by glandular hairs (Han- trees; -^ Bud, = Flower-bud. colour irregularly disposed stein) ; Blastogen'esis {yhetns, be- blotoh'ed, ginning), M'Nab used this for all in patches. methods of blunt, ending in a rounded form, neither tapering to a point, nor which are not due to Sporogenesis ; Blastograph'ia {ypa,, I carry), the menian Bole. vitellus, the sac of the amnios in a Bole, the main of a tree, with thickened scale, forming a case in a distinct stem. the genus which the embryo lies ; Blast'us % bolet'ic, obtained from the plumule. Boletus, as boletic acid. BUnd, a cultivator's expression for Boll, pr. boal, the fruit capsule or abortion, as when a flower-bud is pericarp, especially of the said to go blind, that is, does not plant; Boiling, pr. boaring,= pr. boald, come develop. Pollard ; boiled, 35 ;; ;;

tombyoinua bracteolate

into fruit, as when the capsule aggregated; bot'ryoid, botryold'al is formed. (ddos, resemblance), like a cluster

bomby'clnus (Lat.), silky, feeling aa of grapes ; bot'ryose, botryo'stia

smooth as silk. racemose ; Bot'rys, a . bo'ny, of a close and hard texture, as Bottom-yeast, or Low-yeast, the yeast the stones of plums, etc. which forms at the bottom of the bord'ered, having a margin distinct vats, in German, "Unterhefe." in colour or texture from the rest bot'ullform, botvliform'is {botvlus, a ^ Pit, a pit in which the margin sausage forma, shape), sausage- projects over the thin closing mem- shaped, allantoid. '- brane, as in coniferous wood ; Bouillon (Fr.) meatbroth, used for Pore, is the same thing. cultures. borr'agoid, from the genus Borago, bourgeon (Fr., in English pr. bur'jun), applied to a form of inflorescence to bud or sprout. which finds its fullest development Braeh'elds (T8chirch) = BEACHTSCLB- in Anchusa, an extreme case of REIDS. extra-axillary inflorescence (K. bracbla'lls (brachiwm, the fore-arm), Schumann). a cubit long, roughly about 18

Bobs, a protuberance ; bossed, with a inches ; bra'cMate, brachia'tus, rounded surface having a projec- when branches spread and widely tion in its centre. diverge. bost'rychold (/Sdo-rpuf , a ringlet, eldos, braohy (^/30xi)s) = short, used in Greek resemblance), having the form of a compounds. BosTKYX ; ~ Cyme, a sympodial brachybiostigmat'ic (Ppaxis, short, branch system in which the right /Sios, life, arly/ia, a spot), a term pro- or left hand branch is always the posed by Delpino to express stigmas most vigorous, a helicoid cyme which are short lived, withering ~ Dlchot'omy, a dichotomy or before their proper anthers ripen, of inflores- repeated forking an protogynoua ; brachydod'romous cence, within the previous defini- {Spofios, a course), with looped veins

tion ; Bost'ryx, a uniparous, heli- (Kerner), cf. bkochidodromus ; coid cyme. bracliyp'odoua (iroiis, ttoSos, a foot), botan'ic (pmAvq, a ), pertaining having a short stalk or foot '- to the knowledge of plants ; Brachyacle'reids {a-K\rip6s, hard), Garden, a garden especially devoted stone-cells, the sclereids in barks

to the culture of plants for scientific and fruits (Tschirch) ; Braohytme'- ends ; Bot'anist, a student of plant ma {T/iTjfia, section), a disc-shaped life, in any of its departments cell, which by its rupture sets free bot'anlze, (1) to seek for plants in a in Bryophytes (Correns). places of growth to their ; (2) study , Bract'ea (Lat., a thin plate of Botanol'ogy actual plants ; (\070s, metal), the modified leaves inter- Bot'any, discourse) = Botany ; the mediate between the calyx and the study of the vegetable in normal leaves ; Bract -scale, in all its divisions, its classification, Coniferae, a scale of the cone above morphology, physiology, and eco- which lies the seed-bearing scale; nomics. bract'eal, of the nature of a bract Bothrench'yma {^offpos, a pit, iyxu/M, bract'eate, bractea'tus, provided that poured in), tissue composed of with bracts ; braoteiferous {fero, I dotted or pitted ducts or cells. bear), bearing bracts ; bractea'nusX Bot'rus (Crozier)=BoTBTS. formed of bracts ; Bract'eole, Brae- bot'ry-cy'mose {^drpvs, a bunch of te'ola, (1) a braotlet, or small ; Ku/ia, a wave), or bract, grapes (2) a prophyll ; bract'eolate, any botryose clusters oymosely bract&ola'tuB, having bractlets 36 ;

bracteose Bud

bract'eose, hracteo'sus, having oon- Brood-bodies, gemmae on leaves of spiououa or numerous bracts ; Mosses, becoming detached and

Braot'less, wanting bracts ; Braet'- growing into protonemal filaments let, a bract of the last grade, as one '- Buds, (1) a synonym of Soredium inserted on a in Lichens the same as Bulbil or ultimate ; (2)

flower-stalk, instead of subtending in Archegoniatae ; — Cell, asexu- it. ally produced propagative cell of

Bran, the or outer coats of a gonidium ; ^ Gemma, a pluri- ground corn, separated from the cellular propagative body produced

flour by bolting ; bran-like, scurfy asexually and passing gradually in appearance. into a brood- cell on one side, and Branch, a division of the stem, or a bulbil on the other.

axis of growth ; Branch'ery, Grew's Bronte'sls, {ppovrri, thunder), injury term for the ramifications in the to plants by electric shock.

pulp of fruits ; branchless, bare of Brown'ian Movement, motion shown

branches ; Eranch'let, a twig or by minute particles when suspended small branch, the ultimate divi- in a liquid. sion of a branch. Bru'cine, a poisonous alkaloid from Brand, disease caused by minute Strychnos Nux-vomica, Linn., for- Fungi on leaves, as UstUago, etc. merly supposed to be from Brucea Bras'ilin, the colouring matter of ferruginea, L'H^rit. Brazil wood, brasili- bruma'lls (Lat.), pertaining to the

ensis, Linn, winter solstice ; flourishing in mid-

break, (1) to put out new leaves ; (2) winter. to show a variation, as in florist's brun'neolus (Mod. Lat.), brownish.

flowers ; Break-back, reversion to brun'neus or brun'eus (Mod. Lat.), an earlier type; Breaking, a popular brown in colour. expression for a sudden profusion Brunlssure (Fr.), injury caused to of algal life in certain lakes or vines by Plasmodiophora Vitis, meres. Viala. Breathing-pores = Stomata. brush-shaped, aspergilliform. bre'vl-ramo'sus (hrevis, short, ramosus, Bryol'ogy (fipiov, a moss, \6yos, dis- branched), short-branched. course), the science of Mosses, or brick-colour, usually implies a dull Bryophytes generally. Bry'onine, poisonous principle ex- red ; latericious, testaceous. a tracted from the roots of Bryonia Breed = Race ; Cross-breed = Hybkid. Bri'dles, (1) strings of protoplasm cdba, Linn. which often connect the nucleus Bry'ophytes (§piov, a moss, ipmov, a with the layer of protoplasm next plant), moss-like plants, the true of cells Mosses and the Hepaticae or Liver- the cellwall ; (2) strands connecting other tissues. worts. Brls'tle,astifi'hair, or any slender body Buoc'ae t (Lat., cheeks), the lateral which may be likened to a hog's sepals or wings of the flower of bristle; ~ pointed, ending in a stifl' aconite. short hair; bris'tly, beset with buckler-shaped, resembling a, round bristles. buckler with a raised rim. beech tree. Brit'lsh, used by H. C. Watson to Buck'mast, the fruit of the express the distribution of those Bud, the nascent state of a flower or carob, plants which are found throughout branch ; ^ Cones, of the arrested the island of Great Britain, Geratonia Siliqua, Linn., -^ Glue, brochidod'romus {^pbxos, a noose, riSos, or aborted inflorescences ; ~ Ru'diment, in like, Spofios, a course), Ettingshau- =Blastocolla ; from a, pro- sen's term for loop-veined. Ohara, a cell cut off 37 ; ,; ,;

Budding Burgundy Pitch

embryonic branch as the primor- buU'ate, bvlla'tns (bvMa, a, bubble), leaf dium of the young plant ; ^ Scales, blistered or puckered, as the

-' primrose ; BuUescen'tia the coverings of a bud ; Sport of the being blis- = BtrD-VARIATION ; ~ Variation, ( + e8cens), the state of bul'- changes of colour or form in plants tered, as the Savoy Cabbage ; arising from a flower or leaf bud. llform {forma, shape), used of some thin-walled cells, occurring —Adventitious ~ , buds arising out large of the normal course or locality on the of certain grasses Brood '-, = Flower (Duval-Jouve). Brood BUDS ;

^ , the inflorescence before expan- bunched, gibbous. sion, or a unit thereof; Leaf~, Bun'dle, a strand of specialized

an undeveloped leaf. tissue, variously modified ; — Bud'ding, (1) propagation of a garden Flange, communications between form by inserting a bud or " eye " on the unbranched leaf -bundles of ex- Oymnosperms and the surrounding another stock ; (2) used also for pansion of the buds. tissues ; -- Sheath, the enveloping ' Bud'let, ' a little bud attached to a cylinder of closely united paren- larger one " (Crozier). chyma : —Bicollat'eral -, when a Bulb, Bid'bus (Lat.), a modified bud second bast-strand exists on the of usually underground ; (1) na'lsed inner, medullary, side the wood

— , hulbus squamosus, having scaly of the conjoint-bundle; Cauline '~,

modifications of the leaves, as confined to the stem ; Closed ^ of the procam- in the lily ; (2) 'ted ~ destitute cambium, whose outer scales are thin and bium having become permanent

membranous, as the onion or hya- tissue ; Collat'eral '-, when the solid is and bast lie side by side cinth ; (3) the so-called ~, wood ; of — is, to stem and a ; (4) the swollen base the Corn'mon , that

stipe of the aporophore in Hymeno- leaf, becoming a leaf-trace ; Con-

mycetes ; '~ Scale, one of the com- cen'tric ~, when either the wood, ponents of a bulb. or the bast system surrounds the bulba'ceous, -ceus, (1) bulbous ; (2) other ; Conjoint ~ , consisting of having . both wood and bast ; Corti'oal ^

Bul'biceps (bvlbus, a bulb, caput, a peculiar to the cortical region ;

head), a stem bulbous at base; bulbi- Medull'ary ~ , the vascular bundles f erous, -rus (/ero, Ibear), bulb-bear- occurring in the pith, when there ing, as when bulbils are amongst the is a well - defined exterior ring

florets of an inflorescence, or axils Open '-' , when the bundle possesses

of the leaves ; Bul'bil, Bvlbill'us, a portion of cambium ; Ka'dial ~ Bulb'let, Bidb'idiis, (1) a small bulb, having the strands of wood and bast

usually axillary, as in Zdlium bvlbi- alternately as in roots ; Phloem ~

ferum; (2) Bulbil is also applied, the bast portion ; Vasc'ular ~ , the (a) in some fungi to small pluricel- entire strand, consisting of liber or luiar bodies incapable of germina- bast portion (phloem) and tracheal tion; (6) deciduous leaf-buds capable or wood-portion (xylem) in various of developing into a new bion or degrees; Xylem ~, the wood-por-

brood-bud, in Archegoniatae ; Bul- tion. bo'dium t=CoRM Bunt, a common disease of the wheat bulb'ose, bvibo'sus, bulb'ous, having plant, from TilUtia Tritici, Winter.

bulbs or the structure of a bulb ; Bur, a prickly headed fruit, applied bulbo'si pi'li, hairs with an in- to the chestnut, Arctium, and the

flated base ; Bulbotu'ber, Gawler's like ; bur'ry, resembling a bur.

name for CoRM ; Bul'bule = Bulbil Bur'gundy Pitch, a resin from species (Crozier). of Abies. 38 ;

Burr calcelform

Burr, a woody outgrowth from the oae'sious, cae'sius (Lat. grey of the

bark of certain trees ; cf. Gnaur. eyes), light grey in tint ; caesiel'lus Bur'sa (Lat., a purse) % the antheri- is a diminutive.

dium of Ohara ; Bers'icule, Bur- caespitell'ose {caespes,or cespes, a sod),

sio'ula (Lat., a small purse), the somewhat tufted ; cae'spitose, cae- pouch-like expaDsion of the stigma spito'sus, growing in tufts like

into which the oaudicle of some grass ; caesplt'ulose, somewhat

Orchids is inserted ; bursic'ulate, crowded in tuft-like patches. bursicula'tus, purse-like. Caeto'nium, Lindley's spelling of Bush, a low shrub, branching from COBTONIUM. the ground. , an alkaloid from coffee butterfly -like, ~ shaped, = papiliona- berries, Coffea arabica, Linn. ceous. Calama'riae (calamus, a reed), (1) a Butt'ons,t an old term for Buds. term of vague application, which Butt'ress, the knee-like growths of has been used for plants resembling trunk or roots in certain trees. grasses, chiefly sedges, but even hux'eous, iux'eus (Buxus, the Box- including , Juncus, Typha,

tree), (1) the colour of box-wood, etc. ; (2) at present restricted to (2) pertaining to that tree ; Bux'ine, fossil plants, Equisetineae ; caJa-

an alkaloid from Buxus semper- ma'rian, sedge-like ; calamiferous virens, Linn. (fero, I bear), having a hollow, - byssa'ceous, -ceus {byssus, fine flax), reed like stem ; (2) producing

composed of fine threads ; Byss'us, reeds ; Cal'amite, a fossil type, the stipe of certain Fungi. resembling recent Equiseta on a

Butyr'ic Fer'ment, caused by Bacillus gigantic scale ; calaml'tean, re-

; fis- Amylobacter, Van Tiegh. ; see Fek- sembling the last Cal'amus, a MENTATION". tular stem without an articulation. Cal'athide, Gal'atMda, Calath'ium,

caoa'inus, chocolate brown ; from the Galathid'iuTn {KdXados, a wicker

name of Theobroma Cacao, Linn. basket), the head of a Composite ; restricted to the invo- Cach'rysJ (Lat. ) the'cone of a pine-tree. preferably of succulents), lucre of the same ; cal'athiform, cact'al, ( , a genus oacta'ceous (-faoeous), cactus-like, calathiform'is, cup-shaped, almost

or pertaining to the order Cactaceae. hemispherical ; calathidiflor'us J Caou'ment (Lat.), the apex of an {flos, floris, a flower), having a organ. Calathidium or Capitulum ; Cala- cad'ens (Lat. falling), when the fumi- thiph'onun {4>opea, I bear), the stalk culus passes over the top of the of a Capitulum. seed as in Plumbagineae; cadu'cous, Calc'alaiy (calculus, a pebble), Grew's cadu'cus, dropping off early, as the term for the sclerogeuous tissue of sepals of a poppy on expansion. a pear. calc'arate, cal- Cae'cum (Lat. blind), a prolongation Calc'ar (Lat.) a spur ; with a spur of the embryo in Casuarina and cara'tus, furnished ; certain Amentiferae. oaleariform'is [forma, shape), spur- Caeno'bio — Coenobio. shaped. Caeo'ma (rafw, I burn) CusMons, or -- caloa'reous, -eus (calx, lime), (1) colour grow- Disks, enlargements of the tips of ohalk-white, as to ; (2) twigs, due to the attack of forms ing in chalky or limestone places; (3) chalk, as of Caeoma, Link, believed to be a having the substance of stage of Melampsora. the chalk-glands of certain saxi- caerulesc'ent (caendcus, sky-blue -1- cal'ceifonn, esoens), verging towards blue cal'oeolate, caleeola'tus ; caeru'leus, sky-blue. calceiform'is (ccdceolus, a slipper, 39 = ;,;

calceug Calyphyomy

forma, shape), shaped like a Calopo'dium J {koXos, fair, ttoOs, shoe. iroBbs, foot), Rumph's term for cal'ceus (Lat. from caZx), chalk- Spathb. term white ; calc'ifonn [forma, shape), Cal'pa {KiXirij, an urn), Necker's "powdery, like chalk or lime." for the capsule of Fontirudia. (Crozier); calciph'ilous ((jiCKka, I cal'vouB, coU'vus (Lat., bald), naked,

love, chalk-loving ; calcifugal as an achene without pappus. (fugo, I flee), shunning chalk, as Calyb'io (KoXi^Lov, a cottage), Mirbel's in- heather ; cajciv'orous (voro, I name for a hard, one-celled, devour), applied to Lichens which ferior, dry fruit, such as the acorn, eat into their limestone matrix. or hazel-nut; Calyb'ium J is a Calda'rium (Lat. warm bath-room) in synonym.

botanic gardens signifies an inter- calyoanth'emous (koXuI, a cup ; &v6oi, mediate or warm . a flower), (1) having the sepals con- Calenda'rimn (Lat., an account-book) verted wholly or partially into

~nor'ae, an arrangement of plants petals ; (2) the corolla and stamens

according to their period of flower- inserted in the calyx ; Calycan- ing. th'emy, a montrosity of the calyx Calend'nliTi, a mucilaginous substance imitating an exterior corolla from the marigold, Galendvla calyca'Us, of or belonging to the

officinalis, Linn. calyx ; Cal'ycle, OaXydula, a whorl

calica'Us = calycalis of bracts exterior to the true calyx ; calica'tus = caltcatus calyca'tus (Lat.), furnished with a

calicina'ris, calcina'iius = calycin- calyx ; Calyc'ia, a stipitate and

ARIS, etc. boat-shaped apotheoium ; Calyci- csUic'ular, calicvla'ris = CALTOtJliABjetc. flor'ae (flos, floris, a flower), plants calic'ulate calyculatb. having their petals and stamens caliciniamus = calycinianus. aduate to the calyx; adj., calyci-

Caliol'ogy [KoKla, a cabin ; \6yos, dis- flor'al, calyciflor'ous ; calyc'iform,

course), juvenescenoe ; thedynamios {forma, shape), cup-shaped, applied

of the young cell (J. C. Arthur). to an induaium ; Cal'ycin, a bitter, Calix = Calyx. yellow, orystallizable substance

calorit'ropio {color, heat ; rpoirii, a from Oalicium chrysocephalum, Ach.

turn), term proposed by Klercker and other Lichens ; calycina'Us

for thermotropio ; Calorit'ropism (Lat.), cal'ycine, calyci'nua, (1)

= Thermotropism. belonging to the calyx ; (2) of the callo'sus {ccUlus, skin), call'ose, hard nature of a calyx ; (3) denoting a

(1) bearing callosities ; (2) hard and calyx of unusual size ; calicina'rius thick in texture ; Cali'ose, Mangin's t, caliclna'ris J, polyphylly of the

term for a presumed essential con- calyx ; calyoma'rius, formed from

stituent of the cell-wall ; Callos'ity, the calyx ; Cal'ycle, CaZydidus, the a leathery or hard thickening of epicalyx, or involucre simulating part of an organ ; callo'so-serra'tus, an additional calyx, a whorl of

when the serratures are callosities ; bracts outside the true calyx Call'us, (1 ) an abnormally thickened cal'ycoid, calycoid'eus {etSos, re- part, as the base of a cutting semblance), resembling ; (2) a calyx ; a special deposit on sieve-plates; Calycoste'mon {arrnujiv, a filament),

(3) a synonym of Verruga ; (4) the a stamen seated on the calyx

hymenium of certain Fungi ; (5) calyo'ulate, caZycula'tiis, bearing an extension of the flowering glume bracts which imitate an external

below its point of insertion, and calyx ; Calyphy'omy (0i5o/tai, I grown to the axis or rhachilla of spring from), adhesion of the sepals the . to the petals. 40 ;; ;;-

Calyptra campylotropous

Calyp'tra {KaXvirrpa, a veil) or Calyp'- tissue between the wood and bast, ter, the (1) hood or cap of a Moss in adding elements to both ; for- fruit when it crowns the capsule, merly considered as a mere viscous formed <- from the archegonial wall mass ; Fi'bres, the immediate de- (2) applied to any cap-like cover- rivatives of the cambium, partly

ing of a flower or fruit, as the formed woody fibres (Sanio) ; ~ extinguisher - shaped calyx of Layer, the formative tissue during

Eachseholtzia, or the lid which active growth ; ~ King, the com- falls off on expansion of some plete system of the cambium, separ- Myrtaceae, as ; (3) Go- ating the wood from the bast in

mont's term for a thick membrane the shoot ; — fasoic'ular ~ , that shutting off the apical cell of a which belongs to the vascular in Oscillarieae ; (4) a term bundles ; interfascic'ular ~ , that proposed by Van Tieghem and which is formed between the vas- Douliot for that portion of the root- cular bundles, and the primary cap in lateral roots which belongs medullary rays.

- strictly to the root-system ; (5) cameli'nus (Lat.), camel coloured,

Tournefort's word for Caeunclb ; tawny.

calyp'trate, ' tus, bearing a oampana'ceus [campana, a bell) ; cam-

calyptra ; calyp'triform, caXyptri- pan'iform, canvpaniform'ia ; cam- form'is (jforma, shape), shaped like pan'ulate, campanula' tus, bell-

an extinguisher ; calyptrimorph'ous shaped, applied to a corolla (fioptfri), shape), a synonym of the Crozier adds campanil'iform.

last ; Calyp'trogen (yim^, offspring), oampes'ter {lja,t.)campe8'tris, growing (1) the layer of cells from which the in fields, the second form is that its origin, the root-cap takes (2) usually found in botanic works ; layer of tissue covering the young adj. campes'tral. embryo, as in Ferns. Camph'or a solid from Ca'lyx (fcdXuf, a cup), (1) the outer- Cinnamomum Camphora, T. Nees

most of the floral envelopes ; ~ ad- et Eberm. , and other trees ; cam-

he'rens, when not separable from phora'ceous ( + aceous) ; camphor'ic, -- the ovary ; calyciUa'tus, when pertaining to, or of the nature of

surrounded by a ring of bracts ; camphor.

^commu'iiis, the involucre of oamptod'romus {k6.ii.tw, I bend ; 8/36/ios,

Composites ; ~ imfe'rior, ^ li'ber, course), venation in which the

when free from the ovary ; ~supe'- secondary veins curve towards the

rior, when adherent to the ovary ; margins, but do not form loops r-' Tube, a tubular form of the calyx, camptot'ropal (rpoTr^, a turn), an ovule, like due to the union of the sepals ; (2) orthotropal but curved X the receptacle of certain Fungi a horse-shoe. (3) the "perianth" of Hepaticae, campulit'ropal (/ca/tTriiXos, curved that is, the Coleshla (Hooker and rpoTrri, a turn) ; campuUt'ropous, see Taylor). Camptlitbopal, etc. ; campyled' Cam'ara (Ka/xipa, a vault), occasion- romous, -mus {dpofios, a course), venation which has its primary ally used for the cells of a fruit ; Camer'ula, a diminutive of the fore- veins curved in a more or less leaf going ; cama'rius, resembling a bowed form towards the apex simple carpel, as the berry-like Campylosper'mous -mus [airipiia, fruit of Actaea. seed), having the albumen curved camb'ial {cambio, I change), relating at the margin so as to form a longi- ; oampylot'ropal, to Cambium ; camb'iform {forma, tudinal furrow {rpoir^, turn), shape), resembling cambium ; campylot'ropous a Cambium, a layer of nascent applied to an ovule, one side of 41 ;

Canada Balsam capreolate

which has grown faster than the stance occurring in the milky latex

other so as to bring its true apex of many plants ; it is allied to (mioropyle) near the hilum. the Hydrocarbons. Can'ada Bal'sam, an oleo-resin ob- Cap, (1) Grew's term for the husk of

tained from Abies bcUsamea, Mill., a nut ; (2) the pileus of Hymen-

much used in the preparation of omycetous fungi ; (3) the calyptra

microscopical specimens. of Mosses ; ~ Cells, the upper sister- cells of the embryo-sac in the ovule Canal', cana'lis (Lat. , pipe or channel),

an internal channel ; w Cells, an which are compressed as the embryo- axial row of cells in the neck of the sac develops and for a time figure archegonium, ultimately forming a as a cap on its apex ; ~ Fungi, canal by disappearance of the septa, pileate Fungi, as the Mushroom. which becomes the way of access for Cellulose ~, formation by proto- >" antherozoids ; Ra'phe, modifica- plasm of cells of certain . tion of the raphe in Diatoms, with capiUa'oeous, -ceiis, cap'iUary, capil-

longitudinal fissure, as in SurireUa ; la'ris (capillus, a hair), slender,

canalic'ulate, canalicida'tua, chan- comparable with a hair ; capilla'tus,

; nelled, with a longitudinal groove ; hairy capilla'tae Radi'oes, roots

- Canalic'ulus (Lat. , a small channel), with evident root hairs ; Capil'- a diminutive of Canal. lament, Capillament'um, the fila-


arum, Linn. : its chief fungus-dis- cap'itate, capita'tus (Lat., having a eases are Cane Freckle, ~ Rust, cause head), (1) pin-headed, as the stigma

uncertain ; ~ Spume, by Strumdla of a primrose ; (2) growing in heads, Sacchwri, Peck; ~ Soot, by Macro- as the flowers of Composites ; sporium graminnm, Cooke. capitell'ate, capitella'tus, diminutive oanella'oeous, (1) pertaining to the of CAPITATE ; Capitell'um, the cap- order of which Candla, P. Br. is sule of Mosses ; capitiform'is {

the type ; (2) resembling cinnamon, {forma, shape), shaped like a head,

Ital. Canella, in taste or shape. somewhat globose j capit'ular = canea'oena, canes'ceiia (Lat.), growing OAPiTBLLATE (Crozier) ; capit'uli- grey or hoary. form, shaped somewhat like a head ; Cank'er, a disease in decidous leaved Capit'ulum (Lat., a little head), (1) trees, ascribed to Nectria ditissima, a close head of sessile flowers ; (2) Tul. shown by malformed rind, with a term vaguely applied to the swollen cushion-like margin, and pileus, etc. of Fungi ; (3) a rounded depressed centre. cell borne upon each of the manu- Cantharoph'ilae {KdvBapo^, a beetle, bria in the antheridium of Ghara ; t/>i\i(o, I love), plants which are head-cell.

fertilized by beetles, having showy capno'des, capnol'des {Kairviidijs, colours, and abundance of pollen. smoky), smoke-coloured. ca'nus (Lat.), hoary, grey. cap'reolate, capreola'tus {capreolus, a Caoutch'ouc, pr. koot'shook, a sub- ), having tendrils. 42 ; ;


Caprifloa'tlon, Caprifica'tio (Lat.), (1) to denote Canker and kindred the fertilization of the fig by insects, branches of the wild fig Caroitli'ium J or CarcytU'ium J (rap- being placed among the cultivated iamO(76ai., to become entangled, kind ; the subsequent fertilization as roots), Necker's word for My- is attributed to the punctures of an celium ; Caroy'tes, t = Mycelium. hymenopterous insect fecunda- Carene (Fr. Carfene) = ; (2) Carina, keel;

tion by artificial means ; Caprifl'ous has been used for the keel or midrib (Lat.), the wild or "male" fig, the in the leaves of grasses. uncultivated form. Carloog'raphy {Oarex, Garicis, 7/3a0i;, Capsell'a (Ka\j/a, a box), Link's term writing), a treatise on Cyperaoeae, for AcHESB. sedges, from the genus Carex, the Cap'sicin, an acrid alkaloid principle largest in the order; Caricorogiat found in some species of Capsicum. {K6yos, discourse), awriteron sedges. Capsoma'nia (K6,\pa, a box, mania, mad- Ca'ries (Lat. rottenness), putridity, ness), a multiplication of pistils. decay.

Cap'sule, Cap'sida, (1) a dry, dehiscent Cari'na (Lat. keel) ; (1) the two an-

seed-vessel ; (2) the theca of Mosses terior petals of a papilionaceous the flower, (3) J perithecium or receptacle or similar organ ; (2) the of Fungi ; cap'sular, capsida'ris, keel of the of glume grasses ; (3) possessing a fruit of the kind just the principal nerve of a sepal

mentioned ; cap'sulate, enclosed in oari'2ial, relating to the keel in

a capsule ; capsiUife'rous, -rus, aestivation when the carina includes

{fero, I bear), bearing capsules. the other parts of the flower ; ~ Cap'ut (Lat. the head), the peridium Canal, in Equisetum, a water canal

of some Fungi ; ~ Horum J = Capit- on the inner side of the xylem, op- -- ULUM ; Radi'cia, the crown of the posite a ridge on the surface of the

root ; the obsolete stem or bud of stem ; carina'lis, that side of the herbaceous plants. fruit of Umbelliferae which repre- Carbohy'drates (Carbon + Hydrate), sents the carina, or principal nerve non-volatile solids, as arabio acid, of the adherent calyx; cayinate,

cellulose, dextrin, starch, sugar ; the carina'tus, keeled ; carina'to-pU- non-saccharine members may be ca'tus, plaited so that each fold re- turned into by boiling in sembles a keel, as the peristome of dilute acids, usually into glucose some Mosses. (dextrose). Cariop'aide, Cariop'sis (Kapvov, a nut,

Carbon Dlox'ide = C02 ; oarbona'ceous 8^1!, resemblance), a one-celled, one- sub- seeded, superior fruit, with peri- ( + aceous), consisting chiefly of

stances in which carbon predo- carp united to the seed ; the fruit of oariopsid'eus, having a cari- minates ; carb'onised, turned into ; nearly pure carbon by slow com- opsis as fruit, also spelled Caeyopsis. bustion, as . ca'rious, cario'sus, (Lat.) rotten, de- Car'cerule, Carceru'lus {career, prison), cayed. Desvaux's name for a dry, indehis- Car'mme, the purest red pigment cent, many-celled, superior fruit, obtainable, without admixture of yellow. such as that of the lime-tree ; (2) blue or it has also been employed for the cama'tion (cameus, of flesh), flesh- is sporangia of some Fungi ; carceru'- coloured. [Wheat-ear Carnation lar, carcenUa'ris, having a carcerule a monstrous state of that flower fruit. with multiplied bracts.] Carcino'des (KapKivuSrjs, cancerous dis- cam'eous, carn'e,UB (Lat. of flesh), ease) and Caroimo'ma {KapKlvoi/M, flesh-coloured; Camo'sitas (Lat.) cancerous ulcer), have been used fleshiness ; cam'ose, cam'ous, car- 43 ;

canuTorouB Carragheen

no'sus (Lat.) fleshy, pulpy; car- probably of Gymnospermous origin; niT'orous {voro, I devour) flesh- Carpol'ogist, Oarpol'ogus (X&yos, discourse), specialist in fruits eating ; applied to those plants a classification of fruits which digest insects ; Caro (Lat. Carpol'ogy, ; Carpo'ma " a collection of sper- flesh), (1) the fleshy parts of fruits ; J " (2) the tissue of some Fungi. mangia (Lindley), i.e. a compound Caro'tin, the red colouring matter of sporocarp ; Carpoma'nia {/j,a.vla, frenzy), a disease of grittiness in ohromoplasts ; name from Daucus

Carota, Linn. fruit ; Carpoma'ny, pistillody, or

Car'oubiii, a first ob- substitution of pistils for stamens ;

served in the Carob ; Carout'in- Carpomorph'a t (|tiop0)), shape), apo- ase, a hydrolytio enzyme formed thecia of Lichens, resembling true during germination in seeds of fruits.

Ceratonia Siliqua, Linn. ; French, Caypon {Kapwos, fruit), in Greek com-

Caroube. pounds = fruit ; Carp'ophore, Gar- (fco/airos, ((popiw, 1 carry) Carpade'lium J Carpade'lus J pophor'ium ; (1) the aSTjXos, manifest) = Crb- stalk of a sporocarp that part fruit, not ; (2) MOOARP. of the receptacle which is prolonged Carp'el, Carpell'um {Kapiris, fruit), a between the carpels as a central simple pistil, or element of a com- axis, as in Ceramium ; (3) used by pound pistil, answering to a single Fayod as inclusive of stipe, pileus

; leaf ; a female sporophyll ; carpel- and lamellae, of fungi Carp'ophyll, I'ary, carpella'ris, carp'icus, relat- CarpophyU'uTn (0i)XXoi', leaf), syno-

ing to a carpel ; Carp'id, Carpid'- nym of Carpel ; Carp'ophytes ittTO, = diminutive of Carpel; Car- {^VToy, a plant). Phanerogams ; p'ium, (1) the oogonium modified Carpopo'dium J (podium, an eleva- - by fertilization, which remains as tion), fruit stalk ; Carp'osperm the embryo [ffirip/jui, seed), the impregnated an envelope around ; (dtr/cos, (2) J = carpel; Carpoasci a oosphere of Algae ; Carposporan'gia wine-skin), the more complex As- {ffwopi,, a seed, dyyclov, a vessel), dif- comycetousFungi,all, except the Ex- ferentiated sporangia in the cysto-

oascaoeae (Kerner) ; Carpoclo'nium carp of Rhodophyceae ; Carp'o- (kKavlav, a young shoot), "a free spore [a-iropi,, a seed) spore ; (1) ; case or receptacle of spores found (2) a spherical uninuclear spore " in certain Algals (Lindley) ; Car- formed in a sporocarp, arising poderm'is {dipfia,, skin), Bischoflf's from the swollen tips of branched

emendation of Pericarp ; Carpo'des, filaments resulting from the fer-

Carpo'dium, pi. Carpo'dia, abortive tilization of the carpogonium ; Car- carpels, as in Typha; Carp'ogam pospo'reae, one of Cohn's, also {ydfios, marriage), the female organ Sachs's main divisions of Thallo-

in a procarp ; producing a cysto- phytes, of plants which produce

carp ; Carpog'amy, the process spore-fruit as the result of fertiliza-

itself ; carpogen'lo, carpog'enous tion ; carpospor'ic, resembling a

(7^<'os, race), producing fruit ; in carpospore ; Carp'ostome, Carposto'- , applied to special cells mitim ((rri/ia, the mouth), the

of the carpogonium ; Carp'ogone, opening in the cystocarp of some

Carpogon'ium (toj/'!;, offspring), (1) Algae ; Carpopto'slB(7rT(j(ns,falling),

part of a procarp of carpogenous abnormal falling of the fruit ; car- cells resulting in a sporocarp after pot'ropic (rpoTT^, a turn), used of in = fertilization ; (2) Ascomycetes movements for protection of the

Archicarp ; Carp'olite, Carp'olith fruit, or its dissemination.

(XWos, stone), a fossilized fruit ; or Car'ragheen Moss, chiefly of Ghond/rua casts, found in the coal measures, crispua, Ag. 44 ;

Carttaamme catenulate

Caxth'amine, red colouring matter catal)Ol'ic(Kard, down; |84Xos, a throw), from flowers of Garthamm tinctorius, adj. of Catab'olism, destructive Linn. metabolism of the protoplasm, or oartilag'iiious, cartilagin'eus (Lat., the formation of simpler substances gristly), hard and tough, as the skin from more complex, accompanied of an apple-pip. by a conversion of potential into Carune'le, Garunc'vZa (Lat., a little kinetic ; also spelt Kata- piece of flesh), a wart or protuber- BOLiSM ; Catacle'sium J {k\y

= Kartokinesis; nuclear division. hose flower ; oatad'romous (5p6/tos, caryolyt'ic (Kipvov, a nut, Xiio-is, a loos- course), Luerssen's term when the ing), relating to nuclear dissolution. first set of nerves in each segment caryophylla'ceous, -ceus ; caryophyl- of a Fern frond is given oflf on the I'eous, -lous, used of a corolla hav- basal side of the mid-rib, as in ing petals with a long claw as Osmunda ; Catagen'esis {yhea-is, a in Diaitthiia Caryophyllua, Linn., beginning), retrogressive evolution,

whence the name ; oaryophyUa'tus, by loss of attributes or simplifica-

=the same. tion of structure ; Catal'ysis (\i5

CAKiopsm; Car'yosomes (a-Qfia, the force which causes catalysis ; cata-

body), the constituents of the metad'romoua ( -|- metadromous) in nucleus (Vuillemin). Ferns, when they are sometimes Cas'eia, see PLANT-OASEiif. catadromous and sometimes meta- Casque = Galea. dromous, which may occur in the cassid'eous, -eua {cassis, a helmet), same species ; catapet'alons, -iis, helmet-shaped, as the upper sepal (iTfTaXov, a flower -leaf), where in Aamitum. petals are united only by cohesion cas'sus (Lat., empty), empty, as an with united stamen, as in Malva ; anther destitute of pollen. Cat'aphyll, 'a, pi. {iWov, casta'neus (Lat.), ohestuut-ooloured. leaf), the early leaf-forms of a plant cast'ing, prematurely shedding leaves, or shoot, as cotyledons, bud-scales,

or fruit. -scales, etc. ; in German, cas'trate, of castra'tits (Lat. , gelded), said Niederblatter; cataphyll'ary, the of a defective part, as a filament nature of the foregoing ; — Leaves,

without an anther ; Castra'tion, in =Cataphtlls.

; botany ; (1) removal of anthers for Cat'apult Fruit those fruits dispers- artificial of ing seeds or fruit segments by the crossing ; (2) the action UstUago, etc. on Lychnis and allied elasticity of their peduncles.

genera ; divided into ampMg'enous Cat'echu, pr. Cat'eshoo, outch, the - ~ , transformation in either stamens heart wood of Acacia Catechu, Willd., powerfully astringent from or pistils ; androg'enous ~ , produc-

tion of anthers ; thelyg'ynous, pro- its rich tannin-contents. duction of pistils in male-host. cat'enate (catena, a chain), the co- Cas'ual (casiialis, fortuitous), H. C. herency of Diatom frustules in a

Watson's term for an occasional connected chain ; caten'ulate, ca- weed of cultivation, which is not tenvla'tus, formed of parts united naturalised. or linked as in a chain. 45 ; ; ;

CathedTus Cell-vaai

Cath'edrus {KaBeSpa, a chair), a part longing to the stem or arising from growing between the angles of a it, ^ Bun'dles, vascular bundles stem growing aoropetally with the stem, cathod'al, cathod'ic {Kara, down; having no direct communication 656s, a way) = KATHODic. with the bundles which pass into Cat'kln, a deciduous spike, consisting the leaves.

of unisexual apetalous flowers, an Cau'lis (Lat. ), a stem ; the ascending

amentum ; the male flowers of axis, restricted to the above-ground

Cycads and are errone- portion in its normal state ; ~ de-

ously styled catkins ; Cat'ulus (Lat. liqueso'ens, J a stem which branches puppy), t a synonym of Catkin. irregularly ; ~ excurr'enB, a stem Cau'da (Lat.), a tail, any tail-like shooting straight upwards, having appendage ; caud'ate, cauda'tiw, side branches as in Abies. tailed. oaulocarp'ous, caulocarp'eus, -picus Cau'dex (Lat.), the axis of a plant, (fcauXos, stem, Kapiros, fruit), bear- consisting of stem and root ; ~ de- ing fruit repeatedly, as trees and

scen'dens, the root ; —Radi'cis, the ; Caul'ode [eldos, resem- ; ~ root-tip re'pens J = Rhizome ; blance), a portion of a Thallophyte caud'ici - coatin'uus J continuous which simulates a stem ; Caulo'ma i with the stem, used of those leaves (1) the stem of a palm ; (2) the stem- which have no articulation with the like portion of such Algae as Fitci ; stem ; caudic'iform {forma, shape), Caul'ome the stem as an abstract like a caudex in form ; Cau'diole, entity, the leaf-developing axis; caudic'vla, the cartilaginous strap Bower suggests its restriction to which connects certain pollen-mas- the sporophore generation only ses to the stigma, as in Orchids. Caul'omer(/iii/3os,a part), a secondary caulesc'ent, -eua (caidis, a stalk), be- axis in a, sympodium ; Caulotax'is coming stalked, where the stalk is (Tdfjs, arrangement), the order of clearly apparent ; caul'iole, caul'ic- branches upon a stem. ule, cavlievlus, a diminutive stalk caust'icus (Lat. burning), biting in (1) a small stem produced on the taste, as Cayenne Pepper. neck of a root without the previous cavema'rius (cavema, a cave), grow-

production of a leaf ; (2) the imag- ing in caves ; Caveru'uli, the pores inary space between the radicle and of such Fungi as Polyporus. the cotyledons of an embryo, now Cav'itus X {cavwH, hollow), and Cavus

termed the hypoootyl ; (3) the stipe are given by Lindley as respec- of certain Fungi ; cauUc'olous [colo, tively, the perithecium and peri- I dwell), applied to Fungi which dium of some Fungi; also Cav'us live on stems ; cauliferous (fero, I sup'erua, defined by him as the bear), bearing a stalk ; caul'iform hymenium of certain Fungi. (forma, shape), having the shape of Ceoidi'mn {ktikU, a gall), the galls pro- a stalk; Caul'iaower (4- Flower), duced by Fungi or insects, the con- hypertrophy of the flower - stalk, sequence of infection being an accompanied by defective flowers ; abnormal growth. caulig'enous (yhos, race), arising Cell, Gdl'vla (Lat. a small apartment), from a stem ; caulig'erous [gero, I (1) an independent unit of proto- bear), borne on a stem ; CauUd'ium, plasm, strictly with a single nuc- term proposed by Bower to express leus, contained in a chamber of the leaf in the oophore generation ; cellulose, etc., which originally its analogue in the sporophore was recognised and called cell, generation is Caulome; canl'inar, now ~ -Wall ; (2) the cavity of an caul'inaiy, cavlina'ris, -riua; = anther, otherwise anther-lobe ; (3) CAULiNE ; caul'ine, cavK'nvs, be- the cavity of an ovary or pericarp. 46 ;

CeU-Bundles Metacelluloses

containing the ovules or seeds ; ^ Wall, a closed membrane, formed of Bim'dles, a band or bundle of cellulose, and a small proportion of similar cells, as the bast fibre in mineral substances, originated by dicotyledons; ~ Con'tents, of two the layer of protoplasm which lines kinds, living or protoplasmic, and it, frequently thickened by second- non-living, such as starch, fats, ary deposits. Primord'ial ~ , a cell proteids, crystals, cell-sap, and previous to the creation of a cell-

the substances dissolved in it ; ~ wall. Divis'ion, in free cell - division, Cel'la (Lat., storeroom), (1) Scopoli's several daughter-cells are formed name for the fruit of Couroupita, in the cavity of the mother-cell Aubl. of ; (2) J a form perithecium in in ordinary , as a Fungi (Lindley) ; celliferous {fero, rule only two daughter-cells are I bear), bearing or producing cells. formed, usually followed by a Cel'lul {cellvla, a cell), Blair's term

subsequent further division of for anther ; cel'lular, cdlula'ris, -^ each ; Fam'ily, a group of cells of consisting of cells, spongy : ~ Bark, common origin, a colony or coeno- ~ En'velope, the middle layer of

bium ; ~ Fi'bres, the achromatic the bark, mesophloeum ; ~ Plants, filaments which form the nuclear plants which do not possess vas-

spindle in nuclear-division ; ^ cular tissue ; non-vascular Crypto-

Forma'tioa, the construction of a gams ; ~ Spore = Sporidesm ; Cellu- cell new by reorganisation of the la'res ; (1) plants 'which are built protoplasmic energid, with or up of cells only, as those last men- division without of the cytoplasm ; tioned ; (2) recently the term has ~ Fu'sions, cells united by absorp- been applied to all plants built up tion or perforation of transverse of cells, in opposition to non-

walls as Sieve-vessels ; ~ Groups, cellular or unicellular ; Cell'ule,

associations of similar cells, as the Gdl'ula, diminutive of cell ; cellu- sclerenchyma in the pulp of the liferous, [fero, I bear), bearing or

pear, or in cork ; ~ Mas'ses, when producing cellules ; Cell'ulia, Pring- cells are united in all directions sheim's term for a modification of ~ of space, not having necessarily cellulose ; Grains, bodies found

any definite form ; '~ Multiplica'- in vegetative hyphae ; Cellulo'sae, tion takes place by the forma- Corda's name for Spobidbsm. tion of two or more protoplasmic Cell'ulose (cellvla, a cell), (1) a

bodies out of one ; ~ Nu'cleus, carbohydrate, the chief organic

an organised structure within the base of the cell-wall ; (2) Dia- cell, the active agent in division, tom valves composed of cellules usually spherical in form, and are termed cellulose, a synonym

of higher refractive power than of CELLULAR ; Cell'uloses, a generic '~ the rest of the cell-contents ; term for the carbohydrate group Plate, formed by the thickening of above mentioned ; divided by threads of kinoplasm, marking out chemists into sub-groups, as, Adi-

the future septa : ~ Rows, have the pocell'uloses (adeps, adipis, fat), cells in contact by their ends, thus consisting of cutioular tissues of

making a filament ; "• Sap, a leaves and fruits and of cork; watery solution of various sub- Hemicell'uloses, all stances, salts, sugars, alkaloids, in the cell-wall which are not

and the like ; ~ Tissue, dis- coloured blue by chlor-zinc-iodide, tinguished from by such as reserve-cellulose, etc. ; Lig- '- being made up of cells only ; nocell'uloses, combined with Sui'faoes, where the cells form a, cellulose, as in Jute fibre ; Meta-

single layer, as in some Algae ; — cell'uloses, found in Fungi and 47 ; ; ;;


Lichens, the fungine of Braoonuot p'etal {peto, I seek), developing Paxaoell'iiloses, the cellular tissue towards the centre from without and epidermal cells of leaves Centrogen'esis [yivecns, beginning), Pectocell'uloses, composed of peotio the rotate or peripheral type of acids and cellulose, such as the puri- form assumed by plants (L. H. fied bast of Russian flax.—Other Bailey) ; adj. centrogen'ic ; cf. modifications are named but not DlPLEUKOGBNESIS. characterised by Messrs Cross and Cent'ron [Kevrpov, a sharp point), in Bevan in their work "Cellulose," compounds = Spur. 1895, as Cuto-, Hydra-, Hydro-, Cent'rum (Lat.), the centre of a solid Muco-, Nitro-, Fseudo - . body ; Cent'rosome (o-ui/na, body),

Fung'us-ceU'ulose = Chitin ; Re- minute bodies believed to have ~' serve , cellulose which is stored up directive influence in nuclear di-

as a food-supply ; ceUulo'so-pUc'ate, vision ; the central particle of

folded so as to form small cells the centrosphere ; Cent'rospheres

(Phillips) ; Cellulo'siole, a mixture [ffcpcupa, a sphere), two small of cellulose and pectose, compos- colourless bodies near the nucleus, ing the primitive cell-wall (Green). imbedded in the cytoplasm, having

Cement'-Disk, the retinaculum in a centrosome in each ; centrozyric Orchids. (?uXoi/, wood), referring to Centrox'- Cementa'tion, union of the membranes yly, centrifugal primary woody of hyphae by a slip of cementing structure (Van Tieghem). substance, concrescence; in German, Cent'ury (centuria, a hundred), in sets Verklebung. of dried plants, each hundred is Cenanth'y (ketos, empty, av6os, a, styled a century. flower), suppression of the stamens cepa'ceous, -ceua (cepa, an onion), and pistils, leaving the perianth having the taste or smell of garlic, empty. alliaceous. ceno'biar, cenohio'neus, cenobionar'is, Cephalanth'ium J (Ke0aXr;, a head, Geno'bium, see coenobiajb, etc. AvBos, a flower), the capitulum or cenogenet'ic {kcvos, void, yeperrjp, a head of composites, anthodium parent), secondary (Crozier). Cepha'lium, a woody enlargement centifo'lious [centum, a hundred at the apex of the stem in some folium, a leaf), literally having a Cacteae, from which the flowers

hundred leaves ; actually, more than appear ; cepli'alodine, forming a

can be readily counted ; Cent'i- head (Leighton) ; Cephalo'dium, (1) metre, Centime'trum, .3937 of an a knoblike shield as in the genus English inch, roughly, Mhs. Scyphophorus ; (2) the capitulum of central {centrum, the middle), relat- Composites ; (3) peculiarly shaped,

ing to the centre of a body ; — Cell, branched or convex outgrowth of a of the archegonium, that in the Lichen-thallus, in which algal cells venter from which the oosphere, are situated ; (4) a synonym of

and ventral canal-cell arise ; ~ TuBBBCDLUM ; ceph'alold, cephal- Cord, a series of cells in the leaves oid'eous, -deus (elSos, resemblance), parts of Mosses, which and other capitate ; Cephalo'nion Gall, a sac- simulates a vessel ; r- Cylinder, in like gall, joined to the leaf by a stems and roots the portion within narrow neck (Kerner). the endodermis ; Cent're, in Dia- Cephaloph'onun {opew, I carry), (1) toms, the middle point of the the receptacle, or (2), the stipe of pervalvar axis ; cent'ric, in the some Fungi. flee), middle ; centrifugal (fugo, I cera'oeous, -eus(cereua, Lat.), waxy, tending outwards or developing (1) in appearance, or (2) colour, from the centre outwards ; centrl- that of unbleached wax. 4S ;

Ceramidium Chaxaciue

Ceramid'ium (Kepd/uov, a jar), syn- Chae'ta (xairi;, a bristle), the slender onym of Cystocakp. sporophore of Mosses, the seta. Cer'asin, a gummy exudation from Chaff, (1) small membranous scales, plum and cherry trees, swelling in degenerate bracts, in many Com-

water but not dissolving ; the name positae ; (2) the outer envelopes

is from Prumus Cerasus, Linn. of grains ; chaffy, pale- Ceratench'yma (/cepas, a horn; lyxv/J-a, aceous. poured in), the tissue of eflfete sieve- Chain-gem'ma {gemma, a bud), in tubes which becomes homy in Fungi, having the form of a septate texture. confervoid filament, the segments ' Cer'atrin, ' the bitter principle of Ice- of which are capable of growth ; land Moss," Oetraria islandica, termed also SPKOtrT-GBMMA. Linn. Chala'za (xdXafa, small tubercle), that Cera'tium (Kepas, a horn), a long slender part of the ovule or seed where the

one - celled, two - valved, superior nucellus joins the integuments ; it fruit, as in Hypecoum, "capsula is the base of the nucleus and is siliquiformis "; Ceratoma'nia (imvla, always opposite the upper end of

frenzy), monstrous production of the cotyledons ; chalazi'nus, like horn-like or hooded structures in a chalaza, or pertaining thereto,

the flower. oliala'ziaji ; Chala'zogams {yd/xos, Cercid'imu {KepKlSiov, a small comb), marriage), plants which are fertil- the mycelium of some Fungi. ized through the chalaza, and not Ce'real, cerea'lis {Geres, goddess of the foramen, as Casuarina, and

), any Gramineae whose many Cupuliferae ; Chalazogr^amy,

seeds serve as food ; Cerea'lia, com- fertilization by the chalaza ; adj.

plants generally ; Ce'reum, Ce'rium, chalazogam'ic. Ce'rio, =Cabiopsis. Chalk - glands, multicellular glands oer'ebriform [cereirum, the brain which deposit calcareous matter as forma, shape), having an irregular in some Saxifrages, the brain-like appearance, as the kernel escaping through a special channel,

of a walnut. the water-pore ; ~ White, pure Ce'rin, Ce'rine {cera, wax), a substance white, cretaceous, stated to be a constituent of cork. chaJyb'eus (Lat. of steel), steel-grey, ceriferous {cera, wax ; fero, I bear), or lead-coloured. Kammerfliissig- wax-producing ; ceri'nus (Lat. ), the Chamber-fluid, the colour of yellow wax. keit of Crato, comprising cell-sap cem'uous, cem'uus (Lat.), nodding, and enchylema between lamellae of applied to such flowers as Narcis- protoplasm. sus, or Coltsfoot when in fruit. Chambered-fibres, fibres which have cerussa'tns (Lat.), white as though become septateandseeminglymulti- painted with white lead. cellular, as in the secondary wood of cerv'ine, cervi'nus, cervic'olor {cermis, Dicotyledons ; ~ Ovary, when the a stag), dark tawny colour. margins of the carpels project into CeiVix (Lat., the neck) = Rhizome. the interior to form incomplete ce'sious (caesius, the grey of the eye), longitudinal dissepiments, the ovary blue-grey, usually spelled caesious. remaining unilocular. like a cespitit'ious, pr. oespitish'us ; cesp'- chan'nelled, hollowed out itose,-toJt8 {cespes, turf), pertaining gutter, as in many leaf-stalks. series objects arranged to turf, or growing in tufts ; ces- Chap'let, a of string, as the spores pit'ulose, somewhat tufted ; cf. like beads on a Caespes. of Cystopus (Crozier). Ce'trarin, a principle from several Char'acine, a species of camphor from species of the genus Cetraria. terrestrial Algae, as Palmella, 49 ; ;

characlnus Chlorophyll

OscUlwria, etc. ; it smells like Ohara, dvs, Linn.; chlonoph'obous (0(5/3os, hence the name. fear, dismay), the same author's chaxaci'nus J Chara-like, composed word for the summer-leaves of the of a single, or a few parallel same plant. tubes. Chi'tin (x"'w''> coat of mail), a sub- Char'act6r(Lat., a mark), the technical stance allied to horn, which forms difiference whereby allied forms are the protective covering of many distinguished, as ordinal, generic, insects such as beetles, identified specific, and so on. as being of the same composition charta'ceous, -ceus (charta, paper + as Fungus-cellulose. aoeous), papery. Chlamydogonid'ium (xXa/tiJs, -xXaiiiSo^,

Chasmog'amy (xtiir/ia, a gaping Assure a cloak ; yov^, race, offspring), uni- 7djitos, marriage), the opening of the cellular gemmae of certain Fungi, perianth at the time of flowering, which are relatively large and thiok-

as opposed to cleistogamic ; adj. walled, and adapted for a period chasmogam'ic. of quiescence before vegetating Check, an experiment or observation Chlam'ydospore, a spore having a for confirmation, frequently the very thick membrane. word " Control " is used for this. Chloram'ylite (xXupJs, grass green, Che'mo-Aesthe'sia (ohem + aM-rio-is, &/ji.v\ov, fine flour), Belzung's term perception by sense), term employed for chlorophyll granules derived by Czapek to express the capacity from the transformation of starch ; of a plant-organ to respond to Chlor'anthy {dveos, a flower), the

chemical stimuli ; Chemol'ysis (Xvo-is, change of all or most parts of the a loosing), chemical solution or flower into leaf-like organs, frond-

analysis ; Chemotax'is {Ta^i-s, order), escence ; chloras'cens, green, in-

the attraction of bacteria, anthero- clining to yellow ; Chlorench'yma , etc., by certain substances ; {IfXv/ia, an infusion), assimilating

sometimes spelled chemiotax'is ; adj. tissues; Chlor'iii, used by Kraus to chemotact'ic; neg'ative Chemotax'is, denote the green constituent of repulsion instead of attraction. chlorophyll ; chlorl'nus, yellowish chermesi'nus (Lat. dyed with Cher- green; Chlor'is, used as the title of mes), crimson. a work on the plants of a district, Cheilonia'ma(xe'Xo!, lipj/iaxJa, frenzy), analogous to ; chloroch'rous Morren's term for the doubling of (xpo'a, complexion), having a green the lip in Orchids, as in Orchis skin; Chlorofu'ciue(0OKos,/Mcits, sea- Mono, Linn. wee

chlorophyllaceous chromophorous

ing matter of plants ; ~ Bod'y, ate, polypetalous ; choriphyU'ous ^ Cor'puscle, ~ Grain, ~ Gran'ule, (0uXXoi', a leaf), having separate proteid cells of leaves, used of the floral members a or plaatid in the ;

plants, usually of a green colour ; chorisep'alous, -ms (sepal), with ~ separate sepals, polysepalous of. Chloeoledoite, etc. ; Ve's- ; oho- (Xeiris, icles, chlorophyll granules ; chloro- risolepid'eus J Ae7ri5os, a

phylla'ceous ( + aceou8), applied scale), when the scales of the in- to cells which contain chlorophyll, volucre of Composites are distinct

in oontra-distinction to those which from each other ; Chor'isis, the do not, and are consequently separation of a leaf or phylloid

colourless ; Chloropli'yllliie, the member into more than one, d6-

green principle of chlorophyll doublement, doubling ; collateral chlorophyll'ose, containing chloro- ~, when the plane of separation

phyll ; Chlor'oplast, 'id is antero-posterior ; par'allel '-, or plane separation lateral (xXaffris, moulded), the plastids the of ; granules of protoplasm which are choristophyll'ous, -us (

of a, green colour ; Cliloroplast'in, leaf), separate leaved. Schwarz's term for a proteid con- Chortonom'ia J (xopros, green herbage; stituting the ground substance of vdfws, law), " The art of making

the chlorophyll granule ; Chloro- an ." ru'fln {rufus, reddish), a reduced chromat'ic (x/ow/ia, colour), relating to

chlorophyll, the red pigment of colour ; ~ Thread, the filiform Chlorophyoeae, so named by Ros- body in nuclear division, which

tafinski ; CMoro'sis, a disease, breaks up into Cheomosomes ;

shown by loss of colour ; ohlorot'ic, Cliromatid'ium,t the colouring

cMorot'icus, greenish in colour ; matter of plants ; Chro'matin Chlorovaporiza'tlon [vaporatio, (Flemming), that portion of the a reeking), a function analogous nucleus which readily takes arti- to , but it proceeds ficial staining, termed Nuclein by only from the chloroleucites (Van Strasburger ; Chromatorysis (Xiims, Tleghem). a loosing), Cavara's term for the Chord'a (Lat., a cord), pistilla'ria, the condensation of nuclear chromatin line of tissue between the stigma in a homogenous mass, which after-

and the cavity of the ovary ; chor- wards subdivides ; Chro'inatomere the {p^pos, a part) = Cheomosome da'ceous J (-t-aceous), having ; figure of a . Chromat'ophore {

numerous flowering stems one be- plastida ; Chro'matoplasm (ifKiniw,, fore the other from its sides, moulded), the protoplasm of the (Syme) as in Carex chordorrhiza, colouring and allied substances Linn. f. (Strasburger) ; Chromid'ium, the Chor'ion {xapiov, a caul), (1) Mal- gonidium of a Lichen ; Chro'mism, pighi'B term for the pulpy matter aa abnormal colouring, as of leaves which fills the young ovule, and is Chro'moblast, an error of some for chro- absorbed during development ; (2) writers Chromoplast ; Choriona'rius, = mogen'ic, ohromog'enous (yevoi J a carpel ; J Etabeio. offspring), colour-producing, as chromop'aroua choripliell'oid (xwpls, separate; e\K6s, some bacteria ; cork bark), applied to the separated [pa/rio, I bring forth), applied to suberized cells and lenticels (Kle- bacteria which are usually colour- bahn); ohorlpet'alous, -us {n-^ToKoi', less, but excrete useless colour- chromoph'orous a flower leaf), having petals separ- ing (Beyerinok) ; 51 ,;

Ohromophyll cincinnal

(0opeu, I carry), said o£ those a leaf), a yellow colouring matter

bacteria, whose pigmentation is from leaves ; Chryaorham'nin, a an integral part of their organ- yellow substance from unripe buck- thorn berries, Rhamnus catharticus, ism ; Chro'inophyll (^liXXoc, a leaf),

any substance which colours plant- Linn. ; Chryaotaa'niii ( + Tannin), cells; Cliromoleuc'lte (Xeu/co's, white), a group of colouring matters in Van Tieghem's name for protoplas- plants, when oxidized giving rise to

mic colour granules ; CSro'moplast brown tints in autumn foliage.

( A.Meyer ),Cliroinoplast'i(J(A.Sohim- chymiferus (xi^A"ii juice ; fero, I bear), per) [irXiffTos, moulded), are syno- chymifera va'sa, J Hedwig's term nyms for granules containing other for an imaginary "sap-thread"

colouring than chlorophyll ; Chro'- rolled round a tube to form a trach- mosomes (o-fi/ta, a body), fibrillar eid or spiral vessel. bodies of definite number formed Chytridio'sis, a, disease due to during nuclear division, dividing Oladochytrium viticolum, Prunet. by fission into new groups, and con- Cic'atrice, Cicatric'ula, Cica'trix (Lat. tributing to form the daughter a scar), the mark left by the separa-

nuclei ; Daughter ~ , secondary or tion of one part from another, as

derived chromosomes ; Chro'mule, the leaf ; cicatrisa'tus, cic'atricose, Cliro'mula, colouring matter of the cicatrico'siis, scarred or scarry. plant, other than chlorophyll, ap- Cioin'nus (k/kipcos, a ringlet), =Cin- plied especially to petals. OINNUS. (possibly, Chronizo'ospore {xpovos, time ; fuos, Clench'yma Kfu,Igo; ^Txu/ia, living; (rxopA,aseed),amicrozoogoni- an infusion), a system of inter- dium produced by Hydrodictyon, cellular spaces (Kohler,fideCrozier). which rests for some weeks before Cil'ia, pi. of Cil'imn (Lat., an eyelash),

germinating ; also called Chron'- (1) Vibratile whip-like processes of ispore (Crozier). protoplasm by which zoospores chroococ'coid, resembling Ghroococcus; and similar bodies move ; (2) the chroocooca'ceons, allied to the same hair-like processes in the endostome

genus. in Mosses ; (3) the marginal hairs of cliroole'poid, like the genus Chro- Luzvla; cilia'ris (Lat.), like an eye- olepis ; consisting of yellow scales. lash, or short hair; cil'iate, cUia'tus,

clirysalol'deuB [chrysalis, a pupa ; efSos fringed with hairs; cilia'todenta'tua, resemblance), rolled up and folded the teeth finely serrate, as if fringed;

up at the same time ; wrapped up oil'iiform (/or?Ma,shape),resembling

as an insect pupa or chrysalis. cilia ; cil'iograde (gradus, a step),

chrysan'thine (xpvaos, gold ; ficflos, moving by means of cilia (Crozier) a flower), yellow flowered ; chry- Cil'iola, secondary or diminutive sell'us, somewhat golden-hued cilium.

chry'seus, yellow as gold ; chrysi' oimici'nua (cimex, a bug), smelling of tes (Lat., a precious stone), gold bugs, as Coriander.

coloured; ohryaoch'rous (x/"!)!, skin) Cincho'na (genus), compounds, see having a yellow skin ; Chryso China, Quinine, etc.; cinchona'- gonid'ium (7o;'-J), offspring), a yel ceous (-faceous), relating to cin-

low gonidium of Lichens ; chryBO- chona plants ; Cin'chonine, one of gon'lmus (yovi/j-os, fruitful), the the alkaloids found in the bark of layer of yellow gonidia in some the Cinchona ; dnchonlc, relating Lichens; Chr/sophan ((jialvoi, I to the same genus. show) occurs in Physcia parietina cin'cinnai, cincinna'lis (Lat., curled), De Not., etc., as gold-coloured applied to curled inflorescences as crystals ; also known as cliryso- ~ Cyme, a cyme in which the suc- phan'ic Ac'id ; Cliry'sopliyll {(piXKov, cessive flowers are on alternate 52 ,;

Cinclimus Cirrhus

sides of the pseudaxis ; ~ Dioliot'- central axis which separates when in om7, which alternate branches the fruit splits open ; circumcino'tus develop ; Cincin'nus (Lat., a curl), (Lat), girded round ; Circumciss'ion applied to a uniparous scorpioid (circumcisiis, out around), (1) Blair's

cyme ; the erroneous form term for fruit CiciNNUS ringing trees ; (2) cut is found in some writers. round as the apothecia of some cinc'tus (Lat., girded), used of albu- Lichens ; ciroumferen'tial (Lat., men when surrounded by an circumferentia), relating to the annular embryo. circumference ; Circiinilat'eralism Cinench'yma (/ctfew, I move ; ^yxvfiay (tojis, lateris, a side), the tendency an infusion), laticiferous tissue in plant phylogeny to develop a cinenchym'atous, possessing latex circular arrangement of parts (L. vessels. H. Bailey) ; circumnu'tate (niUo, I olnera'ceous, -eus (Lat.), somewhat nod), the movements of the growing ashy in tint. points of plants round the axis ; cineras'oens {cinis, cinei-is, ashes), turn- Circumnuta'tion, the phenomenon ing ashy grey ; oiner'eous, -ews (Lat. of the apical portions of stem, ashy), the grey of wood ashes tendril, root, turning to various cineric'ius, cinerit'ious, -»ms = oin- quarters of the compass ; Circum- EIIEO0S. posit'io {positus, placed), a layer, or Cin^ulum (Lat., a girdle), (1) the branch laid into the earth to root, neck of a plant, that which is be- whilst still connected with the

tween stem and root, the collum parent stock ; ciroumsolss'He, cir- (2) the connecting zone, girdle, or cumacissi'lis, circumscisa'us (scindo, hoop of Diatom-frustules. sciasjis, to split), dehiscing as if cut Cln'nabar {nimd^api, a red pigment), circularly around, as in the capsule (1) Dragon's blood, a resinous gum of Anagallis ; Circumscrip'tion from Daemonorops Draco, Blume, {scribo, scriptum, to write), (1) the of and other plants ; (2) also the colour outline any organ ; (2) the defini- obtained from it, vermilion ; clnna- tion of a form or group of forms, as bari'nus, scarlet. of speoies,genera, orders; circumBe'- cin'namic, or cinnamo'inic, pertaining piens [sepes, a hedge), surrounding,

to cinnamon ; cinnaiuo'meus (Lat. ), as a protection ; circumsepien'tia cinnamon colour, a light yellowish fo'lia, is used by de Candolle for brown. leaves which surround the stem, as if to Ci'on, an old form of Scion. protect the young growth ; Cioaosper'meae(/ciw;',acolumn,ffire/5/iia, oircununedull'ary {medvila, the a seed), plants whose ovules de- spinal marrow), a proposed emenda- velop on a central, more or less tion of "perimeduUary." columnar placenta, as Olacineae Cir'rliate, cirra'tus, cirrha'tus, cirr- and Santalaceae. ha'lis, (cirrhus,a, tendril), tendrilled, circa, in Latin compounds = round or assuming the functions of a ten- about. dril; cirrhiferous {/ero, I bear),

cir'cinal, circina'lis {circino, I make producing tendrils ; clrrh'ifonn, round), involute from the tip into cirrhiform'is {forma, shape), appar-

a coil ; cir'cinnate, circinna'ttis, ently a tendril ; Cirrho'sitas, the

state of possessing tendrils ; cirrh'- coiled into a ring or partially so ; sometimes spelled cir'cinate. ose, cirrh'ous, cirrlio'sus, (1) ten- Circula:'tion {circtdatio, a revolution), drilled, (2) with a wavy hair- the streaming motion of protoplasm point (Braithwaite) ; Cirrh'us, since for tendril, in cells ; c/. Kotation. Linnaeus, used a circumax'ile, circumaxi'lis {circum, a filiform organ of attachment, round; axis, an axle), surrounding a modified from a leaf, stipule, or 53 = ; ;;

cirriferouB Cleistocaxp

aborted branch. — The foregoing cells, and stretching over the sep-

are frequently spelled ciirife'rous, tum between them ; -- Coimee'tions, cirr'ifonn, oirr'ose, Cirr'us, etc. the same. (from cirrus, a curl). Clap'per, the water-sac, or lobule of Clstell'a, Cist'iaa(Lat., a little chest), Hepaticae. used for the apothecia of Lichens, Clasileu'cite (/cXdo-is, a fracture -f Leu- which, globular at first, burst at cite), that part of the protoplasm maturity. differentiated in nuclear division to Cist'olitli . form the spindle and centrosomes or Clst'ome, Oisto'ma [KitrTij, a box; ardfrn, spheres when present (Dangeard). a mouth), a membranous sac which Clasp'ers, Grew's term for tendrils. was supposed to pass beneath the , Glas'sis (Lat. a fleet), a primary

atomatic guard-cells ; but the cells group of Orders, Dicotyledons for

at the bottom of the stomatic example ; Classifica'tion, arrange- cavity are destitute of cuticle. ment under respective groups Cistoph'orum ((jiopia, I carry), "the , from Class to Variety, stipe of certain Fungals " (Lindley). or Form. Citrell'us (from Citrus, Linn.), some- clath'rate, dathra'tv^ (Lat. latticed),

what yellow ; cit'reus, lemon-yel- latticed, or pierced with apertures ;

low ; citrinell'us, yellowish ; oit'ric ~ Cell = Sieve-tube ; Clath'ruB (Lat. Acid is abundant in lemon juice. a lattice), a membrane pierced with cladautoi'cous (icXiiSos, a branch; aiiros, holes and forming a sort of grating.

self ; qXkos, a house), having the male Claus'ilus {clausus, shut), Richard's inflorescence of a Moss on a proper term for his macropodal embryo, branch; Cladeiicli'yTnat(?7x''/''"j s,n when its radicle is united by its infusion), branched parenchyma ; edges, and entirely encloses the cladocarp'ous (KapTros, fruit), having rest (Lindley). a fruit terminating a cla'vate, dava'tus (daims, a club),

in Mosses ; Clad'ode, a branch of a club-shaped, thickened towards leaf single internode simulating a ; the apex ; claVellate, davdla'tus,

Clado'dlum, a flat expansion of the diminutive of the foregoing ; Clav'-

stem ; Cladodystro'pMa {Svs, bad ; icle, Glavic'uXa (Lat. vine-tendril),


; of a leaf, a cladode Cladopto'sis forma, shape), club-shaped ; clavil- {?rTffl(7is, a fall), abnormal casting lo'suB (Lat.), clubbed, or markedly

off ; of branches Cladosele'reids club-shaped ; ClaVule, Clav'uia, the ((7K\ijpds, hard ; eWos, resemblance), club-shaped sporophore in certain stellate bodies containing Fungi, as Clavaria; Cla'vus, the oxalate in leaves and floral en- disease of Ergot in grasses, the

velopes of Euryale ferox, Salisb. ; young grain being mafiormed and cladosiphon'lo (uiv, a tube) hav- club-shaped, from the attack of ing a tubular stele interrupted at Claviceps purpurea, Tul. the insertion of branches (Jeffrey) Claw, the narrowed base of the petals Cladostro'ma J (arpwixa, something in such plants as Dianthus. spread), a receptacle or growing- Cleft, cut half-way down ; —graft'ing, point covered with carpels, each of insertion of a scion in a cleft made which has a free placenta. in the stock.

Clamp-cells, small semicircular hollow Cleis'tocaip (/cXeio-TAs, shut ; Kapros, protuberances, laterally attached fruit), an ascocarp, which is com- to the walls of two adjoining hypha- pletely closed, the spores escaping 54 ; ; = ;

cleistocarpouB Coalitio

by rupture, a cleistotheoium ; oleis- '~' Bundles, as described, so that in- tocarp'ous, applied to those Mosses crease is prevented '~ Fertlliza'tion whose capsules do not open by a =Close FERTiLizATiON;~Flow'ers, lid oleistogam'io, ; cleistog'anious are cleistogamic Flowers ; - Nu'- (yi-l^oi, marriage), with close fertil- oleus, that of the higher plants. ization, it taking place within the Clo'sing Mem'brane, the original un-

unopened flowers ; Clelstog'amy, thiokened cell-wall at the centre the condition described ; Cleis'tog- of a pit. ene (7e;'os, offspring), a plant which Clo'ster, Glo'sWwm (/cXwo-rr/p, a spindle), bears cleistogamous flowers (Cro- elongated cells, pointed at each end,

zier) ; Clejstog'eny, bearing cleisto- frequent in wood.

gamic flowers ; adj. cleistog'enous oloud'ed, when colours are ; unequally Pseudo~; Hanagirg's term for an blended. intermediate condition, the flowers Clove, a 's name for a young being normal, but not opening, and bulb developed round the mother- taking place within the bulb, as in garlic.

closed perianth ; Cleistothe'oium Club, a plurioellular hair, one of the {SiJKTj, a caae), an asoocarp which elements of the pulp of the orange

remains closed till decay or rupture or lemon fruit (Crozier) ; club- sets free the asoospores, a cleisto- shaped, gradually thickened up- carp Clest'ines, ; large parenchyma- ward from a slender base, clavate ; tous cells in which raphides are Club-root, malformation in Cruci- frequently deposited. fers caused by Plasmodiophora

Climacortai'zae (KXr/ta|, a ladder, ^/{"a, a Brassicae, Woron. ; Clubb'iJig, is a root). Van Tieghem's term for Gym- synonym. nosperms and all Dicotyledons ex- Clus'ter, (1) old name for raceme, as Hill cept the Nymphaeaceae, their root- used by John ; (2) J Vascular

hairs having an epidermal origin. Bundle ; clust'ered, compactly Cli'mbing, ascending by using other gathered together, as the flower of objects as supports. Guscvia.

Clinand'rium (KXiv-q, a bed ; d.vT]p, cly'peate, clypea'tus {dypeiis, a round avSpoi, a man), the anther-bed in shield), buckler or shield-shaped Orchids, that part of the column in clypeastriform'is (forma, shape), clypeola'rlB, oly'peiform, dypei- which the anther is concealed ; Clinanth'ium (acSos, a flower), the form'ia, all denote shield-shaped.

receptacle in Compositae ; Clinid'- ooaceiVate, coacerva'tus (Lat., heaped ium, the stalk supporting a stylo- up), clustered. (coadunatus, spore ; Clinosporang'ium (o-tto/jo, a coad'nate, coadna'tus into one) (1) an equiva- seed ; 0776101', a-vessel), a synonym gathered ; cohering of Ptcnidium ; Cli'nospore = Stylo- lent of ADNATE ; (2) ; (3)

spore ; CU'nium, (1) the receptacle connate. coaeta'neous [coaetaneo, to be of the of a Composite flower ; (2) the appearing at sporophore of some Fungi ; Cli'nos- same age), existing or tat = KLINOSTAT. the same time. clock'wise = dextrorse. Coales'cence {cocUesco, to grow to- growing to- Clona'rium % (kKHiv, a little branch), gether), the act of the ripe, spiral-coated nucule of gether; '~ of Cells, the absorption Chara. or disappearance of partitioning Close Fertlliza'tion, fecundation by its cell-walls, as in the formation of coaleac'ena, own pollen. vessels ; coalea'oent, closed, used of those fibro-vascular union by growth. bundles in which all the pro-cam- Coallt'io {cocUitvs, fellowship), the the bium cells becomepermanent tissue growth together of parts, as 55 ; =

coalitus Coenocyte

coalescence of petals causes that (1) part of a sehizocarp or lobed applied condition ; adj. coal'ltus. fruit; (2) Coccus is also ooarc'tate, coarcta'tua (Lat., pressed to the rounded bacteria. spoon), a together), crowded together ; Coarc'- Cochlea {cochlea, a snail or

ture, Coarctu'ra, Grew's term for closely coiled ; coch'lear,

the neck or collum, the junction cochlea' ris ; (1) spoon-shaped ; (2) of root and stem at the level of the used of a form of imbricate aesti- ground. vation with one piece exterior coch/eariform'is, Coat, the successive layers of a bulb ; cochlear'iform, coat'ed, occurring in layers, usually spoon-shaped ; Coehlidiosperm'ataj of varying consistence, as the bark (airkpiia., seed), seeds convex on one ~ other, from of a tree, the rind of fruits, etc. ; side, concave on the Bulh, a tunicated bulb. unequal growth or anomalous coaz'ial [co for con, vpith, and axis, an structure ; coch'leate, cocUea'tus, axle), parallel with the axis, or shell-shape, in the manner of a having a common axis. snail-shell.

Cob, the spike of . Cod, = a seed pod ; cod'like, follicu- cobalti'nus (Mod. Lat.), the colour of lar ; Cod'ware, an old word for cobalt, a light blue, azure. pulse. cob'webbed, cob'webby, entangled Code'ime (KiiSeia, a poppy-head), an with fine filaments, arachnoid. alkaloid in the poppy. Cocc'i, pi. of Oocous. cocks'combed, fasoiated (Crozier). Coccid'ium t (m/c/ros, a kernel or berry) codlophyll'us (/cciSiov, a fleece; ifivWov,

=Cystocab,p ; cocclf 'erous (fero, I a leaf ), when a leaf is covered with bear), bearing berries. a woolly pubescence. cocciform'is (coccum, kermes, forma, Coelosperm'ae (koiXos, hollow; airepixa, shape), used by Koerber to denote a seed), plants whose seeds have

Lichen spores shaped like the albumen curved at the ends ; coelo- kermes, or insect which affords the sperm'ous, coelosperm'us, hoUow-

scarlet dye from Quercvs cocci/era, seeded ; used for the seed-like

Linn. ; coccinell'us, light scarlet in carpels of Umbelliferae, with

colour ; coccin'eus, scarlet, with a ventral face incurved at the top

tendency towards carmine. and bottom, as in coriander ; coccochromat'ic (ko/ckos, a berry Coenanth'ium [dpBos, a flower) = Xpw/na, colour), colour distributed Clinanthiitm. in granular patches, aa in some Coe'nobe Coe n opium. diatoms, placochromatic {koi.v6^i.ov, cf. ; Coeno'bium a cloister) ; (1) Cocco'des, spherical granulations the same as Carcebule ; (2) a resembling pills ; Coe'oogone, Gocco- colony of independent organisms go'nium (yorfi, offspring), a propaga- united by a common investment, as tive cell of the nature of a sporan- Volvox, Pandorina, etc.; (3) fruits gium in Cyanophyceae ; coco' old, such as those of Labiates, consisting applied to amorphous colonies of of distinct lobes but not terminated propagative cells in Nostoc (Sauva- with a stigma; sometimes spelled geau) ; Coc'colith (\£9os, stone), con- Cenobium, etc.; adj. coeuo'biar,

stituent plates of CoooosPHBEES ; coenobia'ris, coenobio'Tieus ; coeno'- Coc'cosphere [a(jiatpa, a sphere), bioid (elSos, resemblance), like a spherical masses of protoplasmic coenobiura. origin, bearing cocooliths on their Coenoclad'ia (koivos, in common ; external surface, Coccosphaera KKddos, a branch), natural grafting, leptopora, G. Murr. & Blackm. ; where branches have grown to-

Coc'cule, Ooc'cvlum, a portion of a gether ; Coen'ocyte (ksJtos, a vessel), divided Coccus ; Coc'cus, Goc'cum, an aggregation of protoplasmic 56 ;;

coenopodus CoUeter

units (energids) enclosed in a com- underground portion of the axis mon wall, as in Vaucheria ; coeno- (2) the annulus in Agarics. p'odUS, =COINOPODUS. CoUa're J (Lat., a collar) = Ligule. coerviles'cens, coeru'leiw, = oaerulbs- coUat'eral {col-lattro, to admit on OBNS, CABRULEUS. sides), both standing side by side ; ooesms = CABSius. ~ Bun'dles, those having a single coeta'neous, of the same age, existing strand of bast and wood, side by

at the same time ; also spelled side, and usually in the same

COABTANBOUS. radius ; bicollatebal Bundles are Coeto'nium {KoiTdiv, a bed-chamber), a variation on this type, having two the outer glumes of a multifloral of one element to one of the other ; spikelet in grasses (Trinius). ~ Chor'isis, see Chokisis. coffea'tus (Mod. Lat.), the colour of collect'ing {coUect'io, a gathering to- roasted coffee-berries, Cofea ara- gether) Cells, are roundish cells, bica, Linn. destitute of chlorophyll and densely colie'ient,cohe'rens,coi.e'iine{cohaereo, filled with protoplasm ; in German " '~ I cleave to) ; (1) the act of Cobe'sion, Sammenzellen ; Hairs, hairs the incorporation of one part with on the styles of some Compositae another, as the petals to form a serving to collect the pollen on its

tubular corolla ; (2) adherent. discharge from the anthers ; col- Co'liort, Co'hoTs (Lat., a band of lect'ive Fruits, the aggregation of soldiers), a group of orders, forming the fruits of several flowers into an Alliance. one mass, such as the mulberry coinop'odus J (kolvottovs, with common CoUect'ors, Oollector'es, the hairs of foot), terminating downwards in a certain styles, as in Campanula,

cone, as most ; Lindley also which collect or brush out the

spells it coenop'odus. pollen from the anthers ; Of. Col- Cololi'icine, an alkaloid yielded by lecting Hairs.

Colchicum autumnale, Linn. Collench'yma (/co\Xa, glue ; ?7xi;a«i, Colench'yma = Collenchtma. an infusion); (1) parenchymatous cells cellulose usually Coreogen (/coXeos, a sheath ; yevvda, I with walls bring forth), a ring-shaped group elongated, forming strands of great of cells, surrounding the mestome strength under theepidermis, thick- etc. cel- of Didcsonia, etc. (Haberlandt) ; ening in angles, ; (2) the Coleopliyll'uin (

ceeding leaves ; Coleop'tilum [tttIXov, form in some plants as in Orchids,

a feaoher) = Coleophyllum ; Coleo- or delicate threads, as in

rlii'za (/5^fa, a root), the sheath of (Lindley) ; Bast ~, thickening a monoootyledoDous embryo, when chiefly involving the whole wall all pierced by the true radicle ; adj. Cart'ilage '~, walls thickened

ooleorhiza'tus ; Col'esule, Goles'via ; round with sharply differentiated

(1) a membranous bag-like organ inner lamella ; Meta- " caused by enclosing the sporangium of Hepa- slow death of cell, and metamor-

ticae, the perichaetial sheath, usu- phosis of the cell-wall ; Plate ~ , a ally termed the Vaginule. form which resembles the true hard of wall Collap'sion, Oollap'sio {Lat., falling to- bast ; Eift ~ , portion gether), the act of closing or falling bordering on an intercellular space together. alone thickened. the CoU'et= Collar. Coll'ax, Goll'um (Lat., neck) ; (1) "neck" of a plant, the imaginary CoUe'ter (/coXXijTds, glued), mucila- boundary between the above- and ginous hairs on the buds of 57 ;; ;;

colUculose Commissure

many phanerogams which secrete which the carpels of some fruits gum. are arranged as in Oeranium; (2) colUc'ulose, collicvlo'8US (coUiculus, a the axis of the capsule in Mosses ; little hill), covered with little round (3) the receptacle bearing the spor- elevations or hillocks. angia of Trichomanes, and other coniferous {collum, a collar), bear- Ferns; (4) the central portion of ing a collar, as the stipe of an the anther in Solanaoeae (Halsted)

Agaric ; Colliform'e {forma, shape), (5) a sterile axial body within the

an ostiole, the orifice being length- sporangium of Fungi ; colmnel'li- ened into a neck. form [forma, shape), shaped like a colliga'tus (Lat., fastened together), small pillar or column. collected (8. F. Gray). Corumn, Colum'na (Lat. a pillar), the coUi'nuB (Lat., appertaining to a hill), combination of stamens and styles growing on low hills. into a solid central body, as in

Col'lum ; (Lat. neck) ; (1) the collar or Orchids colum'nar, columna'ris, of neck a plant, see Collak ; (2) having the form of a column, as the lengthened orifice of the ostiole the stamens of Malva. of Lichens. com. In Latin composition, a modifica-

Col'loids (toXXo, glue ; eXoos resem- tion of con, with. blance), substances of a gelatinous Co'ma (Lat. the hair) ; (1) the hairs at

character ; opposed to crystalloid the of the tuft ; end some seeds ; (2) adj. colloidal. at the summit of the inflorescence, colo'nial (colonia, a band of settlers), as in the pineapple ; (3) the entire

in cell-division, every cell depend- head of a tree ; co'mal Tuft, a tuft ent on the other cells of the organ- of leaves at the tip of a branch

ism at large (Hartog) ; Col'onlst, co'mate, coma'tus, tufted.

H. C. Watson's - term for weeds of combina'te veno'sus J (Lat. ), joined the cultivated land and about veins, when in a leaf the lateral houses, seldom found elsewhere veins unite before reaching the Col'ony, see Coenobium. margin. colorific [color, colour, /acio, I make), comb-shaped, pectinate. applied to those Lichens which combi'ned Hy'bridB, hybrids hav- yield a dye. ing the strain of more than two Col'our, col'oured, possessing any tint species, as one arising from a but green, technically white is re- simple hybrid + another hybrid or garded as a colour, green is not species.

col'ourless, pale, and hyaline ; in Com'bUB, used by S. F. Gray for CoR- Lichens, not brown. MUS, for which it is probably a mis- Colpenoh'yma [K6\iros, bosom ; (yxviia, print. an infusion), cellular tissue with Com'ites (pi. of comes, a companion), sinuous cell-walls. Hegelmaier's term for certain cells Colum X (Lat. a strainer) = Placenta. occurring in the embryo-sac of columhi'nus (Lat. ), dove-coloured Lupimis. sometimes used for the tint of a commen'sal (com=con, with ; meiisa, a blue pigeon. table), used of two organisms living Col'umel [columella, a small pillar), in mutual beneficent relations, as Jaccard's term for lignified tissue in the dual-lichen theory, where the formed in place of the fertilized Fungus stimulates the host-Algae archegonium, it bears at its extrem- to greater energy of function ity the privileged embryo, the only Commen'salism, the state in ques- one which develops, as in Ephedra tion. helvetica, C. A. Mey. ; Columel'la Com'missure, Gommissu'ra (Lat., a (1) a persistent central axis round joint or seam), the face by which 58 ;

common compound

two carpels adhere, as in Um- face east and west, the edges north belliferae. and south, such as SilpMum lacinia- com'mon, (Lat. commu'nis), general or turn, Linn.

principal, aa opposed to partial ; ~ comp'ital (compita'lis, pertaining to Bud, containing both leaves and cross roads) in venation when the flowers, or more than "- one flower ; veinlets angularly intersect ; also Bun'dles, those which are common when the sori are on the point of both to stem and leaf, being con- junction. tinuous from ^ one to the other ; com'planate, complana'tus (Lat. Ca'lyx = t Involucre ; ~ Involu'cre, levelled), flattened, compressed. that belonging to the main inflor- complete', coTwpUtus (Lat. filled), hav- escence, as of the general ing all the parts belonging to it or ~Name, one in popular use for a the type. plant, exclusive of the scientific Com'plex, (Lat.), interwoven fibres, ~ name ; Ped'uncle, the main stalk, or group of complicated parts when it supports several subordin- (Crozier). complex'us (Lat. em-

ate ones, or pedicels ; ~ Per'iantli, braced), in vernation when a leaf is occasionally used by the involucre folded over another at the sides and

as in Compositae ; ~ Pet'iole, the apex ; ~ cellulo'sus (Lat.), = cellular first and principal leaf-stalk in com- tissue; ~ memhrana'ceus, (Lat.), pound leaves, the secondary petioles elementary membrane, ground- ' ~- being termed ' partial " ; Recept'- tissue ;.~ tuhula'ris, (Lat.), woody

acle, that which supports more than tissue, xylem ; ~ utricula'rls (Lat.), one organ; ~ Um'bel, = — compound angular cellular tissue ; vas-

Umbel. cula'ris (Lat. ), spiral vessels, some- commu'nis (Lat.), growing in society ; times used for small vessels showing

not common, which is rendered by secondary deposits ; complexi'vus vulgaris. = COMPLEXUS. co'mose, como'siis (Lat. with much oom'plicate, complica'tus [compUco, I hair) tufted, comate. fold together), folded upon itself. compact', compact'tts (Lat.), closely Gomposit'iaa^composit'io (Lat. ,putting joined or pressed together. together), the combination of parts Compan'ion-Cells, in Phanerogams, to form the whole, as of subordinate cells which are associated with parts to form an organ, or elements sieve-tubes and are of common to form a substance. origin, filled with granular proteid com'pound, similar parts aggregated -- contents, and possessing strongly into a common whole ; Cor'ymb,

marked nuclei ; '- Hyphae {i4>ii, a one having more than one flower to

web), the tip of the triohogyne of each branch ; ~ Dicha'sium, that in Polystigma passing through a stoma which the primary axis divides into

into the air is accompanied by secondary dichasia ; — Flow'er, an slender mycelial hyphae, which accumulation of florets as in the form a tuft, the so-called companion Compositae, Anthodium; ~ Fruit, hyphae (De Bary). where many distinct carpels are '- Compa'go, pi. Compa'gines (Lat. a associated, as in the mulberry ; connection), used by Wallroth in Fung:us-body, growth form in which speaking of the Lichen-thallus the thallus is constituted by the when more or less brittle or readily coherence of separate hyphal rami- '~ parting into layers ; compaglna'tua fications ; Hairs, branched or rami- <- Inflores'cence, (Lat. ) packed closely one over an- fied hairs ; where other. an inflorescence is itself composed

Com'pass-plants, those which! place of secondary ones ; >-' Leaf, one their leaves so that their surfaces divided into separate blades ; '- 59 ;; ; ;

compound confervoid

O'vary, an ovary having more than concin'uus (Lat.), neat, elegant. one carpel; ~ PistU, two or more concolor'ous, con'color (Lat., of one carpels ooalescent into one body colour), uniform in tint. attending), z-' Kaceme', = PAfricLS ; /- Spike, concom'itant (concom'itans, occurring frequently on grasses, used of vascular bundles which run when the inflorescence is made up side by side without being separ- bundles. of spikes; ^ Spore, = Spobidesm ; ated by other ~ Spor'ophore, formed by cohesion Concresc'ence [concresco, to grow to- concrete of the ramifications of separate gether) ; (1) becoming hyphal branches, Ger. Fruohtkor- (2) a, synonym of Cementation ; concrete', concre'tus, growing to- per ; ~ Stem, one that is branched ; ~Um'bel, an association of simple gether. umbels, each ray being itself an Conduct'ing Bun'dles, strands of elon- umbel. gated cells in leaves and even the compress'ed, com/preas'us (Lat. pressed stems of Mosses, simulating a vas-

together), flatteneii, complanate cular bundle ; also used for Vascular

compressis'simus (Lat.) excessively Bundles ; ~ Cells, long narrow cells, flattened. associated with sieve-tubes, but con (Lat. with), modified by euphony having imperforate walls '~ Sheath, frequently into com—both meaning elongated parenchymatous cells " with " in Latin compounds. in the inner cortex of the stem, concat'enate, concateiia'tus (Lat. linked continued into the leaves as an in-

together), joined as links in a chain, vestiture of the vascular bundle ; ~ as strings of spores, or frustules of Tissue, a loose tissue of the style Diatoms. through which the pollen-tubes can

Concaulesc'ence (con, with ; caulis, readily make their way ; Conduc- stem), the coalescence of axes. t'lve-Tissue is the same. con'cave, conca'vits (Lat. hollowed out), condu'plicans (Lat., doubling), doub- hollow, as the inside of a saucer. ling up as, conduplicant'ia Fo'lia,

con'centrate (con, with ; centrum, the leaflets of a compound leaf which centre), to bring to a common apply themselves to each other's

centre ; conoen'trio, having a com- surfaces ; condu'plicate, conduplica-

mon centre ; -- Bun'dles, where one ti'vus, folded together lengthwise ; element is wholly surrounded by Condupllca'tlon, in sestivation when the others, as the xylem by the the sides of an organ are applied

phloem ; ~ Vasc'ular-bun'dle is the to each other by their faces. same. Condyl'ium % (k6vSv\os, a knuckle), the Concep'taole, Ooncepta'cidum (Lat. a antheridium of Chara. receptacle), (1) originally used by Cone, Oo'nus (Ijat.), the fruit of the

Linnaeus to express Follicle ; (2) pine or fir tree with scales form-

afterwards for the fruit of Ascle- ing a Steobilb ; ~ of Growth, the

piads and Apocyneae ; (3) a hollow apical growing portion of the stem. case covering the sexual organs in Conench'yma (kiIivos, a cone ; ^Txn/iu,

some Algae ; (4) the peridium of an infusion), conical cells which Fungi the capsule (if Mosses constitute hairs (Lindley). ; (5) ; (6) by Medicua, following Jung, confert'ed, confert'us (Lat. brought to-

used for pericarp ; (7) now a general gether), closely packed or crowded. expression for a superficial cavity conferru'minate, cmiferrumina'tiM opening outwards, within which (Lat., cemented), adherent by ad- reproductive cells are produced. jacent faces, as the cotyledons of conoh'iform, conchiform'is (concha, a Horse Chestnut.

shell ; forma, shape), shaped like confer'vold, composed of threads, re- the shoU of a bivalve. sembling the genus Conferva. 60 ; ;

confluent Conocarpium

con'fluent, ccm'fluens (Lat., flowing mass of spores ; Coniothe'ca J (S^kt;, into), blended into one, passing by case), the looulus of an anther. degrees one into the other ; ~ Fruit, Conjoint Bun'dle, a vascular bundle a compound fruit, such as the mul- when it is composed of wood and berry or pineapple. bast elements conformed', conform'is (Lat., shaped) con'Jugate, conjuga'tus (Lat., united), (1) similar inform; (2) closely fit- coupled ; as a pinnate leaf, of two ting, as a seed-coat to the nucellus. leaflets : ~ Spl'rals, whorled leaves so Con'gener (Lat. of the same race), arranged as to give two or more gen- another plant of the same genus etic spirals running parallel with congeuer'io, belonging to the same each other ; Conjuga'tiug Tubes, genus. long processes emitted by the fer- congenital (congenitus, born together), tilized trichophore in certain Algae,

grown to anything ; strictly, of the which unite with the auxiliary origin. same cells (Osterhout) ; Conjuga'tion, the Conge'ries (Lat., a heap), a collection fusion of sexual elements, the union of parts or organs. of two gametes to form a , congested, congeat'us (Lat., brought used especially when the two together), crowded. gametes are similar, as in some

conglo'bate, congloba'tus (Lat., made Algae and : Fungi — -Cell = Gamete ; like a ball), collected into a ball. oonjuga'to-paJm'ate, when a leaf conglom'erate, conglomera'tiis (Lat., divides into two arms, each of rolled together), clustered. which is palmate. Conglu'tin {coTiglutinatiia, cemented conjunc'tive {conjunctiviis, joined), -- together), a constituent of plant- serving to unite ; Threads, =

casein, usually with legumin ; con- Spindle Fibres; ~ Tis'sue, the glu'tinate, conglutina'tiis, as though fundamental tissue or

glued together. interior to the stele ; Conjunctor'ium con'gregate (cotigrego, to assemble), t the operculum of a Moss.

collected into close proximity. connas'cent, {con, with ; nascor, to be Co'nia (Kiiiieiov, hemlock), the active born), produced at the same time principle of maculatum, (Crozier).

Linn. , a poisonous alkaloid. con'nate, conna'tus (Lat., bom at the con'ical, con'icus (Lat., cone-shaped), same time), united, oongenitally or

having the figure of a cone, as the subsequently ; con'nate-perfo'liate, carrot. united at the base in pairs around

conldiiferous {kSvi.!, dust ; (popiw, I the supporting axis.

carry), bearing Conidia ; Conid'i- Conneot'ing Cell, {cminectus, fastened

ophore = Gonidiophorb ; Conid'io- together) = Heteeootst ; ^ Zone, the " " spore {a-iropa, a seed) = Conidium ; hoop or girdln connecting the

Con'ids, simplification proposed by valves of a Diatom frustule ; Con- nect'ive, Gonnecti' vum, the Bennett and Murray for CoNlDiA ; portion Conid'imn (pi. Conidia) = Gonidia. of a stamen distinct from the fila- I bear), ment which connects the two lobes Coniferin {conus, a cone ; fero, a glucoside derived from coniferous of an anther ; oonnectiva'liB, having

wood ; coniferous, producing or to do with the connective.

bearing cones, as many Gymno- conni'vent, conni'vens (Lat. , winking), = coming into contact or converging. sperms ; co'nlform {forma, shape) COUIOAL. Connu'bium, (Lat., wedlock), the Co'niin, Co'nein, the same as Conia. stage of protoplasmic coalescence Con'locyBt', Coniooyst'a (/coVis, dust in the conjugation of filamentous Kiant, a bag), a closed sporangium Algae. resembling a tubercule,containing a Conocarp'ium {Kctivos, a cone ; Kapiros 61 ;;; ;

conoid conTOlutlve

fruit), an aggregate fruit consisting contex'tua (Lat., wrought together) = of many fruits on a conical re- TiSSl'E.

ceptacle, as the strawberry ; oo'- contig'uous, contig'uus (Lat., adjoin-

noid (elSos, resemblance), cone-like ; ing), when neighbouring parts are conoi'dal, conoida'lis, resembling a in contact, as mo^t cotyledons. conical iigure, but not truly one, contin'gent {contingeTW, touching)

as the calyx of Silene coiwidea, Symbio'sis, see Symbiosis ; in Ger.

Linn. ; Conopo'dium (ttoOs, ttoSos, a Raumparasitiemus. foot), a conical iioral receptacle contia'uous [continuum, running on),

Conostro'ma J (o-Tpfi/io, spread out), the reverse of interrupted ; Con- Endlioher's term for a growing tinu'ity, uninterrupted connection.

point, constituting a free central contort'ed, contor'tus ( Lat. ), twisted or

placenta. bent ; in aestivation the same as Conservative Or'gans {conservatio, a CONVOLUTE; Contor'tion, a twisting; keeping), those which are employed contortu'plicate,(pKcaiM«, woven) (1) root, leaves. In nutrition, as stem, twisted and plaited or folded ; (2) consim'ilar {ccmaimUis, entirely alike), twisted back upon itself. applied to the valves of a Diatom, contra, in Latin compounds = against.

when both sides are alike ; Con- contraot'ed, contracl'iLs (Lat.) nar-

simdl'ltude, resemblance of the two rowed or shortened ; spreading but

valves, unequal but similar, of the slightly ; contract'ile, capable of Epitheca and Hypotheca. actively shrinking in volume and consol'idated {consoUdo, I make firm) expanding again, used of proto- when unlike parts are coherent r- (1) plasm ; Vac'uoleB, small cavities in (2) Crozier adds, having a small protoplasm, which increase and

surface in proportion to bulk as decrease in size rhythmically ; Con- many Cacti. tractU'ity, the capacity of altering Con'sortism {consors, sharing pro- spontaneously in volume. perty), Reinke's term for Symbiosis. con'traxy, contra'rius (Lat.), in an oon'stant {constans, steadfast), in the opposite direction, as a silicle com- same condition, or always present. pressed contrary to the dissepi- constrict'ed [constrictus, compressed), ment. drawn together, contracted. Control', frequently used in the sense Constrio'tion {constriciio, binding to- of the English word Check, as — gether), the narrowest portion of Experiments, to check the original Diatoms and Desmids seen from observation.

the side. Co'nus (Lat. ) = Cone, Stbobilb. Construct'ive Metab'ollsm, = Assimi- converg'ent (con, with ; vergens, bend- lation. ing), applied to veins which run consu'tus, (Lat., stitched together), from the base to the apex of the when parts are united by a mem- leaf in a curved manner ; oonverg'i- brane of threads. ner'vls, -vlus, convergen'ti-nervo'- Contatiesc'ence (contahesco, to waste sus (Lat.), simple veins diverging away), the abortive condition of from the midrib and converging stamens and pollen. towards the margin. eonta'gious (contagio, touch), used of con'vex, convex'tis (Lat. arched), hav- diseases when communicable by ing a more or less rounded surface touch ; c/., infectious. convexiusc'ulus, somewhat convex. contemato'sus t (deriv. ?) covered by con'volute, convolu'tus (Lat. rolled

an armature between bristly and round), convoln'tive, convoluti'vus : aculeate (Lindley). (1) when one part is wholly rolled conter'minous [conterminus, neigh- up in another, as the petals of the bouring) of equal boundaries. Wallflower ; (2) in a spathe when 62 coppery- Corolla

the margins mutually envelope coria'ceous, coria'cevs (coWMm,leather), each other. leathery. cop'pery, brownish red, with a metal- Cork, protective tissue replacing the

lic lustre ; cupreous. epidermis in older superficial parts oop'pleing, in , cropping the of plants ; the outer cells contain plantation by cutting the under- air, and are elastic and spongy in wood every few years. texture, but impervious to liquids ;

Cop'rophyte (Kowpos, ordure ; fjyvrov, ~ Cambium = Phbllogen ; ~ Cortex, plant) = Saprophyte. the corky layers of the bark ; ~ Copula'tion (copidatio, coupling), Mer'istem, = used Phbllogen ; Pore- for Conjugation, the union of oork, suberised portion of lenticels, sexual cells. with intercellular spaces between

Cop'ulae (pi. of copvXa, a thong or the cork-cells (Klebahn) ; cork'y, band), intermediate bands of cell- of the texture or quality of cork ; wall in Diatoms, as in Terpsinoe, ~ Env'elope, <- Lay'er, the bast

etc. ; cop'ulative J, dissepiments not layer beneath the epidermis which readily separating from the axis or gives rise to cork. walls of the pericarp. Corm, Corm'us {Kopjios, a trunk), a bulb- Coque (Fr. shell), used by S. F. Gray like fleshy stem or base of stem, a " " for Coccus. solid bulb ; Connog'aiaae [yip-os, Cor se'minis J (Lat.)= Embryo. marriage), Ardissone's division for oorao'inus (Lat., raven-black), glossy Characeae and Musciueae ; cormo- black. g'enous {yhos, offspring), having a cor'acold {Kbpa^, a raven ; etSos, resem- stem or corm ; Corm'ophyte (

shape), coral-like in form ; cor'al- a horny texture. lold, coralloi'dea (rfSos, resemblance), Cor'net (cornu, a horn), a hollow

coral-like, as the roots of Neottia horn-like growth ; ~ shape, cucuUi-

Nidus-avie, Rich. form, hooded ; comic'ulate, corni-

Cor'ole (Crozier) ; Cor'cule, Cor'cvlum cvlatus (Lat.), furnished with a

(Lat. a little heart) = (1) embryo; little horn or horns ; ooniiculifer- (2) plumule, or plumule and radicle. ous, -rus {Je.ro, I bear), bearing

Cord, umbili'cal=FuNicuLus. horns or protuberances ; cor'nifonn oor'date,cor(ia'

cor'dlform, cordiform'is (Lat. ), Cor'nu (Lat. a horn), (1) a horn-like

shaped like a heart. process ; (2) occasionally used for eord'shape = ruNiLiFORM. Calcar or Spur ; cor'nute, comu'tus,

Core, the seeds and integuments of a horned or spurred ; ^ Leaves, a pome, such as an apple ; Grew sudden projection of the midrib spells it " Coar." forming a spine-like outgrowth, core'mial {KSpri/m, a broom), like the often in a different plane ; Cor- genus Coremium, Link; core'mioid nu'tim, a poisonous body derived (elSos, resemblance), applied to a from ergot, the " spur" of rye and fasciated form as of Penicillium, etc. other grasses. Cor^eses (Kopn, a bug), " dark red, Corol (Crozier) = CoiioLLA.

broad, discoid bodies, found beneath Corolla (Lat. a little crown) ; (1) the the epicarp of grapes " (Lindley). interior perianth, composed of 63 +; -;;

corollaceous corymbose

petals, the Corpus'cle {corpusculum, a small free or united ; (2) J

annulus of Fungi ; coroUa'ceous ( body), a small mass or body ; Cor-

aceous) ooroUa-like, petaloid; cor'ol- pusc'ula (sing. Corpusculum) ; (1)

late, coroUa'tus, corolla'ris, pos- sporangia of some Fungi ; (2) arche-

sessing a corolla ; Cor'ollet, a floret gonium, or the central cell of the

of ; oorolliferous, same in Coniferae the connec- a Composite ; (3)

-rtis [fero, I bear), corolla-bearing ; tions between the arms of the corolliflor'al {flos, floris, a flower), pollen-masses in Asclepiads ; ~ ooroUiaor'ous, -nis, having the vermiform'la, spiral vessels in a calyx, petals and ovary inserted contracted, strangled condition. separately on the disk, the stamens oor'rugate, corruga'tus ; comigati'TUS

on the corolla ; cor'oUiiie, coroKi'ntts, (Lat.), wrinkled. (1) seated on a corolla, (2) corolla- Cor'sican Moss, dried Algae. like, petaloid, belonging to (Lat.), (3) a Cor'tex (1) the bark or rind ;

corolla; Cor'ollule, Corollu'la ; (1) a the ground tissue between the stele diminutive of corolla ; (2) floret a and epidermis ; (2) the peridium of

head, as in Compositae. Fungi ; cor'tical, cortica'lis, relating

Coro'na (Lat. a crown); (1) a coronet, to the cortex ; ~ Lay'er ; " Integ'u- any body which intervenes between ment, the investing layers of the

the aoroUa and stamens ; (2) J the bast system ; ~ Rays, = medullary " " of '~' eye apples or pears, the re- rays in the phloem ; Sheath, Naeg-

mains of the calyx limb ; (3) J the eli's term for the whole of the ray of the capitula in Compositae primary bast ^ ; bundles ; Stra'tum, (4) a whorl of ligules or petals, the superficial layer of the Lichen-

united or free ; (5) a synonym of thallus; cor'ticate, cortica'tiis (La,t.),

CucuLUJS ; (6) used by Hill for the covered with bark, or with an acces- " , or circle of propaga- sory bark-like covering ; corticif " tion ; (7) the ring of primary wood erous (/ero, I bear), producing bark;

in the medullary sheath ; ~ Se'miiiis oortic'iform {forma, shape), like

= Pappus ; ~ stamin'ea, = Orbiculus, bark ; cortlo'olous {colo, I inhabit), a coronet formed from the trans- living on bark, as some Lichens and

formation of stamens ; cor'onal, ap- Fungi ; cor'ticose, cor'tioous, barky, pertaining to a corona, as ~ Vessels, full of bark.

those of the corona ; coro'nans (Lat. ), Corti'na (Late Lat. a curtain), the fila-

crowning, seated on the apex ; ooi^- mentous annuli of some Agarics onate, corona'tus (Lat.), crowned, oor'tinate, cortina'rius (Lat.), hav-

having a corona : ooro'mform, coro- ing a web-like texture. niform'is {forma, shape), shaped corvl'nus (Late Lat. pertaining to the

like a crown or coronet ; Cor'onet raven), raven-black. = Coro'nule, Corona ; Gormi'ula ; Coryd'alin, an alkaloid present in the (1) a diminutive of corona, a floret root of Gorydalis tuberosa, DC. ; (2)=Papptjs; (3) the small calyx- ooryd'aJlne, corydalin'eus, resem- like body which crowns the nucule bling the genus Oorydaiis. of Ohara ; (4) in Diatoms, a set of Cor'ymb, Gorymh'iis (Lat. a cluster of spines which terminate the frustules. flowers), a flat-topped or merely Cor'pora (pi. of corpus, a body) car- convex and open flower-cluster of no'sa (Lat. fleshy), the sporangia of the indeterminate or centripetal certain Fungi ; Cor'pus, the mass or order ; the term, as now understood, substance of anything ; ^ lig'neum, formerly included most cymes ~ ligno'sum, the mass of the woody cor'ymhate, 'lated, having

tissue of a plant ; ^ medulla're, or growing in corymbs ; the mass of the cellular tissue in corymhiferous, -rus {fero, I bear), pith. the bearing corymbs ; cor'ymbose. 64 ; ; =

corymbous Cremocarp

corymbo'siis ; oorym'bous, arranged sibly a sister-cell of the embryo

in corymbs ; corymb'ulose, -lous, in sac. small corymbs. Comu'arin, the fragrant principle of Coryiiid'ia(/copi}»'r;, a club), "Processes the Tonquin bean, Dipteryx sunk into the margin of the ger- odorata, Sw. minating leaf of Ferns, and con- Cou'ple-oell, Hartog's term for Zygote. taining spiral threads" (Lindley) Cour'baril, a resin from Hymenaea

[ = Antheridia?]. CourbarU, Linn. Coryphyll'y (ko/pu^^, the crown of the Cov'er Operculum.

head ; ((>tiXKoj', a leaf), a monstrosity Cov'er-cell, of Hepaticae, the apical in which the axis ends in a leaf, cells of the neck of a young arche-

sometimes coloured. gonium (Campbell) ; cover-like = Cosmop'olite (ititr/ios, cov'ering = the world OPEECULAKIS ; vbxil- TriXis, a city), a plant of well- LABis — Plate, in Ferns, see Steg-

nigh universal distribution ; cos- MATA of Mettenius. mopol'itan, distributed throughout cowled=cccuLLATE (Crozier). the world. cra'dling=iNVOLVBNTiA (folia). Cos'ta (Lat.), a rib, when single, a Cram'pon (Fr.), hooks or adventitious

midrib or middle-nerve ; cos'tal- roots, which act as supports, as in nerved, nerves springing from the ivy. midrib; cos'tate, costa'tus (Lat.), craspedod'romons, -mus {Kpd<7iredov,

ribbed, having one or more primary a border ; Spofios, a course), when

longitudinal veins ; costa'to-veno'- the lateral veins of a leaf run from sus, when the parallel side veins midrib to margin without dividing, of a feather-veined leaf are much crass'us (Lat.), thick. stouter than those which inter- Crate'ra [Kpariip, a cup), a cup-shaped

vene ; cos'taeform (forma, shape), receptacle ; crate'rifoim, crateri- applied by J. Smith for primary form'is [forma, shape), goblet or veins in ferns when parallel to each cup-shaped, hemispheric or shallow

other and very evident ; Cost'ulae, in contour. used by the same author for the Crab, a disease of the larch, due to the primary veins of Fern-segments mycelium of Peziza Willkommii, ; costel'late, having small ribs. Hartig. oratic'ular (cralicula, a small grid- Cot'ton, the hairs of the Cotton-pod ; cot'tony, pubescence of long soft iron), a resting condition of hair. Diatomaoeae, in which a pair of Cotyle'don (KorvX-qSihv, a hollow), ap- new valves are formed within the plied first by Linnaeus to the seed- original valves. lobes, the first leaves of the embryo, cream-colour, white with a slight in- one in monocotyledons, two or more clination to yellow, indicotyledons, rarely awhorl borne oreep'ing, running along or under the rooting at intervals by the radicle or oaudicle ; cotyle- ground and ; dona'ris, union or close approxima- restricted by Syme to those cases where there is only one, or rarely tion of the seed-lobes ; Cotyle'donoid (elSos, resemblance), a germinating two, flowering stems from each thread of a Moss, a branch of the rhizome ; ~ Stem, cotyle'donous, cotyledo'neus, pos- often means Rhizome. sessing seed-lobes. ore'meus (Mod. Lat., creamy) = cotyriform, colyliform'is {norvKr;, a OKEAM- COLOUR. hollow, /orma, shape), dish-shaped Crem'ocarp, Gremocarp'ium{Kpefia.oi, I or wheel-shaped, with an erect hang ; Kapms, fruit), a dry and fruit, composed of two or ascending border ; Cot'yloid Cell, seed-like a cell of doubtful function, pos- one-seeded carpels invested by 65 ; ;; ;

cremorlcolor Crozier

an epigynoua calyx, separating irregularly divided and twisted when ripe into merioarps. (2) or the leaf much puckered and cremoric'olor {cremeua, color, colour) crumpled, but not so much as

= CREAM-COIiOUB. bullate ; crispiflor'al (fios, fioris, a Cre'na (Mod. Lat., a notch), a rounded flower), having curled flowers

a, tooth or notch ; Cre'nature Crena- crispifo'Iious (folium, leaf), with

tu'ra, a, rounded notch on the curled leaves.

margin of a leaf ; cre'nate, crena'tiis, Cris'ta (Lat. ), a crest or terminal tuft shape), scalloped, toothed with crenatures ; orist'aeform (forma, used by

Cren'el = Crena ; Cren'elllng = J. Smith for crested appendices in

Crena ; cren'elled, cremila'ris, mar- Ferns ; as in Actinoetachys, Wall.

gined with crenatures ; cren'ellate, cris'tate, crista'tus, crested.

crendla'tus, cren'ulate, crenula'tus, Crltench'yma (Kpa-ot, chosen ; lyxvfui, crenate, but the toothings them- an infusion), the tissue of bundle- selves small; Cren'ule, a dimimutive sheaths, open or closed envelopes Crena. which accompany fibro-vascular

cres'cent - shaped, approaching the bundles ; crit'ical, used of plants figure of a crescent, as the leaves which need great discrimination in of certain species of Passifiora. classifying. Crest, (1) an elevation or ridge upon croca'tus, cro'ceous, croc'eus (Lat.),

the summit of an organ ; (2) an safiron-yellow ; a deep yellow tint outgrowth of the funiculus in seeds, from the stigmas of Crocus sativum,

a sort of axil ; crest'ed, possessing Linn. ; Cro'cin, the colouring matter any elevated line or ridge on the of the foregoing. surface such as may be compared crook'ed, curved. with the crest of a helmet Cross, term implying a hybrid of any

creta'ceous, -ceus {creta, chalk), (1) description ; ~ armed, brachiate

chalky, as the chalk-glands found (Crozier) ; ~ Breeds, the progeny of - Fertiliza'tion, in Saxifrages ; (2) chalk-white, interbred varieties ; dead-white. fecundation by pollen from another

creviced = eimose. flower of another individual ; ~ crl'brate {cribrum, a sieve), usually FoUiua'tion, dusting the stigma of

written oribbosb ; cri'briform, cri- one flower with pollen from an- bri/orm'is forma, shape), sieve-like, ~ division { other ; Septa'tion, by

pierced with many holes ; ^ Cells = transverse septa ; ~ Type, in nuclear

Sieve-cells ; ~ Tis'sue, containing division, the formation of tetrads.

sieve-cells and tubes ; cri'brose, Crossed-pits, cells in sclerenchyma,

cribro'sus, pierced like a sieve ; -- with the slits on opposite walls at Cells = Sieve-tubes. right angles to each other.

crlniferous (crinis, hair ; fero, I bear), crowd'ed, closely pressed together or used by J. Smith for hirsute thickly set.

cri'nite, crini'lus, bearded with long Crown, see Corona ; also (1) in

and weak hairs. Characeae, the apex of the nucule ;

crin'oid (Kplvov, a lily ; elSos, resem- (2) in Diatomaceae, a series of blance) lily-like (Crozier). teeth connecting the frustules Crin'ula (crinis, hair) = Elater; into filaments, as in Stephano- Cri'nus, a stiff hair on any part. pyxis ; ~ of the Root, the point crisp, crisp'us (Lat.), curled; crispa'- where root and stem meet

bilis, capable of curling up ; crisp'- crowned, corona'tus, furnished

ate, crisped, crispa'tus, crispati'vus, with a coronet ; crown'img, coro'-

curled ; crispea'cens, able to curl nans, borne on the summit of an up; Crisp'ature, Crispatu'ra, (1) organ. when the edge is excessively and Cro'zler, "anything with a coiled 66 ;

cradate cultrate

end, as the young leaves of most ((TTOyua, a mouth), barren concep- Ferns" (Crozier). tacles in some Algae, containing cru'ciate, crucia'tus (Lat.)) orosa- hairs, or paraphyses. shaped, used especially of the Cryst'al (/c/>i5ffTaXXos, toe), a mineral flowers of Cruoiferae ; ~ Tetragon- solid, usually of regular faces or id'la, those gonidia formed by two angles, found in the tissues of plants, divisions at right angles to each of very various composition ; Cry- other; Cru'cifer(Lat., cross-bearing), st'alloid (eMos, resemblance), term a plant with four petals and tetra- applied to crystals as being dynamous stamens ; crucife'rous, less truly angular than normal cross bearing, used of the corolla of crystals, as well as swelling in Crucifers, which have four petals water ; also in contradistinction to cru'cifonn, cruciform'is{La,t.), cross- colloid.

shaped. Ctein'ophytes {Kreivto, I kill ; vTov, a cruenta'tus (Lat. , stained with blood), plant). Fungi whose influence on dyed or blotched with red. their hosts is chemical only cruent'us (Lat., gory), dark purplish (Wakker). red, the colour of gore. Cu'hehine, the active principle of crum'pled = cokkttqate ; ~ Aestiva'- Piper Cubeba, Linn. tlon, folded in bud irregu- ou'biform when {cubits, a die ; forma, shape), larly, as in the poppy. dice-shaped, cubic ; Cu'hus (Lat.), Cru'ra (pi. of cms, a leg) divisions of a solid figure of six square sides ; the teeth of the peristome in cu'hic, cu'bicus, ou'bioal, of a cubic Mosses. form. oru'ral {crura'Us, pertaining to the Cu'bit {cubitum, the elbow), a measure, ' legs), ' somewhat leg-shaped ; used from the elbow to the finger-tips, mainly in composition " (Crozier). usually reckoned as equivalent to Crust, Cnmt'a (Lat., rind or shell), 18 inches, 60 cm.; cubita'Iis (Lat.), the hard and brittle part of certain about half-a-yard in length.

Lichens ; crusta'ceous, -eus, of brit- cucuUa'ris, cu'cullate, cucuUa'tus {cuc- tle texture, some Lichens are thus idlus, a hood), hooded, or hood-

termed ; cruatuli'nus, toast-colour, shaped ; cucull'lform (forma, shape),

darker and warmer in tint than a hood-like in shape ; Cucull'us, a cracknel biscuit. hood. Cryp'ta (Lat., a vault), sunken glands, cu'cumifonn (cucumis, a ), receptacles for of plants shaped like a cucumber (Crozier). in dotted leaves. cucurbita'ceous (cucurbita, a gourd, +

Cryptogam'ia {kpvwtos, hidden ; yd/ios, aceous), like a gourd ; of gourd-like

marriage), plants destitute of growth ; cucurbiti'nus, has the same stamens, pistils, and true seeds, meaning. but often reproduced as the result of Cud'bear, the Scotch name for Orchil.

a sexual act ; 'ian, erypto- CiU-de-sac (Fr.), "a tubular or bag- gam'ic, cryptogam'icus, cryptog'am- shaped cavity, closed at one end" ous, belong to the sub-kingdom (Crozier).

just defined ; Cryptog'amist, a Culm, Oulm'us (a stalk, especially of botanist devoted to the study of grain), the peculiar hollow stem

flowerless plants ; Cryptog'amy, the or "straw" of grasses; culm'eus

state of concealed fructification ; (Lat.), straw -like; culmic'olous

Cryptone'mata {vrj/j.a, a thread ), small [colo, I inhabit), growing on

cellular threads produced in Cryp- the stalk of grasses ; culm'ifer,

tostomata ; Cryp'tophyte (^vt6i>, a culmiferous [fero, I bear), produc- plant), Cryptophy'twn, a crypto- ing culms.

gamous plant ; Cryptostom'ate oult'rate, cvltra'tus (Lat., knife-like), 67 ,;

cultriform Cutin

the shape of a knife-blade ; cult'ri- ing from a right line ; ~ of Con-

fonn, cidtriform'is (ciilter, a knife ; cuBs'ion, that produced as the result

forma, shape), in shape like a of a sudden blow ; Darwin'ian ~ knife, or coulter. effects produced on growing organs, Cult'urea, in botany,appIied to experi- as root-tips in consequence of ir-

mental growth conducted in the ritation : Sachs's ~ , the difference laboratory. in growth of the two sides of the cu'neal (Crozier), cunea'rius J (Lind- root (Wettstein) ; curva'tus (Lat.),

ley), cu'neate, cunea'tuK, cu'neiform, bent as a bow, or arc of a circle ;

curmform'ii, {cuneus, a wedge), Curve, the same as curvature ; ~ triangular. ribbed, ^ = wedge-shaped, veined curvinerved ; cunic'ulate, cunicula'tus {cunicvlua, a curved, bent, not rectilinear rabbit), pierced with a long deep curvicau'date (cauda, a tail), hav-

passage open at one end, as the ing a curved tail ; curvicost'ate peduncle of Tropaeolum. {costa, a rib), with curved ribs or

Cunix X (deriv. ?) "The separable veins ; ourviden'tate (dens, a tooth), place which intervenes between with curved teeth, cur'viform,

the wood and bark of exogens" (forma, shape) = CURVED ; cur'vin- (Lindley). erved, curviner'vius, curvive'nivs

Cup, (1) an involucre, as of the acorn ; (Lat.), having curved nerves, (2) the receptacle, or "shield" in especially applied to monocotyle-

some Lichens ; (3) used for Disco- dons ; curvip'etal (peto, I seek), CABP; ~ sliapeii,formed like a goblet, Vijohting's term for the causes see. CBATERIFOEM. which tend to curve an organ, cu'pola-shaped, nearly hemispherical, curvise'rial (series, a row), in curved like an acorn-cup. or oblique ranks. cu'preus (cv/prum, copper), copper- Cushion, (1) the enlargement at or coloured, with its metallic lustre. beneath the insertion of many (Lat., little cup), leaves, Cu'pule, Cu'pvla a the pulvinus ; (2) portion the cup of such fruits as the acorn, of a. Fern-prothallus on which an involucre composed of bracts archegonia are borne, often per- base, free ceptibly adherent by their and thicker than the margins ; - or not, upwards ; cu'pula shaped cushion'ed, tufted, as in some cupola shaped --Fun'gi, (Lindley) see ; Mosses ; Fungi growing in oupula'ris, ou'pulate, cupula'tus, tufts.

furnished with, or subtended by Cusp, Gusp'is (Lat. a point), a, sharp,

a cupule ; Cupu'lifer (Lat.), cupu- rigid point ; cusp'idate, cuspida'tns, liferous {fero, I bear), producing tipped with a cusp.

cupules ; cu'pulitorm, cuptdiform'is cut, the same as incised, or in a {forma, shape), cupola-shaped. general way as cleft. Cu'rarine, an alkaloid from "Curare," Cvi'ticle,Cuti'cvIa(J^a,t. theouter skin), obtained from several species of the outermost skin or pellicle, con-

Strychnos. taining the epidermis ; Cuti'cula Cur'cumine, the colouring matter of den'sa, ~ hymeniform'is, '~prim,ordi- the roots of Turmeric, Curcuma a'lis, ^ pro'pria, ^ regula'ris, -^ longa, Linn. svhmd'la, modifications proposed Curl,a disease, shown by deformed and by Fayod, in Ann. Sc. Nat., S^r.

curled leaves, ascribed in some cases VII. ix. (1889) 243-244 ; Cutocell'u-

to Exoascus deformans, Fuckel ; loses (-1- Cellulose) modified cellu- curled, when a leafy organ is folded lose, the outioularized layers of cell- or crumpled, as Endive. wall, impregnated with cutin ; Cur'tain = Cortina. Cutioulariza'tion = Cutinization. Curv'ature, continued flexure or bend- Cu'tin (cutis, the skin), the substance, 68 "; ;

Cutinlzation Cyme

allied to Suberine, which repels root of Oydamem europaeum, liquids from passing cell-wall Linn. the ;

Cutiniza'tiou, the modification of C/cle (kukXos, a circle) ; (1) used for the cell-wall so as to become im- one turn of a helix or spire, in leaf for a whorl in pervious to liquids ; Cu'tis : (1) arrangement ; (2) floral envelopes ; cy'clic, cy'dicus, the skin or epidermis ; (2) the

peridium of some Fungi ; Cu'tose, applied to foliar structures ar- the transparent film covering the ranged in whorls, coiled into a

aerial organs of plants. cycle or relating to a cycle ; oy'clical, cut -toothed, "deeply and sharply rolled up circularly, as many em- " toothed (Crozier). bryos ; Cy'clogens (yevvdw, to bring Cut'tage, multiplication by cuttings forth), exogenous plants, from their (L. H. Bailey). exhibiting concentric circles in the Cut'ting, (1) the severed portion of a section of their stems ; cyclog'enouB, having concentric circles in the plant, used for propagation ; (2) the

outline of a leaf or frond when stem, exogenous ; Cy'olome, a ring- incised. shaped cushion of anthers (M 'Nab) cyali'nus J (Mod. Lat. ) = cyanous. Cyclo'sis, the rotation of proto- Cyam'ium J (/cua^uos, a bean), " a kind plasm within the cell, in one or of follicle resembling a legume more currents ; cyclosperm'ouB (Lindley). (a-Trip/ia, a seed), with the embryo cyanae'us, J, cyaneus {Kvdvos, corn- coiled round the central albumen. flower), a clear full blue, corn- oyg'neous, cyg'neiis (Lat., pertaining

flower-coloured ; cyanell'us, almost tea swan), the seta of Mosses when swan's a skyblue ; cyan'ic,blue ;~Flow'er3, curved so as to suggest a those whose colouring tends to- neck. wards blue, in contrast to XAKTHio cylindra'ceous, -eiis (/cuXicSpos, a aoeous), somewhat Flowers ; oyanooh'rous (xp'l's, XP"^') cylinder, + {dveos, the skin), having a blue skin cylindrie ; Cylindranth'erae cyanoph'Uous (rjiikia, I love), applied a flower) syngenesious, from the to nuclei which readily take a deep stamens forming a tube ; Cylind-

blue stain ; Cyanophy'cin {(pvKos, rench'yma {iyx"/'^! *° infusion), cells sea-weed), the blue colouring matter tissue made up of cylindrie ;

of Algae ; Cy'anopliyll (tpvWov, a cylind'ric, cyllnd'rical, elongated, - section leaf ) = Kyanophyll. with a circular cross ; cyath'iform, cyathiform'is {Kva,0os, a Cyliudrobasioste'mon (^dins, a

shape), shaped pedestal ; cttJ/awp, a stamen) wine-cup ; forma, like a drinking-cup ; Cyath'ium, the monadelphous. inflorescence of Euphorhium, con- Cyma'tium (xv/idnov, a little wave) = sisting of involucral bracts, with Apotheoium. glands between single stamens each cymb'aeform, more correctly cymb'l- a boat equivalent to a male flower, and a form, cymhiform'is (cymba, ; shape), boat-shaped, used trilocular ovary ; cy'athoid (elSos, forma,

resemblance) ; Cyath'olite (XWos, for Diatoms, or the keel of Legu-

stone) = CoccoLiTH ; C/athus, minosae. the cup-like body which contains Cymbell'ae [cymbula, a little boat), propagula in Marclvxntia, etc. reproductive locomotive bodies of Cyb'ele (pr., Sib'-e-le), H. C. Watson's an elliptic form, found in some name for an estimation of the dis- Algae. tribution of plants in a given area, Cyme, Gy'ma (Kvim., a wave, Lat., the is of a cabbage), a flower- an analogue to Flora ; the name sprout mythological. oluster of determinate or centri- Cy'clamlne, a principle found in the fugal type, especially a broad and 69 "; ;;;

Cyme Cytodleresis

flattened one ; bel'lcold -' (a) a projecting beyond the basidia and Bostryx, and (6) a Drepanium, the paraphyses of the hymenium of

lateral branches of the successive Agarics, of unknown function ; (2)

ramifications always occurring on = Utricle ; Cyst'oblast (jSXao-TAs, a

the same side ; Bcorp'loid ~ (a) shoot), cited by Crozier for Cyto-

Cincinnus, and (6) Rhipidium, the BLAST ; Cyst'ooarp Gystoca/rp'ium lateral branches always occurring {KapTbs, fruit), a sporophore in

alternately on opposite sides ; Cy- Algae, especially Florideae, a cyst melet, pr. sim-let, a little cyme containing sexually produced

cymiferous (faro, I bear), produc- spores ; Cyst'olith (\ldos, stone),

ing cymes ; cy'mo-hot'ryoseforbot'- mineral concretions, usually of ryoidj.when cymes are arranged in a calcium carbonate on a cellulose

botryoid manner ; oy'moid (erSos, stalk, occurring chiefly in special resemblance), having the form of a cells of the Urticaceae, as in Picus

cyme; cy'mose, cymo'aug, cy'mous, elaatica, Roxb. ; Cyst'ophore {ipopia,

relating to cymes carry), the same as AscoPHORB ; bearing cymes or ; I ~ Umb'el, one with centrifugal in- Cyst'osore Cystoso'rus {(rupos, a

florescence ; Cy'mule, a, diminutive heap), a group of resting-spores cyme or portion of one. within a cell as in Woronina

Cyn'apine, an alkaloid occurring in Cyst'ospore ( a-irop&, a seed ) =

Aethusa Gynapium, Linn. Carpospobb (Strasburger) ; Cyst'-

Cynarrhod'ion, -dium (kvwv, a dog ; Ula = ClSTULA, CiSTBLLA. j)bSav, a rose), a fruit like that of Cy'tase (kuVos, a hollow vessel), an the dog-rose, fleshy, hollow, and enzyme found in germinating seeds

enclosing achenes. which hydrolyses cellulose ; Cytas'-

Cy'on, Grew's spelling of Cion = Scion . ter {dffTTip, a star), a series of cypera'ceous (Gypervi, +a.ceoua), re- achromatic rays from each pole of lating to sedges, from the typical the nucleus into the cytoplasm in

genus Gyperus. karyokinesis (Crozier) ; Cyten- Cyphel'la (ku^As, bent), " collections of ch'yma {(yxvpia, an infusion), gonidia in the form of cups vacuolar structure in cells, fluid

(Lindley) ; Cyphel'lae, orbicular which separates from protoplasm

fringed spots like dimples, under as (Crozier) ; Cy'tioderm

the thallus of Lichens ; cyphel'late, [Sippu, skin), the cell-wall in Diato- marked with Cyphellae. maceae (Crozier). Cyp'sela (ku^s'X?;, a box), an achene Cyt'isine, an alkaloid occurring in the invested by an adnate calyx, as genus Oytisus. the fruit of Compositae. Cy'toblast (/cuVoi, a hollow vessel Cyr'rhus=ClB,RHtjs, a tendril. ^XaffTos, a shoot), (1) Schleiden's

Cyst, Gyst'is {Kvaris, a cavity), (1) a name for the cell-nucleus ; (2) a sac or cavity, usually applied to a colony of bioblasts which have lost

structure whose nature is doubtful; their independent existence ; cf.

(2) all cells of non-sexual origin in Bioplast ; Cytoblaste'ma, the green Algae which reproduce the formative material in which cells plant by germination after a rest- are produeed, and by which they ing period resting as spores, hyp- are held in union ; protoplasm ; nospores, chronospores, aplano- Cy'todes, (1) cells; (2) nuclear

spores, akinetes (F. Gay) ; Cyst'a J elements in which the caryosomes Neoker's term for a berry with dry, are not grouped into nuclei (Vuil-

membranous envelope, as in Passi- lemin) ; Cytodier'esis (Sialpecris, flora ; Cyst'id, a proposed emenda- division), cell-division with nuclear tion for Cystld'lum; (1) large, one- division, and formation of a nuc- celled, sometimes inflated bodies, lear-spindle and asters (Crozier) 70 ;

Cytogamy dealbate

Cytog'amy (vi/tos, marriage), the Sah'line, a substance resembling

union of cells ; Cytogen'esis {yivetris, starch from the of the genus beginning), origin and develop- Dahlia.

ment of cells ; sometimes written Dam'mar, a transparent resin from

Cytiogenesis ; cytogenet'io, per- Agathis loranthifolia Salisb., for- taining to cell-formation; cytog'- merly named Dammara orientoUis, enous, having connective tissue Lamb.

Cyto'geny = Cytogbnesis ; Cyto- Damp'ing, a cultivator's term for

hy'drolist {OSop, water ; Xu^is, a premature decay in plants, especi- loosing), an enzyme which attacks ally young seedlings, attributed to and breaks up the cell-wall by excess of moisture.

hydrolysis ; Cytohy'aloplasm ( + Daph'nin, the bitter principle of Hyaloplasm), the protoplasm of Daphne Mezereum, Linn. the cell, apart from any granules Darwin, see Knisht-Dabwin Law.

or foreign matter ; Cy'tolist (XuVis, Darwin'ian CuiVature, the bending

It, loosing), an enzyme which dis- induced by the irritation of any

solves the cell-wall ; cytolyt'ic, of foreign substance close to the apex

a ferment so acting ; Cytol'ogy of the root, {\6yos, discourse), the science of the date-shaped, resembling a date in cell, its life history, nuclear divi- form,

; -liis sions and development adj. dasyphyll'ous, {8a

cytolog'ic, cytolog'ical ; Cytomi'- (pvWov, a leaf), (1) thick-leaved ; (2)

; o-u/ia, a, crosomes (/uKpbs, small leaves thickly set ; (3) with woolly body), the granules or microsomes leaves.

imbedded in the cell-protoplasm ; Datia'cin, a substance having the Cy'toplasm (irXdaiM, moulded), the appearance of grape - sugar, first general protoplasm of the cell obtained from Datisca cannahina,

(Strasburger) ; Cy'toplast, the cyto- Linn. ; it has been used as a yellow plasm as a unit, in contrast to the dye. nucleus; CytoplaBt'in, a proteid Datu'rise, an alkaloid of Datura which apparently forms the bulk Stramonium, Linn.

of the Cytoplasm ; Cy'tosomes Daugh'ter-oells, young cells derived (cru/ia, a body), Vuillemin's name from the division of an older one, ; for the granules of cell-protoplasm ; the mother-cell ~ Chro'mosome, cytomicrosomes. a secondary chromosome, derived from division of the original ; ~

dacryoi'deus (S&Kpv, a tear ; elSos, Skein, stages in nuclear division resemblance), used for pear-shaped when the chromatin is more or less fruit, oblong and rounded at one in a reticulate condition ; further end, pointed at the other. distinguished by some observers dactyli'nus (5aKTuXos,afinger), divided into "loose " or " close ";~ Spore, a

like fingers ; Dactylorhi'za (;5ifa, spore produced immediately from ~ root), the forking of roots ; dac'- another or upon a promycelium ; tylose, dactylo'sus, fingered, or Star, one of the groups of chromatic finger-shaped. filaments at the poles of a dividing with the daed'aleous, datd'aleus (Lat.= skilful nucleus ; the two together craft), (1) the apex of a leaf irregu- coimecting spindle constitute the stage. larly jagged, though not arcuate ; "Dyaster" (2) wavy and irregularly plaited as Day-position, the pose assumed by the day, in contra- the hymenium of some Agarics ; leaves during Daedalench'yma (lyxvim, an infu- distinction to that taken for the sion), tissue made up of entangled night. cells, as in some Fungi. deal'bate, dealha'tus (Lat., white- 71 .

deoagynia Deformity

washed), whitened ; covered with clining, but with the summit as- an opaque white powder. cending, Decagyn'ia (Sexo, ten; ywii, woman), a deour'rent, deem'reus (Lat.), running Linnean artificial order of plants down, as when leaves are prolonged

with ten pistils ; decagyn'ian, beyond their insertion, and thus

decag'yious, having ten styles or run down the stem ; decur'sive,

carpels ; decam'erous, decam'erus decursi'mts {decursw, a descent) =

(iJ-ipot, a share), in tens ; Decau'drla DBonBKENT ; decur'slvely pin'nate, (avrip, dvSpbs, a man), a Linnean the leaf seemingly pinnate, but the artificial class, of plants with ten leaflets decurrent along the petiole.

stamens ; decan'drian, decan'drous, decus'sate, decuena'tus (Lat. divided

-rus, having ten stamens ; deoapet'- crosswise), in pairs alternately at

alous, -his {wiTaXov, a flower-leaf), right angles ; Decussa'tion, cross-

with ten petals ; deoaphyll'ous, ing by pairs of leaves. {ipvWov, a leaf), with ten leaves or D^doublement (Fr.), doubling, =

segments ; decarl'nus (app-nv, male), Chorisis. Necker's term for ten stamens and Deduplica'tion (Fr. d^duplication),

one pistil ; decasep'alous -lus {+ a synonym of the last.

Sepalum) with ten sepals ; decas- deferent (defero, I bring down), con- perm'al {jirep/m, a seed), having veying anything downward. ten seeds. deferred' Shoots, those produced by

decemdent'ate {decern, ten ; dens, buds which have remained long dentis, a tooth), having ten teeth, dormant.

as the capsule of Oerastium ; definite, dejini'tus {definite, pre- decem'fldus decem'fld (Crozier), cisely), (1) precise ; (2) of a certain (Jid, the root of fido, I split), ten number, as of stamens not exceed-

; cleft decemlocula'ris (locidus, a ing twenty ; (3) applied to in- compartment), with ten cells, as an florescence it means oymose; - In- ovary, flores'oence, where the axis ends

decid'uous, -uus {decido, I fall down), in a flower ; definitive Nu'cleus, a falling in season, as petals fall result of the fusion of one nucleus after flowering, or leaves in autumn, each from the micropylar and

excepted ; Decid'uous- chalazal ends of the embryo sac. ness, the quality of falling once a defix'ed, defix'us (Lat. fastened) = year. immersed. dec'linate, decUna'tus (Lat. turned deflect'ed, defleji^us (Lat. bent aside), aside), bent or curved downward or bent or turned abruptly down-

forward ; decli'ned, directed ob- wards ; deflexed', bent outwards,

liquely. the opposite of inflexed ; Deflex'ion,

Decoloura'tion, Decolora'tio (Lat. ), turned downwards.

absence of colour ; deoolora'tus deflo'rate, dejlora'tus (Lat.), past the (Lat.), discoloured, discharged of flowering state. colour, colourless. deflow'er, to deprive of flowers. decom'pound, deconvpos'itus (Lat.), defl'uent (Lat. defluens), flowing down. several times divided or com- defo'liate, defolia'tus (Mid. Lat.),

pounded, having cast its leaves ; Defolia'tion, deoortl'cated [decorticatio, barking), the act of shedding leaves.

deprived of bark ; Decortioa'tion, Deforma'tlou {deformis, misshapen), a stripping off bark, malformation or alteration from deore'asingly pmn'ate, where leaflets the normal sense ; deformed', dis-

diminish in size from the base up- figured, distorted ; Deform'ity, Be- wards. formitas (Lat.), an unshapely deciun'bent, -ens (Lat. reclining), re- organism 72 )

Degeneration Deposits

Degenera'tion (degenero, to become -icua, -ical, having a branched ap- unlike the race), an alteration for pearance, as the lirellae of Lichens,

the worse, or less highly developed, etc. ; Dendri'teg, cellulose in crys- as when scales appear instead of tals ; Dendrio-thamno'des, with thal- leaves. lus branched as a bush, as the Rein- Degrada'tion {degredior, I descend), deer Lichen, C/adonia rangiferina,

less highly differentiated, simpler Hoffm. ; den'droid, dendroi'des, den- structures taking the place of more droi'deus (elSoi, resemblance), tree-

elaborate ; —lower in function, re- like, in form, or branching ; Den'- trograde fossil metamorphosis, or a kata- drolite (\l8os, stone), a tree ; bolio change, complex substances Dendrol'ogist (X670S, discourse), one

resolving into simpler ; ~ trees Product, skilled in the knowledge of ; the result of katabolism, as muci- Dendrol'ogy, the study of trees. lage. denl (Lat.), by tens, ten together. dehisce' {dehisco, I yawn), to open den'igrate, denigra'tus (Lat.), black- spontaneously when ripe, as seed ened.

capsules, etc. ; DeMs'cence, De- Den'lzen, H. C. Watson's term for hiscent'ia, the mode of opening of a plants suspected of foreign origin, fruit capsule or anther by valves, though maintaining their place, as

slits or pores ; dehis'oent, dehis'cens, Viola odorata, Linn. dehis'cing, splitting into definite Dens (Lat.), a tooth; den'tate, den- parts. ta'tus (Lat.), toothed, especially

Dehydra'tion {de, privative ; ilSap, with salient teeth directed for- water), depriving of as denta'to-crena'to = water a ward ; oebnato-

component, as by the use of alcohol, DENTATUS ; — lacinia'tus, with or calcic chloride. toothings irregularly extended into

Delimita'tion (Late Lat. delimitare), long point ; ~ seira'tus, the tooth-

used for Abjunction ; cutting off ings tapered and pointed forward ; by a precise limit. Dent'lcle, a small tooth (Crozier). deliques'cent, -ens (Lat. melting dentlc'ulate, denticula'ttis, minutely

away), dissolving or melting away, toothed ; Dentioula'tlons, small pro-

as (1) when the stem loses itself by cesses or teeth ; dent'iform (forma,

repeated branching ; or (2) when shape), J. Smith's equivalent for

certain Agarics become fluid at toothed ; den'toid (elSos, form), maturity. tooth-shaped. Deliq'uium J (ddiquus, wanting) - denu'date, denuda'tus (Lat. ), stripped, emarginate (Lindley). made bare, or naked. Del'plmie, an alkaloid present in deoperc'ulate, deopercula'tus [de, oper- Staphisagria, lid) when the oper- Delphinium Linn. ctdum, a ; (1) delta-leaved [deXra, the Greek letter culum of a Moss does not separate

A), having triangular leaves, spontaneously from the sporophore ; del'toid, deltoi'des, -dens (eWos, re- (2) having lost the operculum. semblance), shaped like the Greek deor'sum (Lat. from de, down, versus

A ; an equilateral triangle. turned towards), downward. demersed', demer'sus (Lat. plunged depaup'erate, depaupera'tus (Lat.), under), under water, especially of impoverished as if starved, re- a part constantly submersed. duced in function. demis'sus (Lat.), hanging down, dep'lanate, deplana'tus (Lat.), flat- lowered. tened or expanded. Dena'riiJ (Lat. ) = ten together depend', depen'dent, depen'dens (Lat. (Lindley). hanging down. laid aside), den'driform (S^vSpov, a tree ; forma, Depos'its {deposilus, shape) = DBNDBOID; dendrit'ic secondary growths on the cell- 73 "; ,;


wall, more or less covering it, in gradually downwards ; (1) as the various forms. branches of some trees ; (2) as the depres'sed, depres'sus ; ~ Ax'is, (Lat.), sunk roots the root aystem ; down, as if flattened from above --Metamorpli'osis, substitution of

depress'o-trunca'tus = rbtuse ; De- organs of a lower grade, as stamens prea'sio (Lat.), a pressing or sink- for pistils, petals for stamens, etc.

ing down, a little hollow ; ~ dor- — Sap, formerly applied to the sa lis, a depression in the spores of Cambium ; Descen'sua J = Root. some Agarics extending along the Deser'tion of Host = Lipoxbnt.

back of the spore ; ~ hUa'ris, a dea'lnens, Desinen'tia (Lat., ceasing), similar depression, but of less ex- ending in, the manner in which a tent, above the hilum (Fayod). lobe terminates. deregula'ris (Seo-juds, J [de, opposed ; regularis Desmobry'a a bond ; ^pvov, » in order), between regular and ir- moss), a division of Ferns, where regular (Lindley). the fronds are adherent to the

Derlv'atlve Hy'brids, those sprung caudex ; cf. Eremobbta ; Dea'- from a union of a hybrid, and one mogen (7eVpaw, I bring forth), dis-

of its parent forma or another tinguished as pri'mary — , the pro- hybrid. cambium, or embryonic tissue from Der'ma {dep/ia, Sep/iaros, skin), surface which the vascular tissue is after-

of an organ, bark, or rind ; Derma- wards formed ; or aec'ondary ~ calypt'rogen {KaXvirrpa, a veil formed from the cambium, after-

yei/vau,I bringforth ), Schwendener's wards transformed into permanent term for a common histogen which vascular strands. produces root-cap and root-epider- deatruct'ive Metab'oliam, those changes mis in Phanerogams ; derm'al, relat- which take place during the waste

ing to the outer covering ; ~ Tis'aue, of tissues ; ^ Far'aaite, one which the substance of the epidermis and aeriously injures or destroys the periderm; dermati'nus, applied to host. those planta such as Lichens, which detect'us (Lat., laid bare) = naked.

live on bark or epidermis ; der- deter'miiiate, determina'tus (Lat.,

mat'ioid {etdos, form), skin-like in bounded), definite ; ~ Growth,

function or appearance ; Derm'ato- when the aeason's growth ends with cyst, Dermatocys'tis {Kvarts, a bag a bud ; ~ Inflores'cence, when it or pouch), inflated hairs on the sur- ends with a bud, as in cymes ; De- face of the sporophore of young termina'tion, -atio, the ascertaining

Agarics ; Dermat'ogen {yhvau, I the names and systematic position bring forth), the meristem forming of plants, identification. the layer of nascent epidermis Deuterog'amy (Setirepos, the second ; primordial epidermis ; Dennat'- 7i/io!, marriage), peculiar nuclear opliyte {ipuTliv, a plant), any Fungus fusions in oertainCryptogams, super- parasitic on the skin of man or posed upon and subsequent to the

other animals (Crozier) ; Dennat'- sexual act (P. Groom) ; Deutero- osomes (o-iS/ia, a body), Wiesner's plaa'ma (irXiir^a, moulded) = Para-

term for granular bodies in rows, plasm ; sometimes contracted into

united and surrounded by proto- Deut'oplasm ; Deuteroatropli'ies plasm, which form the cell-wall {crrpo^, a twist or turn), spirals Benuoblas'tua {^airrbs, a shoot), of a third degree in the develop- " the cotyledon formed by a mem- ment of leaves. brane that bursts irregularly Devel'opment, the gradual extension (S. F. Gray) ; Deimocalypt'rogen of the parts by which any organ or see DEKMAOAliYPTKOREN. plant passes from its beginning to descend'ing, descen'dens (Lat. ),tending its maturity. 74 — ;;;

Deviation Diapbxagm

Devia'tion, probable, Galton's term {ypa/ifirj, an outline), see Floral

for probable variation. Diagram ; Diaheliofropism (ijXios,

Dew-leaves, leaves which elope up- the sun ; t/oottos, a turn), growth wards, so that dew is collected. more or less horizontal, under the dex'trad, an unusual modification of influence of light, as when leaves DEXTBAL=DEXTROiiSB {dextra, the place themselves at right angles

right hand) ; Dextrin, a substance to incident light ; adj., diaheliot- produced during the transformation rop'ic.

of starch into sugar, said to be of dlalycarp'ic (8iaXuw,Idisband ; Kapirbs, two forms : Achroodextein and fruit), having a fruit composed of

Amylodbxtbin ; Dex'trinase, an distinct carpels; DialydeB'my(Se(r/t6s, enzyme stated to be present in a band), the breaking up of a stele, diastase (Wysman); dex'trorse, dex- into separate bundles, each with

tror'sus (from versus, turned to- its own endodermis ; Dialypet'alae wards), towards the right hand (ttetoXo;/, a flower-leaf), Endlioher's dex'tror'sum volu'bilis (Lat.), twin- equivalent for the Poltpbtalae of

ing towards the right ; Dex'trose, Jussieu ; dialypet'alous, poly-

glucose, or fruit sugar, it turns the petalous ; dialyphyll'ous {(pvWov, a

plane of polarization to the right leaf), bearing separate leaves ; dia-

c/. Lbvulosb ; dex'tro-ro'tatory, lysep'alous ( + Sepalum), bearing

turning towards the right, separate sepals ; Dial'ysis, the dl-, dis-, in Greek compounds = two, separation of parts normally in or double. one, especially parts of the same

Diache'nium (St, two, H-Achenium), or whorl ; DiaJyste'ly {trr^Xij, a post), Diake'nium = Cbbmocarp. a variation of Polystely, in which I'ba- for Diach'yma (5ii, through ; x"f-^> * the separate steles remain the tion). Link's term for Mesophyll. most part separate during their Diadel'phia (5i,two; (lSeX06s,a brother), longitudinal course. a Linnean class having the stamens diamesog'amous (Sid, through, /ieffos, in two bundles or brotherhoods middle, yd/ws, marriage), fertiliza- diadelph'ian, diadelpb'ous, -}i«, -km, tion by the means of some external

with two groups of stamens. agent, as wind or insects ; Dla-

diad'romous (5ia, through ; 8p6fji.os, mesog'amy, the condition just de- course), applied to a fan-shaped fined. venation, as in OingTco biloba, Linn, Dian'dria (Sis, two, iviip, dvSpbs, a

dlageotrop'ic (777, the earth ; rpoiros, man), a Linnean class with plants a turn), a modified form of geotrop- of two stamens ; dian'drlan, dian'- ism, the organs placing themselves drous, -rus, (diander), possessing in a horizontal position, as though two stamens. opposing forces were neutralised diaph'anous, -iis {did, through, alva, Diageot'ropism, the state just de- I show), permitting the light to scribed; Diagno'sis (7j'fi(ri!, wisdom), shine thirough ; also written dio- Diapli'ery {ipa, I bear), a brief distinguishing character ; ph'anus t ', diag'oual {yavla, angle), a mean the calyoine synthesis of two

between two forces, a compromise flowers (Morren) ; Di'aphragm

of position ; ~ Plane, in a flower, {(j>pd(r

lateral (side to side) ; - Posit'ion, in Chara, from the inward projec- the one intermediate between median tions of the segments ; (2) and lateral ; ~ Sym'metry, applied transverse septa in the stem of grasses the to the valves of Diatoms when the Equisetum or of ; (3) prothallium torsion amounts to 180° ; Di'agram layer separating the 75 ; ;;

diaphyllous Diclesiuia

from the cavity of the macrospore (xapirbs, fruit), composed of two

in Vascular Cryptogams ; dla- carpels or pistil-leaves. phyl'lous (0uXXoj', a leaf) = dia- diolia'sial (Sixifw, I disunite), re-

LYPHYLLOUS ; Diaph'yBlS {tpidl, to lating to a. DiCHASiUM ; '~ Cymes, make grow), proliferation of the cymes whose secondary members inflorescence. are dichasia, such as occur in di'aroh (Sis, two, apxh, beginning), Euphorbiacese ; Diclia'sium, a false two protoxylem groups, used of the dichotomy in which two lateral

steles of roots ; diari'nus {app-qv, shoots of nearly equal strength male), Necker's term for dian- arise from the primary axis below drous. the flower which terminates the Di'astase (SidirTao-is, standing apart), apex, the process being repeated

an amylolytic enzyme which con- by each set of branches ; a two- — verts starch into malt-sugar ; parted or two-ranged cyme; dich- of Translooa'tion, attacks starch ast'ic, spontaneously dividing grains gradually over their whole dlohlamyd'eous (xXa/iis, y\ap.iSos, surface, it is almost universally dis- a cloak), having a double perianth,

tributed in plants ; ~ of Seer a'tion, calyx and corolla ; dlchoblas'tlo acts by corrosion, attacking parts (^Xaa-rbs, a shoot), suggested by

of the starch-grain first ; it is Celakovsky to replace "dichoto- formed by the glandular epithelium mous " when the repeated dicho-

of the soutellum of grasses; adj. tomy develops into a sympodium ; dlastat'lc. dichogr'amous (Sixa, in two, yip-os, Di'aster (Sis, two, dar^p, a star) see marriage), hermaphrodite with one Dyasteb. sex earlier mature than the other,

Diast'ole { SmcttoXti, separatiop/, the the stamens and pistils not syn-

slow dilation of a contrac*'', vesicle chronizing ; Dichog'amy, insuring c/. Systole. cross-fertilization, by the sexes not Diatherm'ancy {Sii,, through, Bepimlvu, being developed simultaneously. I warm), the relative conductivity Dlchotcarp'ism (5ixoto/x^«, I cut in of a medium with regard to the two, Kapwos, fruit), Cooke's term transmission of heat (T. W. Engel- for Fungi producing two distinct mann). forms of fructification, dimorphic diatoma'ceous, resembling or consist- as to fruit ; dlchot'omal, pertaining ing of diatoms whose type is Dia- to a bifurcation, as a ~ Flow'er, one

; toma Diat'omlne, the colouring seated in the fork of a dichasium ;

matter of Diatoms, phycoxanthine ; dichot'omize, to fork or divide in

Diat'omist, one devoted to the pairs ; dichot'omous, -its, forked,

study of Diatoms ; Diat'omphile parted by pairs ; ~ Cyme, of English

(0i\^u, I love), an enthusiastic authors = Dichasium ; Dichot'omy, student of Diatoms. the state of being repeatedly forked; dlatrop ic {did,, through, rpSiros, twin- — Del'lcoid ~, in each successive ing), used of organs which place forking, the branch which continues themselves transversely to the to develop is on the same side as operating force. the previous one, the other branch dibot'ryoid {dis, double, -f botryoid), aborts , ; False ~ = Dichasium ; a compound inflorescence, the Scorp'ioid ~, the branches de- branches of the first and succeed- velop on each side alternately ing orders being botryoid, such as Dichot'ypy (ti^ttos, a type), the oc- the compound umbel, panicle, or currence of two different forms of spike. the same organ on the same stock. Dloar'otin (Sis, twice, + Carotin), a Dicle'slum (Sis, twice, K\rj(ns, closing), lipochrome pigment ; dioarp'ellary an achene within a separate and free 76 ; ;

diclinous digitinervius

covering of perianth, as MiraUUs ; divide), Mirbel's name for Car- di'clinous (Si.%, two, Kklv-q, a bed), CEBULE ; adj. dieresil'iau. unisexual, having the stamens in Differentia'tion, of Cell-wall, the one flower, and the pistils in arising of apparent layers; ~ of

another ; Di'cUnlsm, the separa- Tissues, their development into tion of pollen and stigma in space, permanent tissue and consequent as dichogamy is in time. diverse growth. dicoc'cous,-Ms(Sis,two,(co/cKos,akernel), difl'luent (diffluens, dissolving), having havingfruit of two Cocci; diooe'loua the power to dissolve, or readily {koTKos, a hollow), with two cavi- doing so.

ties ; Dicot'yls, an abbreviation difformed', difform'is (Sis,apar):,/orma, for Dicotyledo'neae, Dicotyle'dons shape), of unusual formation or

(/coTuXijScii/, cup-shaped hollow, used shape ; Diffonn'itas ( Lat. ), an for seed-lobe), plants of the class abnormality. denoted by their possession of two diffiraot', diffrac'iua (Lat., broken),

cotyledons ; dicotyle'donous, - nus, broken into areolae separated by having a pair of seed-lobes. chinks. diotyod'romouB [SiKriov, a net, diffuse', diffu'sus (Lat., spread abroad),

Spo/xos, a course), with reticulate widely or loosely spreading ; ~

venation ; Dio'tyogens {yhvau, I Col' our, a colour which has "run" bring forth), plants having netted into the surrounding tissues veins, proposed by Lindley as inter- Diffu'sion, (1) term used by Weisner mediate between his Esdogens and for the intermingling of dififerent

ExooENS ; diotyog'enous, applied to gases under equal pressure, with or

monocotyledons with netted veins ; without intervening partitions ; (2) — Lay'er, alayerof meristem general mixture of fluids, or dispersion of a in monocotyledons, which gives fluid through a solid or tissue. rise to the central "body" and dlg'amous, -us (Sh, twice, yi.ij.os, cortex of the young roots (Man- marriage), having the two sexes in gin)- the same cluster ; as in Com- diey'clic [dls, two, kvkXo!, a circle), (1) positae. when a series of organs is in two dig'enoua (5is, two, yhos, offspring), containing both sexes, or whorls as a perianth ; (2) applied produced

to biennials ; dicy'mose (/cO/ict, a sexually ; digenet'lc, sexual.

wave), doubly cymose ; did'romic Digest'ive Pock'et (or Sac), an invest- (S/jA/iot, coarse), doubly twisted, as ment of the secondary rootlets, the awns in Danthonia, Stipa, etc. which penetrate the tissues of the Did'romy, double torsion. primary root till they reach the did'ymous, -us {didv/j-os, twin), (1) found exterior. in pairs, as the fruits of Umbelli- Dig'ltaline, an alkaloid contained in lobes Digitalis purpurea, Linn. ferae ; (2) divided into two -- Am'tiers, when the two lobes are dig'itate, digita'tus (digitus, a finger),

almost destitute of connective. fingered ; a compound leaf in which

Didyna'mia ( Sis, twice, Siira^is, all the leaflets are borne on the apex power), a Linnean class marked by of the petiole, as in the Horse- •" didynamous flowers ; dldyna'mlan Chestnut ; pin'nate, when the didyn'amous, four-stamened flower, leaflets of a digitate leaf are with stamens in pairs, two long, pinnate ; digita'tely, in a digitate two short, as in most Labiatae. manner ; digitaliform'is (forma, Did/namy, the condition above shape), shaped like a finger, as the defined. corolla of the Foxglove ; digitiner- diae'cious = dioecious. Vius (nervis, a nerve), when the Dieres'ilis, DieresU'Ia {Siaipiw, I secondary nerves of a leaf diverge 77 ;

Digitus diplo

from the summit of the main or prothallium, the transition be-

petiole, straight ribbed ; Dig'ltus, tween the rudimentary and adult a measure of about 3 inches in stages; cf. Isodiody, Hetero-

length, or 8 cm. ; digita'lls, a finger- DIODY ; Di'odogone {yovii, ofispring), length. Van Tieghem's term for a sporan- dig'onoUB {Sis, two, yavla, an angle), gium which produces diodes in two-angled, as the stems of some Phanerogams, the embryo sac and

cacti (Crozier) ; Digyn'la {yvv^, a pollen sac ; Di'odophytes {^vriv, a woman), a Linnean class, with a plant), vascular plants (Van Tieg-

gynaeciumof two pistils ; digyn'lan, hem). dig'ynous, with two separated styles Dioe'oia(5is, two, oIkos, a house), a Lin- or carpels. nean class of plants with unisexual dllacera'tua J (Lat.), torn asunder, flowers; dioec'ian, dioeo'ious, uni- lacerated. sexual, the male and female ele- Dilamiiui'tion {dis, apart, lamina, a ments in different individuals thin plate), the separation of a dioec'io-dlmorpli'ous, heterogonous; layer from a petal, like or unlike it dloec'io - polyg'amous, when some

in form ; ohorisis. individuals bear unisexual flowers, dila'ted, dila'tus (Lat., widened), ex- and others hermaphrodite ones panding into a blade, as though Dioec'ism, the condition of being

flattened, like the filaments of dioecious ; diol'oous, a spelling used Omithogidum. by bryologists for diobciot3S, the dUep'idus X (5's, two, XeTris, 'Keirldos, male and female organs on separate scale), consisting of two scales. plants. dilu'tus (Lat. thinned) of a pale tint. dioph'anua = diaphanous. dimer'ic, dim'erous,-rMs(Sis,two, fi-epds, Di'osmose, Diosmo'sis (Sih, through, a share), with two members in each Sicriios, a pushing), the transfusion part or circle. of liquid through membrane. dimid'iate, dimidia'tus (Lat. , halved), dipet'alous, -us (Sis, two, irh-aXov, a, (1) halved, as when half an organ flower-leaf), having two petals is so much smaller than the other, diphyU'ous, -us (

as to seem wanting ; (2) used of the having two leaves; diplanet'ic oalypfcra of Mosses when split on (jrXdcos, roaming), relating to Dl-

one side by the growth of the PLANETiSM ; Dlplan'etism, double-

theoa ; dimldla'to-corda'tus, when swarming ; in certain genera allied the larger half of a dimidiate leaf to 8a/prolegnia the zoospores escape is cordate. from their sporangium destitute of dimorphic, dimorph'ous (SU, twice, cilia, come to rest in a cluster each /Ji-opipil, shape), occurring under two forming a cell-wall, and after some forms ; Bimorph'isin, the state of hours the protoplasmic contents of presenting two forms, as long or each spore escapes, acquires cilia short-styled flowers in the same and active movement. species. Diplecolo'beae (Sis, twice, irKiKu, I dimo'tus (Lat., separated), somewhat fold, Xo;8os, a lobe), a, sub-order of remote from. Cruciferae, the incurved cotyledons Diodang'ium {SloSos, apassage, dyyetop, being twice folded transversely a vessel). Van Tieghem's term for Dipleurogen'esis (irKevpa., the side, sporangium inVascular Cryptogams yheais, beginning), term used by and Bryophytea. L. H. Bailey for Bilaterality, as (SIoSos, a passage). Tieg- Di'ode Van the type of animals ; cf. Centro- hem's term for a reproductive body GENBSIS. peculiar to vascular plants which diplo (SiTrXdos, twofold), in composi- develops into a rudimentary body tion = duplo. 78 ;

DiplobacUlus Discopodlum

Diplobacill'us (SiirXdos, twofold, + LEUciTE ; dlrect'ive Spheres, =at- Bacillcts), bacilli which are com- TKAOTIVE Spheres. posed of two cells, or adhere in Dlrem'ptioii, Diremptio (Lat., a

pairs ; Diplobacte'ria ( = Diplo- separation), the occasional separa-

BACiiiUs) ; diplocaulesc'enB {caules- tion or displacement of leaves. cens, stem-producng), having axes diri'noid, resembling the apothecium

of the second order ; Diploooc'cus of the genus Dirina.

( + Coocns), a coupled spherule or disappearing, branching in extreme. result of the conjugation of two disartic'ulate {dis, apart, articulus, a

cells ; diploclilasiyd eouB (xKafiis, joint), to separate at a joint, as the

a, cloak) = diohlamydeous ; having leaves in autumn. a double perianth. Disc, or Disk {disc'vs, a quoit), (1) Sip'loe {SiwXdij, doubling), Link's term development of the torus with- for Mbsophyll. in the calyx or within the cor- (Snr\6os, 7e»'e(7is, olla Diplogen'esis twofold, and stamens ; (2) the central a beginning), doubling of parts part of a capitulum in Compositae

normally single ; Diploperisto'ml as opposed to the Ray the ; (3)

( + Peristoma), with double peris- face of any organ, in contradis- diploste'- tinction tome, applied to Mosses ; to the margin ; (4) certain monous ((xrfiiiav, a stamen), with markings in cell-walls, of circular of stamens in two whorls, those the outline ; bordered pits ; (5) the with the of outer whorl alternating valves diatoms when circular ; (6) petals, the inner whorl alternating the base of a pollinium;—adhe'sive with the last ; Diploste'mony, '-, modified tendrils, as in Vitis

stamens as just described ; dlplos'- heterophylla, Thunb. , Ercilla, etc. tlc, Van Tieghem's term, for root- dis'cifer (Lat.), discife'rous {jfero, I lets when the mother-root has bear), disc-bearing, as the wood of

only two xylem bundles; Diplo- conifers ; dis'cifonn, diseiform'is te'gia, -jrw, -gium {r^yos, a covering), (Jorma, shape), flat and circular, or-

a capsule or other dry fruit, in- bicular ; discig'erous (gero, I bear),

vested with an adnate calyx ; an disc-bearing ; ^ Frus'tules, in Dia- inferior capsule ; diploxyl'ic {^v\ov, toms those having valves more or

wood), used of vascular bundles in less circular in outline ; Dis'cocarp which the centrifugal part of the {Knpirbs, fruit), an ascocarp in which wood is secondary. the hymenium lies exposed whilst Dip'tero-cecid'ia (dls, two, irrepov, a the asci are maturing ; an apothe-

wing, (cijKis, a gall), galls produced cium ; Discocarp'ium, a collection by dipterous flies; dip'terous,-ns, of fruits within a hollow receptacle, two-winged, having two wing-like as in many Rosaceae. fruit- diso'old discoi'deus {SIo-ko!, processes ; dipyre'nus {wvfytjv, a quoit, stone), containing two stones. eUos, like), with a round thickened

Direc'tion Cells, ~ Corpus'cles, syn- lamina, and rounded margins ; ~ Flow'ers, onyms of PoLAK Cells ; those belonging to the Direct'-Metamorpli'osis, the same as disk, usually tubular florets ; ~ -- Pkogressive Mbtamobphosis ; Marking, see Disc, 5 ; disoo'idal, Superposit'ion, the situation of discoida'lis, orbicular ; Dlsooll'- accessory buds in an axil above the chenes ( -f Lichenes), Wainio's term leading bud or that first formed for DiSCOMYCBTOUS LiCHBNS.

(Crozier) ; direc'te - veno'sus, a dis' color (Lat. of difierent colours), feather-veined leaf, where second- used when the two surfaces of a ary ribs (primary veins) pass direct leaf are unlike in colour. from mid-rib to margin, digitiner- Discopod'ium (dla-Kos, a, quoit, iroCs, vius; direct'ing Leu' cite, = TiNO- wodos, a foot), a disc-shaped floral 79 ; ;;

dlBCOUS Divergence

receptacle ; diac'ous, the same as deeply divided, or cut into many discoid (Crozier). segments. discrete', discre'tus (Lat., parted), Dissemlna'tion (disseminatio, sowing), separate, not coalescent. the contrivances by which ripe

Disc'us (Lat. from S/o-kos), see Disc ; seeds are shed by the parent plant Dlsc'vaus (dim. of Discus), the in Germ., Aussaet. adventitious lobule of Hepatieae Dissep'iment, Dissepiment'urn (Lat.,

(Spruce) ; diso'al, -word used by a partition), a partition in an ovary J. Smith to express " on the or pericarp, caused by the ad- surface of the frond, superficial." hesion of the sides of carpellary disep'alouB, -its (5is, two + Sepalum), leaves ; spu'rious ~ , a partition not of two sepals. having that origin. Diajunc'tion {disjunctio, separation) dissil'ient, dissil'iens (Lat., flying see Dialysis, Fission, Solution, apart), bursting asunder. varying degrees of separation in dissim'ilar (dissimUis, unlike), when

organs ; Diajunc'tor, Woronin's similar organs assume different term for a spindle-shaped cellulose forms in the same individual, as connection between the gonidia in the anthers of Cassia.

certain Fungi ; the developed sep- Dissocia'tion {diseociatio, separation), tum, as in Sclerotinia Vaccinii, separation. Woron. dist'ad = dls'tal {disto, I stand apart), Disk, see Disc. Disk is the more remote from the place of attach-

usual spelling in the case of Com- ment ; the converse of proximal positae, as ~ Flor'ets, ~ Flow'ers, dist'ant, distans, when similar parts those occurring on the central are not closely aggregated, in portion of the capitulum of com- opposition to approximate. positae, not of the ray (or margin) Disteu'sion (distensua, stretched out), ~ shaped = discoid. swollen or bulging. Disloca'tion (dis, apart, lociig, a place) Disteleol'ogy, defined by Haeckel as

= Displacement ; disoperc'ulate purposelessness ; for botanic usage

[operculum, a, lid), deprived of the see Dystelbology. cover or lid. dist'ichous, -us [Sia-Tixos, of two rows), disperm'ous (5ls, double, airipiia., a, disposed in two vertical ranks, as seed), two-seeded. the florets in many grasses. Disper'sal, Diapers'ion {dispersus, dist'inct, distinct'us (Lat., separate), scattered), the various ways by separate from, not united. which seeds are scattered, by distrac'tile, distracti'lis (distractus, wind, birds, adhesion to animals, pulled two ways), borne widely etc.; in Germ., Verbreitungsmittel. apart, as the anther-lobes in Dxspi'rem (Sis, two, + Spikem) a Salvia.

stage in nuclear division, as in dithe'cal (Sis, two, Btjkii, a, case), PsUotum triiiuetrum, Sw. which dithe'cous, dithe'cus, of two cells,

follows the Dyaster (Rosen). as most anthers ; ditriohot'omous dispi'rous {Sis, double, avetpa, a coil). (rpi-xh, threefold, rbix-q, a cutting), Spruce's term for the elaters of Hepa- doubly or trebly divided, tieae which have double spirals. diur'nal, diur'nus (Lat., daily), oc- Displa'oement, the abnormal situa- curring in the day-time, sometimes

tion of an organ ; diremption. used for ephemeral ; ~ Sleep, = Disposit'io (Lat., arrangement), the Parahbliotbopism. manner in which parts are ar- divaricate, divarica'tus (Lat., spread ranged, as " disp. f" indicates asunder), extremely divergent. that phyllotactic system. Diverg'enoe {divergium, turning in dissect'ed, dissect'us (Lat., out up), different directions), used when 80 ;; ;

Divergence borsvuil

parts gradually separate as they doleiform'is {dolea, casks, forma, lengthen, as the follicles in Asclep- shape), barrel-shaped.

ias ; Angle of ~, the angle between dolia'rius, dolia'tus {liat.), circinate.

succeeding organs in the same Dollchone'ma (SoXf^os, long, vTJiJ,a, a spiral or whorl ; diver'gent, -ens, thread), the stage in nuclear divi- ^verg'ing, separating by degrees sion which immediately precedes diverglner'vius {nermis, a nerve), synapsis in the formation of the

with radiating main nerves. reproductive cells ; Dollclio'siB, diversiflor'ons,-r't(s(diuersMS, contrary, retardation of growth in length

Jlos, floris, a flower), with flowers (Czapek) ; Dolicho'tmema, {rp-rjina,

of more than one kind ; diver'sus, free), a filiform cell which ruptures variable (1) (de CandoUe) ; (2) diflFer- and sets free the gemma of a Moss ent or separate. (Correns). Divertic'ulum (Lat., a, byeway), in Doma'tia (Soip.6,Tiov, a little house), Algae, a protoplasmic protrusion, modified protections for shelter- communicating with the fused parasites (Tubeuf). prooarp cells and the placenta, domestioa'ted, thriving under culti- as in Gracilaria confervoides, Grev. vation (Crozier). divi'ded, divi'sus (parted asunder), dor'mant {dcrmiens, sleeping), applied used where lobing or segmentation to parts which are not in active

extends to the base ; divisu'ral life, as ^ Buds, ~ Eyes, potential (line), the line down the teeth of buds which normally do not shoot the peristome of a Moss, by which but are excited to growth by

the teeth split. special circumstances ; -' State, Dlx'eny (Sis, two, l^i/os, a host), where the condition of a plant during an autoecious parasite may infest the winter, or when inactive from two species, but does not need a any reason. change of host to ensure its de- dor'sal, dorsa'lis {dorsum, the back), velopment (De Bary). relating to the back, or attached

Dodecagyn'ia (StiSeKa, twelve, ywi), thereto ; the surface turned away woman), a Linnean order of plants from the axis, which in the case —of with twelve pistils ; dodecag'ynous, a leaf is the lower surface (Note. -reits, possessing twelve pistils or This is reversed by some authors)

distinct carpels ; dodecam'erous, ~ Su'ture, the suture of a follicle -rus (fiepos, a share), in twelve parts, or legume which is exterior to

as in a cycle ; Dodecan'dria (a,vj]p, the axis ; the midrib of a carpel dvSpos, a man), a Linnean class of dorslcum'bent (cumhens, lying

plants with twelve stamens down) = SUPINE (Crozier) ; dorsif- dodecan'drian, dodecan'drous, -drus, erous (fe.ro, I bear), borne on the

of twelve stamens, normally (occa- back, as the sori on most Ferns ; sionally extended to nineteen) dor'siflxed, dorsiflx'us {fxus), fast),

dodecapet'alous {-vriToKov, a, flower- fixed on the back or by the

leaf), with twelve petals, or less back ; dorsiven'tral {venter, the

than twenty ; dodecari'nus {appriv, belly), used of an organ which has male), Necker's equivalent for dorsal and ventral surfaces, as a

dodecandrous. leaf ; Dorsiventral'lty, the condition Do'drans (Lat., a span), a full span, of possessing upper and lower faces

from thumb tip to extremity of the of an organ ; Dorsum (Lat.), (1) the little finger, about nine inches, or back, or parts of the flower which

23 cm. ; dodranta'lis, a span long. look to the outside ; (2) in Diatoms, dolalira'tus (Lat.), axed, or axe- in forms which are more or less

shaped ; dolab'riform, dolabriform'is Innately curved, the convex side of (forma, shaped), hatchet-shaped. the girdle. 81 = ;;; ;;

Dots dusty

Dots (1) receptacles of oil in the the stone-cells of the flesh of pears leavea the cell-wall (Cross and Bevan). ; (2) pits in ;

dotted, punctured with dots ; — Dry-rot, destruction of timber in Ducts, vessels with pit-like mark- houses by Mendius lacrymans, Pr.

ings on the walls ; — Tls'sue = du'bious, du'bius (Lat.), doubtful, BOTHRENCHYMA. used for plants whose structure or doub'le, du'plex (1) twice ; (2) used of afllnities are uncertain. flowers when the petals are mon- Duct, Duct'us (Lat., led, conducted), strously increased at the expense an elongated cell or tubular vessel, of other organs, especially the especially occurring in the fibro-

stamens ; ~ bear'lng, producing a vascular portions of plants ; an'-

twice in the same season nular ~ , the secondary thickenings Doub'Iing, the same as chorisis occurring more or less in the form ;

doub'ly, something repeated, as ~ of rings ; closed ^ , long cells, not toothed, the teeth themselves being continuous, but with the intervening

toothed. septa remaining ; dot'ted ~ , = Both- Down (1) soft pubescence; (2) the RENCHYMA ; intercellular ~ , pas-

; pappus of such plants as thistles ; sages between the cells retlo'u-

down'y, pubescent, with fine soft lated — , where the markings seem hairs. to form a network; Boalar'iform-' Bra'canth [draganthum, Mid. Lat.), with ladder-like markings as in a synonym of Gum Tragacanth. Ferns.

Draco'nine, a red resinous sub- dul'cis (Lat. ), sweet, extended to any stance from " Dragon's Blood," kind of taste which is not acrid produced by Daemonorops Draco, Dul'cite, a crystalline substance Blume, and Dracaena Draco, from Mdampyrum, also found in Linn. Madagascar Manna. drawn, applied to attenuated shoots, du'metose, dumeto'su^ {dumetum, a diminished and etiolated, often ), bushy, relating to bushes increased in length. Dume'tum, a thicket. drep'aniform {Spiiravw, a sickle, dumose' {dumo'sus, bushy), full of

forma, shape), falcate (Crozier) bushes, of shrubby aspect ; Du'mus Drepa'nium, a sickle-shaped cyme. (Lat.), a bush. Drip-point, Drip-tip, the acuminate duode'nl (Lat.), by twelves, growing apex of a leaf, from whose point by twelves.

water soon drips ; Germ. Traufel- du'plex (Lat.), double; du'plicate, spitze. duplica'tus, doubled or folded, droop'ing, inclining downwards, cer- twin ; Dupllca'tion, doubling, Chori-

- nuous, but not quite pendent. sis ; duplica'to crena'tus, doubly

Drop'per, the young bulb of a tulip, crenate ; ~ denta'tus, doubly-

not of flowering size. toothed ; ~ plima'tus, bipinnate ;~ Drop'ping-point Drip-point. serra'tus, doubly-serrate ; ~ tema'- drupa'oeous(drMpo!, an olive, + aceous), tus, biternate ; duplo = twice as resembling a , possessing its many, in Greek compounds it is character, or producing similar diplo.

fruit ; Drupe, Dru'pa, a stone-fruit Dura'men (Lat., a hardened vine such as a plum ; —Spu'rious ^ , any branch), the heartwood of an exo- fleshy body enclosing a stone genous stem, which has become Dru'pel, Dru'pelet, Drupe'ola, a hardened by deposits.

diminutive drupe, the fruit of the Dust, Blair's word for Pollen ; dust'y, is an aggregation of covered with granulations re-

these ; Drupe'tiun, a cluster of sembling dust ; or powdered, fari-

; Dru'pose, a constituent of 82 ; ;

dwarf Ectoplasm dwarf, of small size or height com- bractea, a bract), without bracts pared with its allies ; ~ Male, a ebrac'teolate, ebracteola'tus, desti- short lived filament of a few cells, tute of bracteoles. in Oedogoniaoeae, the upper cells ebum'eous, -eus (Lat. of ivory), ivory being antheridia. white, white more or less tinged Dyas'ter (5i5o, double, dcrrr/p, a star), with yellow. the stage of nuclear division when ecalc'arate, ecalcara'tus (e, priv., cal-

the rays of linin split longitudinal- car, a spur), spurless ; ecaud'al ly and two stars are formed which (cauda, a tail), without a tail or move apart, ending with the forma- similar appendage. tion of daughter-skeins ; dyblas'tUB Eoblaste'sis (Ik, out of, pXAarri, (pXaaros, a bud), two-celled, ap- growth), the appearance of buds

plied to Lichen spores ; Dycle'sium, within a flower, prolifioation of or Dycle'sium, see Diolesium. the inflorescence. dynam'ic {56vafu.s, power), applied to eceen'tric = excbntbic. tissue which is capable of strongly ecUor'ophyllose (e, priv., + CHL0BO

swelling on one side ; Dy'namis, phtll), without chlorophyll ; scari-

used by Linnaeus to express the ous ; ech'inate, echina'tiis (Lat., degree of development of stamens, prickly), beset with prickles as Didynamia, and Tetradynamia, eohin'ulate, echinula'tus, having applied to flowers where respec- diminutive prickles. tively two and four stamens have Ecid'ium (Crozier)=AECiDinM. longer filaments than the remain- Ech'ma, pi. Ech'mata (fx/^a, a sup- ing two. port), the hardened hook-shaped dyploste'monouB = diplostemonous. funicle in most Acanthaceae which dyploate'gia = diplostegia. supports the seed ; cf. Retinacu- dysgeog'enous [dva-, i.e. bad, yrj, the lum (3). earth, jefvdu, I bring forth), em- Ecol'ogy, etc., see OECOLoay. ployed by Thurmann for those Econom'ic Botany (oIkos, a house, plants growing on soils which do po/uk6s, resting on laws), applied not readily yield detritus, hard botany, that branch which takes of rocks generally, such as granite ; note technical application of Dysteleol'ogy (tAos, completion, plants and plant-products. \6yos, discourse), frustration of ecort'lcate, ecortica'tus (e, priv., cor-

function ; as where an insect ob- tec, bark), destitute of bark, or

tains honey by puncturing a nectary bark-like covering ; eoos'tate, ecos- instead of by the floral opening ta'tus {casta, a rib), without ribs,

adj., dysteleolog'ic, ~ cal ; Dystele- nerveless ; eorusta'oeous {crusta, ol'oglst, an agent which evades the rind, 4-aceous), destitute of thallus, teleologio end, as a bee which ob- applied to Lichens. tains honey by means which do ectogen'lo (^ktos, outside, 7ci'os, off- not conduce to fertilization. spring), capable of living outside of a given body, as certain bacilli e, ex, in Latin compounds, privative, Ectopar'asite ( -I- Parasite), a para- as eeostate, without ribs. site which remains on the exterior of

Ear, the spike of corn ; ear-formed, its host, only sending its haustoria opposed to Endoparasite (Loudon), eared, auriculate. within ; ; ebe'neous, black as ebony, the heart- ectopMoeo'des (0Xoios bark), living wood of Diospyros Ebenum, Koen. on the surface or bark of other ebeta'tus = hebetatus. plants as some Lichens ; Ect'oplasm ehori'nus {eboreus, made of ivory), (irXaV/iia, moulded), a delicate, firm, ivory-like, or ivory-white. superficial layer of the cytoplasm ebrac'teate, ebractea'tits, (e, priv. or general protoplasm of the cell, 83 ; ;

Ectospore Elaterine

hyaloplasm ; Ect'ospore {

seed), a synonym of Basidiospobb ; two form the synergidse, and the

ectos'porous, possessing exogen- other forms the obsphere ; ~ Cell, the

ously formed spores ; eotothe'cal obsphere or gynogamete ; ~ shaped,

(8-llK-q, a case), in Asoomycetes = ovate; ~ Spore = OospoEB.

used for naked-spored ; ectotro- eglan'dulose, eglandulo'siis (e, priv. ph'ic {rpoipii, nourishment), when glandula, a gland), destitute of

a fungus clothes a root only ex- glands ; egTaa'ulose (granvla, a

ternally ; eototrop'ic (t/joVos, direc- small grain), without granules. tion), outward curvature. E'gret, Martyn's term for pappus ec/phellate (e, priv. -f Ctphella), Fr. Aigrette. used of Lichens destitute of oyph- ehila'tua J (e, priv., -f Hilum), imper-

ellae ; edent'ate, edenta'tus (dens, forate, applied to pollen grains dentis, a tooth), without teeth having no perforations. edent'ulus (Lat.), toothless. elB'odal, eiso'dial (efcroSos, an entry), Ed'estln, {iSea-Tos, eatable), a globulin anterior, as the outer pore of constituent of wheat flour, forming stomates (Tschirch). about six to seven per cent. EJacula'tion (ejaculor, I shoot forth) Edge, the margin or outline, as of a = Ejection.

leaf ; edged, when a patch of colour EJec'tlon (ejectio, casting forth), is rimmed round by another tint. forcibly throwing out endogenously effete', effe'tus, effoe'tus (Lat., ex- formed spores from a sporangium. hausted), past bearing, function- Elabora'tlon (elaboratio, persevering less from age. labour), used of the changes which effigr'arate, effigura'ttis [figura, a fig- take place after the absorption of ure), (1) when an organ is com- food material to fit it for the use of pleted by the full development of the plant. its subordinate parts; (2) of definite elaeo'des (iXaia, olive), olive colour,

outline, opposed to bkfusb; EflBgu- brownish green ; Elaloleu'cites ra'tions, outgrowths of the re- (XeuKos, white), Van Tieghem's

ceptacle or torus as in Pamfiora, term for ; Elai'oplasts Capparis, etc. (irXacTTOs, moulded), plastida which oil, Efttores'cenoe, .^orescem'im ( effloresco , are believed to form as leuco-

I blossom forth), the season of plasts form starch ; Elal'osplieres flowering, anthesis. ((7(paipa, a sphere), bodies in spongy EffoUa'tion (Lindley) = Exfoliation. and palisade parenchyma, similar effuse', effu'sus (Lat., poured out), to elaioplasts, probably oil-bodies

patulous, expanded ; Effu'sio, an (Lidforss). The foregoing are also

expansion ; Effu'sion, used by spelled elaeo-.

Wiesner for an intermingling of elapM'nes, (eXa^iv'Jjs, a fawn) ; da- gases under different pressures, the phi'rms (iXaipos, a deer), tawny or current acting through openings in fulvous.

membranes. Ela'ter (iXariip, a driver) ; (1) an efo'Uolate,e/bZioZa'

; efo'liolose scales or squamae has the theose of Hepaticse ; (2) a free

meaning ; efiU'crate, eapillitium the same thread in Myxogastres ; efulcra'tus (fulcrum, a bed-post), (3) in Equisetum, four clubbed used of buds from which the hygroscopic bands attached to customary leaf has fallen. the spores, which serve for dis- restricted persal! Egg (1) Ovum, ovule ; (2) in meaning as below ;~Appara'tus, Elat'erine, the active principle of the the three cells with nuclei at the fruit of Materium, Jacq. 84 ;

Elaterium embiyonal

Elate'rium (AoTijpios, driving away) emayginate emargina'tus {ema/rgino, = C0C0OM. to deprive of its edge), having a ela'tus (Lat., exalted), tall, lofty. notch cut out, usually at the ex- electri'nus {ijKeKrpov, amber), yellowisb tremity ; Emarginatu'ra (Lat.), amber coloiired; Electrol'ysis {Mens, the notch at the apex of an a loosing), analysis by electric force, emarginate leaf,

adj. electrolyt'io ; electrotrop'ic Em't)olus (?/i;8o\os, a pump piston), a {rpoTTos, direction), actuated by plug, a process which projects

electric force ; Elec'tropism, the downwards from the upper part of electric impulse which governs the cavity of the ovary of Arme.ria, certain plant-functions. and closes the foramen of the Element'ary Or'gans, the constituents ovule. of cellular and vascular tissue. emboss'ed, umbonate, having a slight eleutheran'therous (iXeiSepas, free, central nodule. + Anther), having the anthers embra'cing, clasping by the base,

distinct, not united ; eleuthero- amplectant. pet'alous {ir&aXov, a flower-leaf), Em'bryo, Em'hryon (^/t/Spuoc, a foetus), polypetalous, having free petals, the rudimentary plant formed in a

choripetalous ; eleutherophyll'ous seed or within the archegonium of leaf), separate leaved ~ (ipiXKov, a ; Cryptogams; Buds, "spheroidal

eleutherosep'alous ( + Sepalum) solid bodies, of unknown origin, re- with distinct sepals. sembling woody nodules formed in eleva'ted, applied to a Lichen when the bark of trees, and capable of raised above the surface of its extending into branches " (Lind-

matrix. ley) ; -- Cell=Oosphere ; ~Nod'ule,

Ell, a measure variously understood, the same as Embryo Bods : — Sac, the English ell being 45 inches, the the cell in the ovule in which the French ell 54 inches. embryo is formed, also by some

Elleb'orin, an acrid resin from Mranthia termed the macrospore : fized <-,

hyemalis, Salisb. formerly con- a leaf-bud ; embryogen'ic {-yevvaia, sidered a species of HelUborus. I bring forth), belonging to the ellip'soid, elllpsoi'dal, ellipsoida'lis development of the embryo ; ~ {eWei^iS, a falling short, eTSos, Bod'les, in Mucorini, naked masses like), an elliptic solid, sometimes of protoplasm apparently derived

employed for elliptic ; ellip'tic, from the nuclei, at each end of the ellip'tical, dlip'ticus, shaped like zygospore, ultimately fusing to- an ellipse, oblong with regularly gether, becoming ~ Spheres, then rounded ends. surround themselves with a double Elltrio'ulus = ELTTBicnLus. cell-wall, and finally become Em- eloc'ulax, eloctda'ris {e, priv. loculus, bryonic Spheres (L^ger) ; Embryo- a cell), unilocular. ifeny, formation of the embryo Elonga'tion, Moiiga'tio (elongo, I direct —, when a spore gives rise lengthen), remarkable for length to an embryo resembling the adult

in comparison with its breadth ; form ; heteroblast'ic ~ , when the elonga'ted, donga'tus (drawn out in embryo differs widely from the length). adult form it is not borne direct,

Elytric'ulua (IXut/jok, a covering), but as a lateral outgrowth ; ho'lo-

Necker's term for a floret in Com- blastlc -- , in which the whole of the = positae ; ely'triform {forma, shape), ovum takes part; ho'moblast'ic ~ ,

resembling the wing-case of a beetle DIRECT ~ ; in'dlreot - = hetbro-

(Crozier). ELASTio ~ ; meroblast'lc, when emar'cid, emar'cidus {emarceaco, I only a portion of the ovum takes wither), flaccid, withered. part in the development ; embry'o- 85 ;-; ;

embryonal endarch

nal, embryona'lis, relating to the buckthorn and a species of rhubarb,

embryo ; ~ Tubes, tubular struc- Rheum Emodi, Wall. tures which develop in Abietineae, empa'led, Grew's term for hemmed

forming the ; ~ Ve'slcle, in, as the flower by the calyx

the obsphere ; Embryol'ogy {\6yos, Empa'lement, = Calyx ; Empa'lerB discourse), study of the embryo = calyx segments. embry'onary Sao = embryo sac empenna'tUB % (Mod. Lat.), pinnate. em'bryonate, having an embryo emphysemato'Bus J (^^^i/o-dw, Ibreathe

(Crozier) ; embryon'ic, rudimentary, upon), bladdery. -^ in an early stage, Branches, in Emph'ytlBm {^iJ.'t>vs, inhering). W. D. Ghara, peculiarbranches resembling Cope's term for inherited or simple

an embryo, which become separate type of growth force ; Emphyto- and grow into new plants; -- Spheres, gen'eslB (yivea^i, beginning), the

see under Embrtogenio Spheees ; origin of inherited growth force Em'bryophore (cpopiu, I carry), in (W. D. Cope). Equisetum the homologue of the Empii'lc Di'agram, a scheme showing suspensor of Phanerogams and the relative number and position of , the lower of the two parts of a flower as seen by inspec- cells first cut oflf by a septum in tion.

the oosphere, then again sepa- em'pty, void ; ~ Glumes, one or more rated, and this time forming glumes subtending a spikelet in the lower two of the quad- grasses enclosing one or more rants, one becoming the "foot," flowers.

the other the first root ; Embryo Emul'sln (emulsiis, milked), an enzyme phy'ta [(pvTov, a plant), plants pos- acting upon glucosides, found sessing embryos, divided into ~ plentifully in almonds. Slphonogam'ia, having pollen-tubes, enantioblast'ic, -tous (Icaj'Ta, opposite, practically all flowering plants, §\a(TThi, a shoot), having the em- and ^ Zoldiogam'ia, with ciliated bryo at the end of the seed dia- spermatozoids, practically Crypto- metrically opposite the hilum.

- gams ; Embryote'ga, tegum, Ena'tlon (enatus, sprung up), having -teglum, -stega {reyri, a covering), outgrowths from the surface. a callosity in the seed coat of some Encarp'imn (h, in, Kapiris, fruit). seeds near the hilum, and detached Trattinick's term for sporophore. by the protusion of the radicle on Enca'slng, of protoplasm, the forma- germination ; Embryotroph'a {rpo^, tion of cellulose-caps by the proto-

nourishment) ( 1 ) perispermium ; plasm in the cells of certain tri-

(2) amnios (Henslow). chomes (Haberlandt) ; Germ., Ein- Emer'gence (emerge, I come forth), kapaelung.

an outgrowth from the surface, Enchyle'ma (iyxiu, I pour in, XiJ/kt;, differing from hairs in arising from rheum), the more fluid portion of more than the superficial cells, and the cytoplasm (Hanstein). from spines, in arising from a few enoyst'ed {iv, in, KiJims, a bladder),

layers only ; prickles, warts, etc. enclosed in a bag, or invested with emer'gent, emerg'ens, used of a coating when in a non-motile capsules which rise slightly above state, as some unicellular plants. the perichaetium ; emer'sed, em- Encyst'ment, the condition of being er'sua, raised above and out of the encysted. water. end'arch {evSov, within, apxil, begin- Em'etln, a, supposed alkaloid from ning), applied to a bundle in which Ipecacuanha and similar emetic the primary xylem, in most Phaner- roots. ogams is wholly centrifugal, cen- Em'odin, a glucoside obtained from troxylio. ;;

endecagynous endorhlzous

endeoagr'ynous.endecagyn'lan (^cSeKcis, sions ; endogf'enous, (1) pertaining eleven, 7wt), a woman), having to an Endogen produced ; (2) within

eleven pistils ; endeean'drous {aviip, another body, arising from deep-

di/dpl)!, a man), having eleven seated tissues ; ~ Cell-forma'tion, =

stamens ; endecaphyU'ous {(piiWov, free cell-formation ; Endogonid'ium

a leaf), having eleven leaves or ( -I- Gonidium), a gonidium formed leaflets. within a receptacle or gonidangium ende'mic, ende'micus (iv, in, Srnxos, a Endogo'nlum, the contents of the country district), confined to a nucule of Chara; endonast'lc given region, as an island or (i/aiTTos, close pressed), applied by country. Van Tieghem to an anatropous or En'distem (evSov, within, 'Icttiiu, I campylotropous ovule, when the

stand), young pith ; Endobasid'ium curvature is horizontal towards the

(hasidium, a little pedestal), an edge of the carpel ; Endokaryog'amy enclosed basidium, as in Gastero- {Kipvov, a nut or kernel) = Endo-

myoetes ; endoblot'lc (jSiorr;, life), gamy ; Endonu'cleus (nucleus, a " living within as a parasite, as small nut) " the nucleolo-nucleus

Ghrysophlyctis endobiotica. Rose, in (Macfarlane) ; Endopar'aslte ( -f

potato tubers ; En'doWem (^XiJ/za, » Parasite), a plant which lives and coverlet), tissue beneath the derma- develops within the tissues of the

adj. ; togen, of small-celled parenchyma ; host; endoparaalt'io Endo- En'docarp {Kap-iros, fruit), the inner perid'ium (irepldioi', a little pouch),

layer of a pericarp ; eudocarp'oid, the inner layer of the peridium in

resembling the Lichen genus Eiido- Fungi ; En'dopliloeum (0Xo«)S, bark)

carpon; eudooatad'romous ( + Cata- the inner bark ; Eudophrag'ma J DKOMOUS), when Ferns in their ner- {(j>pdyij.a, a fence), a partition in vation have their stronger pinnules the frond of some seaweeds ; en- catadromous, the weaker one, ana- dophyl'lous, endophyl'lus {(pvKKov, a, dromous; En'doclllte (x'tw"', a tunic), leaf), (1) formed from within a

the innermost membrane of the egg sheathing leaf ; (2) living within in Fuoaceae (Farmer) ; En'dochroa J the substance of a leaf ; endophy'- (xpiis, skin), a supposed interior tal, endopliyt'ic, -cus ((pvrov, a

layer of the cuticle (Lindley) ; En'- plant), one plant growing inside dochrome, Undochro'ma {xpHfM, another plant, whether parasitic colour), the peculiar colouring or not ; En'dophyte, (1) the woody exogen, in- matter in cells, especially in Algae ; body or timber of an a, Endocor'tex(co)tea;, bark), the inner- cluding the pith (Lindley) ; (2) interior most layer of the cortical region ; plant which grows in the endococ'coid, like the Lichen ]Sn- of another living plant ; En'doplasm dococcus ; En'docyst {Kiiarcs, a {n-Xacrjxa, moulded), the internal bladder), Cleve's term for a pro- granular portion of the protoplasm bably sexual organ in the frustules as distinguished from the outer which is of certain Diatoms ; En'dodennis portion, the ectoplasm,

(Sipiia, skin), the layer of ground- free from granules : Endopleu'ra tissue which abuts on the stele, {TrXevpa, a rib), the inner seed-coat, being differentiated as a sheath tegmen ; endop'tile, endop'tilus of round it ; Endog'amy (yi-noi, mar- (tttiKov, a feather), used an is rolled up riage) : an expression for fusion embryo whose plumule or coalescence of two or more in the cotyledon ; endorhl'zal, en- dorhi'zous, -us {l>l-ia, a root), mono- female gametes, adj. endog'amous ; En'dogen (yivot, race, oflf-spring), cotyledonous, for in germination a monocotyledonous plant, sup- the radicle instead of lengthening posed to grow by internal acces- gives rise to secondary rootlets 87 ;; ;

Endorhlzae entodlscalis

Endorhl'zae = Monocotyledons ; En- En'ergld {ivepyka, action, ISiji, Greek dosolero'tliun (+ Sclbrotium), a suffix = paternity), Sachs's term for persistent tuber-like mycelium of the nucleus and protoplasm as a

endogenous origin (Fayod) ; EndoB- vital unit ; En'ergy, the capacity mom'eter {/lirpov, a measure), an for doing work, as~of actual mo-

instrument to show endosmosis tion or klnet'ic '- ; or ~ of Position En'dosmose, Endosmo'sis {dia-fios, or poten'tial~. impulsion), flow of liquid through a ener'vls, ener'Tiua (Lat.), destitute of

membrane into a more viscid fluid ; veins or nerves. Za'dosperm., Endosperm'um ((riripixa, English Type of Distribution, H. C. seed), (1) the albumen of a seed in Watson's term for those plants Angiosperms, by recent observers whose range in Great Britain is limited to the endosperm deposited centred in England proper.

within the embryo sac ; (2) in Gym- Enlarg'ement, a swollen or thickened nosperms the prothallium with- condition due to increase of cellular in the embryo sac in Selagin- tissue disproportionate to the ; (3) ella, tissue formed in the cavity of woody frame wall. the macrospore below the prothal- Enneagyn'ia {ivvia, nine, yvv^, a

lium ; endosperm'lc, -icus, having woman), a Linnean order of plants

albumen, or associated with it with nine pistils ; enneagyn'ian,

En'dospore, Endospor'ium ((xiropb,, enneag'ynous, having nine pistils ; seed), (1) the innermost coat of a Ennean'diia [dvTip, dydpos, a man),

spore ; (2) the Intinb of a pollen- a Linnean class characterised by grain; eudosp'oroua, -wt, having havingninestamens; ennean'dricus,

spores formed within ; En'dostere :|: ennean'drous, with nine stamens {cTTepeos, stiff), the timber of an enneaii'nus {dppTif, male), Necker's

exogen, without the pith (Lindley); synonym for enneandrous ; ennea- En'dostome, Endosfoma {aTo/Ma, the pet'alous [r^ToKov, a flower-leaf),

mouth), the foramen of the inner having nine petals ; enneasep'alous

coat of an ovule ; Endotbe'ca {Br/Kri, (+ Sepalum), with nine sepals a case), Tulasne's term for endo- (Crozier); enneasper'mous {airepiui,

theoium ; Endothe'cium, (1) Pur- seed), nine-seeded (Crozier). kinje's name for the inner layer of Enno'bling, an old term for inarching.

a pollen grain ; (2) the inner lining eno'dal, eno'dis (Lat.), without knots of the loculus of an anther the ; (3) or nodes. inner tissue of the theca in Mus- en'sate (Crozier), ensa'tus {ensis, a

cineae ; endotroph'ic {rpoipTt, nour- sword), sword-shaped ; en'slform, ishment), applied to mycorhiza ensiform'is (forma, shape), sword- when the fungus attacks the cells shaped, as the leaves of Iris. of the root itself; Endot'ropliy, entang'led, irregularly interlaced, as Wiesner's expression for the con- the pubescence, or fibres of some dition of thickened growth of a roots. shoot in the direction of the enteropliIeo'deB {evT^pov, intestine, parent - shoot; Exoteophy 0\oioF, bark), cf. ; by Wallroth applied endotrop'ic (rpoir^, a turning), in- to Lichens which need some amount

ward curvature ; endozo'io (fuoc, of preparation in the bark, wood,

an animal), living inside an animal etc. , by weathering, before they can entozoic (Crozier). thrive. Enelle'ma {heCK-riiut, a wrapper), entire', without toothing or division, the inner skin of the seed. with even margin. Energet'lcs (evepyqTi.KOi, active), the entodis'calis (ivrdi, within, Sio-ras, a science which treats of the trans- quoit), inserted within a disk, as in formation of energy. the case of some stamens, ; ;

entomogenous EpicMle

entomog'eiioiis {evTOfios = lnsectf yev- epan'tlious {iirl, upon, S,vdos, a flower), vda, I bring forth), used of Fungi growing upon flowers, as certain which are parasitic on insects Fungi. entomoph'llouB (0iXeu, I love), ap- Ep'en (Crozier) = Epenchyma. plied to flowers which are fertilized Epench'yma {iirl, upon, eyxv/ia, an

by insects ; Entomopli'ilae, plants infusion), Nageli's term for fibro- whose flowers are fecundated by vascular tissue; Epharmo'sis

insects, especially ; Eu- {ip/iota, I join together), the tomoph'ily, the condition just de- minute anatomy of plants applied

scribed ; ; Entomophy'tal (^utoc, a to taxonomy adj. epharmot'ic ; plant), entomogenous. ephem'eral, ephem'erous, -vs,

Entopar'asite (eVtos, within, irapaci.Tos, {fj/jjpa, day), (] ) lasting for a day or a parasite), a parasite living en- less, as the corolla of Gistus ; (2) tirely within its host (Crozier) used by Mobius as '- polycarpio entophy'tal {(pirrov, a plant) = endo- plants, which flower several genera-

phytal ; En'tophyte, Entophy'ta, a tions in the same year, as Stellaria plant which grows within other media, Cyr.

plants, as some Fungi ; ad j . ento- epiba'sal {irl, upon, /Sdffis, the base),

phyt'ic ; en'tozolc (fwox, an animal), in front of the basal wall, as in the growing within animals, endozoio. anterior half of a proembryo En'velope, surrounding parts, the •~ Cell, the upper cell of an oospore

Flo'ral En'velopes are the perianth in Eryophytes and Pteridophytes ;

or its analogues ; '- Appara'tus, the ~ Oc'tants, the subsequent divi-

sporooarp in Ascomycetes exclusive sions of the ~ Cell ; Ep'iblast, {^Xaffros, of the asci, and ascigerous cells ; Epiblast'us a shoot), the envel' oping = involucrate. first and undeveloping leaf of the Environment (Fr.environnement), the plumule of grasses, a rudimentary

aggregate of surrounding condi- second cotyledon ; EpiWas'tanuB is

tions. a synonym ; Epiblaste'ma, a super-

En'zyme (iv, in, fi5(tii;, yeast,) an ficial outgrowth from leaves ; Epi- unorganised or soluble ferment, blaste'sls, growth of Lichens from

as Diastase ; amylolyt'ic ~, as gonidia which develop on the Diastase, converting starch into parent Lichen.

sugar ; fat ^ , converting olein into Epible'ma (^7rij3Xi;/na, a cloak), (1) the roots with its oleic acid and glycerine ; glu'coside extremity of the

~ , as Synaptase or Emulsin; hydro- root-hairs (Schleiden), now re- lyt'ic •", splitting up by hydro- stricted to the primary integu-

lysis ; invert ^ , turning cane-sugar mentary tissue of the root, apart epider- into grape-sugar ; oxldl'sing ~ , as- from the root-cap ; (2) an sisting in the oxidation of various mis of the thickened and flattened

substances ; proteolyt'ic ~ , decom- cells (Lindley).

posing proteids ; Enzymol'ysia eploalyo'iua [iirl, upon, xiXuf, a cup)

(Xiio-is, a loosing), the action of =EPisTAMiNEons ; Epioa'lyx, an in- breaking up a substance by the volucre resembling an accessory solvent power of an enzyme. calyx as in Malva ; Ep'lcarp Eosin'opbil (eosin, a rose-red dye from (Kapiros, fruit), the external layer

coal-tar products, ipiXea, I love), of a pericarp ; epioarpan'thous ; denotes any substance which be- -us {apSos, a flower), epioarp'- come coloured by the application of oua, epicarp'lus, -icus, superior,

eosin. applied to a flower or its parts ; Epan'ody {eiravoSos, return to normal), Ep'ictiil, Ep'icbile, Epichil'ium a return to a regular state from an {xei\os, a lip), the terminal part of irregular, as a peloria flower. the labellum of an orchid when it 89 ;;;; ;

Epichroa EpipHyll

is {yovij, distinct from the basal portion ; go'nium offspring), (1) the Eplcliro'a t ixp'^^t skin), a supposed cellular layer covering the young

external layer of cuticle ; Ep'iollne sporophore in Hepaticae ; (2) simi- {kXIiiti, a bed), a nectary when lar tissue in Mosses after formation on the receptacle of a flower of the capsule, frequently ruptured, epicli'nal, epicU'nus, seated upon the upper portion carried up as the

the torus or receptacle ; eploor'- calyptra, the lower remaining as

mlc ((cop/ios, a tree-trunk), (1) ap- the vaginule ; (3) the nucleus in

plied to preventitious buds which Chara ; epigynophor'ius {yvvri, a develop trunks of trees woman, (popiui, I carry), placed on the ; (2) used of "branches which develop on upon a gynophore or stipe of an

the body of a forest tree from which ovary (Lindley) ; epig'ynous, -ws, surrounding trees have been re- on the pistil, apparently above the " moved (Crozier) ; eplcor'olliiie, ovary ; epigyn'icuB, with the calyx

epicoroUa'tus ( -hCobolla), inserted or corolla superior,

upon the corolla ; Eplcot'yl (kotuXi;, epilitll'ic [iirl, upon ; \i8oi, rook),

hollow vessel), the young stem growing on rocks as many lichens ;

above the cotyledons ; eplcotyle'- eplm'enus (ii.ivu, I remain), Necker's donary, placed above the seed- term for the perianth being

leaves ; Epicu'tia (cutis, the skin), superior ; epinast'ie {vaaToi, pressed Fayod's term for the superficial close), (1) in leaves when pressed layer of the cuticle in Agarics close to the ground, or away from

Ep'lderm, Epider'mis (Sipixa, skin), the axis ; (2) in organs when the the true cellular skin or covering ventral surface grows the fastest of a plant below the cuticle as in revolute vernation when ; (3) epider'mal, relating to the outer ovules are curved in a downward

covering ; ~ Tis'sue, the tissue direction (Van Tieghem); Epinas'ty,

which makes up the epidermis ; De Vries's term for curvature pro- eplder'moid (elSos, like), belonging duced by greater growth of the

to or resembling the epiderm ; ventral surface ; Epine'mus [vrjiia, epidermoi'dal Layer, the exoderra a thread), the upper part of the

of roots ; Epidiphyll'um (Sis, double, filament in Compositae bearing the

tt>iiKKov, a leaf), Kronfeld's term anther ; eplperisperm'ious (irepl, for a double leaf, when the growth about, (r7r^p/ia,seed), without peris- of the lamina has been interrupted perm or albumen (S. F. Gray)

at a particular spot ; epigae'an, Epiperld'ium ( + Peridihm) = Exo-

epigae'ous, epige'us (7^, the earth), PEBiDiDM ; epipet'aloua, -ns, epi- Xn growing upon the ground peta'leus (ireTaXoc, a flower-leaf), as (2) on land opposed to water (1) borne upon the petals ; (2)

(3) the above-ground flowers of placed before the petals ; epl- such genera as have hypogaean petre'ous {nh-pa, a rock), grow-

flowers also, as Krascheninikowia ing on rocks, saxicole ; Epiphlo'em also occurs as , eplge'an, (0Xoio!, bark), the outermost

epig'eous, especially when used or corky bark ; eplphlo'eodal,

of cotyledons which spread above existing in the outer bark ; Ep'i-

the surface ; Epigen'esis (yhecns, phlosa = Epiderm (Lindley) ; Ep'l- a beginning), the theory that the phragm, Epiphrag'ma {(ppdy/xa, a embryo develops by the differen- fence), (1) a membrane which closes

tiation of new organs ; opposed to the opening of the tlieca in Mosses; ' " the old theory of ' Evolution or (2) a delicate membrane closing the

; epig'enous, Preformation epig'enus cup-like sporophore in Nidularia ; (7^;'os, race), growing on the surface, Ep'iphyn l^uXSov, a leaf), the upper

as Fungi on leaves ; Ep'igone, Epi- portion of a leaf, from which the 90 ;;; ;

epipiijriious Epitrophy

petiole and blade are developed some Fungi and the spores of cer- epiphyU'oua, -us, growing on leaves; tain of the higher Cryptogams eplphyUosperm'ous {a-irepfxa, seed), eplspor'ic, connected with the outer bearing seed or the like on leaf-like coat of a spore ; eplstamina'lis organs, as the dorsiferous Ferns. ( -I- Stamen), on the stamens, as Eplph'ysls {^TTiipiui, to grow up), pro- hairs. tuberances round the hilum or for- Eplst'rophe{^?ri(rTpo07),turningabout),

amen of some seeds ; strophioles. the arrangement of chlorophyll Ep'ipliyte {^irl, upon, (fivrov, a plant), a granules on the upper and lower plant which grows on other plants, faces of the cells in diffused light

but not parasitically ; an air-plant c/. Apostrophe; adj. epistropli'ic; eplphy'tal, epiphyt'io, relating to ~ Int'erval, S. Moore's term for

epiphytes ; eplphy'toid (elSos, like), that range of intensity of sunlight used in ~ Par'asitea, as Loran- needed to produce Epistrophe

thaceae and Santalaceae ; Ep'iphy- Epistrophiza'tion, the condition de-

tdsm, the condition of epiphytes scribed ; Epist'rophy, Morren's term epiphyto'tic, used of wide-spreading for the reversion of a monstrous disease in plants, as an epidemic form to the normal condition.

(Crozier) ; Ep'iplasm (TrXdcr/ia, epitet'rarch (i-n-l, upon, -I- tetkauch), moulded), protoplasm rich in gly- when in a triarch stele, the third cogen, which remains in the asous (median) protoxylem group is

after the formation of asoospores ; divided (Prantl) ; epithall'ine

glyoogen-mass ; Eplpleu'ra (irKevpd,, (daXKos, a young shoot), growing a rib), the outer half of the diatom- on the thallus; Epithall'us, the

girdle, belonging to the epitheca ; cortical layer of Lichens, by Zukal Epipod'ium (ttoCs, ttoSos, a foot), (1) employed for all modifications the apical portion of a developing of the cortical hyphae at the phyllopodium or longitudinal axis margin or apex of the thallus,

of a leaf ; (2) J a form of disk con- which serve as protection to the sisting of glands upon the stipe of gonidia ; Epltlie'ca [B-qK-q, a case), the outer larger half-frustule an ovary ; (3) J the stalk of the and

disk itself (Lindley) ; epipol'yaxch of Diatoms; adj. epithe'cal ; Epi- (iroXi/s, many, i-pxh^ beginning), the the'cium, the surface of the fructi-

division of the median protoxylem fying disc in Lichens ; Epithe'lium

in a triarch stele (Prantl) ; epip'- (9^Xi), a nipple), (1) any distinct teroUB, epip'terus {irrepoi', a wing), layer of one or more cells in thick- winged, especially at the summit. ness which bounds an internal

Epirrheol'ogy {iinppiu, I overiiow, cavity ; (2) J = Epidermis. a, \6yos, discourse), the effects of Epithe'ma, Ep'itheme ( iirlB-qim, external agents on living plants. cover), masses of tissue in meso- eplrhl'zous, -zus {iirl, upon, /5/fa, a phyll of leaves, serving as internal

root), growing on roots ; as certain , the cells being usually

parasites ; episep'alous ( -)- Sepaium) devoid of chlorophyll, as in Cras-

(1) on the sepals ; (2) standing be- svla. fore the sepals'; Ep'isperm ((nripfia, epltii'aroli (tVi, upon, -I- triarch), seed), the coat or outer covering when in a triarch stele, the third of the seed, spermoderm, perisperm (medial) protoxylem group is upper-

episperm'icus, exalbuminous ; Epi- most i.e. ventral(Prantl); Epit'rophy sporang'ium (criropci, seed, d77«oi', (T/)o0r), food), the condition when on a vessel), the indusium of I'erns ; the growth of the cortex wood Ep'ispore, Epispor'ium, an external is greater on the upper side of coat or perinium formed from the the organ ; or having buds or periplasm round the oospore in shoots on the upper side (Wiesner); 91 ;

epltropoua ermluens

epit'ropous (tpotttj, a turn), denotes small root), without rootlets or

an anatropous ovule with its raphe ; eramo'sus ( ramus, a averse when ascending, adverse branch), unbranched.

when suspended ; Epiral'va, Ep'l- erect, erect'us (Lat.), upright, per- valve (valva, a valve), the valve pendicular to the ground or its

belonging to the epitheca of a attachment ; erec'to-pat'ent (patena, Diatom; eplxylo'neus (fi)Xoy,wood); lying open), between spreading and

epix'ylous ( Crozier ), growing on erect. wood, as Hypoxylon ; eplzoa'rlus Eremacau'sis (ripi/M, gently, KaOa-is, (^uo>>, an animal), growing on dead burning), slow combustion or oxi-

animals ; epizo'ic, eplzo'us, growing dation, such as long preserved seeds on living animals, parasitic or not. show, as if charred. epUca'tuB (e, priv., pUcatus, folded), Ere'raoblast (^p%os, solitary, /SXoo-tos,

not plaited or folded ; epro- a shoot), cells which united at

phylla'tus ( + ProphylI;A), without first, afterwards separate them-

prophylla, braoteoles ; —in Germ. selves ; Ere'mus t a carpel apart

Vorblatter ; epru'lnose (pniinosv^, from its sister carpels ; Eremobry'a frosty), without surface farina. (Ppvui, I grow), a division of Ferns e'ciual [csqualis), (1) alike as to length having articulated fronds, and not or number, (2) in Mosses when the adherent to the stem or rhizome. capsule is symmetrical; ^ si'ded, Ergogen'esls (efr/ov, work, yhaxi.i, be- equal, when applied to the two sides ginning), the exhibition of growth-

of an organ ; e'quaUy-pin'nate = energy (J. A. Ryder).

abruptly pinnate, having no ter- Er'got (Fr. ), also pr. Er'got ; Olaviceps ' " minal leaflet ; e'cLuans (Lat. ), equal- purpurea, Tul. , causing ' Spur in

ling. grasses ; Ergost'erin, Ergot'lc Acid, Equator'ial Plane, the line which Er'gotin, substances occurring in through mother- of passes the star the sporophore of the Ergot fungus ; the nucleus, the plane of cell- Er'gotism, the effect produced by

division ; ~ Plate, the nuclear disc eating bread which is ergotised of Strasburger, the grouping of er'gotised, infected with Ergot. chromosomes at the middle of the eTianth'ous, -us {ipLov, wool, avSos, spindle in nuclear division. a flower), woolly-flowered. equllat'eral, equilatera'lis [aequilater- erice'tal {ericetum, Mod. Lat., a alis), equal-sided. heath), H. C. Watson's term for equinoot'ial, equinoctia'lis [aequinocti- plants which grow upon moors,

alia, pertaining to the equinox), such as heather, Erica ; erlclti'nus used of plants whose flowers ex- (Mod. Lat.), heath-like, in shape

pand and close at particular hours or habit ; erlco'id (rfSos, like), used of the day. of leaves which are like those of equise'tlc, pertaining to the genus heaths. Equisetum; equise'tifonn, resem- e'rigens {erigo, I raise), used of a bling the same genus as to form. branch, horizontal at first, rising at e'quitant, e'quitans ( Lat. riding ), the point. folded over, as if astride ; equi- eriopli'orous {epiov wool, 0opeu, I tati'vus (Lat.) J = equitant. carry), wool-bearing, densely (aeqiie, equivalv'ular equally ; valva, cottony ; eriophyll'ous, -us {^iWov, leaf of a door), having the valves a leaf), woolly leaved. of a fruit equal in size. Eris'ma {epeta-fia, a buttress), Necker's

Equiv'ocal ( aequivocus, ambiguous) term for the rhachis in grasses. Genera'tion, spontaneous genera- ennln'eus (Mod. Lat.), the colour of tion. the fur of ermine, white, broken eradic'ulose ( e, priv. radiciUa, a with yellow. 92 ; ;

eroded Eugamophyte

ero'ded, ero'se, ero'sus (Lat. gnawed), nostic character ; ~ Or'gans, those as though bitten or gnawed, which are absolutely necessary, erost'rate, erostra'tus, erost'ris (Lat.), stamens and pistils.

esti'val = aestival ; e'stivate = Error, probable, see Deviation. aestivate; Estiva'tion = Aesti- Ersatzfaz'em, Sanio = Substitute vation. Fibres, intermediate in form Etae'rio, Etairium {iraipela,, com- between woody fibres and panionship), an aggregate fruit parenchyma. composed of achenes or drupes, as erubesc'ens (Lat. blushing), blush in BanunciUiis, the Strawberry,

red. and Blackberry ; adj. etairiona'ris, erucaeform'is {emca, a caterpillar, etairio'iieus. forma, shape), used for such Lichen e'tiolated, etiola'tus (Fr. etiol6, drawn • spores as those of Oraphis, which out), lengthened or deprived of

are long, septate, blunted at the colour by absence of light ; Etiola'- extremities, and in shape suggest a tlon, the condition of being

short caterpillar. blanched ; E'tiolln, the yellow- erump'ent, erump'ena (Lat. breaking colouring matter of blanched plants, through), prominent as though chlorophyll which has not acquired bursting through the epidermis. its green colour (Pringsheim). Er'ythrism {ipvBpos, red), a red colour E'tiology = Aetiology. in flowers usually white, the re- etraheoula'tus (e, priv., trabeciila, »,

verse of albinism ; Er'ythrophyll little beam), not cross-barred; when (0iiXXo;', a leaf), Berzelius's term the peristome teeth of Mosses want for the red colouring of leaves cross-connections. erytliroph'ilous (0\eu, I love), eu- (c5, well), in Greek compounds

used of nuclei which take up = true ; often used in sectional red stains in preference to blue names, with a restricted meaning Erythrost'omum J {irrofj-a., the euacnmth'ic (o/tpos, apex, avBos, mouth), Deavaux's word for flower), truly terminal ; ~ Flow'er, Etaerio; Er'ythrozym (fu>i;, yeast), a terminal flower which springs an enzyme from the root of the immediately from the apex of a madder which acts on glucoaides. shoot which has produced leaves

-escens, a, Latin suffix = ish, thus or other lateral structures ; cf.

rub-escens = redd-ish. pseudacranthic ; euantfic, used es'culent (escidentits, fit for eating), by Delpino to denote a mono- suitable for human food. thalamic flower, the reverse being

Es'culta, = Aesculin. psBUDANTHic ; Eucax'otin ( + Caro- Espal'ier, a fruit tree trained lattice- tin), Zopf employs this to mark the fashion, in one plane, but not at- yellow carotin as distinct from tached to a wall. the red ; eucarp'lc Qcapvoi, fruit), esep'tate (e, priv. ,septnm, a partition), applied to certain Algae where destitute of septa. part only of the body of the plant esoter'lo {ia-iirepos, inner), arising goes to form the sporangium, in

from inside the organism. contrast to holocarpio ; eucy'cllc espatha'ceus (e, priv., + Spatha, (kvkKos, a circle), when flowers are

-aoeus), wanting a spathe ; Lindley composed of alternate isomerous gives the form espatha'tua + whorls ; Eugarn'ophyte {ydiios, essen'tlal (essentia, the being of any- marriage,

an existing object ; ~ Cliar'acter, Cryptogams as Oedogonium, Mar- the distinguishing note by which a chantia. Sphagnum, "which sup- form differs from its allies, diag- port dependent ." 93 ; ;

Eugenol Evolution

Eu'genol, the chief constituent of oil different form on the same stem, of cloves, obtained from Pimtnta buds, etc., (Camel). acris, Kostel., and other myrtace- eu'thysohist (eieis, immediately, ous plants, formerly referred to crxia-Tos, split), brood-division, when . each nuclear division is accom- eugeog'enous (eB, well, 7)), the earth, panied by cell division (Hartog). yei/ma, I bring forth), Thurraann's eutrop'lc (e3, well, t/jottos, direction), word to indicate rocks readily A. Gray's word for twining with yielding detritus and the plants the sun, that is, left to right,

which grow on it ; Eunu'cleole dextrorse ; Eu'tropy, applied by

( + NnoLBOLB), used by Eosen for M'Leod to those flowers to which

an erythrophilous nucleus ; Euisog'- only a restricted class of specialised amy (yd/Mos, marriage), the union insects can gain access. of a gamete with any other similar evalv'is, evalVular (e, priv., valva, gamete (Hartog). leaf of a door), destitute of valves, Eupatc'rine, an alkaloid occurring in not opening by them. Eupatorium cannahinum, Linn. evanes'cent {evanescent, vanishing), Euphor'bium, an acrid inspissated soon disappearing, lasting only a juice or resin from various species short time ; evaniscen'ti-veno'sus, of Ewphorhia. when the lateral veins of a leaf do euphotomet'ric (eS, well, 0us, (porbs, not reach the margin. light, //.irpov, a measure), used of Evapora'tion (evaporatio, vapouris- leaves which place themselves so ing), to pass off in vapour. as to obtain the maximum of dif- e'ven, without inequalities of sur-

fused light, as the foliage of forests face ; E'venness, absence of eleva-

(Wiesner). tions or depressions ; evenpiu'nate Eu'pbylls (e8, well, (pvWov, a leaf), = ABRUPTLY-PiNNATB (Crozier) true leaves, foliage leaves ; eu- ev'ergreen, bearing green foliage

; phy'toid (4>vt6v, a plant etSos, all the year ; everlast'ing, used of like) Par'asites, are erect land some flowers which preserve their plants, parasitic in habit (Johow) shape and colour in drying, as eu'schist (ffX"''''os, split), when a species of Gnaphalium, Helichry- gamete is formed by successive com- sum, etc. plete divisions from the parent- ever'niaeform {forma, shape), like cell, the Gametogonium (Hartog) the thallus of Evemia, a genus of

eusporang'iate {(nroph, seed, &yyeiov, Lichens ; Ever'nine, a principle

a vessel), in Pteridophytes, possess- found in the same genus ; evem- ing a sporangium, a Eusporan'gium, lo'id (efSos, like), resembling derived from a group of superficial Evemia, cells; Eusporophy'ta(0i;To;', aplant). Ever'sion {eversio, an overthrowing), Cryptogams defined by C. Mao- protrusion of organs from a cavity, ' millan as ' self-supporting, and do turned backward or outward not nurse the ,e.g'. the evert'ed, turned inside out. higher mosses, the lower fern- evident {evidens, manifest), clearly " worts and club-mosses ; Eu'atatlie visible.

X {(TTad/ios, abode), "the external evit'tate, evitta'tus (e, priv., vitta, a layer of a cell " (Lindley). fillet), not having Vittab, oil- Euthybas'id {eidvs, direct), Van reservoirs in the fruit of Umbelli- Tieghem's word for those basidia ferae. which spring directly from the e'volute {evolvo, I roll forth), unfold-

sporophore ; Pbobasid ; Euthy- cf. ed, turned back ; Evolu'tion, (1) morpb'osis {/Mp^ua-is, a shaping), the act of development ; (2) the the rapid succession of members of theory according to which complex ;


forms are considered to have been roused), the faculty of responding evolved from simpler ones. to external stimuli. ex, privative prefix in place of e, excres'cent {excresceiis, growing out),

when a vowel follows ; exo = out- growing in an unnatural way, as a

ward. wart or other outgrowth ; Excres'- exalbu'minous, exalbumino'sus {ex, cence, a gnaur or wart on the stem

priv., + Albumen), destitute of al- of a tree ; enation. bumen, used only of seeds when Excre'tlon {ex, out of, cretiis, sifted), the embryo occupies the whole (1) the action by which any sub-

cavity within the testa ; ex'alate, stance is rejected from the organ- exala'tun {alakis, winged), wingless. ism ; (2) the thing itself excreted, exalta'tus (Lat., raised high), lofty, -as gum, resin, honey, etc.; excur'- tall. rent, excw'rens (Lat., running), (1) Exanthem'ata (^J, out of, dpdos, a, running through to the apex and

flower), blotches on leaves, etc., as beyond as a muoro ; (2) where the though eruptive ; Exauth'ium J stem remains central, the other bractlets of the last degree, in- parts being regularly disposed

capable of forming axillary buds, round it ; -- Vena'tion, in Ferns, and immediately external to the when the veinlet is directed out- flower. wards. exan'nulate {ex, priv., annvlus, a exendosperm'ous (e{, out, evSov, with- ring), used of Ferns which do not in, (TTip/Mi, seed), used of seeds possess an elastic ring round their which have reserve material stored

sporangia ; exapophysa'tus ( + Apo- in the embryo.

PHTSis), destitute of an apophysis, exe'sus J (Lat. , eaten away), applied or swelling below the capsule of a to a surface irregularly sculptured Mobs. as though by corrosion. ex'aroh (t'f, out of, apxn, origin), used exfo'liate {ex, from, folium, a leaf), to of vascular bundles in which the come away in scales or flakes, as whole primary wood is centripetal, the bark of the Plane ; Exfolia'- almost the same as perixylic. tion, peeling off. exar'eolate, exareola'tus (ex, priv., -1- exha'lant {exhalo, I exhale), breathing AKBOLATUs), not Spaced out or out, as exbalan'tlaVa'sat imaginary

marked into small areas ; exar'il- vessels in the epidermis, actually

late ( -t- Aeilla), without an aril the sides of confluent cells ; Ex-

exar'lstate,ca;ari«to7iis ( + Arista), hala'tlon, the function discharged destitute of awns. by stomata in passing off vapour. exas'perate, exaspera'tus (Lat. , rough- exig'uous, exig'uus (Lat., scanty), ened), rough with hard projecting small and narrow, mean.

points. exi'lis (Lat. ), thin, meagre ; lank and ex'cavate (excavatus, hollowed out), straight. as though dug out. exim'ius (Lat., distinguished), ex- excen'tric, excentric'us {ex, out of, cellent for size for beauty. centrum, the centre), one-sided, exindu'siate, exindvMa'tua {ex, priv., out of the centre, abaxial. + indusiate), without an indu- Ex'ciple, Ex'cipule (Crozier), Excip'- sium, the membrane which covers ulum, JSxcip'idus {excipula, a basin), the torus in Ferns. wart - like excrescences on the Ex'iae = ExTiNE. thallus of certain Lichens, which Ex'lntine {ex, out, -I- Intinb), the have a narrow opening; the por- middle coat of a pollen-grain, that tion of thallus which forms the which is next the intine. rim round the base of apothecia. Ex'lstem (ef, out, io-rds, a web), the Excitabil'ity, Excitabil'itas {excUatm, " Aussenschicht " of Sauio, consist- 95 +; ;;;

Ezochlte Expansion

ing of Mbsistbm "thickening ring" sheath, with naked cotyledons ;

and Peristbm, young cortex ; it is exop'tUe, exop'tilis {tttIXop, a the tissue of protomeristem which wing) = BX0PHTLL0T7S, Said of is not young pith. an embryo whose plumule is naked Ex'ocMte (e|u, outside, xiriiv, a tunic), upon, or between cotyledons and the outermost membrane of the egg not rolled up in one (Lindley)

; Exooor'tex, Exorhi'zae root), = in Fuoaoeae (Farmer) (^fa, a Exogbns ; {cortex, bark), a special triple layer exorhi'zal, exorhiza'Ue, the radicle in the roots of saprophytic Orchids not sheathed, so the primary root Ezoderm'is {depfia, skin), the outer- in germination has no covering to most cortical layer of the adult pierce; Exos'mose,.Ea;osmo'si.s(ii(r/iio!, root, answering to the hypoderma a thrusting), the passage through a of the stem. membrane outwards from a thin to

Exooe'mum (f|, out, oi/uiia, I issue), a dense fluid ; Exosclero'tes {(tkXtipos, a fringe or tuft of hair at the base hard), sclerotia which are external

of the glumes in some grasses to the surface of Agarics ; Ex'-

(Richard); exooatad'romous ( + oapore, Exospor'ium (o-Tropa, seed), CATADROMOUS), when Ferns in their (1) the outer covering of the spore nervation have their stronger (2) a thick coat developed from the pinnules anadromous, and their periplasm round the oospore in

weaker catadromous ( Prantl ) Peronosporeae ; exos'porous, hav-

Ezog'amy {yd/jios, marriage), the ing scattered spores, as Fungi ; Ex'- tendency of closely allied gametes to ostome, JExost'oma, (o-To'iua, amouth),

avoid pairing ; exog'enous exog'enus the foramen of the outer coat of the

{yevviw, I bring forth), (1) growing ovule ; Exosto'sis ((So-Teoi/, bone),

as the wood of Dicotyledons ; (2) (1) the nodules on roots of Legumi-

arising from superficial tissue nosae ; (2) the hard turgesoenoe of Ex'ogens, Exog'enae, plants which sound wood, showing as prominent

addition of Exoaty'lus ( increase in growth by the knots ; J -f Stylus), wood on the outside beneath the Mirbei's word for fruit as in

constantly widening bark ; Exog'y- Labiatae, four seemingly naked nut-

nous, exog'ynvs (7WV7), woman),where lets ; Exothe'clum(e^)f?), acase), (1) the style is exserted beyond the the outer case of the anther flower; Exoisog'amy + Isogamt), (Henslow, Lindley) ( ; (2) Purkinje's when a gamete will pair only term for the extine or outer with a similar gamete of another layer of pollen-grains.

brood (Hartog) ; exonas'tio (cacrTos, exoteric (e|u7-epiKos, external), aris- pressed close), in anatropous or ing from outside the organism, the campylotropous ovules when the opposite of ESOTERIC. curvature is horizontal towards exot'ic (e|wTiKos, foreign), not native,

the median nerve of the side of introduced from abroad ; Exot'ios the upper face of the carpel are those plants which are not in-

(Van Tieghem) ; cf. bndonastic ; digenous. Exoneviro'siB (veipov, a nerve), the exotroph'ic (efu, out of,T/3o0^),nourish- separation of veins in appendicular ment), employed by Wiesner where organs, and their reappearance as an organ or lateral shoot, as op- teeth, spines, or bristles, as in the posed to the mother-shoot, is most

Barberry (Clos) ; Exoperid'ium ( strongly developed ; Bxot'rophy, Peridium), the outer layer of the development of lateral shoots peridium olE such Fungi as Lycoper- instead of the main axis. don, which peels or flakes off on expand'ed, expan'sus (Lat. spread exopliyll'oiis -us {(pvXKov, maturity ; out), diffuse ; Expan'sion, the con- a leaf), not having a foliaceous dition of a flower in full perfection 96 explanate Eye

~ of protoplasm, the normal con- outside the seed, as ~ »« Devel'op- dition when it is impermeable ment, following the sowing of the to cell-sap, the opposite of con- seed, as the escape of the embryo, traction, when it is flaccid and etc. ; ~ ste'lar, the ground-tissue permeable. outside the central cylinder. ex'planate, fxplana'tua (Lat., flattened Extrameabil'ity {extra, beyond, mea- out), spread out flat. bilis, penetrable), the capacity of expul'sive (expvlsus, driven out) protoplasm to permit substances to Fruits, fruits which forcibly ex- pass outwards from its vacuoles pel their seeds. (Janse). exquisi'tus % (Lat., choice), used of extra'rius (Lat., outward), placed on parts larger or more highly coloured the outside. than usual, as Bracteae exquisitae; extratrop'lcal {extra, without, + cf. Coma. Tropic), beyond the tropics, to the exscul'ptus (Lat., carved out), showing north or south of them ; extrava- small depressions as though dug gi'nal {vagina, a sheath), beyond out, as the seeds of Anchusa. or outside the sheath, applied to exsert', exsert'ed, exsert'its {La,t., pro- branches springing from buds, truded), protruding beyond, as which break through the sheath of stamens beyond the tube of the the subtending leaf, chiefly in

corolla. grasses ; Extravasa'tion {vas, a Exsicea'ta (exsiccatus, dry), dried vessel), unnatural flow of a liquid plants, usually in sets for sale or from a tissue or organ, as the ' " subscribers, frequently with printed ' bleeding of vines. tickets. ex'trorse, extror'mis {exteroa, on the exstlp'ulate, exstipula'tua {ex, priv., outside, versua, towards), directed -I-Stipula), wanting stipules. outward, as the dehiscence of an exsuo'cous, exsuc'cus (Lat.), juiceless. anther. Extensib'ility (extensus, out), ex'tus, spread a modern term = extra ; having the property of stretching. similar in form to intus, but not extenua'tus (Lac, thinned), a sy- classic Latin. nonym of viRGATUS (Henslow). Exuda'tion (exudo or exsudo, I sweat), exten'sUB (Lat.), spread out. the transpiration of liquids from exte'rior (Lat., outer), outer ; in the hydathodes, etc., as seen on the flower sometimes = AKTBRI0R. leaf-tips of Monocotyledons. extern'al, extem'us (Lat.), outward exungulc'ulate {ex, priv. ; ungula, a ~ Sheath, a modification of the claw), without a claw (Crozier). bundle-sheath, stated to occur in exu'tive {exuttis, drawn off), applied Ferns (Russow). to seeds wanting the usual integu- Ex'tine {extimus, outside + ine), the ment. outer coat of a pollen-grain. Exu'vlae (Lat., stripped off clothing), ex'tra (Lat.), without, beyond, as cast off parts, as shed scales ; Exu- ex'tra-axill'ary, ^ -axilla'ris, be- vla'tion, the operation of shedding

yond, or out of the axil ; ~ effete material. cell'ular, outside a cell; ~ fas- Eye, (1) a gardener's name for an un-

cio'ular, outside the vascular developed bud ; (2) the persistent

bundles ; — flor'al, beyond the calyx of a pome, cf. Crown (3) a ~ ; flower, as some nectaries ; conspicuous spot in a flower, as a

folia'oeous, away from the leaves, blotch of colour ; ~ Spot (1) a or inserted in a different position coloured spot in a motile gamete

from them ; ^ mat'rical, outside or spore, which is sensitive to ~ me'dian, light markings on the silicious of a nidus or matrix ; ; (2)

beyond the middle ; ~ sem'inal, valve of Goscinodiscus, consisting 97 ; ;

fabaceous fascicular

of an aperture with a, thickened partition which does not arise from margin in each alveole. tbe edges of carpels, but some form

of cellular tissue ; ~ Foot, the base faba'ceouB, -eus {/aba, a bean, + of the seta in some Bryophytes,

aceous), like a bean, or having its which becomes dilated ; ~ Fruit, a

qualities ; fabiform'is {forma), ap- pseudocarp, as a Strawberry plied to Lichen spores which are ^ Indu'slum, the recurved margin bean-shaped. of some Fern-pinnules, which

Face, that surface of an organ which serves to protect the sori ; ~ Par- is opposed to the back, usually the ench'yma = PsEUDOPAREisrcHYMA upper or inner side. r" Raceme' = Helicoid Cyme ; Fa'cles (Lat., shape), the general ~ Tls'sue, hyphal or mycelial

aspect of a plant. felted tissue ; falsiner'vis (7iervu8, factlt'ious, /ac«i*'»«s (Lat.), artificial. a nerve), when nerves are formed fao'ultative (facultas, capability), oc- of cellular tissue, without fibro- casional, incidental, as opposed to vasoular bundles, as in Mosses. obligate; ~ An'aerobes, organisms Fam'ily, Famil'ia, = Order. which can exist without the pre- fan-nerved, having the nerves dis-

sence of free oxygen or air ; ~ posed in the fashion of a fan,

Par'asites, normally saprophytes, radiating from the base ; - shaped,

but able to develop as parasites ; ~ flabelliform; ~ veined, = ~ nerved. Sap'rophytes, the converse of the faro'tate,/ar-c'ft(s (Lat., stuffed), filled last, parasites which can run their up, not hollow or tubular.

course as saprophytes ; ~ Sym'- fa'riam, =in rows, as bi-fariam, in biont, an organism which can either two rows, etc. exist and reach maturity independ- Fari'na (Lat., meal), (1) Blair's term

ently or in symbiosis with another. for pollen ; (2) starch, or starchy withering, fa'diag, without imme- matter ; farina' ceous ( + aceous), diately falling away. of the nature of starch, or contain-

Fae'cula, see Feoula. ing starch ; far'inose, farino'sus, Fairy-riag, a circular patch of (1) covered with a mealiness ; (2) Agarics which have grown centri- Mohl's term for the cellulose of fugally, and whose influence on the starch. soil is shown by greener grass after Fas'cia (Lat., a band), pi. Fas'clae, a they have disappeared. cross-band, as of colour. fal'oate, falcaltus ( Lat. ), sickle- fascia'lis, fasc'iate, fascia'tus {fascis, shaped; falca'rlus, falcator'ius, are a bundle), used of the condition of

Latin synonyms ; fal'clform, faXci- a stem when several have coalesced form'is (fcdx, a sickle, forma, Fascia'tion, a band or bundle caused shape), sickle-like. by a monstrous growth of stems into Fall of the Leaf, defoliation, casting one. off the leaves, as done in temperate fascia'rius (Lat., band-like), banded, by deciduous trees in or band-shaped, narrow and long, autumn. with parallel margins, as in sea- Faise, fal'sus (Lat., untrue), spurious, wrack. having a specious resemblance Fas'oicle, Fascic'ulus (Lat., a little ~ Ax'is, a pseudaxis, see Stm- bundle), a close cluster or bundle

PODITJM ; ^ Bark, a layer on the flowers, leaves, of stems or roots ; outside of endogens of cellular fasoio'ular, fascicula'ris, fas'oicled, tissue, into which fibrous tissue fascicula'tus, connected or drawn

passes obliquely ; ~ Dlchot'omy, into a ; fascic'ular Camb'ium, a dichasium, in which the lateral is that portion which belongs to

axes are two ; ~ Dissep'lment, a the vascular bundles ; ~ Tls'sue, 98 ; ;

fasclolaris Fermentation

~Syst'em = fibro-vasoular system ; Fe'cula {faecula, wine-lees) , starch or ~ Xy'lem = hadrome, the wood- similar substances ; fe'culent, thick

elements of a bundle ; fasciola'ris, with sediment (Crozier). fasciola'tus, fasciated. Feounda'tion {fecundo, to make fruit- fastig'iate, fastigia'tus {fastigium, a ful), = Fektilization. slope, a gable ), ( 1 ) parallel, Feed'er, (1) a host-plant; (2) in Wel- clustered and erect, as the branches vntschia and other Gnetaceae, an of Populus fastigiata (Linn. ) ; (2) outgrowth of the hypocotyl, serv- frequently used as if it meant the ing as a temporary organ of absorp-

same as fasoiate ; tion Fastigia'tion, ; (3) used by Vines for the when branches become more or "foot " of Selaginella. less parallel with the main feU'ens (Lat., full of gall), bitter as stem. gall. Fat-en'zyme, an unorganized ferment felt'ed, matted with intertwined hairs; which breaks up and fats. ~ Tis'sue, hyphal tissue not regu- Father-plant, in hybrids, the pollen- larly united, but more or less grown

parent or male element. together ; syn. Tela contexta. Fatigue-substances, Recnitzer's name fe'male.the fruiting element in plants, for bodies thrown oflf the plant, the pistil and its analogues, arohe- which act in a restraining or poison- gonia, oospheres, etc., shown by j. ous way on its own life; Germ., femln'eus (Lat., womanly), female, Ermiidungstoflfe. as Flos ~, a flower which contains Fau'ces (Lat., the throat), pi., the pistils but no stamens. throat of a gamopetalous corolla Fence, Withering's word for Invol- Faux, singular, is an assumed word. ucre. Favel'la (? a diminutive of favus, Fenes'tra (Lat., a, window), an open-

honeycomb), the oonceptacle of ing through a membrane ; fenes'- Ceramium, a dense terminal agglo- trate, 'tiis, feneatra'lis, meration of spores within a thin pierced with holes, as the septum colourless membrane ; fave'olate, in some Cruciferae. faveola'tus (perhaps from favus, fer, Latin suffix from fero, I bear honey-comb), honey-combed, alveo- occurs in such words aa florifer,

late ; Favellid'ium (dSiov, diminu- bearing flowers ; sometimes found tive), = Cystocarp. as -ferus, which is very rarely cor- Favil'la, Favillidimn, Lindley's erron- rect. eous spelling of Favella, and fe'ral {fera, a wild animal), wild, or

Favbllidium. indigenous ; not cultivated. ia.'-

positae ; fayo'EO-areala'tus,mapped- chemical changes, but not itself out into spaces, suggestive of the appreciably contributing to the new

cavities of honey-comb ; ~ dehis'- products. Ferments may be divided

cens, seeming honey-combed after- into (a) organised ~ , such as yeast dehiscence, as the anther of Vis- and other Schizomycetes, and (i)

cum ; favo'sulus, somewhat honey- unorganised ~, or ; the

combed ; Fa'vus, a skin disease latter are related to and apparently

caused by Achorion Schoenlnnii, derived from the proteids ; their Remak. composition is not absolutely feath'er-veined, with secondary veins known, and their names are us- proceeding from the midrib, penni- ually derived from the sources

nerved. whence they are derived ; diastase, feath'ery, plumose, with long hairs invertase, papain, etc. ; Fermenta'- which are hairy themselves. tlon, the catalytic operation of 99 ; ;

Fermentation fiddle-shaped

ferments, particularized as ace'tic (2) the fusiform cells of the inner — Aceti, the , produced by Bacterium bark ; (3) ultimate rootlets ;

Lanzi ; alcohoric ~, by yeast, element'ary ~ , the thread in a spiral

and similar organisms ; butyi'lc-^, vessel, secondary deposit in a spiral;

by a Vibrio ; lac'tio ~ , by which fl'brlform {forma, shape), fibre-

sugars are turned into acids ; an- shaped ; Fi'bril, FibriU'a, diminu- -- other classification is (1) diastat'lc tive of Fibre ; of Nu'cleus =

^ , converting starch into sugar (2) Chromosome ; fl'brlllate, Jlbril- ; ferments which decompose gluco- la'tus, fi'brillose, fi'brillous,_;f6ri'Ko'- sides with production of sugar, sus, furnished with fibres, as roots,

such as emulsin ; (3) ferments or having a finely lined appearance which convert cane-sugar into glu- ~ Lay'er, two outer layers of closely

those in ; ~ cose, as invertase ; (4) and woven hyphae Geaster Myce'- which convert proteids into lium = Fibrous Mycelium; Fi'brln peptones, or peptic ~, such as (vegetable), occurs in gluten, has papain. no fibrous structure as animal fibrin,

Ferrobacte'rla {ferrum, iron, -I- Bac- but forms when dry a tough, homy terium), bacteria which oxidize mass; fl'bro-cel'Iiilar, "composed

ferrous to ferric salts. of spiral cells," ; <* va'sal (Crozier) ferrugin'eous, -ens, ferru'ginous, fer- = ~ vaac'ular, tissue of mixed

rugino'sus {ferrugo, rust), rust- vessels and fibres ; ~ Bun' die,

coloured ; femiginas'cens (Lat. ), or Vascular Bundle, an association

becoming rusty ; Ferru'go (Lat. ), a of vessels characteristic of the disease in plants known also as higher plants, usually consisting " Rust," due to the Uredo stage of of phloem and xylem elements, various species of Pucci'nia. often surrounded by a special layer fer'tile, fert'ilis (Lat.), capable of pro- of cells known as the bundle-sheath;

ducing fruit ; ~ Flow'ers, female -- Cord, proposed by Strasburger

flowers, those which possess pistils ; for the similar structure in mono- " '~ Sta'mens, those bearing pollen cotyledons ; Cyl'inder, the central

which fecundates the ovules ; Fer- cylinder ; ~ Sys'tem, the whole of tiliza'tion, Fertilisa'tio, impregna- the fibrous portion of a plant, ex-

tion of the ovules by pollen ; ~ clusive of the purely cellular struc-

Tube, the channel by which gono- tures ; Flbrole'iu, Fayod's terra for plasm passes from the antheridium a very delicate membrane of the

to the oogonium in Peronosporeae ; spirals of protoplasm (hyaloplasm) - - Close ~ , breeding in and in, or fl'brous, fi'brose, fibro'sus, having successive progeny of closely re- much woody fibre, as. the rind of

lated parents ; Cross ~ progeny by a Coco-nut ; Fi'brous - , myce'llum, other forms not of close affinity. when the hyphae form long branch- ferula' ceous, /eriito'ceMS (Lat.) (1) re- ing strands ; Fi'broae, Fr^my's term

sembling the genus Ferula ; (2) per- for the substance of woody fibre, a taining to reeds or canes, or being variety of cellulose. formed like them, hollow. Fi'brosin, a reserve substance re- Fervida'rium {fervidus, boiling hot), sembling Fibrose, found by Zopf applied in botanic gardens to the in the conidia of certain Fungi, Stove. in the form of rounded flattened fes'tucine, straw-coloured, as the dry discs, in embedded the protoplasm ; culm of Festuca ; fes'tucous, formed ~ Bod'ies, the discs described of straw. fl'bry, used by Loudon for fibrous. fe'tidUS = FOBTIDUS. Fi'bula (Lat., a buckle), a cylindrical Fl'bre, Fi'bra (Lat.), (1) a fine thread podetium, terminated by apothecia. or filament, chambered or woody fld'dle-shaped, panduriform. 100 ";;

fldus flagelUfonn

-fidus, Latin suffix for cleft, as tri- -rm, with many little fringes as fidus, 3-oleft. the receptacle of the Compositae. Fig-insect, the fertilizing agent in fimeta'rius (fimetum,, a dunghill), oaprifioation, Blastophaga. growing on or amongst dung. Fi'la (pi. of filum, a thread), adduct- Finger-and-toe, a disease in Cruci- or'ia, the abortive " pistillidia fers caused by Planmodiopkora of Mosses; ~ suoculent'a, para- Brassicae, Woron.; —Clubbing or Anbury. Fil'ament, Filament'um {filum, a flng'ered, digitate.

thread) ; (1) the stalk of an anther, Firstling-Cell, from the Germ. Erst- the thread-like stem; (2) any lingzelle, the first of a new genera-

thread-like body ; FUament'a os- tion from an auxospore in Diatoms. tiola'ria, delicate colourless threads fls'sile, fis'siUs (Lat.), tending to

lining the peritheoium round the split, or easily split ; Fis'sion,

epitheoium of Vtrmcaria, ; flla- splitting; ~ Fun'gi = Schizomy-

ment'ous, filament'ose, JUamento'- cetes ; Fissip'arism {pario, I bring sus, formed of filaments or fibres forth), the act of multiplication ~ Fung'us, growth form from a among the lower forms by breaking

hypha without union with the up into living portions ; fisslp'arous,

hyphae ; ~ Myce'lium = eibbous dividing into two or more divisions ~ = splitting Mycelium; Spor'ophore, by ; fls'sus (Lat., split),

simple sporophore ; ~ Thal'lus = split or divided half-way.

PBDTicosB Thallus ; FUar-plasma Fia'tula (Lat.), a pipe; ~spira'lis= {ifKAaiia, moulded), Strasburger's Trachea; fls'tular, fl3'tulose,^s<«-

term for Kinoplasm ; flla'rious lo'sus, fls'tulous, hollow throughout

(Crozier) = filamentous ; flla'tus its length as the leaf and stem of (Lat.) = viegatus. an onion. Files, a series of Navicida-MTs.e frust- Flxa'tion of CO2, respiration of oxy- ules as in Micromega. gen and retention of carbon diox- fll'icoid {filix, a fern, dSos, like), fern- ide.

like ; FiUcol'ogy (\070s, discourse), flabel'late, flabella'tus {fldbellum, a = Ptbridology. fan), fan-shaped, dilated in a wedge- fil'ltorm, filiform'is (filum, a thread, shaped, sometimes plaited ; flabel'Ii- -- forma, shape), thread-shaped ; form, flabdliform'is [forma, shape),

Appara'tus, the upper ends of the shaped as a fan ; flabeUiner'ved synergidae, which pierce through [nervus, a nerve), radiate-veined. and are prolonged beyond the flac'cld, flac'cidus (Lat.), withered

summit of the embryo sac ; filipen- and limp, flabby. d'ulous, -lus (peiidiUus, hanging Flacherle (Fr.), a disease in silk- down), having tuberous swellings worm caused by Micrococcus Bom- in the middle or end of filiform hycis, Cohn.

roots ; Filobacte'ria (+ Baotebium), flag'ellate, flagella'tus {flagellum,

thread-like bacteria ; fl'lose, ending a whip), provided with whip-like

in a thread-like process (Crozier). runners ; flagella'ris, having creep-

Fim'bria (Lit., fringe), (1) a fringe ing sarmenta ; flag'ellary, caused (2) an elastic-toothed membrane by flagella, as the motion of beneath the operculum of mosses zoospores (Crozier) ; Flagellum, pi. flm'briate, fimbria'tus, with the Flagel'la (1) a runner or sarmen-

margin bordered by long slender tum, branchlets in Mosses ; (2) the

processes ; fim'brioate = fimbriate whip-like process of the protoplasm

(Crozier) ; Flmbril'la, a diminutive of a swarmspore ; (3) similar organs

fringe ; flmbrll'late, fimhrilla'tus, in the cells of some Schizomycetes ;

having fimbrillae ; fimbrilliferous, flagel'Uform, flagdliform'is (forma, 101 " ; ;

Flagon-Shaped Flos

shape), (1) resembling a runner, or the aggregate plants of a country (2) lash-like, as the cilia of zoo- or district, (2) a work which con- spores. tains an enumeration of them Flag'on-sliaped (Loudon), used for Flo'rae horolo'glum, a floral clock, flask-shaped. certain plants arranged in the

Flake, a nectariferous gland ; fla'ky, order of the hours of opening or

lamelliform. closing ; flo'ral, flora'lis, belong to

- flame coloured, flatn'meus (Lat.), flowers ; ~ Di'agram, a drawing to fiery red. show the relative position and Flank-curv'ature, unequal growth of number of the constituent parts climbers, Germ. " Flanken-Kriim- ~ En'velopes, the perianth leaves, '- mung " ; Flanks, the lateral sur- calyx and corolla ; Glume, the faces of a bilateral body. lower glume of the flower in

Flask, the utricle of Carex ; flask- grasses ; flowering glume (Beal)

shaped, having the form of a ~ Leaf = Beact ; Flores'oence, Florence flask, somewhat globular, Florescen'tia, anthesis, the period

with a drawn out neck. of flowering ; Flo'ret, a small flower,

Flats, proposed equivalent for the one of a cluster, as in Compositae ; German " Etagenbildung. floribun'dus (abundus, = produc- Flat'tening (1) the fasciation of a tion of present activity), abound-

stem ; (2) the production of a ing in flowers ; Floricul'ture (cvl- cladodium. tura, cultivation), cultivation of

Flave'do (Lat.), yellowness, a disease flowers, flower ; Flor'ie, in which the green parts have be- Grew's word for perianth. come yellow. flo'rifer (Lat.), floriferous, flower- flaves'cent, flaves'cens (Lat,), yellow- bearing ; floriferae Gem'mae, flower

ish, becoming yellow ; fla'vlcans, buds ; Florlflca'tion, the act or fla'vidus (Lat.), somewhat yellow time of flowering. ; fla'vo-vl'rens flor'iform (Lat.), yellowish {Jlos, fioris, a flower ; green ; fla'vous, fla'vus, nearly pure forma, shape), shaped like a

yellow, a bright clear hue. flower ; Flo'rilege {hgo, I gather),

Flee'oiness, villosity. a treatise on flowers ; florip'arous Flesh, the soft parts, as the flesh of -us {pario, I bring forth), (1) pro-

apples or pears ; flesh'y, succu- ducing flowers, (2) a monstrosity lent. producing other flowers instead flexed {flexus, bent), used of Diatoms of fruit ; Flo'rist, (1) a cultivator which appear as though bent of flowers, especially those vari- flexible, flex'ilis, fiexib'ilis, capable able forms known as florist's of being bent, but elastic enough flowers, (2) a writer of a Flora, to be able to resume its original (3) in foreign usage "Florist"

figure; flex'uose, flexuo'sus, flex'- means a local botanist ; Flo'rula, uous, bent alternately in opposite (1) a small flora, (2) the botanic

directions, zigzag ; Flex'ure, the account of a small district ; flo'ru- " bend " of Diatoms. lent, flowery; flo'rus, in composition float'ing, borne on the surface of means flowered, as uni-florus, one-

water. flowered ; Flos (Lat.), an assem- Floc'ci, pi. of Floc'cus (Lat., a look of blage of the organs essential for wool), locks of soft hair or wool fertilization, as stamens and pistils,

floc'oose, flocco'sus, bearing flocci, with some protecting envelope ; ~ --Myce'lium, = riBEOus Mycelium; A' quae, floating Algae, as Rirvlaria floo'culent, flocctilent'us, diminutive fluitans, Cohn ; ~ compos'ltus J =

of ELOOCOSB. Capitulum ; ^ ple'nus, a double Flo'ra (Lat., goddess of flowers), (1) flower, where the stamens or pis- 102 ;; ;

floscular foliicolous

tils, or both, are converted into caught, as pitchers, tentacles of

petals ; flos'oular, flos'culous, fios- Drosera, etc. cvZo'sus (1) relating to florets or foemiu'eus = feminbhs, female. flowers, or presenting many foe'tidus (Lat., stinking), fetid, smel- florets ; (2) with tubular florets. ling strongly and disagreeably ; Flos'cvUe, Flos'culum (Blair), Flos- Foe'tor (Lat., a stench), the odour cvlus, a little flower, a floret given off by flowers which thereby ; Sem'i - flos'cule a composite floret carrion flies. ; attract Floss, the down in certain Com- fo'lded, in vernation when the two

positae, as Thistle-down ; Flossifl- halves of a leaf are applied to one

ca'tion, flowering, expansion of another ; ~ Tls'sue, with flowers. suberified or liquified membrane, Flou'rish, Blair's word for a disk- confined to a band on the lateral

floret of Compositae ; half ~ the and transverse faces of the cells, same for ligulate florets. without thickening (Van Tieghem). '- Flow'er, defined under Flos ; Bud, folla'ceous, -eus {folium, a leaf, + an unexpanded flower, as distinct aceous), having the texture or

from a leaf-bud ; ~ Head, a cluster shape of a leaf, as the branches of of flowers, as the Capitulum or Xylophylla ; " Thal'lus, a frondose

Head in Compositae ; Flow'erage, thallus, flat and leaf-like, usually the state of being in flower crisped and lobed, which spreads Flow'eret, a small flower, a floret over the surface on which it grows, riow'eriness, abounding with and can be detached without much

flowers ; Flow'erlng, the maturity injury ; Folla'ceae, frondose vascu-

of the floral organs, and expan- lar Cryptogams ; Fo'liage, the leafy sion of their envelopes ~ Glume, <* ; covering, especially of trees ; the lower of the two organs which Leaves, ordinary leaves, as distin- subtend the flower of Grasses (the guished from those which have = upper being the palea) ; ~ Plants undergone metamorphoses as

Phanekogams ; floVerless, desti- bracts, petals, etc. ; fo'liar ,/oZia'Ws,

tute of flowers ; ~ Plants = Ckypto- (1) leafy or leaf-like; (2) inserted

GAMS ; FloT/erlessness, absence of on, or forming an appendix to a

flowers ; flow'ery, abounding in leaf, epiphyllous ; cir'rhuB folia'rin

flowers. = tendril ; ~ Gap, a mesh in the Flowers of 13,11. = Aethcdium septicum, vascular bundle cylinder from the

Fr. ; -~ of Wine, growth of Sac- margin of which vascular bundles

charomyces Mycoderma, Beess. pass into the frond in Ferns ; '- flu'itant, fluitans (Lat. ), floating. Spur, a dwarf shoot in a pine-tree, flumlna'lis, flumin'eus {flumen, a which bears a pair of leaves (Har-

river), applied to plants which tig) ; ~ Trace, = Leaf-trace ; the grow in running water. remains of the vascular bundle or Fluores'oenoe (from Fluor-spar), the bundles which supplied the leaf.

property of diminishing the re- fo'liate,/oKa'iM« (Lat. , leaved) , clothed

frangibility of light ; r- of Chlor'o- with leaves, as M-foliate, two- phyll, the shifting of the spectrum leaved, etc.

by the colouring matter contained Folia'tion, Folia' tio (Lat. ), vernation in chlorophyll. used by Grew for the act of leafing. flu'vlal, fluvia'lis, fluvlat'ic (Crozier), Fo'Uature {foliatwa, foliage), Blair's

flu'viatUe, fluviat'ilis (Lat. ), applied term for petals. to plants growing in streams. follf erous, folilferous, -rus (folium, Fly-wood, oakwood destroyed by a leaf, fero, I bear), leaf-bearing; = leaf - buds Stereum (Tubeuf) ; Fly-traps, con- foliif'erae Gem'mae ; trivances by which insects are foUic'olous (colo, I inhabit), grow- 103 . ;;

foliiform Formation

ing on leaves, as some Fungi and growth of the embryo of CutUria,

Lichens ; fo'lUform, foliiform'is thus differing from the proto-

{forma, shape) = foliaoeous ; folil- nematoid embryo of the same

p'arouB, -rus (pario, I bring forth), species ; ~ Rot, a disease on bearing leaves. species of Citrus caused by Fus- Fo'Uole (dim. oi folium), a leaflet, the arium Limonis, Briosi; ~ Stalk, secondary division of a compound a stem specialised as peduncle,

leaf ; fo'liolate, foliola'tus, clothed petiole, etc.

with leaflets ; bi-, trl-fo'llolate, two- Fora'men (Lat., a hole), an aperture,

three-leafietted ; folio'lean, foleo- especially that in the outer inte- la'nus, growing from the end of a gumentsof the ovule,c/.MiCBOPYLB;

leaf ; fo'liolose, closely covered foram'lnoBe, foramiiw'sms, per-

with leaflets ; Fo'liolum, a small forated by holes ; Foramin'ula, " leaf or leaflet ; fo'liose, folio'sus, " the ostiolum of certain Fungals

closely clothed with leaves; fo'lious, (Lindley) ; foramin'ulose, marked having leaves intermixed with with little holes. flowers; Fo'lium (Lat.), a leaf, pi. Force, any cause which changes the Fo'lia. state of a body as to rest or motion FoUloe'tum {folliculum, a small bag), vital force is kinetic energy.

a whorl of follicles ; Fol'licle, For'oiJig, the operation by which Follic'ulus, (1) a fruit of one carpel, cultivators produce fruit and opening by a ventral suture to vegetables out of season, early or which the seeds are attached, late. formerly applied to any capsular for'oipate, foricipa'tus {forceps, nip-

fruit ; (2) by Linnaeus used for the pers), forked like pincers. bladder of Utricvlaria ; follic'ular, forfioa'tus {forfex, scissors), scissor- follicula'ris, follioullform'is (forma, like, resembling shears. shape), shaped like a follicle. forked, separating into two divisions, fonta'nuB, fontina'lls (Lat., relating more or less apart. to a spring), growing in or near a Form {for'ma, shape), a slight spring of water. variety, or variation, as long and Food-bodies, small pear-shaped bodies ~ a short-styled Forms ; Gen'us, formed on or near the leaves of genus made up of an assemblage certain plants, as Acacia spadici- of ~ Spe'cies, an apparent species fera, Cham. & Sohleoht, and Leea which is really a single stage of aequata, Linn., which are utilised the life-cycle of a pleomorphous ' by ants as food ; Germ. ' Ameisen- species ; ~ Spore, a body simulat- brodchen." ing a spore, but without germina- Foot, (1) as a measure, 12 inches, or ting power, or remaining attached

30.5 cm., sign '; (2) = Podium; to its sporophore ; For'mae oxy- (3) a development from the hypo- da'tae, crustaceous Lichens which basal part of the embryo, as an have become rust-coloured from organ of attachment and temporary an infiltration of some salt of

nutrition ; (4) in Myxogastres, iron.

the first development from the Forma'tion {formatio, a, shaping), in Plasmodium which leads to the botany, applied to an assemblage formation of spores, a cell-wall of of plants of similar habits and en- cellulose, forming an axis (Van vironment, as a forest is a ~ of

Tieghem) ; ~ Cell, the -- spore of trees, turf a of grasses ; an asso- Oattulina rosea, Cienk., arising ciation, in Germ. " Pflanzenverein"; from a naked cell of protoplasm, form'ative, giving form, plastic the aggregated ~ from Plasmodium ; Mate'rials, applied to such as ~ Em'bryo, an arrested terminal starch, sugar, fats, and alburai- 104 = " ;

fornicate Fructification

'^ noids ; Re'giou, the growing Fren'cliing, a disease caused by poiHt proper. Fusarium vasinfectum, Atkins., in for'nioate, fomica'tus (Lat., arched the leaf of the cotton - plant over), provided with scale-like (Tubeuf). appendages in the corolla-tube, as fre'quent, used of a species often in Myosotis ; For'nices, pi. of For*- occurring.

nix (Lat. ), a little scale. Frlgida'rium (Lat., the cool room), Fos'sil (fossm, dug), the remains of in botanic gardens applied to the a plant changed to a, stony con- Orangery, or Temperate House,

sistence, from various strata ; ~ with simple exclusion of frost. Bot'any, the department which Frlll = ARMILLA. takes note of fossil plants, palaeo- Fringe, used by Sir W. J. Hooker botany. for the peristome of mosses

Fos'suja (Lat. , a little ditch), a small fringed, margined with hair-like groove in some Diatom-valves. appendages, fimbriate. Foat'er-plant Host. Frond, FroTis (Lat., a leaf), (1) the

four-fold, quadruple ; ~ Pol'len- foliage of Ferns and other Crypto- Grains, as in Oenothera, which gams ; (2) the leaves of Palms, ac-

form coherent tetrads. cording to Linnaeus ; frondesce',

FoVea (Lat., a small pit), a depres- to unfold leaves ; Frondes'oence, sion or pit, in as the upper surface Frondescen'lia, (1) vernation ; (2) of the leaf-base in Isoetes, which Morren re- ; (3) by contains the sporangium. stricted to the formation of leaf-

FoVeola, (1) a small pit; (2) "the like organs in the place of petals ;

peritheoium of certain Fungals see also Viresoence ; frondiferous (Lindley) ; (3) in Isoetes, a small (fero, I bear), producing fronds ; depression above the fovea, from flron'diform {forma, shape), like

which the ligule springs ; fo^eate, the fronds of Ferns ; frondlp'arous

fovea'tus, pitted ; fov'eolate, fovea- (pario, I bring forth), (1) bearing

la'tas, diminutive of the last. fronds ; (2) the monstrous produc- FovU'la (foveo, I nourish), the con- tion of leaves instead of fruit

tents of the pollen-grain. Fron'dlet, a small frond ; fron'dose, Foz'glOTe-sliaped, like the corolla of fron'dous, frondo'sits (Lat., full of

Digitalis, digitaliform. leaves), (1) leafy ; (2) frond-like or

frao'idus (Lat., mellow), of a pasty bearing fronds ; ~ Thal'lus, folia-

texture, between fleshy and pulpy. ceous thallus ; Fron'dula, Fron'- Fra,siaeiits,'tioii{fragme7ituni, apiece). dulea, used by J. Smith for the Van Beneden's term for direct divi- main stems of Sdaginella.

sion of the nucleus. Front, of a, Diatom, is that view Fran'grulin, a yellow crystalline body which has the oingulum facing from the parenchyma of Shamnus and the valves fore-shortened in Frangvia, Linn. side view. Fratem'ity {fraternitas, a brother- frost'ed, with a surface having the hood), see Adelphia. appearance of hoar frost. Frax'lnin, a principle existing in the Fructea'cenoe, Fructescen'tia {fructus, bark of the ash, Fraxinus excelsior, fruit), the time of maturity of Linn. fruit. free, not adhering, the reverse of fructiferous (fructifer, fruit-bearing),

adnate ; Free-cell, a cell formed by producing or bearing fruit ; Ca'lyz ~ Cell-forma'tion, the production fruc'tifer, the fruiting calyx. of new cells from several nuclei Fructifica'tion, Fructifica'tio (Lat)., within the mother - cell, as in (1) fruiting; (2) in Cryptogams,

pollen, endogenous cell-formation. the result of the sexual act ; (3) 105 .;

fructiparous fundamental

any sporogenous structure or an elSos, like),fucol'dal, resembling sea-

aggregate of them. weed ; Fu'cosan, Hanstein's name ftuctlp'arouB (fructvi, fruit, pario, for a granular substance found in

I bring forth) ; Fruc'tose, fruit- the assimilating tissue of Fucoi-

sugar, or levuiose ; it exists with deae, the Phaeophyceae-staroh of

other sugars in fruits, honey, and Schmitz ; Fu'oose, is probably a

treacle ; Fruc'tus (Lat. ), fruit, the partial inversion of it ; Fuco- product resul ting from fertilization xan'thine (^avBos, yellow), Sorby's frugrif erous {fruges, pi, oifrux, fruits name for the colouring matter of of the earth, fero, I bear), pro- the olive-green seaweeds. ducing fruits or crops. fuga'cious (fugax, fleeting), soon Fruit, (1) strictly, the pericarp and its perishing. seeds, the fertilized and developed ful'ciens (fidcio, I support), support- ovary widely, the matured ing, used of an organ above another. ; (2) pericarp and its contents, with any Ful'ora (pi. of fulcrum, a prop), the external part which is an integral appendages of the feaves, as

portion of it ; ~ Dots, the sori of prickles, tendrils, stipules, etc.;

Ferns ; ^ Galls, diseased growth fulcra'oeus, J of or belonging to the

caused by Uslilago Treubii, Solms fulcra ; ful'crate, fulcra'tus, having ~ ; Stalk, (1) peduncle ; (2) the seta fulcra.

of ; - Su'gar, = levuiose fiiligin'eus (Lat., sooty), fulig'lnous, Mosses ; ~ Walls, {or '~ Coats) = pericarp fulig'mose, fvligino'aus, sooty, or Spu'riOUS "• = PSECDOCARP. soot-coloured. frumenta'ceous, frumenta'ceus (Lat., fulmin'eus (fvXmem, lightning), ful-

of corn); frumenta'rious, frumen- vous, almost brown ; used of a, ta'rius (Lat.), (1) pertaining to species of Cortinarius by Fries.

grain ; (2) producing sufficient full, used of a double-flower, the

starch to warrant culture ; Fru- stamens and pistils being trans- men'tum (Lat., grain), produce of formed into petals.

corn-lands ; grain or cereals. fulvel'lUB, fulves'cens, ful'vidus (Lat)., firustra'neous {frustra, useless), relat- ful'vid (Crozier), the diminutive of ing to the Linnean order Fruetra- the next; ftil'vous, ful'vus (Lat)., nea, Compositae with the disk yellow, tawny.

flowers hermaphrodite, and those fu'meus (Lat. , full of smoke), smoky,

of the ray neuter or imperfect. or smoke-coloured ; fU'midua (Lat. ),

Frus'tule, Frua'tula (frustulum, a slightly smoke-coloured ; fUmi- small piece), a Diatom cell, consist- ga'tus (Lat.), as though smoked(»

ing of valves, girdle and con- fumed ; fn'moBe,/MTOo's)«s, fu'mouB,

tents ; Frus'tilla, an obsolete smoke-grey.

synonym ; frus'tulose, consisting of funa'lis (Lat., of a rope) = ruNiLl- small fragments. POBM. Fru'tex (Lat.), a shrub, a woody fuma'iioid, like the genus Fumaria.

plant destitute of a trunk ; frut- Func'tion (functio, performance), the es'cent, frutes'cens, becoming peculiar action caused by certain

shrubby ; fru'ticant, fru'ticans, stimuli : func'tional Metab'olism, growing into a shrub-like plant the kinetic effects of certain chemi- fru'ticose, frutico'sus, fru'tioous, cal changes in the plant.

shrubby ; ~ Thal'lua, a Lichen fundamen'tal {fandamentum, ground-

having a shrub-like thallus ; fruti- work), basic ; ~ Cells, parenchyma;

c'ulose, somewhat shrubby ; Fruti- ~ Or'gans, the nutritive organs es- c'ulus (Lat)., a small shrub. sential to plant existence ~ ; Spi'ral

Fru'tose = Feuctose, Fruit-sugar. = genetic spiral ; ~ Sys'tem = cell- fu'coid {fa'cus, from 0Okos, seaweed, ular system ; f Tis'sue, tissue not 106 ;; ;

fimdajnentalius galeate

belonging to the normal or fascicu- {forma, shape), rope-like ; funU'i-

lar system, ground-tissue ; funda- fonn, applied to organs, tough, menta'lius, an essential part, as the cylindrical, and flexible, as the roots axis and appendages of a plant of arborescent Monocotyledons. Fundamen'tiun = Hypocotyl. Fun'nel, in Marsiliaceae, a space below Fun'dus (Lat., foundation) = CoLLUM. the thick outer coats of the ma- fimga'ceous {fungus, a mushroom), F. crospore into which the apical

von Mueller's word for fungoid or papilla projects (Goebel) ; fun'nel-

fungus-like ; fun'gal, relating to form, fun'nel-shaped, hypocra-

fungi ; fun'gic, belonging to mush- teriform. '~ rooms ; Ac'id, a mixture of citric, fur'oate, furca'tus (Lat. ) forked, with malic, and phosphoric acids (Cooke) terminal lobes which are like fun'gicidal {-cida, a killer), destruc- prongs; fur'cellate, furcella'tus, dim-

tive of fungi ; Fungioi'de, an agent inutively forked. or mixture for killing Fungi, anti- furfura'ceous, -ews (furfur, bran),

myootic ; fun'giform, fungiform'is scurfy, having soft scales. {forma, shape), ftrngil'liform, fun- fur'rowed, sulcate, striate on a large - gilli'form'is, mushroom shaped ; scale. FungUlus, a small parasitic fungus fur'ry, pubescent (Lowe). Fung'in, the "flesh" of mush- fur'vus (Lat. swarthy), black and

rooms, fungus cellulose ; tungi'- lustreless.

nus, belonging to a fungus ; fung'- fusca'tus, fuscel'lus, fascea'cent, -ens,

oid (elSos, like), pertaining to a fuscid'ulus, somewhat dusky ; fungus ; ~ Par'asites, parasites fus'cous, fus'cus (Lat. dark),

which are Fungi ; fung'ose, fung- dusky, too brown for a grey

o'sus, fung'ous, { 1 ) spongy in texture; the word is akin to furvus.

(2) relating to a Fungus ; (3) pro- In' aiSorm, fusiform'is {fustis, a spindle,

duced by a Fungus ; Fungs, F. von forma, shape), thick, but tapering

Mueller's word for the plural of towards each end ; fuai'nus, J a Fung'ua (Lat., a mushroom), pi. synonym of the last. Fungi, thallophytes destitute of Fu'sion {fusis,a. melting), the complete chlorophyll, parasitic or saprophy- union of vessels, as in the latici- tic, comprehending forms from the ferous vessels. simplest unicellular structure to fu'sold {fusus, a spindle, elSos, like), some of complex character, many somewhat fusiform.

are symbiotic ; —Cel'luose, the sub- stance of the cell-wall in Fungi Galac'tin (711X0, milk), (1) a principle

~ Gam'boge, a yellow, resinous in the juice of Oalactodendron ; (2) colouring matter found in Fungi a substance in leguminous seeds

~ Traps, or " catch-crops," quickly like Gum Arabic ; galacti'tis, white

growing crops to secure attack by as milk ; Galac'tose, a sugar pro- Plasmodiophora Brassicae, and re- duced from Galactin. moval with the fungus, leaving the Gal'banum (Lat.), a gum of uncertain

land free for that season for a later origin ; gal'banuB (Lat.), a colour

crop of Crucifers ; fung'uaed, at- resembling the same, greenish- tacked by fungus (Crozier). yellow. Fu'nicle, Funic'ulus {Junis, a rope), Gal'bulus (Lat.), the fruit of the (1) the cord or thread which some- cypress, a modified cone, the apex times connects the ovule or seed to of each carpellary scale being en- a' larged somewhat fleshy. the placenta ; (2) in Nidularia, and cord of hyphae attaching the peri- Gal'ea (Lat. , a helmet), a petal shaped diolum to the inner surface of the like a helmet, placed next to the gal'eate, wall of the peridium ; fu'niform axis, as in Aconitum; 107 ; ;;

galelformis gamostellc

gaha'tus, hollow and vaulted, as in as the result ; Gam'etophore (ipopia,

many labiate corollas ; galeiform'is I bear), the portion of an algal [forma, shape) = galeate. filament which produces gametes, galerio'ulate {gcdericulum, a cap), according to function further covered, as with a hat. discriminated as Androgameto-

Gall, Gal'la (Lat., an oak-apple), a PHORE and Gynogametophore ; monstrous growth caused by an Gam'etophyll (0iiXXov, a leaf), a

insect puncture ; ~ FloVers, atro- more or less specialised leaf which phied female flowers of the fig, bears the sexual organs; Gam'eto- within whose the eggs of an phyte (ipvTov, a plant), the genera-

insect undergo evolution ; Gal'lio tion which bears the sexual organs, Ac'id, an astringent occurring producing gametes, in turn giving

abundantly in oak-galls ; Gallo- risel to the Sporophyte ; Gam'eto- tan'nln, a glucoside occurring in plasm [irXdcrim, moulded), the pro- oak-bark. toplasm of gametes. galooh'rous {ydXa, milk, xpiis, skin), gamodes'mic (yd/ios, marriage, union, milk white. Seff/MS, a bond), used of a stele Galto'nian Curve, see Newtonian which has its component vascular

Curve. elements fused together ; Gamo- galvanotrop'lc (after Galvani, the dis- des'my, the stelar condition in

coverer of galvanic electricity, question ; Gamoe'cia (oIkos, a house), rpoTTTj, a, turn), curvature shown used by Lindberg for the inflor-

when subjected to a galvanic cur- escence of Bryophytes ; gamo- rent, usually towards the positive gaa'trous {yaa-rrip, the belly), ap-

pole ; Galvanot'ropism, the condi- plied to a pistil formed by the more tion just described; neg^ative ~, or less complete union of ovaries, when the curvature is towards the the styles and stigmas remaining

negative pole of the current. free ; Gamogen'esis {yeveins, be- Gam'boge, a yellow resinous gum ginning), species of offspring), de- from several Guttiferae ; gamogen'ic (7ej'os, Fungus <-, a somewhat similar veloped as the result of a sexual

product found in some Fungi, process ; Gamome'rius X (/"^po^i Gam'etange, Gametang'ium {yafnirris, a a part), a flower whose parts are spouse, dyyeiov, a vessel), differenti- united by their edges (Lindley) ated cavities in the filaments of cer- Gamopet'alae [TreraXov, a flower- tain Algae which produce Gametes; leaf), plants having the petals Gam'ete, a unisexual protoplasmic united, adj.; gamopet'alous, -lua body, incapable of giving rise to gamophyll'ous, -lus {(pvXXov, a leaf),

another individual until after con- with leaves united by their edges ; jugation with another gamete, and Gam'ophyte {(fivTov, a plant), pro- joint the production of a Zygote ; posed by C. Macmillan for "sexual

gametogen'ic (yewdw, I produce), plants;" gamosep'alous, -lus ( + giving rise to gametes ; Gameto- Sepahjm), the sepals united into a

g'eny, the production of gametes whole ; Gamospor'ae {(rwopd, seed), Gametogon'lum {y6vo9, offspring), Cohn'a term for those Algae which the mother- cell of a brood of produce zoogonidia or zygospores, gametes ; Gam'eto-nu'cleus, the as the Conjugatae, Volvocineae, of nucleus a gamete ; Gameto- and Fucoideae, cf. Carposporeae ; gen'esls {yenvdu, I bring forth), Gam'ostele (ittijXt;, a post), a poly-

the production of gametes ; Gam'- stele, in which the vascular bundles etoid (eldos, resemblance), an apo- are not distinct throughout their cytial structure which unites like entire length, but fused together at

a gamete, producing a zygotoid some portion ; adj. gamoste'llc ; 108 ;;;; ;;

Gamostely generative

GamoBte'ly, the state described from the being

gamotrop'io {Tpowii, a turn), the soft and mucilaginous ; gelat'inose, position of flowers when expanded gelatino'sus {gelatio, freezing), hav-

(Hansgirg), cf. oakpotkopio ; ing the consistence or appearance

Gamofroplsm {rpoTrrj, a, turning), of jelly ; Gel'atoid {^XSos, like), sug- Macmillan's term for the movement gested for protein-like substances in of mutual attraction similar con- resembling gelatin (Esoombe) ; Geliflca'tion, jugating gametes. becoming gelatinous ; Gang^Ua, pi. of Gang'lion {7077X^01/, Gelin'eae, cells in Algae which

a little tumour), used for various secrete vegetable jelly ; Gel'ose, enlargements of mycelium, some vegetable jelly from Agar-Agar. being rudimentary fructifications Gem, a leaf-bud, cf. Gemma. (Crozier). Gem'imate, gemina'tiis (Lat. doubled), Gang'rene, Gangre'na {yiyypaiva., an in pairs, binate. eating ulcer), a disease ending in Gem'inl (Lat.), twins, paired; geml- putrid decay. niflor'us (flos, fioris, a flower), bear- Gas, pi. Gases, in plants, a continu- ing two flowers, or two flowers ous system from the stomata and together. lenticels by the intercellar spaces. Gem'ma (Lat.), (1) a young bud, Gasteromyce'tes {yacrTrjp, the belly either of flower or leaf as used by a division of Fungi Ray (2) an asexual product of fiiKTis, fungus), ; which includes Lycoperdmi, Puff- some Cryptogams, as in the Hepat-

{dd\ap.os, icae, ; ^ balls ; Gasterotlialam'eae analogous to leaf-buds

a bed-chamber), referring to those Brood = Brood-gemma ; ~ Cup =

Lichens whose sporangia are al- Cyathus; gemma'ceous ( -h aceous), iio ways closed or which burst through relating leaf-buds ; Gemma'tion, Thallus; Oemma'tio, budding, vernation the cortical layer of the (1) ; gas'tric Bacte'ria, those which are (2) disposition or phyllotaxis of

found in the digestive tract of buds ; gemmiferous (fero, I bear),

animals. bearing buds ; gem'miform (forma,

Gattine' (Fr.), a, disease in silkworms shape), bud-shaped ; gemmip'arous caused by parasitic Fungi. (parso, I bear), producing buds Gaul'therase, an enzyme producing Gem'mule, Oem'mvla, (1) buds of oil of Wintergreen and glucose Mosses, and reproductive bodies of = from Gaul'therin, a principle occur- Algae ; (2) = Plumule ; (3)

ring in Gaultheria, Ovule (Endlicher) ; (4) certain Geitonooarp'y {yelrav, a neighbour primary formative granules in the Kapwos, fruit), fruit produced by protoplasm (Naegeli). fertilization of different flowers in Geneagen'esis {7e!'ea, stock, race

the same individual ; Geitonog'amy yheais, beginning) = Parthenogen- {yd/wf, marriage), fertilization by esis. another flower on the same plant. Gen' era, pi. of Genus. Gel'atin {gda'tm, congealed), in plants gen'eral, genera'lis (Lat., pertaining confiaed to albumen-like bodies, to all), opposed to partial, as <- which are tough, viscid, and scarcely Involucre. Gen'eratlng (gtneratio, a begetting), soluble in water ; Gelat'ina hy-

mene'a, a gelatinous substance producing ; ~ Spl'ral = genetio

surrounding the asci and para- Spiral; Tls'sue = Meristem ; gen'- physes in some Lichens (Leighton) erative Cell, (1) a gamete or sexual

Gelatiniza'tion, used when a mem- reproductive cell ; (2) the cell in a brane breaks down into a jelly-like pollen grain which develops into ~ mass; gelat'inous, jelly-like ; male gametes ; ~ Nu'cleus, the Felt ; •~ Tls'sue, tissue which is slimy nucleus in a pollen-grain which is 109 ; ;

Generations Germ

actively concerned in fertilization; of a plant to respond to the stimu- Genera'tions, alternation of, see lus of gravity.

Altbbnation ; Gen'erative Nu'cleus, geograph'ic {ypaij)ii, writing), descrip- see Nucleus. tive of the earth or a portion there- eeneT'ic,gener'icus {genus, birth, race), of ; ~ Bot'ajiy, that department the diflferences which make the which takes account of the ~ genus as opposed to those which Distribu'tion of plants over the make the order, or species. earth's surface; geolog'lo (\47os, Genesiol'ogy (yiveiri.s, origin, \6yos, dis- discourse) Bot'any = Palaeobotany

course), the doctrine of the trans- or Fossil Botany ; geopli'ilous mission of qualities from the parent, (0i\e(<), I love), earth loving, both in vegetative and sexual repro- used of such plants as fruit

; duction (Archer) ; genet'le, genea- underground ~ Fun'gi, those logical, that which comes by in- which grow saprophytically on heritance; ~ Spi'ral, a spiral line decaying vegetable matter on the

which passes through the point of ground ; Ge'ophytes (0utoc, a plant), insertion of all equivalent lateral applied by Aresohoug to those members on an axis, in order of plants which produce underground age. buds, without partial development genio'ulate, genicida'tue (Lat., with there; geonyotitrop'ic (ki)?, vvktos, bent knees), abruptly bent so night, Tpoiri), a turning), sleep- as to resemble the knee-joint movements requiring also the

Genic'ultun, a node of a stem stimulus of gravity ; Geotax'is (Lindley). (rdjis, order), movement in plants

Genita'Ua, Gen'itals {genitalis, per- caused by gravity (Czapek) ; Geo- taining to birth), in plants, the thermom'eter {6ep/MS, warm, /ierpov, stamens and pistils, or their an- a measure), a thermometer for

alogues. earth temperatures ; Geotort'ism Gens (Lat., a nation), a in {tortus, twisted), torsion caused by botany. the influence of gravitation (Schwen-

Gen'tlanine, the bitter principle of dener and Krabbe) ; Geot'ropliy Gentiana. (t/)o0t;, food), unilateral inequality Genuflec'tion {genu, the knee, flecto, in growth due to position with in conjugating regard I bend), a bend a to gravity (Wiesner) ; geo-

filament of an Alga ; gen'uflexed trop'ic {TpoTTTj, a turning), relating {flexus, bent), bent, as the valves to the influence of gravity on grow-

of certain Diatoms. ing organs ; Geot'ropism, the force Gen'us (Lat., a race), the smallest of gravity as shown by curvature in

natural group containing distinct nascent organs of plants ; neg'ative

species ; large genera are frequently ~ growing away from the earth, as for the of convenience divided stems do normally ; positive, into sections, but the generic name growing towards the earth's centre,

is applied to all species ; ^ Hy'brid, as roots ; trans'verse ~ , = Diageo- a hybrid between two genera, a TROPISM. bigener or bigenerio cross. Germ {germen, a bud), (1) a, bud or {yij, Ge'oblast, Qeohlas'tus the earth, growing point ; (2) the ovary or ^XaiTTo's, a, bud), an embryo whose young fruit; (3) a reproductive cotyledons remain under ground in cell, especially in bacteria; ~ germination as the pea. Cell, (1) a female reproductive cell geooal'ycal, resembling the Hepatic (2) a spore of the simplest character,

genus Oeocalyx, Nees ; marsupial. a sporidium (Brefeld) ; ~ Nu'cleus, Geoaetbe'sia (7^, the earth, aiadifai^, the nucleus resulting from the perception by sense), the capacity union of the pronuclei of two 110 ;; ;;

Genu glandiform

gametes in ~ ooDJugatiou ; -Plasm, organ, as of a calyx ; GibbOB'ity, the assumed original generative Gibbos'itas, a swelling at the base of substance contained in the body an organ. of the parent from which new in- gigan'tic, gigan'teus (Lat., pertaining

dividuals arise ; cf. Soma - plasm to giants), of unusual height. (Weismann) ; -- Pore, a pit on the Gills, the plates or lamellae of an surface of a spore-envelope through Agaric which bear the spores. which a. germ-tube makes its ap- gil'vus (Lat)., pale yellow, a term

pearance ; ~ Tube, a tubular pro- of confused application, sometimes cess from a spore developing into reddish or even greyish. a hypha, and then into a mycelium Ginger-beer "plant," an association or promycelium. of organisms which ferment a German'ic, Watson's term for a type sweetened liquid into Ginger-Beer. of distribution in Great Britain of Gir'dle, (1) the hoop or cingulum of those plants whose headquarters Diatoms, that portion of the frus- are in the eastern portions of the tule which unites the valves

kingdom, (2) also applied to a, ring-like Ger'men (Lat., a bud), (1) Linnaeus's branch of the leaf-trace of Gycas

term for the ovary ; (2) formerly Gird'llng, in cultivation, ringing. of githagia'eus used for the capsule Mosses ; (3) (Lindley) ; githagino'sus by Pliny and later writers it signi- (Hayne), defined as greenish red,

fied a bud generally ; Ger'mlcide meaning red or purple streaks on a (-cjda, a, killer), an agent which green ground, as the calyx of causes the death of bacteria Oithago.

or spores ; cf. Spoeocidb ; Germi- gla'brous, gla'ber (Lat. , without hair),

cnl'ture ( -f Culture), the practice gla'brate, glahra'tus, destitute of pubescence, of ; ger'minable ( + by Bentham extended able), capable of germinating to mean also destitute of any

viable ; ger'minal, relating to a roughness;glabreB'oent,g'?a6res'ceBS,

; ~ Appara'tus, = becoming glabrous, slightly so bud EoG- or ; APPABATUS ; ~ Cor'puscle = Gla'brism, the smoothness of nor-

; ~ mally hairy OosPHBRE Dot, of Diatoms, parts ; glabrius'culus

the centrosome (?) ; ~ Lid, a (Lat.), somewhat glabrous. separable area of a pollen-grain, gla'dlate, gladia'tus (gladius, a sword)

breaking away to permit a pollen- ( 1 ) flat, straight, or slightly curved,

tube to issue ; ~ Pro'cess % a with acute apex and approximately parallel part belonging to or proceed- edges, ensiform ; (2) ing from an ovary (Lindley) ancipital. ~ Slit, small break in the seed- Gland {glans, glandis, an acorn) a ; (1)

; -- an coat of Scitamincae Ve'siole, acorn, or acorn-like fruit ; (2) a

= OosPHEKE ; Germination, Ger- definite secreting structure on the

mina'tio, the first act of growth in surface, embedded, or ending a,

germ'inative hair ; any protuberance of the a seed ; sprouting ; like Mu'cleus = Nucleus, genera- nature which may not secrete, as native. the warty swellings at the base of

gerontogae'ous, -aeus {yipav, yepovTos, the leaf in the cherry and peach ;

an old man, 7-?, the earth), used of (3) in Orchids, see Glandula ; ~ of plants which are confined to the the Torus, see Lepal (Crozier) Old World, glandula'oeous, -caus (+ aceous), gib'ber (Lat., hump-backed), gib'bose, the colour of a ripe acorn ; raw

gib'bous, gibbero'sus, more convex in sienna yellow ; glandiferous (fero,

one place than another, a pouch- I I bear), bearing or producing

like enlargement of the base of an I glands ; gland'iform (forma, shape). 11 ; ;

Glandula Glucase

; Gland'ula, mineral shaped like a gland matter in proteid grains ; Gland'ole, a viscid gland in Orchids glo'bose, globo'sus, nearly spherical; and Asolepiads, which holds the glob'ular, glohula'ris, spheroidal

poUen-massea in their place ; the in shape ; Glob'ule, the spheri- cal retinaculum ; glan'dular, possessing antheridium in Characeae r^ glands ; ~ Disk, = Glandula ; Glob'ulet, used by Grew for (1) a Hair, glandular hair, an epidermal appendage, the (2) a pollen-grain ; end of which is usually enlarged, Glob'uUn, (1) "round transparent

and contains a special secretion ; ~ granules in cellular tissue, consti- Wood'y Tis'sue, coniferous pitted tuting fecula " (Henslow) ; (2) the tissue ; Glandula'tion, -tio, the chief ingredient in or arrangement of the glands on a protein granules, occurring amor- glanduliferous, -rus, gland- or as plant ; phous crystalloids ; (3) in bearing glan'dulose, glandulo'sus, Lichens = Chlorophyll (Olivier) ; ;

gland'ulous, glandular ; glan'dulo- Glob'ulus (Lat. a little globe), (1) so-serra'tus, having serrations tip- used by Neoker for the fruit of

ped or bordered with glands ; Olans Hepatioae the ; (2) deciduous shield

(Lat.), a fruit one-seeded by abor- in some Lichens ; soredia. tion, or a, few-seeded dry inferior Glo'chid, GlooMd'ium (yKuxis, an an- indehiscent pericarp seated within gular end or barb), (1) a barbed involucre, fruit of a cupular as the hair or bristle ; (2) a similar struc- the oak, nut, etc. ture on the massulae of certain gla'real {glarea, gravel), term em- Cryptogams which act as organs ployed by H. C. Watson for those of attachment to a macrospore plants which grow on dry exposed gloohid'eous, -eim, glocliid'iate, glo- ground, chiefly gravel or sand chidia'tus, pubescent with barbed

gla'reose, glareo'sun, frequenting bristles ; Glo'oMs, a barb. gravel. Gloeoli'chenes (7X0101, sticky), For- glauoes'cent, glauces'cens {y\avK&s, sell's name for homoeomerous

bluish grey), becoming sea-green ; Lichens, asCollemacei, Ascolichenes

glaucl'nus (Lat.), bluish sea-green ; with gonidia belonging to the Chro-

glau'cous, -ctis (1), sea-green ; (2) ococcaceae ; Gloe'ophyte (0utw, covered with a bloom as a plum or a plant), Gobi's name for Thallo-

cabbage-leaf. PHYTE ; Gloiocar'pus {Kopiros, fruit), Ole'ba (Lat., a clod), the chambered a tetraspore (Lindley). sporogenous tissue within a sporo- Glome {glomnx, a ball), a rounded phore of Phalloideae ; Gle'bula head of (1) flowers ; glom'erate, glom-

a synonym of Glbba ; (2) the era'tics, agglomerate, collected into sporangia of certain Fungi, as heads ; Glom'emie, Olomeru'lua, (1) Nidularia ; (3) a rounded elevatioil a cluster of capitula in a common thallus of Lichens. involucre, on the as Echinops ; (2) a Soke- Gli'adin (7Xia, glue), vegetable glue or DinM ; glomeruUferous (fero, I gluten gelatin forming part of ; bear), bearing clusters of coral-like Gll'an, the alcohol-soluble part of excrescences; glomer'ulose, having gluten. glomerules ; Glom'us X = Glome- Gli'ding-growtli = Sliding Growth. BULB. glit'terlng, lustre from a polished sur- Glossorogy {y\ua

grains ; Glo'bi spennat'ici, spores sheathing base of the leaves in

some Fungi (Lindley) ; Glo'boids of Isoetes ; adj. glossopod'ial. (etdos, like), rounded masses of Glu'oase (y\vKiis, sweet), an enzyme 112 ;;

Glucose Gtonidium

which hydrolyses maltose ; Glu'cose, matter from the roots of Glycyrr-

( 1 ) a group of carbohydrates, crystal- hiza glabra, Linn., liquorice. lisable and soluble in water, occur- Glycodru'pose {yKvKii, sweet, + ring in fruits, as grape-sugar, etc., Drtjpose), a lignocellulose, form- see Dbxteose, Levulosb ; (2) also a ing the hard concretions in the commercial term for syrups made flesh of pears ; Gly'cogen {yemau,

from starch or grain ; Glu'coside, I bring forth), a carbohydrate {elSos, like), for complex substances present in quantity in epiplasm, which give rise on decomposition capable of being converted into

to Glucose, such as Amygdalin, glucose ; ~ Mass, protoplasm per-

Coniferin, Salicin ; ~ En'zyme, a meated with glycogen, epiplasm ferment such as Synaptase or Glyoolig'nose (lignum, wood), a pre- Emulsin. sumed glucoside, from pinewood. Glue, viscid secretion on surface of Gnaurs, burrs or knotty excrescences

some plants ; Bud~ =Blastocolla. on tree-trunks or roots, probably gluma'ceous {gluma, husk of corn, + from clusters of adventitious buds. aceous), resembling the glumes of gnawed, = ekosus. grasses, as the perianth-segments gnomon'ical, gnomon'icus {yvdifiuv, the of Juncus ; Glume, OIu'ttm, the pin of a dial), an appendage when ohaflfy two-ranked members of the abruptly bent at an angle to its inflorescence of grasses and similar attachment.

plants ; barren ~ , em'pty ~ glumes gob'let-shaped = cup-shaped. , which subtend a spikelet, and do Gonang'iujtn [ydvos, offspring, dyyeTov,

not include a flower ; fer'tile ~ ,flor'al a vessel), a spherical Colony of

~ , flower'ing ~ , the glume in grasses PaXmella, etc., overgrown with - which includes a flower, the palea ; thick walled brown Liohen-hy-

fruit'lng~, the fertile glume at the phae ; goneoclin'io {kKIvti, a bed), time of maturity ; ster'ile '~ , a applied to a hybrid which approxi- glume which subtends other glumes mates to one parent, and not inter-

or has no flower ; glu'mal, charac- mediate.

terized by having a glume ; Glum- gongrosi'roid, resembling the genus

el'la, Glu'melle, (1) the palea of Gongrosira, Kuetz. ; applied to the

grasses ; (2) the lodicule of the same resting-stage of Vaiicheria. (Richard) glumellea'nus ; J of or be- gongylo'des (yoyyi\os, round), knob-

longing to a glumella ; Glumel'lule, like ; Gong'ylus (1) for round corpus- Glumellu'la, (1) = palea; (2) = lodi- cles on certain Algae, which become

cule ; glu'moua, having glumes, as detached, and germinate as separate

a flower which has a subtending individuals ; (2) globular bodies glume. in the thallus of Lichens; (3) = Glu'tamln (gluten, glue), an amide Spore, Spoeidium, Spbirema. allied to asparagin found with goniautoi'cous (yovos, offspring, ainos,

it in the juice of beets, etc. ; self, oZkos, a house), the male in- Glu'ten, a tough protein substance florescence of a Moss, bud-like and occurring in grain after the removal axillary on a female branch

of the starch ; ~ Cells, of the endo- Gon'ld, proposed abbreviation of (elSos, derm contain oil, but no starch ; GoNiDTOM ; Gonidan'gium ' Glutin'ium, ' the flesh of certain like, iyyelov, a vessel), in a gameto-

Pungals" (Lindley) ; glu'tinous, phyte, the organ which produces glutino'ms, covered with a sticky a sexual spore or gonidium exudation. Gonid'iophore {

Gly'case {yKvKis, sweet), an enzyme, sporophore which bears a gonidium ; the same as Glucase. Gonld'ium (1) in Lichens, an algal Glycerrhiz'in, Gly'clon, a saccharine cell of the thallus the same as or ; (2) 113 ;; ;

gonldial ^aniform

Brood-cell, a propagative cell, gos'syplne, gossypi'nus, cottony, floc- asexually produced and separating culent, like the hairs on the seeds

from the parent ; gonld'lal, per- of Ooaaypium. taining to gonidia, as r^ Lay'er, (1) Gourd, a fleshy, one-celled, many- an aggregation of simple gonidio- seeded fruit, with parietal phores to form a cushion-like layer placentas, as a melon.

or crust ; (2) the algal layer in the grac'ilis (Lat,), slender; Crozier has Lichen-thallus ; Gouide'ma, Minks's the needless word "gracile." term for the gonidial layer. Graft, a union of difierent individuals Gonlm'ia, pi. of Gonim'ium {yoi/i/ios, by apposition, the rooted plant productive), the gonidia in Lichens being termed the stock, the portion '- gonim'ic, relating to gonidia, aa inserted the scion ; '~ Hy'brid, ef- Lay'er, the algal layer in the Lichen- fect produced by one or the other of

thallus ; Gon'lmoblast {pXaaTos, a the united individuals on its grafted

shoot), filaments which are often fellow ; Graft'age, L. H. Bailey's clustered, arising from the ferti- term for multiplication by grafting lized carpogonium of certain Algae or the state of being thus in- Gou'imolo'bes (Xo^os, a lobe), the creased. terminal tufts of gonimoblasts Grain, a general term for cereals, Gon'imon, Wallroth's term for the those grasses cultivated for food

gonidial layer ; gon'imous, relating the oaryopsis or the fruit of the

to gonidia. same ; grained, having grain-like Gon'ocystB {yonos, oflfspring, Kvans, a tubercles or processes, as in the bag), used by Minks for metamor- flowers of Burner (Crozier). phosed gonidia extruded on the gramina'ceous, gramin'eal (gramen, superficial crust, having a peculiar grass), synonyms of gramin'eous,

appearance ; Gono-hyphemla (S0a, -eu«,gra'mlnous,(l) relating to grass

woven), applied by Minks to the or grain-bearing plants ; (2) grass-

hyphal layer of Lichens ; Gon'o- coloured ; graminic'olous (colo, I phore, Gonoph'orum (ipopkia, I inhabit), growing on grasses, as carry), axis, an elongation of the some Fungi ; graminifo'Iious, a receptacle bearing stamens and (folium, a leaf), having grass-like

carpels, as in Capparis ; Gon'oplasm leaves ; Graminol'ogy (Xoyos, dis- (irXdo-fia, moulded), in Peronos- course) = (Crozier). poreae, that portion of the proto- gram'micus (Lat.), {ypafi/uKos, lined), plasm of the antheridium which lettered, marked as though in- passes through the fertilization (ttoOs, scribed ; granunopod'ius J tube and coalesces with the obs- TToSos, a foot or stem), having a

phere ; Gonotax'is (rdjis, order), the striped stalk.

movement of antherozoids towards Gra'na, pi. of Gra'num (Lat. ), a seed, the female organ (Macmillan) any small the (1) bodies ; (2)

adj. gonotac'tic ; Gonot'roplsm coloured drops in

[Tpoirrj, a turning), Macmillan's (Strasburger) ; ^ tetras'ticha, term for the motion of antherozoids "the spores of certain Fungals" and pollen-tubes towards the fe- (Lindley). male organ ; the author also sug- granati'nus (Lat.), pale scarlet, the gests the restriction of this term colour of the flower of Punka to pollen-tube growth ; adj. gouo- Granatum, Linn., the pome-

trop'ic ; Gon'osptiere, Gonos- granate. pliae'rium (o-^o/pa, a sphere), = Graniferus {granifer, grain-bearing), OosPHBBB ; Gonosphaerid'ium, = a synonym of GONIDIUM (?) (Henslow).

Gorge, the throat of a flower. gra'niform (granum, a, grain, forma, 114 ; ;

graniticus Guardian-cells

shape), having the shape of grains grey, gris'eus (Lat. ), cold neutral tint, of corn, varied in tone. granit'lcus (Mod. Lat.), applied to grisel'lus, gris'eolus (Lat. ), diminutive plants growing on granite rocks, of foregoing, somewhat greyish. as certain Licbens. Grit-ceU, a sclerotic cell, as in the Gran'ule, Gran'ula (granum, a grain), flesh of pears. (1) any small particles, as poUen, gromon'ical, an error of Lindley's for

chloroplasts, etc. ; (2) the Naviculae gnomonical.

of Schizonema (fide Lindley) ; (3) Grossifica'tion (grossus, thick, /acio, I

sporangia in Fungi (Lindley) ; (4) make), the swelling of tlie ovary by Frommann used for the after impregnation gros'aus (Lat. ; ), nucleolus-like structure in the coarse, larger than usual, used nucleus of the terminal cells of the adverbially as gros'ae-crena'tuB, ~ glandular hairs of Pelargonium serra'tUB, coarsely orenate or zonale. Ait.; Gran'ula gon'ima, the serrate.

gonidia in Lichens ; gran'ular, grossula'ceous, gros'sular, relating to

granula'ris, (1) composed of grains ; the gooseberry, Rihes Grossularia, (2) divided into little knots or Linn.; Gros'suline, a principle tubercles, as the roots of Saxifraga found in certain acid fruits.

granidata, Linn. ; gran'ulate, granu- Ground-tissue, applied to the pith, la'tus, means the same tiling cortex, and medullary rays. granuliferous {/ero, I bear), gran- Grow'ing-point, the extremity of the

ule-bearing ; gta,n'ulOBe,gramdo'8us, stem, or cone of growth, the seat composed of grains ; —used as a of the activity of the apical cell, substantive by Naegeli for true and its divisions. starch. Growth, increase by new cell-forma- Grape-sugar, a sugar found abund- tion or extension of old cells antly in the grape, dextrose. ~ Form, a. vegetative structure Graaclla'tio (Mod. Lat.), used by marked by some characteristic Desvaux for Etiolation. feature which does not indicate Grass-green, clear lively green, in genetic afBnity ; a, tree, shrub,

Latin, praainus, gramineus. sprout-fungus, are growth-forms ; Grav'eolence {graveolentia, a rank ~ Ring, the annual rings of growth

smell), a, smell so strong as to be in exogens. Grub'bing, in forestry, the unpleasant ; graVeolent, grai/eo- uprooting lens, strongly scented, of intense of trees. and heavy odour. gruinal'ls {grus, a crane), shaped like Gravita'tion [gravitua, weight), the the bill of a crane, as the fruit of act of tending towards a centre, as Geranium.

of the earth ; in botany sometimes gru'mose, grumo'sus, grn'mous confused with Geotropism and {grumus, a hillock), divided into Apheliotropism. little clusters of grains. greasy, oily to the touch. Grund-Form (Germ.), the original Green-rot, a disease in wood, the form, sometimes hypothetic, from tissues becoming verdigris green, which other forms have been derived ascribed to Peziza aeruginosa, Pers. by morphologic variation.

Greffe (Fr.) graft ; ~ des Charlatans, a Guajr'anine, a bitter principle from fraudulent apparent graft, the Guarana bread, or Brazilian cocoa, scion being passed through a hole isomeric with caffeine. bored in the stock. Guard-cells, Guard'ian-cells, in stom- gregar'ious {gregarius, belonging to a ata, two cells which open or close flock), growing in company, asso- the stoma by their greater or less ciated but not matted. turgescence. 115 ;; ;

gular Gynecium gu'lar {gvla, the throat), pertaining nocid'ium J (87x1310;', tubercle), to the throat (Crozier). Necker's term for the swelling Gvun, {gummi, gum), a viscid secre- sometimes formed at the base of tion frequently extruded from the capsule in Mosses, the apo-

stems, and hardening in the air ; physis; Gymnog'amae (ydfios, mar- <" Ar'abic, derived from species of riage), Ardissone's term for Hetero- Acacia in tropical countries, dis- sporous and Isosporous Cryptogams;

solving easily in water ; ~ Cells, Gym'nogen (yei/vdu, I bring forth), Germ. Kleberzellen, see Oil-cells ; = Gymnospekm ; gymnog'ynous { ~ Lac, excretion by insects, Car- (yvrq, a woman), having a naked

teria Lacca, from various trees ; ovary ; Gynmosper'mae (o-irepjm, ~ Fas'sage, an intercellular passage seed),Gymosper'inia,(l) the Linnean

containing gum ; ~ Eea'in, exuda- order Didynamia, plants having tion partaking of the nature of gum four nutlets, taken for naked fruits,

and resin ; gimunli'erous (fe.ro, I as Labiates ; (2) the modern order bear), producing gum ; Gum'ming, of naked-ovuled plants, as coni-

a disease, known also as Gummo'sis, fers ; gymnosper'matouB, relating producing gum in excess. to conifers and their allies, recent

Gus'set, an intercellular space, at an and fossil ; gymnosper'mous, the angle where more than two cells ovules developed without the usual meet (Crozier). tegumentary pericarp, as in Coni-

Gut'ta-per'cha [gutla, a drop), a kind ferae ; opposed to Angiospermous of ohaoutchouc, said to be derived Gymnosper'my, the state of bearing from Dichopsis Gutta, Benth. and really or apparently naked fruit Hook.f. ;gnt'tate((/'!(Ma'ij

as to colour ; Gutta'tion the exuda- not produced in a sporangium;

tion of drops of fluid ; Gut'tifer gynmos'tomous (arofia, a mouth), ifero, I bear), a. plant which pro- applied to the peristome of Mosses duces gum or resin (Crozier), adj. destitute when of teeth ; gymnote- gruttiferous; gut'tulate, resembling trasper'mua J (rerphs, four, o-irepua,

drops of oil or resin ; Gut'tule, used seed), having a four-lobed ovary, as for drops of oil (?) contained in the in Labiates, once considered to be

capitate paraphyses of Fungi. naked ; gymnotre'mold (Tpjip.a, a gyaleo'tifonn (forma, shape), urceo- hole, eiSos, like), a bare open spot late, like the genus Gyalecta, now or space (Leighton). merged in Lecidea; gyalec'tine, and Gynae'ceum (yvvaiKeiov, the women's gyalec'toid {eldos, like), are syn- house), the pistil or pistils of a

onyms. flower ; the female portion as a gymnan'thous, -us (yviivSs, naked, whole. UpSos, a flower), naked-flowered gynan'der (ywri, a woman, &rfip, ivSpos, Gymnax'ony (afui/, an axle), Mor- a man), gynan'drous, when the ren's term for the placenta stamens are adnate to the pistil, as

protruding through the ovary in Orchids, etc. ; Gynan'dria, a Lin- gynmoWaa'tus (^Xaorros, a, bud), nean class, with gynandrous flowers;

having the ovary superior ; gym- adj. gynan'drian ; Gynan'drophore nocar'picus, gynmocar'pous, -us (0o/)eu, I carry), a column bearing

(Kapiros, fruit), ( ) naked fruited stamens 1 and pistils ; gynandros- where the perianth does not ad- p'orous ((Twoph, seed), dioecious the outer here to integument ; (2) forms of Oedogoniae in which the where the fruit is without pubes- female plant produces androspores;

cence (Henslow) ; (3) when the gynan'therous, -«s (-1- Antheb), hymenium is exposed during the used of stamens converted into

maturation of the spores ; Gym- pistils ; Gyne'oium = Gynaeobum ; 116 ;

Oynixus Half

Gyoix'us, Gynl'zus (i?ds, birdlime), the general appearance of a plant,

the stigma in Orchids ; oynobase, whether erect, prostrate, climbing,

Oynoh'asis {^curis, a, pedestal), an etc. enlargement of the torus on which Hab'itat, Hahita'tio (Lat., dwelling),

the gynaeceum rests ; gynobaa'ic, (1) the kind of locality in which a applied to a style which adheres by plant grows, as , moors, etc.; its base to a prolongation upwards (2) the geographic distribution or of the torus between carpels; Gyno- limits, now termed Looality, or

cid'lum, an error for Gtmnocidium more precisely ; ~ Group, ; Station gyuodioe'clous, dioecious, with some applied to those plants which have flowers hermaphrodite, others pistil- common , though not re- late only, on separate plants; gyno- lated, as Halophytbs, Hydro-

dy'namus {Siivafjus, power), applied phytes, and the like ; ~ Ra'ces, to an organism where the female used by Magnus for those heter-

element ia preponderant ; Gynoe'- ceoious Uredines, which are adapted

cium = Gynabobum ; Gynogamet- to respective species of host an'gimn (yaii£Ttjs, a spouse, d77ero>', (Tubeuf). a vessel), an organ in which female Had'rome, a shortened form of Hadro-

sexual cells are formed ; an arche- mes'tome (aSphs, thick, ripe, strong,

gonium ; Gynogam'etes, egg-oella /ieo-rds, filled), the xylem or woody

(McNab) ; Gynogam'etopliore {^opea, portion of a vascular bundle ; con-

I carry), the female gametophore ; sisting of the Hydbomb and part of

Gynomonoe'cious, monoecious, with the Amylome ; together with the female and hermaphrodite flowers Leptome it forms the Mbstome.

on the same plant ; Gynomonoe'cism Hae'matein (aif/to, at/MTos, blood), the

is the condition ; Gy'nopliore, Gyno- colouring matter of Logwood ; hae- phor'ium {^opea, I carry), the stipe mati'nus, haem'atites, hasmitit'lc,

of a pistil ; adj. gynophora'tus J haematU'icvs, haematoeliro'os (xpii', gynophoria'nus J ; Gynophyl'ly atinge),blood-red; Haematocliro'me (0i)XXo!', a leaf), vireseence or phyl- (XpS/ia, colour), Cohu's term for the

lomorphy of the ovary ; Gy'nophyte pigment of HaematococcuspluvicUis, [ipBTov, a plant), the female plant etc.; Haematox'ylin {^vXov, wood),

in the sexual generation ; Gynos- the colouring matter of Logwood, teg'imn {irnyos, a roof), the staminal Haematoxylon campechianum, crown in Aschpias ; Gynoteg'luin Linn.; Haemorrha'gla {liayla, from (Teyos, a roof), the sheath or cover- ^/jyi/Mi, to break forth), a disease in ing of a gynaeceum of any kind plants when the sap is constantly Gynoste'miuiu (arrnxuiv, a stamen), exuding through an external wound. the column of an Orchid, the androe- Hair, an outgrowth of the epidermis, cium and gynaeceum combined. a single elongated cell, or row of lime), cells -- -point'ed, in fine, gyp'seus (Lat. , plastered with ; ending a

chalk-white, cretaceous. weak point ; — -shaped, filiform, gy'rate, gyra'tus (Lat.), curved into a very slender, as the ultimate divi-

circle, or circular ; circinate. sions of the inflorescence of many \l6os, stone), grasses; = Capillus Gy'rolith (yipos, round, Hair-breadtli ;

the presumed fossil fruits of Ghara ; Hair'lness, hirsute, more rigidly hair'y, Gy'roma (1) the annulus of Ferns ; hairy than pubescent ; (2) the button-like shield of Gyro- pubescence when the hairs are separately distinguishable. phora ; gy'rose, gyro'sits, curved backward and forward in turn hal'berd-, or hal'bert-sliaped, hastate; Gy'rus (Lat., a circle) = Gyboma. ~ -headed, means the same.

Half (1) a moiety ; one part of that HalJ'it, Habi'tua (Lat., appearance), which is divided into two equal 117 ;;;

Half hederaceous

Mosses with peristome of a single portions ; (2) sometimes it means a

one-sided,dimidiate; ~ anat'ropous, row of teeth ; haplopet'aloua, 4us

amphitropoua ; ~ Breed, the pro- {ireTaXov, a flower leaf), with one '- duct of a crosa-fertilizatiou ; row of petals ; Hap'lospore [

flattened on one side ; ~ equ'itant, with a single series of stamens

partially equitant ; ~ infe'rior, used in one whorl. of an ovary when the stamens are Hap'teron, pi. Hap'tera (aTTTw, I fasten

perigynous ; -^ monopet'alous, the upon). Warming's term for organs petals united, but so slightly as to of attachment which do not contain

separate easily ; ~ moon-shaped, vascular tissue, as in Podosto-

serailunate, crescent-like ; ~ net'ted, maceae. when of several layers, only the Haptot'ropism {Hirro/iai, to attach outer is netted, as the corm of oneself to), curvature induced in

OladioliLS communis, Linn. ; ~ stem- climbing plants by the stimulus of

clasp'ing, partly amplexicaul ; ~ a rough surface (Czapek).

supe'rior, the same as half- inferior ; liard'y, enduring without protection <- terete', flat on one side, terete on not injured by the . the other :— Half-Galtonian-curve, lias'tate, hasta'tus {hasta, a, spear), see Newtonian Curve. halbert-shaped, sagittate, with Halm, see Haulm. the basal lobes turned outward halona'tus (SXm, the disk of the has'tiform {forma, shape), spear-

sun, halo), when a coloured circle shaped, hastate ; has'tile, has- surrounds a spot. ti'lis (Lat., like the shaft of a haloph'llous (fiXs, dX6s, salt, the sea, spear), used for hastate.

(pMa, I love), salt-loving ; Hal'o- hatcfet-sliaped, dolabriform. phyte {tpvrbv, a plant), a plant Haulm, Halm, Haum, (1) the culm of

which grows within the influence grasses ; (2) the stem of herbaceous of saltwater; adj. halophyfic. plants. Hal'ospore, an error for Haplospore. Haustor'ium (hauator, a drawer), a halved, dimidiate. sucker of parasitic plants ; used by ha'mate, hama'tus (Lat., hooked), Komarow for an appendage of peri-

hooked at the tip ; ha'mose, thecia.

ha'mous, hamo'sus, hooked ; ham'u- Haut'schiclit (Ger. ), the layer of cell

late, hamula'tus ; ham'ulose, protoplasm known as Ectoplasm.

Tiamvlo'sus, beset with small hooks ; Head (1) an inflorescence ; the

Ha'mulus, a hooked bristle in the capitulum of Composites ; (2) for-

flowers of Uncinia ; Ha'mus, a merly used for the theca of Mosses hook. ~ Cell, the capitulum of Chara ; Haa'dle, the manubrium of the anthe- head'ed, capitate. ridium of Characeae. Heart, used by Grew for the centre, hapazan'thlc, hapaxan'thous (aira|, as heart of oak, the duramen ; ~

once, av$os, a flower), used of herbs shaped, cordate ; ~ Wood, the having a single flowering period. duramen. baplocinamyd'eous (dTrXoos, single, hebeear'pus Wti, puberty, Kapirhs, %\a/tt)s, a mantle), monochlamy- fruit), having the fruit covered

deous, having a single perianth ; with downy pubescence. haplogen'euB {yemda, I bring forth), heb'etate, hebeia'iua (Lat., blunted), = heteronemeus ; Haplogonld'imn having a dull or blunt or soft

( + Gonidium), a Lichen gonidium point.

resembling Protococcua ; haploper- hedera'ceous, hedera'ceus {Hedera, ist'omouB (-1- Peristome), used of ivy, + aoeous, (1) pertaining to U8 ,;; ;

hederal Hemiepiphyte

ivy ; (2) resembling ivy in habit heliozo'oid (^\io;, the sun, I'wor, an hed'eral, composed of ivy ; Iiede- animal, elSos, like), amoeboid, but riferous {ftro, I bear), producing having distinct ray-like pseudo- ivy. podia. He'gemon (^7ejniii/, J a leader), fibro- Hel'met, = Galea ; ^ sbaped = vasoular tissue. galeate. heliaca'lia (^Xm/cos, belonging to the helo'bious (?Xo!, a, marsh, jSIos, life),

sun), heliacal ; spiral. living in marshes, paludal. Helicliry'sin, the yellow colouring Hel'otism (e'lXws, a slave). Warming's matter of several species of term for the relation of the sym- Hdichrxjsum. bionts in the Lichen thallus. hello'iform (helix, a snail, forma, hel'volus (Lat. ), pale ochreous yellow ; shape), coiled like a snail shell ; hel'vUB (Lat.), light bay, dun- Hel'icocarp {Kap-yrds, fruit), Nicotra's colour. term for a fruit whose constituent He'matlne = Haematin. carpels are arranged in a spiral Hemeran'thy (^epa, day, avB^ia, I hellcogy'rate, hdicogy'rates (gy- flower), day-flowering. ratu8, turned in a circle), having a heml- (rt/u), in composition means ring carried obliquely round, as the half; Heml-albumose'(-l-Albumose),

annulus in some Ferns ; hel'lcoid, a mixture chiefly of proto- and

helicoid'eits {eJSos, like), coiled into hetero-albumose ; hemlanglocax'-

a helix, or like a snail-shell ; ~ pous (iryyetov, a vessel, Kaptris, Cyme, a sympodial inflorescence fruit), when the hymenium of some whose lateral branches are all de- Fungi is for some time covered veloped on one side, a bostryx, with a membrane, the gonidiophore

or drepanium ; in some text- is so termed ; bemianat'ropous (dvdi,, books this is erroneously called up, TpoT!-ri, a turn), half-anatropous,

' scorpioid ' ; ~ Diohot'omy, when the ovule being partially bent

in two unequal branches, the back, half the raphe free ; hemi-

more vigorous one is uniformly tropous, amphitropous ; Hemi--

on the same side ; ~ Inflores'- aut'ophyte ( -l- Autophytb), chlor-

cence, when the flowers are in a phyll-bearing parasites (Boulger) ;

single row ; ~ unlp'arons Cyme, Hem'icarp, Hemicarp'ium (Kapvos,

a bostryx ; helicoi'dal, spirally a fruit), a half-carpel, a meri-

twisted, in the manner of a snail- carp ; Hemicell'ulose ( -I- Cellu- shell. lose), all carbohydrates present helloph'obic (((Xios, the sun, 0o/3^u, in the cell - wall which are I dread), shunning the light, nega- not coloured blue by chlor-zinc-

tively heliotropic ; Helio'sis, injury iodide, such as peotinaceous sub-

done by sun-burn ; Heliotor'tism stances, reserve cellulose, etc.

(tortus, twisted), torsion caused by (Gilson) ; formerly termed Pseudo-

incidence of light (Sohwendener and cellulose ; Hemlcy'cle (niKkos, a

Krabbe) ; heliotrop'ic (rpdwos, circle), a half-circle, or half-coil direction), turning towards the Jiemicy'clic, partly in whorls, as

light ; ~ An'gle, the angle of inci- the perianth leaves in whorls, and

dence at which light has the most the in spirals ; hemi-

stimulating effect ; Heliot'ropism," cylln'dric ((ciiXicSpos, a cylinder), (1)

the act of turning towards the sun half-terete ; (2) a leafy expansion,

or source of light ; neg'atlve ^ plane on one side, convex on the

shunning light ; pos'itlve ~ other ; Hemidystroph'ia (Sva-, growing in the direction of the bad, Tpotp-^, nourishment), partial

light ; trans'verse ~ , = Diahblo- nourishment, eemi-starvation in

TBOPISM. plants ; Hemiep'iphyte (eiri, upon, U9 ,;; ;;

Hemiform Herborization

(pvTov, a, plant), employed by Went the centre flower or head being for a plant which at first roots in surrounded by subsidiary flowers. the soil, afterwards developing Henslo'vian Mem'brane, the caticle

aerial roots ; Hem'iform ( + Form), so named from Prof. Henslow's used of heteroeoioua Fungi, having researches on the same, uredospores and teleutosporea, the hepat'lc, hepat'icous, -cus (Lat., dis- latter only germinating after a eased in the liver), liver-coloured,

resting period ; hemigoua'ris t dark, purplish-red ; Hepaticol'ogist,

{ydvos, offspring), employed when a an expert in Hepaticae ; Hepati- part of both stamens and pistils col'ogy {\6yos, discourse, the study

are changed into petals ; Hemigy'- of the Hepaticae or Liverworts. {ySpos, {iirTi,, seven, yvrfj, rus X round), = Follicle ; Heptagyn'la a hemisyngyn'ious (o-iic, with, yvvij, woman), a, Linnean class of plants

yvvouKoi, a woman), half-adherent having seven pistils ; heptagyn'ian,

(Lindley); Hemlpar'asite ( + Para- possessing seven pistils ; hepta- site), a facultative saprophyte, a m'erons {p^pos, a part), having the

parasite which can exist as a sapro- parts in sevens ; heptan'der (dxij/),

phyte ; Hem'iphyll (ipiXKov, a leaf), dvSpos, a man), taeptan'drous, having

the hypothetic segment of a seven stamens ; Heptan'dria, a carpel ; oy'iilar ~ placen'tal ~ Linnean order of plants with seven ,

those which become modified into stamens ; heptau'drian, relating to special parts of the ovary respec- the same, or possessing seven

tively, cf. Triphyllome ; Hemi- stamens ; heptari'nus (ipprpi, male), sap'rophyte (cairpos, (pvrov, rotten, Neoker's term for heptandrous ; a plant), a facultative parasite hep'tarch, a fibro-vascular cylinder

hem'iseMst ((Txt-TThs, split), in or stele with seven rays or bundles ; brood - cell formation when the heptapet'alous {iteraXov, u, flower

nucleus only divides, the cyto- leaf), having seven petals ; hepta- plasm remaining whole (Hartog) phyl'lous ((^uXXoK, a leaf), with Hemltetracotyle'don {jerpa^, four, seven leaves. + Cotyledon), De Vries's ex- Herb, Herha (Lat., grass, herbage, pression when both cotyledons plant), a plant with no persistent

are divided, or one normal and stem above ground ; herba'ceous,

; the other divided Hemite'rla J -ceus, ( + aceous), (1) with the text- [rripeoi, I keep), " a monstrosity ure, colour and properties of a of elementary organs, or of ap- herb with annual stems from ; (2) of the axis " (Lindley) ~ pendages ; a perennial root, as an Feren'nial heml'trichous J [Spl^, rpiKos, hair), Herb'age, herbs collectively, grass,

half covered with hairs ; Hemitri- ; Herb'al, (1) a volume con- cotyle'don ^(rpets, three, + Coty- taining descriptions of plants, such ledon), used by De Vries, when as 's "Herball"; (2)

one cotyledon is apparently divided sometimes = Herbarium ; Eerb'al-

into three ; hemlt'ropal, heml- ist, (1) a writer of , one of t'ropous {rpoTTos, direction) am- the old botanists (1) ; (2) a person phitropous, the axis of the ovule skilled in the knowledge of herbs being more curved than the ana- Herb'arist, an old word for botan-

tropous condition ; (2) employed ist ; Herba'rlum, a collection of by M'Leod for flowers which are dried plants, formerly styled a

restricted to certain insects for "hortus siccus" ; Herb'elet, Herb'-

honey-getting. let, a small herb ; herbes'oent,

Hemp, the fibro-vascular tissue of growing into herbs ; Herb'orist, a sativa, Linn. collector of plants for medical use ; Hen-and-chloljens, proliferous flowers. Herboriza'tion, a botanic excursion 120 ;, ; ;; ;

herborize Heteroecism

for the collection of plants ; herb'- albmnose' ( -i- Albumosb), Kuhne'a orize, to botanize. term for proteid, phytalbumose; Heroog'amy (Jpuros, a fence, yd/ios, heteroblas'tio (/SXacrrds, a shoot), marriage), applied to hermaphro- applied to embryogeny which is dite flowers, when some structural indirect, the offspring not similar to peculiarity prevents self-fertiliza- the parent, but producing the adult tion, requiring insect-visitation form as an outgrowth, as in Ghara; adj. hercogam'io, berkogam'lc, her- heterocar'pous, -pv^ [Kaptros, fruit), cog'amous, -mus. producing more than one. kind of hermaph'rodlte, hermaphrodi'tus (Lat. fruit; heterocar'plcus (fructus), " an

having the characters of both sexes), inferior fruit " (Lindley ; Hetero- the stamens and pistils in the same car'py, having two kinds of fruit flower. heterocepli'alous, (/ce0aXi;, the Hered'ity (here'ditas, heirship), pos- head), bearing two kinds of head

session by inheritance, of certain or capitulum ; heterochlamyd'eous, qualities or structures; bisex'ual ~ -deiis (xXa;Ui)s, a, mantle), when the unisex'ual '-, having the qualities calyx and corolla clearly difi'er of both, or of one parent only trans- Heteroehro'matism {xpi^p-a, colour), mitted. a change in the colouring or mark-

Her'pes [iptnjs, a cutaneous eruption) ing of petals ; lieterocliro'mous, tonsu'rans (Lat., shaving), ring- when the florets of the disk in worm, a disease of the skin as- Compositae differ in colour from

cribed to Trichophyton tonsuraTis, those of the ray ; heterocls'mal, an Malm. ill-contrived version of heterobci-

Her'poblast (epiru, I creep, ^Xauros, a ous ; het'erocline, heterooli'noua,

shoot), Cramer's term for a con- -nus (K\ivq, a. bed), with the male fervoid prothallium lying flat on and female members on separate its substratum. receptacles. Hesperid'iiun (from the golden fruit het'eroclite, heteroc'litiis (erepoKXiros, of the garden of the Hesperides), varying in declension), anomalous Desvaux'a term for a fruit, such in formation. as the orange, a superior, poly- heterocy'dio {erepos, other, kuVXos, a carpellary, syncarpous berry, pulpy a circle), used when the floral within, and externally covered with whorls are heteromerous, not uni-

; a tough rind ; Aurantium of De form or isomerous Het'erooyst CandoUe. (KuVrts, a bag), large inert cells in Hetae'rio {iraipeia, a brotherhood), the filaments of certain Algae,separ-

a collection of distinct indehiscent ating contiguous hormogonia ; adj. carpels produced by a single flower, heterocyst'ous; Heterodi'ody (SIoSos, dry or fleshy, as in the Strawberry, a passage), Van Tieghem's term those Diodes Buttercup, Raspberry ; usually for the condition of spelled Etaerio. which are differentiated into Mac-

Heterac'my {Irepos, other, Akixtj, apex), RODioDBS, and Miorodiodbs ; of.

; heterod'romous, -mws = DiooaAMY ; heteran'drous {a,vTjp, IsoDiODY AvSpos, a man), applied to flowers {Sp6p.os, a course), having spirals of some whose stamens vary in size ; Heter- changing directions, as in an'dry, the condition described tendrils, or phyllotaxis ; Heterod'- Heterauxe'sla (atffijo-is, growth), romy, with varied spirals; heterce'- variation in the relative growth cious, forms which pass through development on of opposite sides of an organ ; their stages of heterax'on {a^on', a axle), applied different hosts are so termed by 0. Mueller to a diatom if the metoecious is a synonym ; Heter- of transverse axes are unequal ; Hetero- oe'cism, the condition a heter- 121 ; ;;

Heteroecium Heterostylism

oecious parasite ; Heteroe'cium differing in length, dimorphic, with

(oIkos, a house), a Fungus which long and short styles ; trimorphic, passes its stages on more than one with long, short, and medium

; organs (stamens) host plant a metoecious parasite ; length, the male heteroecis'mal, should be heteb- being of corresponding length

OBCions ; Het'eroecyst (Crozier), = beterone'meuB (vrifw,, a thread), ap-

Hbtbedoyst ; hetero^amous, -rmts plied to plants which on germina- {yd/ios, marriage), (1) bearing two tion produce thread-like bodies, kinds of ilowers, as in Compositae, which afterwards unite, such as the florets of the ray may be neuter Bryophytes and Pteridophytes or unisexual, and those of the disk lieterophyad'ic, heterophyad'icus

hermaphrodite ; (2) an abnormal {vfi, growth), used of those species arrangement of the sexual organs which have fertile stems of different

(Masters) ; Heterog'amy, change of form from the barren stems, as in

the function of male and female some Equiseta ; heterophyl'lous flowers, or in their arrangement (^iJXXo;', a leaf), having leaves of

heteroge'neous (7^1'os, race), not different forms ; Heterophyl'ly,

uniform in kind ; Heterogene'ity, used by Krasser, for two different dissimilarity of nature; heterogr'en- forms of leaves, when caused by

ous Induc'tion, used by Noll to de- difference in organization ; Het'ero- note sensitive movements in which phyte, Heterophi/tus ((jyvrov, a

two different causes co-operate plant), ( 1 ) Trattinik's name forthose Heterogen'esis {y^pe

alternation of generations ; hetero- on separate stems, as Curcuma genet'ic, fertiliza- when applied to Zedoaria, Rose. ; (2) Boulger's term - tion means cross pollination ; for parasites destitute of chloro-

Het'erogone (7oi''^, offspring), a plant phyll ; adj. heterophy'tous ; hetero- whose flowers are dimorphic or tri- po'lar (iroXos, apivot), for the axis of morphic in the length of the stamens Diatomaceae when the extremities

or styles ; adj. heterog'onous, hetero- differ ; Heteropro'tlially ( + Pbo- go'neus ; Heterog^ony, the same as THALLUS), Van Tieghem's term for

Hbtebostyly, c/. Homooony ; the production of unisexual pro-

heteroi'cous, a form preferred thallia ; heterorhi'zal (plia, a root), by some bryologists to the having roots or similar organs pro- usual spelling HETEROECiotrs ceeding from any indeterminate heterol'deus J {(TSos, like), di- portion of a spore in germination,

versified in form (Lindley) ; het- or rooting from no fixed point eromal'lous, -lus {/iaWis, a fleece or Heterosper'my {a-n-ep/ia, seed), bear- tuft of wool) spreading in all direc- ing two kinds of seeds, as in Snaeda,

tions ; heterom'alous (Crozier), =the some species producing both seeds

foregoing ; Heteromer'icarpy {fiepos, with endosperm, and other seeds

a part, Kaptros, fruit), Huth's term destitute of it ; heteros'porous for a binary fruit, the halves of {ixiropd, seed), with spores of two

which differ from each other, as kinds, as in Selagindla ; Heteros'-

Turgenia heterocarpa, DC. ; hetero- pory, the condition of producing mer'icus, stratified, as in some microspores and macrospores, etc.

Lichens ; heterom'erous (1) when het'erostyled, heterosty'lous ( +

the number of the members is not Stylus) = HBTEROGAMons ; Hetero- Lichens, uniform ; (2) in the oppo- styl'ia, heterogamous plants ; Hetero-

site of isomerous ; heteromor'pMc, sty'llsm, having flowers differing heteromor'plious {/lopifnj, form), (1) in the styles, as Compositae when variation from normal structure, as certain florets are unisexual and

deformities, etc. ; (2) having organs others hermaphrodite in the same 123 ;; ;

Heterostyly liiliferoua

head Heterostyly ; =Heteeooamy ; a flower leaf), with six petals ; Heterotax'y (rtt^ij, arrangement), hexapet'aloid {etdos, like), having a deviation, as the production of perianth of six pieces, which re-

organs in situations where under semble petals ; hexaphyllous, -lus

normal conditions they would not (0vXXoi', a leaf), six leaved ; Hex'a- be found ; heterotop'io {tottos, a pod (ttoCs, ttoSos, a foot), a fathom of place), used of plants found on soils six feet, used sometimes as a

apparently very diverse from their measure of altitude ; hexap'terous,

normal stations ; heterot'ropaJ, -j-MS {irrepov, a wing), six winged ; heterot'ropous (rpoTros, direction), hexapyre'nus (irvpTiv, a kernel),

(1) in ovules, the same as amphi- having six kernels ; hex'arch [&pxri,

tropous ; (2) employed by Agardh beginning), applied to a stele with

for collateral ; ovules, back to back ; six strands or origins hexari'nus lying (3) parallel with the hilum ; {&ppriv, male), Necker's synonym heterotropli'ic -ms (rpoi^^, food) for hexandrous ; hexasep'alouB, -lus

Heterot'ropliy,(l) used by Minks for ( + Sepaium), with six sepals those Lichens sta- living symbiotically ; hexaste'monous, -nua (aT-niiuv, (2) by Wiesner for the compound men) hexandrous, six-stamened.

position of a shoot with regard to hi'ans (Lat. ), gaping, as a ringent the horizon and of the mother- corolla.

shoot ; Het'erotype (tuttos, form, Hlbem'acle, Hibema'culum (Lat., a typo), Flemming's winter bud term for a winter room), (1) a ; (2) peculiar nuclear division connected in botanic gardens, the winter with the reduction of the chroma- quarters for plants, especially plant

somes, marked by the early fission houses and frames ; hiber'nal, of the chromatic thread, a special hibema'lia (Lat.), pertaining to

form of the chromosomes them- winter ; Hlbema'tion, passing the

; in state. selves (Farmer) adj. heterotyp'ic ; winter a dormant heterox'enous (f^ras, a host) = Hiber'nian, H. C. Watson's term for HETEROECIOUS. those plants of the United Kingdom

Hexacoc'cus (?f, six, k6kkos, a kernel), whose head-quarters appear to be

a fruit of six cells, as Triglochin ; in Ireland (Hibernia). Hexagonienoh'yma {yavla, angle, hid'den, concealed from view ; '- IfXv/M, an infusion), cellular veined, with veins which are not tissue which exhibits hexagonal obvious, as in Pinks and House

cells in section ; bexag^onus, six- leeks, by excess of parenchyma.

angled ; hexag'onoid {etdos, like), J. hide-bound, a cultivator's expression Smith's term for hexagonal areolae when the bark does not yield to the on Ferns, which are bordered by growth of the stem.

veins ; Hexagyn'ia {ywri, a woman), High-yeast, barm, the yeast which a Linnean order of plants possessing forms at the surface ; cf. low or

six pistils ; hexagyn'ian, plants be- bottom yeast. longing to that order, or having its hi'emal, hiema'lis (Lat.), relating to

character ; hexag'ynous, with six winter.

pistils ; bexalep'ldus (XcttIs, \eirlSos, Highland, used by Watson for a type

a scale), six-scaled ; hexam'erous, of distribution in Great Britain, of -ras {jxipos, a part), in sixes those plants chiefly found in the hexan'der (iv-qp, dydpos, a man), Highlands of Scotland. hexan'drous, with six stamens hi'lar, Mla'ris (hilum, a trifle), re- Hexan'dria, a Linnean class charac- lating to the hilum; Hile (S. F.

terised by the possession of six Gray) = Hilum ; ^ bear'ing, hllif'erous, stamens ; hexan'drian, relating to marked with a hilum ; (ireraXoy, hil'ifer, I bear), having that class ; hexapet'alous {fe.ro, a 123 ;

Hilofera bomocarpous

hilum on the surface ; Hilofera, the Hlstol'ogy {Xiryos, discourse), the

second or internal integument of a, science of tissues.

seed ; Hi'lum (1) the scar left on a, hlul'cus, (Lat. ) gaping, split. seed where formerly attached to the hoar'y, oanescent, grey from fine pub- funicle or escence. placenta ; (2) the central point in a starch granule which Hochblatter (Ger.) bracts. the ring-like markings seem to sur- Hold'fasts, the disc-like attachments of Algae. round ; (3) J any point of attach- (i) iolera'ceous (Crozier) = olebacbous. ment ; t an aperture in pollen grains. Holobas'ld (671.05, whole, basidium, a Hinge, (1) the isthmus of Diatoms; little pedestal), an undivided basi- (2) in stomata, delicate lamellae of dium in Basidiomyoetes (Van Tieg-

cellulose, upon which the mobility hem) ; holoblas'tic (/SXao-rds, a bud of the guard-cells usually depends ; or shoot), employed when the whole they may form an inner or outer spore is concerned in the embryo-

hinge; in German, "Hautgelenk." geny, cf. meroblastic ; Hol'ocarp hin'nuleus (Lat., a young stag), a [Kapiros, fruit), Niootra's term for tawny cinnamon colour. an entire fruit resulting from a hino'ldeus (hprefixed, ifoeiS^s, fibrous), number of carpels, it may be an apo- used when veins proceed from the carp or a syncarp, or an insensible

midrib and are parallel and un- blending of the two forms ; other

divided ; venulo'so- ~ , the same, divisions are actinocarp, and heli- if connected by cross-veins. cocarp, according as it is founded

Hip, the fruit of the rose ; technically on a whorl or spiral ; and anti- a cynarrhodium. spermie or pleurospermic according hippocre'plform, hippocrepiform'is to the position of the placenta (Zttitos, a horse, Kprjirls, shoe, forma, holocarp'ic, holooarp'ous, (1) having

shape), horse-shoe shaped. the pericarp entire ; (2) in simple hlrci'nus (Lat., pertaining to a goat), Algae, the whole spore (individual)

smelling like a goat ; birco'sus i becomes a sporangium, and in- means the same. vested with a cell-wall; Hologonid'- hir'sute, hirsu'ttis (Lat., rough, hairy), ium (70POS, oflFspring), employed by hairy, with long, tolerably distinct Wallroth for the algal gonidia

hairs ; Hirsu'ties, the hairiness just pure and simple, or soredia ; holo- described; liirtill'ous, -i«s, minutely phyt'ic, pertaining to Holophy'tiam

hirsute ; hir'tose, used by R. T. (0UTOJ', a plant), the condition of Lowe ;for hlr'tUB (Lat.), hairy, a plant with its growth main- practically the same as hirsute. tained entirely by its own organs, his'pld, his'pidug (Lat., bristly), beset without any suspicion of saprophy-

with rough hairs or bristles ; his- tism or parasitism ; Holosap'rophyte pid'ulous, -lus, minutely hispid. {(Tairpos, rotten, ipvTov, a plant), Histiol'ogy (Crozier) = His'tologt. employed by Johow for a true Histodial'ysis (irrros, a web, did, saprophyte, a plant which is through. Mens, a loosing), the dependent upon humus for its

separation of the cells of a tissue existence ; holoseric'eous, -ceiw,

from each other (Crozier) ; Hist'o- (sericeiis, silken), covered with a gen {yevvda, I bring forth), the fine and silky pubescence.

origin of tissue ; tiistogenet'ic, homalot'ropous (ojuaXos, even, rpov-q,

histogen'ic, tissue-forming ; ~ a turning), applied to organs which Plas'ma, Weismann's term for grow in a horizontal direction(Noll).

tissue-forming protoplasm ; Hlsto- homoblas'tic (bp-os, one and the same, gen'esis (7e»'£(ris, beginning), Histo- pXacTTos, a shoot), denotes embryo- g'eny, origin formation or of tissue ; geny which is direct; taomocarp'ous, 124 ;

homocentric Homoplasmy

pus {xapTTos, fruit), having fruit X^a/J-iis, a mantle), used by Engler

of one kind only ; homoceu'trio and Prantl when the perianth is (KevTpov = centre of con- homoiom'erous {piepos, a a circle), uniform ;

centric (Crozier) ; homoceph'alic part), used of aLiohen thallus when (KeipaXri, a head), Delpino's term the gonidia and hyphae are dis- for homogamy when the anthers tributed in about equal propor-

fertilise the stigma of another tions ; Wallroth employed the word d/ioio/iepTjs. flower of the same inflorescence ; homoeom'eres from homoclilamyd'eous (xKaiiiis, a Uomorogous (6/ios, one and the same, mantle), the perianth leaves all \6yos, discourse), of one type,

alike ; Homocliro'matism {xp&iio., constructed on the same plan, colour), constant as to the colour- though varying in form and func-

ing of the flower ; homocliro'mous, tion, as leaves and parts which

uniform in colour ; bomoclln'ic, answer morphologically to leaves ; homooli'iLOUS (icXfci), abed), used by — Alternation of Generations, differ- Delpino for that kind of homo- entiation of generations which are gamy when the anthers fertilise fundamentally alike as regards the stigma of the same complete descent, either in form or the

flower ; homodrom'ic, homod'ro- character of their reproductive

mal, homod'romous, -mus (dpoi^os, organs, cf. antithetic ; Hom'o- a course), having the spirals all of logue, the equivalent of certain

the same direction; Homod'romy, organs ; Homol'ogy, the identity of

different ; homo- uniformity in direction of spirals ; parts apparently Homody'iiamous (diva/j-is, strength), m'alous (Crozier), homomal'lous, equal in strength or vigour. lus (itiaXXos, a look of wool), re- Homoeog'amy [S/ioios, like, ydiios, curved, arising from all sides but marriage), the impregnation of an turned to one direction ; homo- antipodal cell, instead of the mer'icua {^ipos, a part) = homqi-

oosphere as in Bcdanophora ; (Van OMEROUS ; bomomor'phous, -phus, Tieghem), Homoeo'sis {-^ws, dawn), homomor'pluo, (|Uo/)0i), form), uni-

Bateson's term for Metamorphy, a form in shape ; Homomor'pliy, variation by assumption by one uniformity, as when the disk and

member of a meristio series, of the ray florets of Compositae are alike ; form or character proper to others. either normally or by conversion homog'aniOttB, -mus {o/ws, one and the of the disk florets from tubular same, yd/ios, marriage), bearing one into ligulate florets ; Hom'onym, kind of flower; Homog'amy, simulta- Homon'ymoii(S>'o/4a, aname),botani- neous ripeness of pollen and stigmas cally, the same specific name in

in a perfect flower ; by Delpino another genus of the same plant, divided into homocephalio ~, as Myrtits buxifolia, Sw. is a well a Synonym HOMOCLINIO '-, or MONOECIOnS — ; Homonym as as homoge'neous, Siomoge'neal {yevos, oi Eugenia, hwxifolia,W iWA.; homo-

race, kind), of the same kind or cm'erous= homoiombrous ; homo- nature, uniform, opposed to hetero- pet'alous (ireraXop, a flower leaf), off- alike the geneous ; Hom'ogone [yovos, (1) all petals being ; (2) spring), a plant bearing only one receptacle of Compositae when the the Ligulatae kind of flowers ; adj. homog'onous, florets are alike, as ; Homog^ony, the state of uniform homophy'adlc, homophya'deua (i-n, respective length of anthers and growth), applied to those species fertile stigmas in perfect flowers ; homo- of Equisetwm, whose and stylous; the opposite of Heter- barren stems are similar in form ogony. Homoplas'my {rXdana, moulded), liomoioclUamyd'eous (S^oios, like. similar in form but not of similar 125 ; ;;;

Homoplast hornus

origin, as Cacti and succulent Hook, a slender process, curved or

Euphorbias ; Hom'oplast, corres- bent back at the tip ; ~ Cll'mbers, pondence in external form, but dis- plants which support themselves

tinct in nature ; adj. homoplas'tic, by hooks or prickles, as the bramble Hom'oplasy, moulded alike but of hooked-back, curved in a direction different origin, analogous, not from the apex to the base as the lobes in leaf. homologous, of. Homoplasmt ; side a dandelion homos'porous (ffTropct, seed), similar- Hoop, the zone or girdle of Diatoms, seeded, in opposition to hbtero- the connection between the valves

spoRons ; hom'ostyled ( + Style) of the frustule. = HOMOGONOUS; Homostyria, homo- hora'riUB, hor'ary {hora, an hour),

gonous plants ; homothal'amus lasting an hour or two, as the ex- (edXa/ios, a room, bride-chamber), panded petals of Cistus. resembling the thallus, used for hordea'ceus (Lat. pertaining to Lichens only ; homot'ropal (TpoirTJ, barley), shaped like an ear of

a turning), applied to organs having barley ; Hor'deln, a starch-like sub- the same direction as the body to stance in barley.

which they belong ; homot'ropous, horizon'tal, horizonta'lia (dpl^'av, the -pvs (1) curved or turned in one circular boundary of vision), level of Horizon'tal Sys'tem, cellular, as direction ; (2) used an anatropous the ovule having the radicle next the distinguished from the fibro-vascu-

hilum ; Hom'otype {tijwos, form, lar system (Crozier).

type) (1) correspondence of parts ; Hor'mogon (Crozier) = Hor'mogone, (2) in nuclear division this term is Hormogon'ium {ip/J-os, necklace, applied to those cases resembling ydvos, offspring), in filamentous ordinary karyokine8is,save in minor Algae, those portions composed respects, immediately following the of pseudocysts marked off by Hbtbrotypb; in some cases it occurs heterocysts which become de- in all the stages after the Hetero- tached, and after a short period of type, in which the reduced number spontaneous motion, come to rest of chromosomes are retained up to and develop into new filaments the formation of gametes (Farmer) Hor'mospores {(nropa, seed), a term

homotyp'ic, homologous ; Homo- used by Minks for spores which t'ypy, the condition of corres- are similar in origin to stylo- or pondence of parts which are in teleutospores of Eungi, colourless, series. dividing into cells, microgonidia, Hon'ey, the sweet secretion from etc., with diliquesoenoe of the glands or nectaries, which acts as mother-cell, the microgonidia de- an inducement to insect visitors veloping into heterocysts. ~ Cup, vised by Withering for Horn (1) any appendage shaped like

nectary ; — Dew, a sweet secretion an animal's horn, as the spur in voided by aphides from the juices Linaria ; (2) the antheridium of '- of their host-plants ; Guides, Vaucheria ; Hom'let, a little horn

lines or streaks of honey or colour (Crozier) ,: hor'ny, corneous as to leading to the nectary ; ~ Pore, texture.

pore or gland which Hom'bast ( Gter a supposed . ), a tissue of obliterated

secretes honey ; ~ Spot = ~ Guides ; groups of sieve-tubes, specially Hon'eycomb-oella, in Diatoms, hexa- thickened and of horny texture gonal hollows, as in Triceratium (Wigand).

Favus, Ehrenb. ; hon'eyoombed, homot'inus, hor'nus (Lat.), of this alveolate. year, the present year's growth Hood, = OnccLLUS ; hood'ed, Hood- Ka'mi hor'ni, branches not a twelve- shaped (Orozier) = cucdllate. month old. 126 ;; ,;

borological Hydroleucite horolog'ical {horologicus, pertaining crystal or glass, T\dafM, moulded), to a clock), said of flowers which the hyaline matrix or clear and non- open and close at stated hours granular portion of protoplasm Horolo'gium Plo'rae, a time-table of by some restricted to the Ecto- the opening and closing of certain plasm. flowers : —see Linnaeus, Phil. Bot. Hyber'nacle,Hybema'culum = Hiebb-

274 ; Kerner, Nat. Hist. Plants, ii. naculum. 215-218. hybema'lis = hibebnalis. horten'sis (Lat.), pertaining to Hy'brid, HyVrida (Lat., a mongrel), gardens, or only found there a plant obtained by the pollen of Hortula'nus (Lat.) (1) a gardener; one species on the stigma of

(2) belonging to a garden ; Hor'tus another ; Hybrid'ity, Hyhrid'itas,

(Lat.), a garden; -- sic'ous, an crossed in parentage ; Hybrldiza'-

herbarium ; formerly it consisted tion, (1) the art of obtaining hybrids

of volumes with dried specimens by artificial crossing ; (2) also used glued down. for the same operation occurring Uose-in-hose, a duplication of the naturally. corolla, as though a second one Hy'dathode (iiSap, water, 65os, a way), were inserted in the throat of the Haberlandt's term for water-pore first. or water-gland, an organ which

Host, a plant which nourishes a para- extrudes water or other liquid ; it

site ; Host-plant, the same. resembles a stoma withfunctionless

Hosto'rium (hostio, I requite, ex Hens- guard-cells ; Hydral'gae ( + Algae)

slow) = Haustobium. = Hydrophytes ; Hydracel'Iulose hu'mi (Lat.), in or on the ground. ( + Cellulose), see Cellulose ; hu'nufuse, humifu'sus (humua, the Hy'drate, a compound containing a ground, fuaua, spread), spread on definite proportion of water in

the surface of the ground ; humi- chemical combination ; Hydra'tion, stra'tus (s

flat on the soil. combined with water ; hydrocar'pio hu'mllis (Lat.), lowly. (/capirds, fruit), used of aquatic Hu'mor (Lat., moisture) = Sap. plants which are fertilized above Hu'mulin, the oleoresin of the hop, the water, but withdraw the ferti- Humutus Lupulus, Linn. lized flowers below the surface for

Hu'muB (Lat., the ground), decom- development, as in VcUlisneria ;

posing organic matter in the soil Hydrocel'lulose, see Cellulose ; ~ Hydroi'd {eWos, like) = Tbacheid ~ Plants, = Saprophytes ;

Soils, garden soils enriched with (Crozier) ; hy'droger {gero, I bear), organic manure. water-bearing, as hydrog'era va'sa, Husk, the outer covering of certain threads in a spiral vessel which

fruits or seeds ; hus'ky, abounding were formerly supposed to convey

with or consisting of husks. fluid ; hy'drol^ted, combined with Tij3,ciD.'%TaxDS,hyacin'thus,hyacinth'inus the elements of water, by Hydrola'-

{uaKivBii'OS, hyacinth-coloured) (1) tion ; hy'drolysed (Xins, a loosing), dark purplish blue; (2) hyacinth- chemically decomposed by taking like in habit, a bearing up the elements of water ; Hydro- spicate flowers. I'ysis, the act of being hydrolysed Hyales'cent, "somewhat hyaline" Hydroleu'cite (-1- Leucitb), Van cell- (Crozier) ; hy'aline, hyali'nus Tieghem's term for vacuoles in {idXivos, of glass), colourless or sap, which he further subdivides

translucent ; hyalic'olor {color, into tanniferous — , oxaliferous ~ colour), wanting in colour. coloured ~, albuminiferous -, in Hy'aloplasm, Hyaloplas'ma (fiaXos, accordance with their production 127 ;, ;

Hydrolist Hjrpa'iitliodiimi

of tannin, oxalates, colouring of moisture for their growth

matter, or aleurone ; Hy'drolist, H/groplasm {irMa-pi.a, moulded), cf. Cytohydkolist, Pkoteohy- Nageli's term for the fluid

DROLIST ; Hy'drome, the hydral or portion of protoplasm, cf. Stereo-

water-system of a vascular bundle, plasm ; hygroscop'lo {cKoiriu, I

cf. Hadromb ; Hydropll'llae {(pMa, see), susceptible of extending or I love), water-pollinated plants shrinking on the application or

liydropi'llous, some aquatic Phan- removal of water or vapour ; ~ erogams, and many Cryptogams Cells, certain cells in the leaves which need water in order to be of grasses which cause them to

fertilized ; ~ Fun'gi, refers to those alter in shape in dry weather, Fungi which are allied to Sapro- known also as buUiform cells legnia; Hy'drophytes, Hydrophy'ta Hygroscopic'lty, Hygroscopic'itaa, {(fivrov, a plant), water-plants, the hygroscopic property.

partially or wholly immersed ; Hy'lophyte (\i\-n, a wood, vt6v, a Hydrophytol'ogy (A67os, discourse), plant), a plant which grows in

a treatise on water-plants ; Hy'dro- woods, usually moist ; adj. hylo- plast (irXatTTos, moulded), an ap- phyt'ic. parent in which aleurone- H/lus, Hy'lum = HiLTJM.

grains arise ; Hydrople'on (ttX^oi', Hy'men (vp.lv, a membrane), a skin

full, = an aggregate of , or membrane ; liyme'mal (1) per- but smaller than a micella), water taining to the Hymenium ; (2) of crystallization ; Hydrot'ropliy relating to the reproductive organs

{Tpotjyrj, food), unequal growth in certain Cryptogams ; ^^ Al'ga, caused by unequal supply of the algal cell in a sporocarp in moisture on one side of a part Lichens, also termed -- Gomd'ium ;

(Wiesner) ; Hydrot'ropism (Tptm-ri, a ~'Lay'er=HYMENiUM ; Hyme'nium, turning), the phenomena induced by an aggregation of spore mother- the influence of moisture on growing cells in a continuous layer on a

organs; poa'ltlve ~ , turning towards sporophore, the sporiferous part the source of moisture ; neg'ative ~ of the fructification in Fungi turning away from moisture. hymeno'des (eXSos, like), having a hy'emal, hyema'lis{hiems, winter) = membranous texture ; Hymeno- HIBMAWS, pertaining to winter. li'chen (-(-Lichen), a term devised hygroohas'tic {iypos, moist, x'"''M'>'> by Mattirolo for a Lichen which is I yawn), applied by Aschersou to symbiotically associated with a

those plants in which the bursting hymenomycetous Fungus ; hymeno- of the fruit and dispersion of the myce'tous {p.iKrjs, a mushroom), spores or seeds is caused by ab- having the hymeniura exposed at sorption of water, as in Anastatica maturity, the spores borne on

hierochuntica, Linn. ; Hygroch'asy, basidia ; Hy'menophore, Hymeno-

the act in question ; HjPdroelirome phor'ium {^opia, I carry), in Fungi (XpSyua, colour), used by Nadson that part which bears the hymen-

for the pigments of Ruasvla and ium, the sporophore ; Hy'meno-

Amanita Muscwria, Fr. ; hygro- pode, Hymenopod'ium (ttoOs, woSos, met'ric {fiirpov, a measure), moving a foot), Fayod's name for the hypo-

under the influence of more or less thecium ; Hyme'nulum, a disk or

moisture, hygroscopic ; hygro- shield containing asci, but without pll'anous {(palvia, I appear), looking an excipulum. watery when moist, and opaque Hyoso3r'amin, an alkaloid contained in

when dry (Cooke) ; Hy'gropliytes Henbane, Hyoacyamus niger, Linn. ((pvTop, a. plant), marsh-plants, or Hypan'thlum, Hypantho'dium (i)m, plants which need a large supply under, apflos, a flower), an enlarge- 128 ; ;;

Hyperanisogany Hypoootyl

ment or development of the torus branched hyphae ; Hyphomyce'tea

under the calyx, a syconium. are Fungi imperfecti ; Hyphoatro'ma Hyperanisog'amy {inrip, above, (Scicros, J ((TT/jtD/ia, spread out), the my- unequal, yd/j,os, marriage), the celium of Fungi. female gamete, at first active, and Hyp'nocyBt {Sirvo!, sleep, Kiicms, a bag

much larger than the male gamete or pouch ), in Pediastreae, etc. , a dor-

(Hartog) ; cf. Oogamy. mant stage assumed when the con- hyperbor'ean, hyperbor'eus (^o/jfos, the ditions for growth are unfavourable north wind), northern. Hyp'note, an organism in a dormant hyperchromat'io (uwip, above, x/)U/iia- state; hypnot'ic, dormant, not dead,

TiKos, suited for colour), readily as in seeds ; Hyp'noplasm {irXda/ia, susceptible of taking colour, or in- moulded), the protoplasm of a dor-

tensified colouration ; Hyperd'romy mant individual, as of a seed, cf.

{Spdfios, a course), when anadromous Neceoplasm ; Hypno'sis, the state and catadromous venation occurs of dormant vitality shown by seeds on one side of a Fern-frond(Prantl) whilst still retaining their power

hyperstomat'ic ( + Stoma), having of germination (Escombe) ; Hyp'no-

the stomata on the upper surface ; sperm (avippa, a seed), the winter hypertropli'ic (t/jo^j), food), mor- state of the zygosperm of Hydro-

bidly enlarged ; Hyper'tropliy, an dictyon; Hypnosporan'gium ((nropi, abnormal enlargement of an organ, a seed, d77cioi', a vessel), a sporan- presumably by excess of nourish- gium containing resting spores

ment ; Hyper'trophytes (^utok, a Hyp'nospore, a resting spore plant), a term employed byWakker Hypnotlial'lua (SoXXos, a young for those parasitic Fungi which branch), Chodat's term for growth cause hypertrophy in the tissues. by cell-division from hypnocysts, H/pha {i

usually septate ; Sieve — , or of a proembt yo ; cf. epibasal ; Hypo-

Tnim'pet ~ , a special form found in blas'tus (pXaffTos, a shoot), the

Algae, bulging at each septum fleshy cotyledon of grasses ; Hypo- (F. W. Oliver); hy'phal, relating oarp'itun (Kapiris, fruit), an enlarged

to hyphae ; ~ Tis'sue, interwoven growth of the peduncle beneath the

hyphae, constituting the tissues of fruit, as in Anacardium ; hypo- the larger Fungi. carpoge'an, -geus {(capiros, fruit, Hyphas'ma (fi^oo-^a, a web), the 7^, the earth), =hypogaban; hypo- thallus of Agarics. carpog'enoua (yewda, I bring forth), Hyphe'ma (i/^ij a web), used by Minks the flowers and fruit produced

for the hyphal layer in Lichens ; unilerground (Pampaloni), cf. am- HypMd'ium, a term proposed by PHicAhPOGENons; Hy'pocMl, Hypo-

Minks for Spbematium ; liypho- chU'ium, Hypochi'lus (x«Xos, a lip), d'romous, -mus {dp6iios, a course), the basal portion of the labellum

used when the veins are sunk in of Orchids ; Hypochlor'iii {xKQpos, the substance of a leaf, and thus light green), Pringsheim's name for

not readily visible ; H/pllopode, a constituent of chlorophyll cor- Hyphopod'ium (iroOs, iroSos, a foot), puscles, supposed to be the first appendages on the mycelium of visible product of constructive met-

Mdiola which bear the perithecia abolism ; Hypochro'myl (xpdpa,

(Gaillard) ; Iiypliomyoe'tous {p.iKTis^ colour) = HYPoaHLOKiN; Hypocot'yl

a, mushroom), applied to Fungi (KOTiiXri, a hollow), the axis of an bearing their spores on simple or embryo below the cotyledons, but 129 ;; ;;

hypocotyledonary HypoTalva

not passing beyond them ; hypo- leaf or leaf-like organ, as in RuaciLS cotyle'donary, below the cotyledons (2) also used for the lower portion

and above the root ; hypocrate'- of the leaf from which stipules de- rlfonu, hypocrateriform'is (xparrip, velop, adherent to the axis and a bowl, forma, shape), salver- ultimately forming the leaf-soar shaped, as the corolla of the Hypoph'yaia (ipvoi, I grow), the cell Primrose, Primula vulgaris, Huds. from which the primary root and hypocrat6runor'plioua,-^AM8 {/iop(pri, root-cap of the embryo in Angio-

shape), salver-shaped ; the same sperms is derived ; adj. hypo-

meaning as in the last, but derived phya'ial ; Hypopleu'ra (vXevpli,

wholly from the Greek ; Hyp'oderm a rib), the inner half-girdle = Hypoder'ma, Hypoder'mis (Sepfia, of the frustule of a Diatom (0. skin, hide), the inner layer of the Mueller) ;Hypopod'luin (7roCs,7roSis,a

capsules of Mosses ; hypoder'mal, foot), the stalk of a carpel ; Hypop'- [irrepov, beneath the epidermis ; hypogae'- teries J a feather or wing), ous, -eus, hypoge'al, bypoge'an (7^, a wing growing from below, as the

the earth), growing or remaining seed of a Fir-tree ; hypoptera'tus, t below ground, as certain cotyledons, having wings produced from

as in the Pea ; hypog'enous {yhos, below ; Hyposath'ria {

oflFspring), produced beneath ; hypo- the state of secondary ripening

g'ynous, -nus {y'vvii, a woman), free styled bletting, as in medlars from but inserted beneath the Hyposporan'gium (o-Topd, a seed,

pistil or gynaecium ; hypolith'ic d77e?oy, a vessel), the indusium of {\Wos, a atone), growing beneath Ferns, when proceeding from below

stones. the sporangia ; Hypoat'aais J hypom'enous, -its {iwo/Uvoi, I stay {a-Tdffis, a standing), the suspensor

behind), free, not adherent, arising of an embryo ; hypostomat'io ( -I- from below an organ without ad- Stoma), with the stomata on the hesion to it. under surface; Hypostro'ma((TT/35/«t,

Hypomiclla [_sic, possibly a misprint spread-out) = Mycelium ; hypo- " " ivi, for Hypomycelia from tefrarch ( + tetraroh), in a triarch under,-!- Mycelium], " the mycel- stele, the division of the median " ium of certain Fungals (Lindley) protoxylem ; Hypothal'lus {6aW6s, liyijonas'tic {vaaros, close pressed), a young branch), the marginal out- (1) used of a dorsiventral organ in growth of hyphae in crustaoeous

which the ventral surface grows Lichens ; hypothal'line, relating to more actively than the dorsal, as the hypothallus or resembling it

shown in flower expansion ; (2) by Hypothe'ca (9^k?;, a case), the inner Van Tieghem employed for anatro- half-frustule of a Diatom (0.

pous or campylotropous ovules Mueller) ; hypothe'oal, belonging when the curvature is in an up- to the hypotheoa of a Diatom ward direction ; Hyponas'ty, the Hypothe'cimn, a layer of hyphal- state in question; Hypoog'amy {ubv, tissue immediately beneath the ya/ios, marriage), an egg, a short- hymenium in certain Cryptogams ; of (-1- ened form Hyperanisogamy ; hypotri'arcli triarch), when hypopliloe'odal, hypophloe'odic in a triarch stele, the median (^Xoios, bark), applied to Lichens protoxylem group is lowermost,

when growing under the epidermis (Prantl) ; Hypot'rophy {rpo(prl, of the bark; hypophyl'lous, -Itts food), Wiesner's term when the {iptiWov, a leaf), situated under a growth of cortex or wood is greater

leaf, or growing in that position ; on the lower side of the branch Hy'poph^, Hypophyl'lum (1) an also when buds or stipules form abortive leaf or scale under another on the lower side; Hypoval'va 130 ;; ;

Hjrpozanthln Imbricated

{vcUva, a door), the valve of the an hereditary unit recognised in inner "shell" or Hypotheca of a granules and chromosomes ; I'dant, Diatom (0. Mueller) ; Hypoxan'thln a serial complex of ids, Weismann's i^avdos, yellow), a substance akin to term for Chromosome. xanthin, which has been found in Identiflca'tion, used for germinating seeds. (Crozier). Hyp'sophyll (iifi, high, aloft, 4>i\\ov, -i'des, ideua {eTSos, like), a suffix in a leaf), a bract of the inflorescence, Greek compounds denoting similar, a reduced or modified leaf towards cf. -O-IDBS. the upper end of a shoot, cf. Id'ioWaat {tSios, personal, peculiar,

Cataphyll ; Germ. Hochblatt p\a,(7T6s, ; a bud or shoot), (1) a hjrpaopliyl'lary, relating to bracts ; special cell in a tissue which ~ Leaf, a bract. markedly differs from the rest in liys'ginuB {il

are formed in the older tissues ; plasm ; idiothal'amous, idiothal'a-

Hya'teropliyine (00/ia, a tumour or rmui, (flo\a/tos, a, bedroom), having excrescence), elementary organs different colouration from the which have been mistaken for in- thallus, a term in dependent animal or vegetable Idiomorph'oals (/Ao/)0wo-ts, a shap-

organisms (H. Karsten) ; hystero- ing), a special kind of metamor- {(pvTov, plant), phy'tal a fungoid ; phosis, as the petals of Camellia, Hys'terophyte, a plant which lives from bundles of stamens, or peta-

upon dead matter ; a saprophyte. loid sepals of Polygala (Delpino). ig^'neua (Lat., fiery), flame-coloured, ianth'lnus {IdvBivos, violet colour), used for combinations of red and bluish purple, violet. yellow, or brilliant in tone. iced, having a glittering papillose ignia'rius (Lat., pertaining to fire), surface, as Mesembryanthemtim of the consistence of German tin- crystallinum, Linn. der, derived from puff-balls. I'cones, pi. [icon, eUCjv, a figure), Ulegit'imate, fertilization in dimor- pictorial representations of plants, phic or trimorphic flowers so termed, botanic figures. when occurring between parts of icosahed'ral {etKoa-i, twenty, iSpa, a diverse length, as long with short, seat or base), having twenty sides, etc.

as the pollen-grains of Tragopogon imberb'is (Lat. ), beardless, devoid of icosan'der, ioosan'drous, -rus (avrip, hairs. dvdpbs, a man), with twenty or Imbibit'ion {imhibo, I drink in), the

more stamens ; Icosan'dria, a Lin- act of imbibing ; - The'ory, Sachs's nean class of plants with twenty suggestion that water ascends in stamens or more inserted on the plants by a chemical process in the calyx. cell-walls, and not by actual pas- icter'icuB, ioteri'nus (krepi/cos, jaun- sage upwards by vessels. diced), the colour of a person im'bricate, Imbrica'ted, imhrica'tua suffering from jaundice, impure (Lat., covered with gutter tiles), yellow. (1) overlapping as the tiles on a

Id {ISris, suffix implying paternity), roof ; (2) in aestivation, used of a 131 ,

imbrlcatlve inconspicuouB

calyx or corolla where one piece (in = not, + Anthbe), having no

must be wholly internal and one anther ; said of abortive or sterile wholly exti-rnal, or overlapping at filaments.

the edge only ; imbric'ative is a Inappendic'ulate, inappendictda'tua synonym. (in = not, appendicida, a small ap- = inunarg^inate, immargina'tus (im pendage), without appendages ; in- not, margo, marginis, a border), aper'tus, (apertua, opened), not not margined or bordered. opened, contrary to its habit. Immedla'tus, (Mid.Lat.,not mediate), Inaroh'ing', grafting by approach, the proceeding direcly from a part, as scion remaining partly attached to pedicels of a raceme. its parent, until union has taken Immer'aed, immer'sus (L3,t,, plunged), place. below the surface; (1) entirely Inartic'ulate, inarticida'tua (Lat.

under water ; (2) embedded in the indistinct), not jointed, continuous. substance of the leaf or thallus. incaues'cent, incanea'cens (Lat., turn- immo'bUis (Lat.), immovable, as ing hoary), becoming grey, canes-

many anthers ; opposed to versatile. cent. Impa'ri-pin'nate, ~ -pinna'tua {impar, Inoa'nous (Crozier) = inca'nus (Lat.), unequal, + pinnate), pinnate with quite grey, hoary. an odd terminal leaflet. incar'nate, incama'tus (Lat., clothed Imper'fect, imperfec'tus (Lat., incom- in flesh), flesh-c loured," carneous." plete), where certain parts usually In'cept, Incep'tion (inceptum.a, begin-

present are not developed ; as a ning), suggested rendering of the flower may be imperfect, that is, German "Anlage." unisexual. Inch, an English measure, equalling into, per, imperforate (in, through, 2.54 cm. ; in Latin, uncia, uncialis. fora'tus, bored), without an open- inci'sed, inci'sus (Lat., cut into), out closed (Crozier). ing, sharply into the margin ; inci'so- (Iiat., Implez'us, an entwining), en- denta'tus, slashed toothed ; ~ -ser- tangled, interlaced. ra'tus, deep-slashed serrations ; In- Implloa'tus (Lat.), entangled, woven cision, Iiicia'io, an indentation on in. the margin of a foliar organ. Impregna'tion {im = in, praegruatus, incli'ning, incU'ned (indinatua, bent pregnancy), fertilization, the union down), falling away from the hori- of male and female elements. zontal direction. impres'sus (Lat. .pressed into), marked Inclu'ded, indu'aua (Lat., shut in), with slight depressions. not protruding beyond the sur- not mature, as impuhera Impu'beB, rounding organ ; includen'tla fo'jiia, Aetas, the period before impregna- applied to alternate leaves which tion. in the sleep-position approach buds Inadhe'rlng (inadhacrens, not cling- in their axils, seeming to protect ing), free from adjacent parts. them as in Sida (De CandoUe). Inaequa'lis (Lat.), unequal in size; Incog'nit (incognitua, not examined), inaequijnag'nus,t {magnus, large), used by H. C. Watson for those not the same in size; inaequllat'eral, British plants whose nativity or inaequUatera'lis, inaequilat'eris distribution are matters of doubt. (latus, Za;eWs,a side),unequal sided, incomple'te, incompU'tua (Lat., not as the leaf of ; inaequiner'- finished), wanting some essential viUB, (iiervii.s, a nerve), when the part ; Incomple'tae, usually synony- veins are of dissimilar size. mous with Monochlamydeae, but inane', ina'nia (Lat.), empty, void; variously circumscribed by differ- as an anther containing no pollen. ent authors. inaii'therate (Crozier) =inantliera'tus. inconspic'uouB, -cwus (Lat., not re- 132 ; ;

InerasBate Indiulol

markable), not readily seen from terminated absolutely, as an in-

I small size or lack of colour. florescence in which no flower ends incras'sate, incrassa'tu.i I (Lat., thick- ! the axis of the flower-cluster. ened), made stout, as the Itaves of In'diean, a nitrogenous glucoside, by house-leek. its decomposition forming . incre'aBlng=ACCRBSOBNT ; increa'oent iii.6ifteient(indifferens, without differ- [increaco, Igrow), growing (Crozier). ence), not specialized or differenti-

Incms'tlng, jmcr!

pericarp, as to seem one with it plant ; imdig'enous, -nus, original to (2) encrusted with earthy matter. the country, not introduced. Incuba'tion [incuhatio, a brooding), the In'digo, a deep blackish blue obtained

time from the moment of infection from Indigqftra tifictoria^ Linn. ; or sowing of spores, until growth In'digogene, white indigo, or colour-

is manifest. less indigotine ; Indigot'icus, in- m'cubous, -bv£ {incubo, I lie upon), digo blue, atro-cyaneus. the oblique insertion of distichous In'digotine, pure blue indigo, forming leaves, so that the lower overlap about four-tenths of the commercial the upper on the same side of the indigo. stem on the dorsal surface, as in indirec'te veno'sus, Link's term for

Sazzania ; cf. strocuEons. lateral veins combined within the iacum'bent, incum'bena (Lat., leaning margins, and emitting other little on), resting or leaning upon, pro- veins.

cumbent ; — An'ther, one which Individ'ual, Individ'uuni {iridivid'uua, lies against the inner face of its inseparable), a unit of the series

filament ; '~ Cotyle'dons, when the which constitute species ; Indlvid'- back of one lies against the radicle, uaIism,{l)oapable of separate exist- symbiosis in which the shown as || o, ence ; (2) inciir'ved, incur'viis, incur'vate, in- total aggregate result is wholly curva'tua {incurmis, bent), bending different from any of the sym-

from without inwards. bionts ; Individua'tion, a synonym Indefinite, indefini'tua (Lat., not pre- of the last (2). cise), (1) uncertain or not positive Indivi'sus (Lat.), undivided, entire.

in character ; (2) too many for easy uidu'ced, applied to those movements enumeration, as an abundance of which are the result of some irrita- co pressure, light, stamens, denoted by the sign ; tion or stimulus, as (3) in an inflorescence, when race- heat, etc. j Induc'tion, the produc- mose, the main axis being capable tion of sensitive movements; hetero-

of constant extension ; ~ Growtll, g'enous ~ , due to two or more causes continuous growth and not the isog'enous '~, due to one cause. mere extension of a limited organ- Indumen'tum (Lat., a garment), any ism or bud; ~ Inflores'cence, in- coverine;, as hairiness.

determinate or centrifugal, acro- indu'plicate, induplica'tue ; indu'pli- petal of some authors. cative, with the margins bent in- indeold'uous (i7i=not, deciduua, cut wards, and the external face of or lopped off), evergreen or per- these edges applied to each other,

sistent foliage (Crozier) ; IndeWs'- without twisting. cent, -cena (dehiaceiis, gaping), not induras'cens {indureaco, I harden),

opening by valves or along regular hardening by degrees ; indura'ted, lines. hardened. Indepen'dence, the separation of Indu'saeform, Indu'siform (Indu- organs usually entire. SICM, forma, shape) ; iBdu'sioid indeterm'inate, i7idetermina'tua, not {elSos, like), 's expression 133 ;

Indusium Injection

for any indusium-like covering in In'feralB, a division of gamopetalous Ferns. Dicotyledons, proposed for Rubi- Indu'sium (Lat., a woman's under- aceae, Compositae, Companulaceae, garment), (1) an epidermal out- etc.

growth covering inflex'ed, injlex'iis (Lat. , bent), the sori in Ferns ; turned (2) a ring of collecting hairs below abruptly or bent inward, in- the stigma; (3) the annulus of some curved.

Fungi (Lindley) ; indu'siate, indu- InAoieB'ence,Inflore8cen'tia {injloresco, sia'tus, possessing an indusium. I begin to blossom), (1) the disposi- Indu'viae (Lat., clothes), (1) persist- tion of the flowers on the floral

ent portions of the perianth, or axis ; (2) less correctly used for the

leaves which wither, but do not Flower Cluster ; definite ~ , when

fall oflf ; ('i) scale-leaves ; indu'- each axis in turn is terminated with vlate, induvia'Ua, induvia'tiia, a flower, as in aCyme; indefinite ~, clothed with withered remnants. when the floral axis is capable of inembryona'tus (in, not, embryo, an continuous extension, as in a embryo), having no embryo. raceme. iuaequilat'eral, inaequilatera'lis {in, info'liate {in, in, folium, a leaf), to not, aequcUis, equal, latv£, lateris, a cover with leaves. side), unequal-aided; inae'ciuivalve, Infos'sus, (Lat., buried), sunk in any- inaequival'vular (valva, a door- thing, as the veins in some leaves, leaf), used of the glumes of plants but leaving a visible channel. which show inaequality in their in'fra-axU'lary, infra-axilla'ris {infra, constituent valves. below + AXILLARIS), below the axil Inencli'yma {in, in, eyx^l^o^t an infu- infrano'dal (nodtis, a knot) Canals', sion), fibro-cellular tissue, the cells gaps in the medullary rays of Col- having the appearance of spiral amites, below the node, leaving vessels, as in Sphagnum. prints on the casts (Williamson). inerm', iner'mous, iner'mis (Lat., un- infrac'ted, infrac'tus (Lat., broken, armed), without spines or prickles. bent), incurved. ineye', to inoculate, or bud. Infructes'cenoe {fructus, fruit, by an- infarc'tate (infarctus, stuffed into), alogy to inflorescence), (1) the in-

turgid or solid. florescence in a fruiting stage ; (2) infeo'tious, communicable by infec- collective fruits. tion, as diseases in infruc'tuose {infructuo'sus, unfruitful), plants, etc. ; caused by some organism from barren, not bearing fruit. outside. infundib'ular, infundibula'ris {infun- in'fer-agar'ian Zone, H. C. Watson's dibu'lum, a funnel), funnel-shaped term for the lowest portion of the infundibu'Ilform, infundibviifor'mia cultivated lands in Great Britain ; {forma, shape), shaped like a /- arc'tio Zone, a similar terra for funnel. the lowest division of his arctic infus'cate {infuscua, dusky), of a region in Britain. brownish tint. imfe'rior (Lat., lower), (1) below some InMb'ition {inhibitio, a restraining), other organ, as an ~ Ca'lyx is below modification or restraint in func- the ovary, or an ~ O'vary seems to tion. -- grow below the adnate calyx ; (2) init'ial {initialis, original) Cells, has been used for anterior, or turned cells from which primordial layers

away from the axis. or nascent tissues arise ; ^ Lay'er, infla'ted, infia'tua (Lat., puffed up), the middle cambium layer. bladdery, swollen. Injec'tion {injectus, oast into), the infleo'ted (infiedto, I bend), bent or filling of intercellular spaces with flexed. water (Crozier). 134 ;;

Innate Intercalary

in'nate, inna'tus (Lat., natural), (1) insculpt' {insetdptus, engraved), im- borne on the apex of the support, bedded in rocks, as some Lichens. in an anther the antithesis of inseotiv'orous {insectum, an insect,

adnate ; (2) imbedded (Leighton). voro, I devour), used of those in'ner, internal, nearer the centre plants which capture insects and

than something else ; ~ Lam'ina, absorb nutriment from them. the layer of a lignified cell-wall Insemlna'tae (ire = not, semen, seed). which is next the inside of the Van Tieghem's name for those cell ; ~ Perid'lum, ~ Tu'nic, a plants which do not contain seed more or less coloured membrane separable or distinct at maturity ; which surrounds the hymenium in in order to germinate, the fruit Verrucaria beneath the perithe- must be sown entire. cium. Insepara'tion {inseparattis, not sepa- In'novans (Lat.), renewing; inno- rated), Masters's term for coal-

vau'tea Gem'mae, the fixed or per- escence ; adj. inaep'arate. sistent buds of Mosses. inser'ted, inser'tus (Lat., put into),

Innova'tion Innova'tio, (Lat., an al- joined to or placed on ; Inser'tlon, teration), a new formed shoot in Inaer'tio, (1) mode or place where Mosses, which becomes indepen- one body is attached to its support dent from the parent stem by dying (2) Grew's term for a medullary ray. off behind ; ~ Shoot, a vigorous Insit'ion {i-rmtio, a grafting), the in- shoot which carries on the further sertion of a scion into a stock, growth of the plant. grafting. Innucella'tae {in = not, -f Nucbllus), Insola'tion {insolo, I expose to the Van Tieghem's name for phanero- sun), exposure to the direct rays gamic plants whose ovules want of the sun. nucellus and integuments, such as Inspis'sated {in, into, spismtus, thick- the Santalaceae. ened),thickened, as juice by evapora- Inocula'tlon (inocidatio, ingrafting), tion. grafting, more properly budding, instlp'ulate {in — not, + stipulate), a single bud only being inserted. exstipulate (Crozier). inorgan'ic {in, not, + orqanio), de- in'teger (Lat., whole), entire, not

void of organs ; ~ Ash, the final lobed or divided ; In'tegra Ra'dix,

residuum after complete combus- an unbranched root ; ~ Vagl'na, tion, the mineral portion of a the sheathing petiole which forms

vegetable tissue ; ~ Com'pounds, a continuous tube, as in sedges those which form part of animal integer'rimus, an emphatic asser- or plant structure derived from tion of the entirety of an organ

mineral substances ; — Fer'ments, integrifo'lious {folium, a leaf), with enzymes, as opposed to organic undivided, or simple leaves. ferments, as bacteria. Integmlna'tae (m=not, tegmen, a inos'culating {in, into, oacnlatua, covering), Van Tieghem's name for

kissed), anastomosing ; Inoscula'- plants whose nucellus is devoid of tion, budding or grafting. integument. I'noaite (is, Ms, strength, sinew), a Integ'ument {integumen'turn, a cover- saccharine aromatic principle which ing), the covering of an organ or

occurs in many seeds and other parts body ; integumen' ta flora'lia, the of pUnts, especially in climbers. floral envelopes. Inovula'tae, {in, not, -f OvnLUM:),phan- In'ter-axill'ary {inter, between + axil- erogamic plants which have no laris), between the axils. ovules discernible at the time of inter'calaiy {intercalaris, that to be fertilization, as the Loranthaceae inserted), used of growth, which (Van Tieghem). is not apical but between the apex 135 ;;

Intercalated Interatitia

and the base ; — veg'etative Zone, epidermis, containing the vascular

a portion lying between mature bundles in Monocotyledons ; (2) by tissue which takes on growth as Watson used as indicating a certain

though a growing point ; inter' ca- elevation, between the agrarian and

lated, interposed, placed between. arctic zones ; intermlcel'lar ( -f Mi- intercarp'ellary {inter, between, + cella), between the micellae; Inter-

Carpel), between the carpels ; in- moleo'ular ( + ), between

tercell'ular, ( + cellular) between the molecules.

the cells or tissues ; ^ Pas'aage, a inter'nal (interne, inwardly) ~ Peri- continuous opening between the cy'cle, Flot's expression for the

cells ; ~ Space, a cavity bounded proeambium retained on the inner

by the cells of a, tissue ; -- Sub'- side of the vascular bundle. Btance, material extravasated from In'temode, Intenw'dium (Lat.), the within to outside the cell; -- Sys'tem, space or portion of stem between

the intercellular spaces and adja- two nodes ; adj. Intemo'dal.

cent tissues (Crozier) ; Intercos'tal interpet'iolar, interpetiola'ris (inter, (casta, a rib), between the ribs or between, petiolus, a little stalk),

nerves of a leaf ; Interoros'sing, (1) between the petioles ; (2) en-

cross-fertilization ; interfascio'ular closed by the expanded base of a

{fascicvliis, a bundle), between the petiole ; (3) also applied to connate

vascular bundles ; ~ Cam'bium, stipules which have coalesced from that formed between the bundles two opposite leaves.

in the primary medullary rays ; interpo'sed (interpos'itus, placed be- ~ oonjunc'tive Tis'sue= preceding; tween) Mem'bers, those parts ~ Phlo'em, ~ xyiem, respectively which have arisen in a whorl sub- -- ; inter- sequent to its earlier formed from the Cambium members ; Jnterposit'io, fi'lar ( filum, a thread), between Interposit'lon, forma- filaments, as the resting spore in tion of new parts between those

Mesocarpus (Crozier) ; interfolia'- already existing in a whorl ; inter-

ceous (folium, a leaf -I- aceous) be- poslti'vus (Lat.), interposed. tween the leaves of a pair, as the intemip'ted (interruptiis, broken or

stipules of many Rubiaoeae ; inter- separated), when any symmetrical fo'Uar, situated between two oppo- arrangement is destroyed by local

site ; Int'erfoyles, causes a solution of leaves Grew's ; continuity ;

name for (1) bracts ; (2) scales ; (3) ~ Growth, an alternation of abun- stipules. dant and scanty development, intergeri'num (Lat., placed between), appearing as constrictions in an Lig^num, J the dissepiment of a fruit. organ, as a fruit or tap - root Interlob'ule (inter, between + lobule), intemip'tedly pin'nate (1) a pinnate name given by Spruce to a small leaf without a terminal leaflet plane process of a subulate or tri- (2) having small leaflets interposed angular form, between the lobule with those of larger size.

and the stem in certain Hepaticae. interstam'inaJ (inter, between, -t- sta- mterme'diate, interme'dius (Lat. , that minal), placed between two sta- which is between), half-way, or mens; interstam'inate is a synonym.

between ; ~ Tis'sue, the ground Inter'stice (interstit'ium, a space be- tissue in exogens, except that of tween), small air-spaces; larger are the epidermis and vascular bundles; termed lacunae, still larger, air-

~ Type, employed by H. C. Watson passages ; interstit'ial Growth, the for those plants whose distribu- theory which requires the interpo- tion in Great Britain is of a local sition of new particles between the

or doubtful range ; ^ Zone (1) the older portions, instead of superficial active zone between the pith and additions. 136 ;;

InterveniTun Innlln

Inter'venium (inter, between, vena, a stem, as ~ Buds, those which are vein), a portion of parenchyma be- completely enclosed by the petiole,

tween the veins of a leaf ; Inter- as in Platanus.

wea'ving ( + weaving), the union of intrar'ious, intrar'ius (L. Lat. ) turned hyphae by growing amongst each inward toward the axis.

other, without cohesion ; Germ. intrasem'inal (intra, within, semen, a '- Verflechtung ; interxy'lary ( + Xy- seed), within the seed ; Devel'op- lem), amongst the xjdem elements. nient,the whole developmentunder- Intex'ine, Intex'tine {intns, within, + gone by the embryo during the Extine), the inner membrane when conversion of the ovule into the

two exist in the extine, or outer ripe seed ; intraste'lax ( -t- Stele),

covering of a pollen-grain ; In'tine, within the stele, as '- Tis'sue = Con-

the innermost coat of a pollen- junctive Tissue ; intravagi'nal grain. (wag'ino,a sheath), within the sheath,

Intor'sio (Lat. , curling or crisping) applied to branches which spring

Intor'tion = Torsion ; intor'tus from buds which do not break (Lat., twisted), practically a syn- through the sheath of the sub- onym of contorted, twisted upon tending leaf (Scribner); imtravalvu- itself. la'ri3( -fvALVULARis), within valves, intodisoa'lis J (intus, within, discus, a aa the dissepiment in many Cruci- disc), inserted within the disk of a ferae ; iiitraxy'lary( + Xylbm) with- flower. in the xylem. mtracarp'eUary (mira, within, + Car- In'trloate, intrica'tus{ha.\,. ), entangled.

pel), within the carpels ; intra- introcur'ved, introcur'vus (Lat.), in- cell'ular {+ cellular), within a curved.

cell ; Intrafascic'ular (fascic'ulus, a, introdu'ced (introdu/:t'tis, brought

bundle), within a bundle ; intra- within), used of plants which have fi'lar {filwm, a thread), within a been brought from another country.

filament ; intrafoUa'ceouB, -ctus introflex'ed (intra, inaide,Jlexus, bent),

(folium, a leaf, -I- aceous), within inflexed. or before a leaf, as within the axil in'trorse.TO^ror'sMS (Mod. Lat.) turned intralam'ellar (lamella, a small inward, towards the axis. plate), within plate-like structures, introve'nlus (intra, inside, vena, a

as the trama of Agarics; Intramarg' vein), hidden veined ; from the inal (margo, a margin), placed abundance of parenchyma, the veins

within the margin near the edge not readily seen ; cf. avknius. intramat'rical (matrix, a mould), intru'ded, in'truse, intru'sus (Lat.,

inside a matrix or nidus ; Intra thrust in), pushed or projecting meabil'ity (meahilis, penetrable), forward. the capacity of protoplasm to per Intussusoep'tion (intus, within, s««- mit substances to pass into its ceptus, taken up), the theory of

vacuoles (Janse) ; intramolec'ular growth, which assumes the inter- (-1- MoLBCULB), within the mole- calation of new particles (micellae),

cules ; mtramu'ral (muralis, per- between the already existing par- taining to a wall), between the ticles of the cell-wall. walls of cells, as ~ Glands, used In'ulase (from the genus Imda), an by De Bary for raulticellar organs enzyme in Compositae which con-

of secretion, whose product ap- verts into Levulose ; Inu'- pears in the limiting walls lenin, a subordinate constituent

Intranu'clear (mu^eus, a kernel), of Inulin (Tanret) ; In'ulln, a

within the nucleus ; intrapet'iolar body like starch, first found in (petiolus, a small stalk), within the Compositae, in the form of sphaero- petiole, or between it and the crystala. 137 ;

Inuncani Irritability

Inun'cans t(Lat., hooking), the surface overarching the embryo, afterwards covered with glochidia or hooked pierced by the lengthening sporo-

hairs. gonium ; (.3) the peridium, volva

Inunda'tal (inundatua, overflowed), or annulus in Fungi (Lindley) ; (4)

Watson's expression for those the indusium of Ferns ; gen'eral~, plants which grow in places liable that which is at the base of a com-

to be inundated in wet weather, pound umbel ; par'tial ^ , sec'ondaxy

but dry in summer; Inunda'tus, -- , that which surrounds a partial

flooded, sometimes under water, umbel ; involu'cra lAcfnea, Mal- sometimes dry. pighi's name for the concentric

-inus, a Latin suffix, meaning, (1) zones of growth in exogens ; In-

resemblance ; (2) augmentation. volu'cret, an involucel. invag'inated (in, into ; vagina, a jn'volute, involu'tus, involuti'vuB sheath), enclosed in a sheath. (Lat., enwrapped), having the inverse' (inversus, turned about), in- edges of the leaves rolled inwards ;

verted ; Inver'sion, (1) a change of Involu'tion, (1) the act of rolling

order or place ; the action of In- inward (2) the return of an organ ; ~ vertase ; (2) In'vert- en'zyme, In'- or tissue to its original state ; vertase, an unorganised ferment, Form, a swollen bladder-like form which transmutes cane-sugar into of Sohizomycetes, supposed to be

inverted-sugar ; inver'ted, having a diseased condition of the form

the apex in an opposite direction associated with it ; ~ Pe'riod, the

to the normal ; Inver'ted-su'gar, u resting period ; ~ Spore, a rest-

mixture of and glucose by ing-spore ; .~ Stage, the resting the action of invertase on cane- -- sugar ; Superposit'ion, the position invol'vens (Lat.), rolling together, as of accessory buds below the princi- involven'tia Fo'lia used by De Can- pal bud,or one first formed (Crozier) dolle, for trifoliate leaves whose inver'tens (Lat.), inverting, becom- leaflets rise up, unite at the summit ing reversed, as inverten'tia Fo'lia, ... so as to form an arch which leaves which in sleep hang down- shelters the flowers, as in Trifolium ward, but touch by the upper sur- incarnatum, Linn. (Lindley).

face, as in Cassia ; In'vertin = io'des (MSt/s, violet-coloured), iodi'jitts,

Invertase ; this form is chiefly violet ; I'odine, an elementary body employed bjr zoologists, obtained from marine Algae, etc.; invis'ible (inmsib'ilis, not to be seen), io'nides, violet-coloured.

used of any organ which is not irreg'ular, irregiiZa'ris (Late Lat. , not sufficiently developed to be seen, according to rule), (1) wanting in vol'ucel, Involucdlum (Fr., involu- regularity of form ; (2) asymmetric, celle, from involucrum, a wrapper), as a flower which cannot be halved a secondary partial involucre in any plane, or one which is involucel'late, involucella'tus, pro- capable of bisection in one plane vided with a secondary involucre ~ Felor'la, ; only, zygomorphic ; involu'cral, involucra'lis, belonging a monstrosity by which irregular

to an involucre ; Invol'ucrate, In- form has become regular by sym-

volucra'tua; involu'cred, having an metric development ; Irregular'ity,

involucre of some kind ; Involu'cre, Irregulai-'itas, the state of being Involu'crum, (1) a ring of bracts unequal in form. surrounding several flowers or their Irritabil'ity (irritabilis, easily ex- supports, as in the heads of Compo- cited), phenomena induced by sites, or the umbels of Umbelli- stimuli, such as shock, absence

ferae ; (2) the tissue of the thallus or presence of light, warmth, in Anthoceroteae, grown up and gravity, etc. 138 ;; ;;

iBabelllnuK IsostomouB isabem'nus (Mod. Lat.), Isabella woman), having the pistils similar colour, a dirty tawny tint. isogy'rus $ (7i//5is, round), formings isadelph'oua, -«s {Xa-os, equal to complete spire ; Isomalt'ose ( -I- d5eX04s, a brother), equal brother- Maltose), a product of amylodex- hood, the number of the stamens trin, passing by fermentation into

in the two phalanges being equal. maltose ; isomeric, isom'erous, -us I'satin, the colouring principle of ifiepos, a part), (1) having the same woad, , Linn. elements in the same proportions, isid'ioid, resembling the Lichen but with difisrent properties ; (2)

genus, Isidium ; isidiiferous (fe.ro, having members of successive cycles I bear), bearing a thallus like the equal in number, as the petals and

genus whence it derives its name sepals ; isopll'agous (4>dyoi, I eat), ; isld'iose, having powdery, ooral- applied to Fungi which attack like excrescences. one, or several allied species (Eriks-

Isid'ium (;tris=a genus of corals; elSos, son) ; isoph'orous (

halves ; isob'rious (^pida, I similar (0. Mueller) ; Isopro'thally

strengthen),of equal strength, refer- ( -I- Prothallus), producing pro- ring to the embryo of Dicotyledons thallia which are similar in sexual

isobrla'tus, dicotyledonary ; lao- character (Van Tieghem) ; i'sosclilst clio'inous (xw/in, a mound), applied (cxtcThs, split), applied to a cell of a to branches springing from the same brood, all of which are equal in

stem at the same angle ; isocli'ro- size and function (Hartog) ; isos- mous (xpHf^a., colour), all of one mot'ic (liir/tos, impulse, pushing), colour or hue, uniform in tint passing by in or out with

iBooy'clio {k6k\os, a circle), eucyclic, equal facility ; I'sospore (axoph,, seed), spore produced by one of a flower having isomerous whorls ; a isodiamet'ric (Si4, through lUrpov, the Isospo'reae, plants having one ; ~ a measure), of equal dimensions ; kind of spore, as in Ferns, opposed

Cells, those having an equal dia- to heterosporous ; isos'porous,

meter in each direction ; Isodi'ody homosporous, or having one kind

(SIoSos, a passage), the condition of of spore only ; Isosp'ory, the state producing Diodes which give rise of producing one sort of spore to unisexual prothallia (Van isoste'monouB, nus, having as many

Tieghem) ; iaody'namous (Sivajxts, stamens as petals, or sepals ; Isos-

power), equally developed ; Iso- te'mony, equality in number of gam'ete (yajj^rris, a spouse), gametes stamens with the segments of the

or sexual cells of similar size and perianth whorls ; isosty'louB ( -h appearance, which conjugate and BTYLtrs), the styles being similar,

result in a zygote ; isog'amous opposed to heterostylous ; isos'tlc. (yiixos, marriage), used for those Van Tieghem's term when the more than two plants which produce iaogametes ; mother root has Isog'amy, the fusion of similar xylem bundles ; isotonic [rbvos, a

sexual cells ; isog'enous (yivo%, race) strand, a brace) Concentra'tion, Induc'tion, used by Noll to express that degree of different solutions in sensitive movements arising from a which they attract water with equal

single cause ; isojf'yiious {yvvri, a force (De Vries) ; isos'tomous («-T6/ia, 139 ; ;;

Isotrophyte EaryoBonut

a mouth), the calyx and corolla the term for vascular tissue ; Juice'less,

same size ; Isot'rophyte (rpoip^, food dry, exBuccous. ipirov, a plant), a paraBitio Fungus Jula'ceouB, -ceus (jidue, Mod. Lat., an

whose influence is only chemical, amentum or epike, -I- aceous), bear- with but slight changes in the ing catkins, amentaceous; ju'liform host (Wakker); isot'ropous {rpdwos, (forma, shape), like a catkin; Ju'lus, direction), equal torsion in develop- an old term for catkin, or spike, ment, as in valvate and contorted such as in Aconbs Calamus, Linn. aestivation (K. Schumann). Junc'old (juncus, a rush, elSos, re- Isth'mus (lard/i-ds, a neck of land), (1) semblance), junc'ous, jun'ceous, the narrowed connection between rush-like.

half-cells of Desmids ; (2) the girdle Junctu'ra (Lat., a joint), an articula- of such Diatoms as Isthmia. tion or note. itera'to-proliferous {iteratus, repeated Jute, the fibre of Corchorus capsvlaris, + proliferous) repeatedly bearing Linn., and C. olitorius, Linn. prolifications. Juvenes'cence (juvenesco, I grow

(I66s, a. ithyphyl'lus straight ; ^uXKov, young again) = Rejuvenescence. leaf), straight and stiff-leaved. Juxtaposit'iou {jiucta, close to positus, placed), the relative posi- Jag'gery, a coarse dark sugar from the tion in which organs are placed. coco-nut and other palms, which produces arrack by fermentation. K, for many words see also under Jal'apin, a constituent of the ofGcinal the letter C. Jalap, a purgative root, derived Ealid'ion, Kalid'ium; pi., Ealid'ia from Ipomoea Purga, Hayne. (koKLSlov, from fcaXia, granary) = Jama'icii, an alkaloid occurring in CVSTOOAEP. the cabbage bark-tree, Avtdira itier- kamptod'romous = oamptodromdus. mis, Kunth, a native of the West Earyoid {Kdpvov, a nut, elSos, like) Indies, minute spherical bodies attached jaspid'eus, or iaspid'eus (Lat., from to the chlorophyll plate of Con-

iasper, jasper), a mixture of many jugatae and Desmids ; Karyog'amy colours arranged in small spots. {yd/ios, marriage), the union of Je'terus, a mistake of Bischoff, copied gametonuolei, to form a zygote-

by Lindley, for Icterus, vegetable nucleus (Maupas) ; Earyoldiie'sis

jaundice. {KlvTi

grasses or other plants ; Joint'ed, changes undergone by the nucleus articulated, falling apart at the in cell-division; "also spelled

joints. Caryooineais " (Orozier) ; it is the jonquil'leus (Mod. Lat.), the bright indirect division of Flemming

yellow of the Jonquil, Narcissiis adj., karyokinet'ic ; Earyol'ogy odorue, Linn. (XAyos, discourse), the science of the Ju'ba (Lat., a mane), a loose panicle, nucleus and its development and

with diliquescent axis ; juba'tus, vital history (Trow) ; Karyol'ysia maned. (\v(ns, a loosing), the dissolution ju'gate (jnga'tus, connected or yoked of the nucleus, in whole or part

together), used in composition as adj., karyolyt'ic ; Karyomito'sis

conjugate, bijugate, etc. (ictiros, a thread or web) = Mitosis ;

Ju'gum (Lat., a yoke), pi., Ju'ga ; (1) Ear'yoplasm (TrXdcr/io, moulded),

a pair of leaflets ; (2) the ridges on the more fluid protoplasm of the the fruits of Umbelliferae. nucleus, between the nuclear

Juice, the liquid contents of any threads ; Eaiyoso'ma (tru/xa, a

• plant tissue ; ^ Ves'sels, Hill's body), a close mass of microsomes 140 . " ;; == =

Eaxyosomata Kryptoblast

in nucleus a ; pi. Karyoso'mata kin'ic (Kina-Kina, a name for Cin- Karyosymph'ysis (irij/i^ua-is, growing chona), pertaining to cinchona ; ^ together), nuclear fusion (Hartog). Ao'id, an organic acid in Cinchona katabol'lc (/caTa^aXXu, I cast down), barks. descending metabolism, the break- King'dom, one of the highest groups ing up of compounds into simpler of organic nature ; the Vegetable

bodies ; Katab'olism, destructive ~ includes all plants. metabolism. Klado'dium Cladodb. katalyt'ic = catalytic. kleistogam'lc, kleistog'amous olbis- Eatelectrot'onus (fcard, down TOGAMIC.

ffKeKTpov, amber ; t6»os, strain), KUnomorpli'y (xklvoi, I bend, fiop(pri, a heightened excitation in plants shape), Wiesner's term for the due to an electric current (Hdr- condition of an organ determined mann). by the simultaneous oblique posi- kathod'ic (KddoSos, a descent), that tion of the principal and median half of a leaf which is turned away planes, so that the right and left from the direction in which the halves may be distinguished as

genetic spiral turns ; the opposite upper and lower, resulting in a of ANODIC. different shape of the two halves ; Keel, or Cari'na, (1) a ridge like the kleinorhom'bic (/Sd/x^os, a rhomb), a

keel of a boat ; (2) the two anterior mineralogic terra used by Be Bary and united petals of a papilionace- for oblique rhombic crystals in

ous corolla ; keeled, carinate. plants. Eenench'yma (Kevi>s, empty, iyxviw,, Kli'nostat Clinostat. an infusion), permanent tissue Kiiaur=GNAUit. which has lost its living contents, Enee, (1) an abrupt bend in a stem or

as cork-tissue;; in Ger. "Leer- tree-trunk ; (2) an outgrowth of

zellengewebe. some tree roots ; ~ Jolnt'ed, genicu-

Keramld'ium = Ceramidium, or late ; —pan-shaped, concavo-con-

Cystocarp. vex, patelliform ; kneed, geniculate. kermesl'nus (Mod. Lat.), carmine, a Knight-Darwin Law, generally under- colour from Kermes. stood as "that no organic being Ker'nel, (1) the nucleus of an ovule,or fertilises itself for an eternity of of a seed, that is, the whole body generations"; preferably "Nature abhors perpetual self fertilisation," within the coats ; (2) the softer part of the pyrenocarp within the cf. F. Darwin in "Nature," Iviii., outer wall in certain Fungi. 630-632.

Ke'tones (a variation of "Acetone"), a knob-like = gongylodes ; knobbed =

; knob'by= NODOSE. class of etherial oils ; camphor is torulosb probably one of this class. Knot, (1) a node in the stem of

Ket'tle-traps, applied 'o such flowers grasses ; (2) a swelling in stems at

O as those of Aristolochia, which im- the attachment of the leaf ; (3) prison iiisectu until fertilization is various diseases caused by Fungi,

effected as Black ^ , effected by Plowrightia

; phase, Key, or Key-fruit, the Samara of morbosa, Saoc. (Tubeuf ) Knot sycamore or ash. in nuclear-division, is also known, Kid'ney- form, Kid'ney - shaped, ob- as skein-stage ; knot'ted, knot'ty,

lately cordate ; orescent-shaped, nodose. with the ends rounded. Knur, Knurl, a knob or hard substance Kind, genua or specieH, a sort. = GNArR. kinet'ic {duriins, motion) En'ergy, Kryp'toblast {kputttos, hidden, (SXao-Tos, the energy of actual motion, as a bud), a preventitious bud opposed to potential energy. (Hartig). 141 ;,;; ;;;

kyanoplillouB laeylgate

l^anoph'llous (Kiiams, blue ; 0iXe'w, I like (Crozier) ; Lacin'ule, (1) a dim-

love), used of any tissue which inutive lacinia or lobe ; (2) the readily absorbs blue staining incurved point of the petal in many

Ey'anophyll (0i!\Xo», a leaf), nearly Umbelliferae ; lacin'ulate, lacin'u- pure chlorophyll freed from its lose, finely laoiniate, possessing associated yellow pigment, xantho- lacinulae.

phyll (Wiesner) ; it is bluish-green Lao'quer, a Japanese varnish ; cf., in colour. Lac and Lacoasb. Lao'tase {lac, milk), Beijerink's name La'bel {labellum, a little lip), (1) Grew's for an enzyme which inverts sugar, term for the pinnule or ultimate but is distinct from Invertase segment of a Fern-frond; (2) Label- Lao'teals, Lao'tlfer {fero, I bear), latici- lum ; Label'lum ; (1) the third petal Lac'tents, Grew's names for

of Orchids, usually enlarged, and: by ferous ducts ; lao'tens (Lat. ) milky,

torsion of the ovary become anterior, white as milk ; lactes'cent, lactes-

from its normal posterior position ; cens, yielding milky juice; lactio'olor (2) a similar petal in other flowers. {color, colour) milk-white ; lacti-

la'biate, labia'tus (Lat. , lipped) lipped ferous, Grew's word for laticiferous;

usually bilabiate ; labiatiflor'ous, Lac'tose, milk-sugar; the sweet prin- -ras, used of certain Compositae ciple of milk, and stated to occur in with bilabiate corollas to their the fruit of Achras Sapota, Linn.

florets ; la'biose, labia'sv^, applied Laotuoa'rium, the dried juice of the

to a polypetalous corolla seemingly lettuce, Lac.tuca sativa, Linn. , con-

two-lipped ; La'bium, the lower taining an active principle, Lac'tu- lip of a Labiate flower. olne. labyrinthifor'mis {labyrinthus, a struc- Laou'na (Lat., a hole or cavity), (1) an

ture with winding passages ; forma, air-space in the midst of tissue shape), marked by sinuous lines, (2) a depression on the thallus of

cf., DAEDALDUS. a Lichen ; laou'nar, pertaming to

Lac (ital., lacca, a varnish), a resinous or arising from lacunae ; ~ Tis'aue, exudation from various tropical thin-walled cells, forming irregular plants, occurring in commerce in trabeoulae radially traversing the

different forms ; Lac'case, the en- intercellular cavity of the stem of

zyme which produces Lacquer, Selaginella ; it may be regarded as from fluid lac ; lac'oate, as though the equivalent of the Bundle-Sheath

varnished ; Lao' cine, a substance of most other vascular Cryptogams; found in lac, insoluble in water, laou'nose, IcKuno'sus, (1) when the alcohol, or ether. surface is covered with depressions

lac'erate, lac'erus (lactr, mangled) (2) perforated with holes ; lacu'no-

lacera'ted, lacera'tut ; torn, or ir- rimo'sus, marked with irregular

regularly cleft. cracks and excavations ; laou'no-

Lacli'rima (Lat. , a tear), a drop of gum ru'gose, — -rugosns, having irregular

or resin exuded from a tree ; also wrinkles, as the stone of the peach. spelled Lach'ryma and Lacrima lacus'tral {lacus, a pond or lake), H.C. lach'ryrimiform, lachrimiform'is Watson's term for plants which are

{forma, shape), tear-shaped ; some- usually floating in water or im-

times but less correctly spelled mersed ; laous'trine, lacus'tria, be- laoh'rymaeform, etc. longing to, or inhabiting lakes or

Lacln'ia (Lat., the flap of a garment), ponds ; the form lacus/Ur has been a slash or slender lobe; Laoinia'tion, introduced recently.

fission ; lacin'late, lacinia'tue, laev'igate, laeviga'tus {lemgatus, slashed, out into narrow lobes smooth, slippery), smooth, as if lacin'iform {forma, shape), fringe- polished. 142 ;; ;

laevla Latex lae'viB (levis, smooth), Bmooth, in the with Lanu'go (Lat.), wooUiness; sense of not being rough. long and interwoven hairs. lage'nlform, lageniform'is (lagena, a lapid'eus (Lat., stony), lapillo'sua,

flask ; forma, shape), shaped like a stony, as the seeds of "stone " Florence flask. fruits : lap'idose, lapido'sus, grow- lago'pus (Xa7ci7rous, hare's foot), hare- ing amongst stones.

footed, densely covered with long lappa'oeous, lappa'ceus (Lat. ) bur-like, hair. hamate. Lam'el, Lamel'la (Lat., a thin plate or lar'val [larva, a mask), (1) applied to scale), a thin plate ; pi., Lamellae, the resting stage, as the sclero-

gills of ; of the Agarics lam'ellar, tium of ergot ; (2) the early form lamella'ris, composed of thin plates; certain Conifers, whose perfect and

lam'ellate, lamdla'tus, made up of adult form is very diflferent ; lar- thin plates, as the hynieniumof the va'tuB (Lat.) personate.

mushroom ; lamel'liform [forma, laslau'thus (Xdo-ios, shaggy ; ai>8os, a

shape), in the shape of a plate or flower), woolly-flowered ; lasiocar'- scale; lam'ellose, lameUo'sus=iiAM- pous ((capTTos, fruit), pubescent- ELLATE; Lamel'lulae, the gills of fruited. Fungi. latetoo'sus (Lat., full of lurking Lam'ina (Lat., a thin leaf), the limb, places), hidden.

leaf ; ~ blade, or expanded part of a ; la'tent [latena, hidden), dormant

~ prolig'era ; ~ sporig'era, the Bud, an adventitious bud ; ~ Pe'riod, disk or centre of the apothecium resting-stage.

of a Lichen ; ~ lamina'ted, con- Lat'era, pi. of Lat'us (Lat., a side), the

sisting of plates or layers ; ~ sides ; lat'eral, latera'lis, fixed on or

Bulb, a tunicated bulb, as a near the side of an organ ; ~ Bud, lamina'tlng, separating adventitious — hyacinth ; bud ; Dehis'cence, into layers. bursting or opening at the side La'na (Lat.) wool, or woolly covering ~Nucle'olus, --Nu'cleus, cf., Paka-

la'nate, lana'tus, clothed with HUOLEUS ; ~ Plane, the vertical woolly and intergrown hairs. plane at right angles to the antero- lan'ceolate, lanceola'his (Lat., armed posterior plane, as of a flower ; ~ with a little lance), (1) narrow, View of a Diatom frustule, when tapering to each end ; Linnaeus the valves are seen in front view,

used it for a leaf having nearly the girdle being then in side view ; similar extremities, but in modern Laterality, used by Sachs for use, the base is usually somewhat Symmetry, both radial and dorsi-

broadened, and the greatest breadth ventral ; laterifo'lious [folium, a at about one-third from the base leaf), growing on the side of a leaf (2) the primitive meaning is pre- at the base ; laterlner'vis, lateriner'- served in Cardnn^< lanceolatns, viuB (tiervus, a nerve), straight-

Linn. ; ~ has'tate, a hastate leaf, veined, as in grasses; lateristip'-

with the principal lobe lanceolate; ulus X ( + Stipula) having stipules -- sag'ittate, a sagittate leaf, the growing on its sides.

middle lobe lanceolate ; lance-o'vate laterlc'lous or laterit'ious, lateric'ius, (Crozier), lanceolate ovate, indica- laterit'ius (Lat., made of bricks), tive of a form intermediate between brick-red. the two named terms ; lance-shaped, La'tex (Lat., juice), (1) the milky lanceolate. juice of such plants as spurge la'nose, lano'sus (Lat.) woolly, cf., or lettuce; (2) the moisture the gelatinous LANATB. of the stigma ; (3) lanug'inose, lanug'inous, lanugino'sus matter surrounding the spores in (Lat.) woolly or cottony, clothed some Fungi ; ^ Cells, laticiferous 143 ;

latlciferous Legume

coenocytes ; ~ Gran'ules, starch Phyllotaxis ; ~ Blade, = Lamina ; or other granules floating in ~ Bud, a bud which develops into

the latex ; ~ Tubes, laticiferous a leafy branch ; opposed to a

vessels. "Flower Bud " ; ~ Cy'cle, in phyl- latlciferous {latex, laticis, juice, fero, lotaxis, a spiral which passes

I bear), latex-bearing ; ~ Cells, through the insertions of inter- structures which are not cell- mediate leaves till it attains the

fusions ; '" Coe'nocytes, branched next leaf exactly above its starting cells or vessels like cells contain- point; r~ Fall, defoliation; ~ Green ~ Tis'sue, the system of = Chlorophyll ~ Pores = ing latex ; ; Stoma-

; '~ Ves'sels, ~ cells or vessels the TA ; Scar, the mark or cicatrix tubes or similar structures which left by the articulation and fall of a

have milky juice, usually branched leaf ; ~ Sheath, the lower part of the syncytes, the walls between ad- petiole which more or less invests

jacent cells being absorbed. the stem ; ~ Stalk, = Petiole ; ~ latifo'llate, latlfo'lious, latifo'lius Ten'drll, one which is a transformed •~ (Lat. ), broad-leaved. leaf ; Trace, all the common bun- latlsep'tal {latvs, broad, septum, a dles in a stem belonging to one leaf. hedge), applied to those Crucifers Leafing, the unfolding of leaves

which have broad septa in their leafless, wanting leaves ; Leaflet, silicles as Honesty, Lunaria annua, the blade or separate division of a

Linn. ; latisep'tate, latisep'tus, witli compound leaf ; leafHie = roLl-

broad partitions. aceocs ; leafy, full of leaves. lat'tlced, cross - barred ; ~ CeU = leath'er-yel'low, a vague term for the Sieve-tube. tint of tan or buff leather; alu- Lau'rin, an acrid principle from the taceous. berries of Laurus nohilis, Linn. leath'ery, tough, coriaceous. lavender, pale bluish grey ; the lecanor'ine, resembling the apothe- colour of the flowers of Lavandula cium of the genus Lecanora, which vera, DC. has a paler margin arising from the lax, lax'us (Lat.), loose, distant. thallus. Lay'er, (1) the or receptacle lecid'eiform (forma, shape),lecid'eine, of Fungi in propagation, a like the apothecium of Lecidea, ; (2) branch caused to root whilst still which has a margin of the same

connected with the parent ; Lay'er- colour as the disk. age, term proposed by L. H. Bailey Le'cithin (KtikvSos, an oil-flask), a type for propagation by layering, or the of white, waxy, phosphorous-con-

state of being so multiplied ; Lay'- taining substances, some of which

ering, the art of making layers ; have been separated from the seeds Lay'ing, a gardener's term for the of maize, and wheat. preceding. lecot'ropal (X^/cos, a dish, rpoirrj, a lazuU'nuB (Mod. Lat.), ultramarine turning), shaped like a horse-shoe, blue, a pigment obtained from as some ovules, cf. LYCoTEOPons. "Lapis Lazuli." Le'cuB (\4xos, a bed) = Corm. lead-col'oured, dull grey ; cf. pl0M- leek-green, vivid green, prasinus.

BEUS. left, sinistrorse ; see Appendix C. Lea'der, the primary or terminal shoot legit'imate [legitimus, allowed by law) of a tree. Fertiliza'tion, in dimorphic or tri- Leaf, the principal appendage or late- morphic plants, fertilization by its or ral organ borne by the stem axis ; own-form pollen, as short-styled it is a simple ~ when undivided, flowers by pollen from other short- compound ~ when divided into stamened flowers, etc. (Darwin). <- distinct parts ; Arrang'ement, see Leg'ume, Legu'men (Lat., pulse), the 144 "; ;;

Legiunin Leucin

seed-vessel of Leguminosae, one- Lepio'ta {\eirls, a scale, oSs, lirds, an ' celled and two-valved, but various ear), ' the annulus of certain Fun- " in form ; Legu'min, an albuminoid gals (Lindley) ; but Lepiota. is a from pulse, vegetable casein genus of Agarics, having been pro- legu'minous, legumina'ris, (1) per- posed by Persoon for a section of taining to a legume ; or (2) to the Agaricus ; Le'pis, a scale. order Leguminosae. Lepis'ma CKiincrij.a, peeled bark), a lem'on-col'oured, pale, pure yellow, membranous scale in some Ranun- citrinus. oulaceae, an apparently aborted lens-shaped, lentil-like, doubly-con- stamen in Paeonia papaveracea

vex, lenticular. Andrz. ; several of them enclose Len'ticel, Lenticel'la {lens, lentis, a the ovary. lentil), lenticular corky spots on Lep'ra {Xiirpa, leprosy), a white mealy young bark, corresponding to epi- matter extruded from the surface

dermal stomata ; syn. Lent'icelle of some plants ; lep'rose, lep'roua, (Crozier); lenticella'tus (Mod. Lat. ), lepro'sua, scurfy.

having lenticels ; Leutic'ulae, "the leptoder'mous (Xctttos, thin, delicate, spore-cases of certain Fungals Sipixa, skin), thin-coated, used of

(Lindley) ; lentio'ular, lenticula'ris, moss-capsules when pliable ; Lep'to- lentiform'is {forma, shape), like a forms ( forma, shape), heteroecious doubly convex lens. Fungi having teleutospores only, lentig'imose, lentig'inous, hntigino'sus which as soon as they arrive at (Lat., full of freckles), minutely maturitygerminateonliving plants; dotted as though freckled. Lep'tome, an abbreviation of Lep- leoch'romus {\eav, a lion, p(;pw/ia, tomes'tome {ikcttos, filled) ; Haber- colour), tawny, the colour of a lion's landt's expression for the phloem- hide leoni'nus like ; (Lat. , pertaining to portion of the vascular bundles a lion), something of the same tint. in vascular plants; Lep'tomin, a Lep'aJ, Lep'alum (IVIod. Latin, from substance found in the leptome of XeTris, a scale), a nectary originat- some plants, especially in the ing in a barren transformed stamen sieve-tubes and laticiferous vessels, (Henslow). the presumed function being to Lepan'thium (Xejrls, a scale, &v8oi, a convey oxygen (Raciborski); Lep'- " flower), a petal which contains a tophlo'em { + Phloem), rudimen- nectary" (Crozier); Lepic'ena ((cfwJs, tary phloem, for storage or con- empty), the glume in grasses, by duction of food material (Vaisey) Richard used for the lower pair leptophyl'lous,-?™ {(piKKov, a leaf),

- of glumes ; Lep'ides, scales, usually slender leaved ; leptosporan'giate

attached by their centre ; lepido- {avoph, seed, d77eioi', a small vessel),

dea'droid {Lepidodendron, eldos, re- having leptosporangia ; Leptospor- semblance), like the fossil genus an'gimn, a, sporangium derived Lepidodendron, a carboniferous from one superficial cell, as in the Lycopod. true Ferns, and not from a group lepidopteroph'Uae (Lepidopteron, of cells as in Ophioglossaceae

scale ; vTov, a plant), L, Ward's the testa in the leaf-stage, term for Lepidodendroid fossil lett'ered, with spots resembling plants. letters ; c/. gbammicus, lep'idote, lepido'tus {XeiriddTos, scaly), leucan'thous, -thus (\eums, white or beset with small scurfy scales. grey), white flowered ; Leu'oln or 145 " ; ;

Leuclte Ligbt-absorption

" Amidocaproio acid" is a white sembling bast, wood-fibre (Crozier) substance, first found in animals, r^ Fi'bres, substitute fibres reduced

afterwards found in plants ; Leu'- in form (Germ., Ersatzfasern). cite, Van Tieghem's name for Li'cheu (Xeix')", lichen), a Cryptogam

Leucoplast ; he further modifies which forms a thaUus which is the term by prefixing amylo-, either shrubby, leafy, crustaceous cMoro-, cliromo-, elaio-, oxali-, or powdery, generally regarded as a

for various modifications ; further- symbiosis of hyphal filaments with

more, aot'lve '-, or pas'sive or algal gonidia ; >- Al'gae, the gonidia

reserve' ~, according to function; or green bodies in the thallus ; ~ Leu'coplast, Leuooplas'tid (irXaa-Tos Fun'gi, the filaments of hyphae, moulded), A. F. W. Sehimper's which are usually interwoven with

; ~ = term for the specialised colourless the gonidia Starcb Lichenin ;

protoplasmic granule ; syn. Ana- Li'clieniii, the peculiar starch-like PLAST (A. Meyer), and Lkuoite (Van body in Cetraria islandica, Linn.,

Tieghem) ; leucophyl'lus {(piiXKov, a and other Lichens ; Li'chenism,

- leaf), white leaved ; Leu'cophyll- the special symbiosis between alga

grain = Leucoplast ; Leu'cosomea and fungus occurring in Lichens (o-ffl/io, a body), small spherical U'ohenoid {eWos, like), irregularly bodies, apparently composed of al- lobed, as Lichens ;Lichenog'rapher, buminoids inclosed in the leuco- Uchenog'rapliist (vpacjia, I write) =

plasts of Commelynaceae (Zimmer- Lichenologist ; Lichenog'raphy, the mann). study of Lichens; adj. licheno- leviga'tus (Lat.) smooth, slippery grap&'io ; Liohenol'ogist {\liyo$, dis- in botanical Latin it is usually course), a student or writer on

spelled " laevigatus. Lichens ; Lichnoer'ytlrrine {ipvBpos, le'vis (Lat.) smooth, in the sense of red), Sorby's name for the red

not rough ; from the time of colouring matter of Lichens ; Iiicb- Linnaeus downward this has been noxan'tbine {^avBbs, yellow), the spelled botanically as "laevis." same observer's term for the yellow Le'vulose [laevus, on the left side) = colouring in Lichens.

Fructose or fruit-sugar ; it deflects Lid (1) the operculum of moss-capsules polarised light to the left. (Hooker) ; (2) the distal extremity Lia'na, Lia'ne (Span, liar, to tie), pr. of the ascidium of Nepenthes which

leah-na, le-ahn ; luxuriant woody forms a lid-like appendage to the climbers in tropics the with stems pitcher ; (3) the areas of pollen- of anomalous structure ; lia'noid grains which are detached to per-

(elSos, like), having a -like mit the pollen-tubes to pass ; ~ habit. Cells, the terminal cells of the neck Li'ber (Lat. inner bark), the inner of the archegonium which tem-

bark, which is often fibrous, the porarily close the canal ; the stig- phloem of the vascular system con- matic cells. taining the bast-tissue ; ^ Fi'bres, Life, the state in which plants can bast-fibres. grow or perform their functions of li'ber (Lat. free), having no cohesion absorption, assimilation, reproduc-

with the adjoining parts; Ubera'tus tion, etc. ; r~ Cy'cle, the course of (Lat.), freed. development from any given stage liberolig'neous {liber, inner bark, to the same again, as from the seed lignum, wood), applied to a con- to the seed once more. joint bundle composed of bast and Ligamen'tumt (Lat., a band or band-

wood elements ; lib'riform {forma, age) = Raphe. shape) Cell, a narrow, thick- Ligbt-abEor'ption, the ratio of the walled cell of woody tissue re- whole of daylight to that of the 146 ;; ;;

ligneous Line

place in which the plant grows (A. Gray) ; lig'ular, Russow's term (Wiesner). for that leaf-face of Selagindla lig'neous, lig'uous, Ug'neua (Lat.), which is turned towards the ligule woody. cf. ALiGULAB; llg'ulate, ligvla'tus, lignic'olor (lignum, wood, color, furnished with a Ligule; ligu'lifoim, colour), tawny, the colour of ligvXiform'is {forma, shape), strap-

freshly out wood ; lignlc'olous shaped; llguliflor'ate, liguliflor'ous, {colo, to inhabit), applied to JFungi -rus {flos, floris, a flower), having which live on timber; llgniferoua ligulate florets, as Hitracium, [fero, 1 bear), used of branches li'lac, pale warm purple, the colour which form wood only, but no of the flower of Syringa mdgwris,

flowers ; Lignlfica'tion (facio, I Linn. ; Ll'lacine, a bitter principle make), the hardening or thicken- from the bark of the same plant ing of the ceU-wall by secondary lila'ceuB, lllaci'nous, -nus, lilac in

deposits ; lig'nified, converted into colour. wood;lig'niform(/orma, shape),like lUia'ceous, -ceus {lilium, a lily +

wood ; lig'nify, to turn into wood aceous), lily-like. Iiig'nin or Lig'sine, an incrusting or limacifonn'is {Umax, limacis, a slug, impregnating substance on the cell- forma, shape), applied by Koerber

wall, producing woody tissue ; it is to those Lichen spores which are insoluble in water or ether, soluble slug-shaped.

in alcohol and alkalis, and is the Limb, limb'us (Lat. , a border or hem) remainder after the cellulose has (1) the border or expanded part of

been removed by chemical means ; a gamopetalous corolla, as distinct

Ligni'reose (deriv. ?), Payen's term from the tube or throat ; (2) the for a constituent of Lignin, only lamina of a leaf or of a petal

slightly soluble in water ; Lig'nite, lim'bate, limba'tvs, bordered, as a fossil or semi-fossil woody sub- with another colour.

; Lig- Lime, used for calcium stance ; jet is an example carbonate in nocel'lulose (-f- Cellulose), see plants ; ~ Gran'ules, lime-knots in Myxogastres, Cellulose ; Lig'none, a substance concretions occur-

which differs from Lignin by being ring in the capillitium ; ~ Scales, insoluble in water, alcohol and the chalk - glandq which excrete ether, but soluble in ammonia, lime, as with certain Saxifrages. potash, soda (Payen) ; Lig'nose, a Li'mes (Lat. , a cross-path or boundary) constituent of Lignin, but soluble commu'nia % the coUum or neck of only in potash and soda solutions a plant ; lim'ltary, placed at the

(Payen) ; lig'nose, ligTio'sus, woody, limit, as a guard ; lim'iting Cell =

ligneous ; Lig'num, wood, that Hetekooyst. within the cortex, including both Umnet'ic {'Klixv-q, a pool), applied to alburnum and duramen. plants which grow in pools or their Llg'ule, i/ig'ttto (Lat., a little tongue); neighbourhood. (1) a strap-shaped body, such as Umo'nius (Mod. Lat.), lemon-like, as the limb of the ray florets in Com- to colour ; citrinus. a lobe of the outer Line, Li'nea (Lat., a line or thread), positae ; (2) corona in Stapelia (N. E. Brown) as a measure of length, the twelfth inch, (3) the thin, scarious projection part of an in millemetres, from the top of the leaf sheath in 2'1167; the Paris line is mm. 2 narrow membranous, '325 ; Li'nea transversa'lis, the grasses ; (4) a acuminate structure, internal to ostiolum of some Fungi ; Lines of the leaf-base in Isoetes and Selagin- Growth, the limits of each year's an appendage to certain growth in woody stems ; ~ of ella ; (5) petals, as those of Silene and Cuscuta Vegeta'tion, for any given species, 147 ; ;

llneallR UtuatiH

obtained by joining all the blance to an animal pigment those ; places in a given direction where Lipocjr'anls (Kiavos, blue), the blue

the species stops ; the resultant pigment of some plants. lines map out the distribution of Upox'enous {\elTa, I leave, |^(/05,

the said species (Kerner) ; llnea'lis a host), deserting its host ; Li- (Lat., consisting of lines), measur- pox'eny, the desertion of a host-

ing about a line ; lin'ear, linea'ris, plant by a parasite to com- narrow, several times longer than plete its development on reserve

wide ; lin'eate, linea'tvs, marked materials previously obtained from with lioes, linea'ta Va'aa J, vessels the host, as in the falling away of transversely marked, as annulate Ergot, tbe sclerotium of Cordyceps

ducts or tracheids ; liueat'ipes J purpurea, Tul. {pes, a foot), having » lined or lipped, = LABIATE.

striated foot-stalk ; lined = linea- Li'quor (Lat. a liquid) Am'nios {cf.

tus, striatus ; lin'eolate, lineola'- Amnios), a term borrowed from tus, marked with fine or obscure zoology for the fluid "contained in lines. the Bac within which the embryo linguiform'is Qingua, a tongue, is engendered " (Lindley). forma, shape), tongue - shaped Lirel'la (dim. of lira, a ridge), in ling'ulate, lingvla'tus, also means Lichens an oblong apothecium tongue-shaped. with a furrow along its middle,

Li'nin or Li'nme (\ivov, a thread), the as in Opegrapha ; lirel'late, lirel'- hyaloplasmio filaments of the nu- llne, lirella-like; lirel'Ufonn, lirelli- cleui in repose (Schwarz). form'is {forma, shape), shaped like Linue'an Syst'em, the artificial classifi- a lirella. cation devised by Linnaeus, based Usigeuet'ic, = ltsigenetic. upon the number and position of Lithobib'liou {\Wos, a stone, /Si/SXto, paper scroll) = the stamens. a or Lithophyl ; Li'noleiu (Linum, flax, oleum, oil), Lith'ocarp {Kapiros, fruit), fossil "the glyoeride of lineoleic acid fruit ; Llth'ocyst (xiiffTis, a bag or found in linseed oil." pouch), a crystal cell; lithoph'il- LiorM'zae (Xeios, smooth, p!fa, root), ous, saxicolous, dwelling on rocks Van Tieghem's name for Mono- Lith'ophyl {(j>6\\ov, a leaf), a fossil cotyledons and Nymphaeaceae, the leaf or leaves ; Lith'ophytes (0irroV, root - hairs being of exodermio a plant), plants which grow on origin. stones, but derive their nourish- Lip, (1) one of the two divisions of a ment from the atmosphere as bilabiate corolla or calyx, that is, saxicolous Lichens ; lithosperm'ous a gamopetalous or gamosepalons ((TTT^p/ta, seed), having hard, stony organ cleft into an upper (superior seeds ; Llthox'yle {^ii\ov, wood), or posterior) and a lower (inferior fossil wood. label- violet or anterior) portion ; (2) the Lit'mus, a colour derived from lumof Orchids; ~ Cells, two narrow, several species of Lichens, such as lignifled cells on the sporangia of Rocella, etc. some annulate Ferns, distinct from lit'oral, litora'lis (Lat. pertaining to the annulus, which are the first the sea - shore), belonging to or to separate on dehiscence ; cf. growing on the sea-shore (A. Gray Stomium. adds " river banks" which strictly " Lip'ase (Mttos, grease), a fat-splitting speaking is riparian ") ; used by enzyme occurring in oily seeds; H. C. Watson for plants of the Lip'ochrome (xpw/i«i> colour), the sea-shore ; frequently spelled llt'- yellow pigment of flowers, so toral, littora'lis. named by Hansen from its resem- lltwa'tusj {lituua, a crooked staff), 14S = "-;; ;.

llturatus lowered

forked, with the points turned a Locus'ta (Lat. crayfish or locust), the little outward. spikelet in grasses. litura'tus t (litura, a smearing), when Lod'lcule, Lodicu'la (Lat. a small spots are formed by an abrasion of coverlet), a small scale outside the surface. the stamens in the flower of li'vens, liv'ia, li'vidm (Lat.), pale grasses ; glumella. lead colour. Lol'iophyll, iitard's name for chlo- liv'er-ool'oured hbpaticus. rophyll from Lolium and other Liv'erworts, Hepatioae. Lobe, Lo'bua (XojSos, the lower part of lomenta'ceous, -ceus (lommium, bean- the ear), any division of an organ meal), bearing or resembling Lo-

or specially rounded division ments ; Lo'meut, Lomen'tum, a

Mid'dle ~ , a small conical or tongue- legume which is contracted be- shaped growth arising from be- tween the seeds, falling apart at tween the two side-lobes of a the constrictions when mature into

Fern-prothallus ; lo'bate, loha'tus, one-seeded joints. divided into or bearing lobes Longistamin'eae {longus, long + Sta-

Lo'belet, a small lobe ; Lob'iolus, men), Delpino's term for flowers a small lobe into which some with long stamens which are wind-

Liohen-thalli are divided ; Lob'ule, fertilised.

(1) a small lobe, a lobulet ; (2) Longitu'dlnal Sys'tem, an old term Spruce's word for the minor lobe for fibro-vascular system (Crozier) of the leaf of Hepaticae, the Longitu'do (Lat. length), in the direc-

auricle of Nees and others ; lob'u- tion of growth.

late, lobula'tus, having small lobes ; longis'simus (Lat.), very long. Lob'ulus, a small lobe. longltudinal'lter, longitudiB.a'lis Locality (locaZitas, a place), the (Lat.), in the direction of the approximate geographic position of length. an individual specimen. loose, (1) as applied to inflorescence, locel'late, locdla'tus, dividing into lax, as a panicle ; (2) hardly co-

LocBLLi ; Locel'lus (dim. of locvlus, herent, as loose tissue. a little compartment), a secondary lopMos'tomate (Xo0ia, a crest, o-ri/ia, compartment, as a primitive pollen- a mouth), having crested apertures sac, which, by the destruction of a or openings. septum, unites with an adjoining lor'ate, lora'tits {lorum, a thong), locellus to form an anther- strap-shaped, ligulate. loculus; Loc'ulament, Locvlamen' Lori'ca (Lat. a leather corslet), (1)

turn (Lat. a case or box) ; (1) the entire silicious covering of

=LocnLns of a carpel; (2) "the the frustule in Diatoms ; (2) for-

peritheoium of certain Fungals merly used for the Testa ; lor'loate, ' (Lindley) ; loc'ular, locida'ris, hav- [clothed in mail] ' equally narrow ing cavities or Loculi, denoted throughout " (Braithwaite), is pro- further by the addition of uni-, bi-, bably a slip for lorate. tri-, etc., for one-, two-, three- Lo'rulum (Lat. dim. of lorum, a

etc, celled ; locula'tus, divided thong), the filamentous and branch-

into cavities ; looulici'dal {caedo, I ed thallus of some Lichens. cut), the cavity of a pericarp de- low, small as compared to its allies hiscent by the back, the dorsal <- Yeast, that which is found at

suture ; loc'ulose, locvlo'sus, loo'- the bottom of a fermenting liquid : ulous, divided internally into cells, Germ. "Unterhefe"; low'ered, used partitioned; Loc'ulus, (1) the cavity when the lip of a bilabiate corolla

of an ovary or anther ; (2) the peri- is inclined at about a right angle to derm of certain Fungals (Lindley). the tube. U9 ;; = ;;

lubrlooiu macrobiostlgmatlc

lu'bricous, lu'hricus (Lat.), smooth, Linn. ; lu'teolus (Lat.) yellowish; slippery. lutes'oent, lutes'cens, becoming yel- lu'cens, lu'cia, lu'cidus (Lat.), shin- low ; lu'teus (Lat.) a full yellow. ing, referring to the surface. Luxu'ria, Luzu'rles (Lat. rankness), lumbrioa'lis (lumbrkiis, amaw-worm), exuberant growth ; luxu'riant, worm-shaped, as in some Algae luxu'rians (Lat.), usually signifies lum'bricous, shaped like an earth- that the organs of nutrition are worm. more developed than those of Lu'men (Lat., light, opening), the fructification. space which is bounded by the lycoper'dloid {Lycoperdon, a genus of walls of an organ, as the central Gasteromycetes, elSos, like), resem-

cavity of a cell ; Lu'minous Line, in bling a puflf-ball.

Malpighiaceae, etc. , on the testa of lyoopodla'ceous [Lycopodium, + the seeds, is due to a modification aceous), resembling the genus of the outer layer. Lycopodium. lu'nar (luna, the moon), (1) pertain- lyoot'ropal=lycot'ropous, -pus (Xfeos, ~ ing to the moon ; (2) lunate ; a door-knocker, rpoirri, a twining), Plants, Grew's term for those which when an otherwise orthotropous twine "with the moon," against ovule is bent like a horse-shoe.

the sun, siniatrorse ; lu'nate, luna'- Lymph, Lym'pha (Lat. spring water),

tus, half-moon shaped ; luna'ted, Grew's term for sap ; Lymph'ae ~ having lunar markings (Crozier); Ducts = Ducts; lymphat'io, clear, lu'niform (forma, sho.pe), crescent- pellucid; -- Ducts Ducts.

shaped, (Crozier) ; lu'nulate, lunu- lysigenet'ic, lysigen'ic, lysig'enouB la'tus, diminutive of lunate. (Xiitris, a loosing, yhos, ofifepring), Lu'pinite, a bitter substance occur- when a cavity is formed by dis- ring in the leaves of the white lupin, organisation or dissolving of cells,

Lupinus albus, Linn. ; Lu'piniTie, ly'rate, lyra'tus {\vpa, a lute or lyre), an alkaloid in the flower-buds of lyre-shaped, pinnatifid with the Lupinus luteus, Linn. terminal lobe large and rounded, the

Lu'pulin, (1) a secretion from the lower lobes small ; lyrati-parti'tus,

glandular hairs of the hop-strobiles, ~ -seo'tus, lyrately pinnate ; lyre- HumvZus Lwpiilus, Linn., which shaped = ltbate.

gives a bitter taste ; (2) see lupu- Ly'sis, {\vffi!, a loosing), the meta-

LTNic Glands ; lu'puline, lupuli'- morphosis of a part. nous, hipuli'nus, resembling a hop-

strobile ; lupuUn'ic Glands, the Mace, the arillus of the nutmeg. resinous glandular bodies within Maoera'tion, (maceratio, a, steeping), the scales of the female flower of steeping, as in the case of barley the hop, "also called Lupulin" for malting.

(Stormonth) ; Lu'pulite, a lupulinic Mao'ro- (/iOKpds, long), in Greek com-

gland. pounds = long ; frequently but im- lu'rid, lu'ridus (Lat. , sallow, wan), in properly used for mega-, or megalo-. botany, dingy brown or yellow

lurid'lo Acid occurs in Boletus macran'drous {/laKpos, long ; dv^p, luridv^, Schaeff. dvSpos, a man), having large or Lu'sus (Lat. a game), a sport or varia- long male plants in Algae (Crozier)

tion from seed or bud ; ~ Natu'rae, macran'thus {dvBos, a flower), long

a monstrosity. flowered ; macrobiostigmat'ic {^tos, lu'teo-fus'cus {luteus, yellow, fuscua, life, arlyfia, a puncture), Delpino'a

swarthy), blackish-yellow ; Lu'te- term for those plants whose stig- olin, a yellow colouring matter mas remain capable of fertilization found in weld, , until the anthers are mature 150 ; = ;

UacroblaBt malic

Mao'roWast (^Xoittos, a bud), a opbyll {(jriWov, a leaf) Carpel ;

normal ; macrosporopliyl'lary, wood bud (Hartig) ma- carpellary ; croceph'alouB, -lua [KnpaKri, head), macroaty'louB (o-tCXos, a post), long-

big headed, dicotyledonous em- styled ; Maorosym'hiont (aviifiibu, I bryos with consolidated cotyledons; live with), the larger of the asso- Macroconid'ium (+ Conidium), a ciated organisms in symbiosis large conidium produced at a dif- Mac'rotherm (Bepiiri, heat) = Mega-

ferent period in the life- cycle therm ; Macrozoogonid'lum ( fiSo!/, an

to a MiCBOCONlDltJM ; Mac'ro- animal, -I- Gonidium), in Uloihrix cyst (kwtis, a bag or pouch), one the larger kind of zoospore, which

of the vesicles which originate the germinates independently ; cf. Mi-

fertile tissue in Pyronema, etc. (Tu- crozoogonidium ; Macrozo'ospore,

lasne) ; Macrodl'odange ( -I- Diode, a large zoospore when compared a77eroc, a vessel) Van Tieghem's with others of the same species.

; term for Maorosporangium ; Mac- Uac'ula (Lat,), a spot IVIac'ulae ; (1) rodi'ode, botanist's word pits of also the same areolated Coniferae ; (2)

for Macrospore ; Macrogam'ete organs on the aerial stem of Cyatho- (yaixirris, a spouse) = Megagambte phorum, large round white dots in ; Macrogonid'lum (ybvos, offspring, two rows, probably water-storing

dSos, like) a gonidium of large size organs ; maculifor'mia (formis, in comparison with others produced shape), used by Koerber for by the same species; cf. Megalogo- apothecia which are shaped like

NIDIUM ; maorophyl'line (ipiWov, irregular spots ; mac'ular, mao'u- a leaf), macrophyl'lous, having late,mac'ulose (maculosws, spotted),

elongated leaflets or leaves blotched or spotted ; Macula'tion, macrophyt'ic (vrov, a plant), the arrangement of spots on a used by Schimper for the large plant (Crozier).

forms of marine Algae ; Mac'ro- madefac'tus (Lat.), moistened, as plast (TrXaoTos, moulded), Lanke- plants in an herbarium previous to ster's term for large disc-like examination.

plastids in Bacterium ruhescens ; Madu'ra, the fungus-foot disease macrop'odal, maorop'odous (iroOs, supposed to be caused by Ohio- iroSoi, a foot), used of an embryo nyphe Ca/rteri, Berk. with enlarged hypocotyl forming ma^mold {fidyij.a, dregs, efSos, like), in

the greater part of its mass ; ( Crozier Lichens, "like an Alga, consistingof adds another meaning, applied to a sphericalgreen cellules "(Leighton).

Jeaf with a long petiole) ; Macro- mal'acoid {/mXaxos, soft, elSos, like),

scle'reids (aK\7iphs, hard), Tschiroh's mucilaginous ; Malacoph'ilse {(piX^oi, term for long stone-cells with I love), plants which are fertilized

blunt ends ; maoroscop'io (cr/coTr^m, by snails or slugs. I see), viewed by the naked eye, male, a, plant or flower which bears

<-' opposed to microscopic ; Macro- stamens or theii' analogues ; sporan'giUm (cnropa, seed, &yyeZov, Cell, the smaller of two unequal

a vessel), (1) a sporangium contain- gametes ; ~ Flow'era, staminate

ing macrospores ; (2) the nucellus of flowers ; ~ Or'gans, those struc-

the ovule of Phanerogams ; maoro- tures which, in fertilization, are sporan'giate, possessing macrospo- concerned, aa the stamens, anthe-

rangia ; ~ Flow'era, carpellary ridia, etc. ; ~ Prothal'llum, one

flowers, pistillate flowers destitute which bears antheridia only ; '-

of stamens ; Mao'rospore ; (1) the Sys'tem, all that part of the flower larger kind of spore in vascular which belongs to the stamen. embryo- apple), pertaining Cryptogams ; (2) the ma'llc {malum, an

sac in Phanerogams ; Macrospor'- to apples, as r^ Ac'id, which la said 151 ;;;

MaUcorium maTglnate

to be the most frequent of organic sleeved), applied to pubescence acids in cell-sap. so dense and interwoven that it Mallcor'ium (Lat.), the rind of the may be stripped off, "like a pomegranate. sleeve." malig'nantOedein'a, disease in animals Man'na, the hardened exudation from resembling anthrax, and like that, various trees, as from Fraxinua

caused by a bacillus. Omus, Linn. ; Man'nite, a sweet Marieolus (Lat,, a small hammer), a substance in the sap of the same

layer ; a shoot bent into the ground tree ; Man'nitose, sugar from the - and half divided at the bend, pith of ash, oak and elder ; Man'- whence it emits roots. nose, a sugar resulting from the maUococ'cus {/laXKSs, a lock of wool, hydrolysis of cellulose. k6kkos, a berry), downy fruited. Manom'eter (/xaxos, rare, scanty Malpighia'cei Pi'li, hairs attached by fierpov, a measure), apparatus to their middle, frequent in the order measure the pressure of gas or

Malpighiaceae ; Malpig'luan Cells, liquid. those which compose the outer Man'tle, used by Grew for ocrea.

- layer of the seed in Malpighiaceae, Man'tle Cells, tapetal cells ; ~ with a "luminous line" composed Lay'er, a layer of tapetal cells of Lignin. ~ Leaf, Goebel's term for the Malt'aBe or Malt'iu, a ferment found prostrate, half-enveloping barren in all germinating cereals, and of frond, as in Platycerium, alcicome,

greater activity than diastase (Du- Desv. , as distinct from the fertile

brunfaut) ; Malt'ing, germinating frond. seeds of barley until the radicle Manu'brlum (Lat. a handle), a cell (acrospire) is produced, and then which projects inward from the checking the further germination centre of the shields in the globule

by means of heat ; Maltodex'trin, a of Chara. body intermediate in properties be- man'y-head'ed, with many distinct

tween maltose and dextrin ; Malt'- buds on the crown of a root. oae, a sugar formed by the action of mar'bled, stained with irregular diastase on starch. streaks of colour. malva'ceous, resembling or belonging maroes'cent, marces'cena (Lat. wither- to the order Malvaceae. ing), withering without falling off; Mamll'Ia (Lat. a nipple or teat) = mar'cidUB (Lat.), withered, shrunk. Mammiixa. Mar'cor (Lat. decay), welting, flac- Mamelon' (Fr.), ov'ular-, the papilla cidity caused by want of water. which precedes the formation of Margel'la (dim. of margo, a border), the nucellns in Cycas (Treub). the elliptic ring round a stoma mam'miform {mamma, a breast, formed by the guard-cells. forma, shape), breast shaped, Maygin, Mar'go, the edge or boun-

conical with rounded apex. dary line of a body ; mar'ginal, mar- Mammll'la (Lat.), a nipple or pro- gina'lis, placed upon or attached

jection ; used for granular promin- to the edge ; ~ Grow'lng-point,

ences on pollen-grains ; majn'mUlar, in a flattened member when the mammilla'ris, mam'millate, mam- marginal cells remain embryonic

milla'tus, having teat-shaped pro- and capable of growth ; ~ OVule, esses. an ovule borne on the margin of a mam'mOBe (mammo'sMS,fnil-breasted), carpel ; ~ Veil, a membrane en- having breast-like protuberances. closing the hymenium in the young man'cuB (Lat. maimed), deficient or stageof Agarics, the Vdumpartiale wanting. max'ginate, mnrgina'tus, margina'- inan'lcate, manica'tus (Lat. long- «M«, broad-brimmed, furnished with 152 ; ;

margined Median

a margin of distinct character Mas'tio (i^curTlxv, gum), a resinous

mar'giaed, marginate ; marginici'- exudation from Piatacia Lentiscus, dal(caedo, I cut), dehiscent by the Linn.

disjunction of the united margins mas'toid {/lacrrbs, a breast ; eUos, like), of the carpels, a form of septicidal nipple-like.

dehiscence ; Mar'go thallo'des, the Math, an old term for crop, as after- rim of the shield of a Lichen formed math = second crop. by the thallus. Ma'trix (Lat. the womb), the body on marine', mari'nus (Lat. , pertaining to which a Fungus or Lichen grows, the sea), growing within the influ- ~ Pol'linis, the cell in which ence of the sea, or immersed in its pollen-grains are developed. waters. Mattul'la or Mat'tula [matta, a mat), marit'imua (Lat., marine), belonging the fibrous material surrounding to the sea, or confined to the sea- the petioles of palms. coast. Matura'tion, Matura'tio (Lat.), ripen- Mark'lngs, used of various forms of ing. thickening on the cell-wall, as matures'oent [maturescens, becom- annular, reticulated, spiral, etc. ing ripe), approaching maturity marmora'tus {Lat., marbled), having (Crozier). veins of colour, as some marbles. matuti'nal, matutina'lis, matuti'nus Mar'row, used by Blair for the pith. (Lat.), pertaining to the morning ; marsu'pial {f^-apaijTLov, a pouch), plants flowering early, as Ipomoea geocalycal or pouch-fruited, used purpurea. Roth. of certain Hepaticae. meal'y, farinaceous. mas, mas'culus, masculi'nus (Lat.), mean'driform X i^iavdpos, a winding male ; staminate, or with corre- river, forma, shape), having a sponding structures. winding direction, as the anther- masked, personate. cells of Cucurbitaceae. Mass, usually written Mast. Mea'tus (Lat., a passing) Intercel'lu-

Mas'sa (Lat., a lump), the mass or laris, an intercellular passage ; <- •- substance of a body ; semina'lis, pneumat'lcus, an air-passage. the flesh of some Fungi (Lindley) Mechanomorph'osis ; {fnixai/ij, contriv- ~ sporoph'ora ; ~ thecig'era, the ance, yu6p0w(rts, shaping), a word sporangia of some Fungi (Lindley) coined by Sachs to express me- Mas'ses, collections of anything in chanical changes in structure pro- unusual quantity, as pollen-masses. duced in the larger groups by Maa'sula (Lat., a little lump), (1) similar external causes, as leaf-like the hardened frothy mucilage organs inAlgae and Phanerogams.

enclosing a group of microspores Me'conine (h^ikuv, a, poppy), an alka-

in Heterosporous Filiciueae ; (2) in loid contained in opium ; Meco'niiun, Phanerogams, a group of cohering botanically, the juice of Papavex pollen - grains produced by one somni/erum, Linn. primary mother-cell, as in Or- me'dial, me'dlan, media'nus (Lat., in

ohideae ; also styled Pollen-mass. the middle), belonging to the

Mast, the fruit of such trees as beech, middle ; Me'dian Line, the central and other Cupuliferae. line of a bilateral organ, as the mid- >~ mast'igopod (/iriimf, a whip ; ttoSs, rib of a symmetric leaf ; Plane, irodbt, a foot), a stage in the when used of a flower, in the plane

development of Myxogastres, the of bract and axis ; ~ Wall, in contents of each spore escape as a Archegoniates, the wall in a plane zoogonidium enclosing a nucleus at right angles to the basal wall and contractile vesicle, with a dividing the proembryo into lateral single cilium, halves, 153 ;;)

Medicagopliyll Meiotherm

Medioa'gopliyU(ilf(!dicasro, Tourn., + Compositae ; Slegracon'ida (kAk», phyll), the characteristic chloro- ashes), Zukal's term for the large phyll of Lucerne, Medicago sativa, conidia borne in pycnidia of certain

Linn. Ascomycetes ; Megagam'etes (70/16- medi&x'us {medius, middle, fixus, Tijs, a spouse), the larger motile fastened), fixed by the middle sexual cells of Algae, presumably Mediocor'tex( + CoBTBx),theoentral female. layer or layers of the bark. Megalogonid'ium (ixeydXoi, large + medlo'cTlB (Lat., middling), inter- GoNiDiuM) = Macrogonidium. mediate. megarhi'zous (lUya^, large, /ilfo, a mediterra'neus (Lat., midland), (1) root), large-rooted ; Megasporan'ge

inhabiting spots far from the sea ; [four syll.] (airopk, seed, dyyeTov, (2) occurring in the Mediterranean a vessel), a Sporangium which pro-

region. duces ; Meg'aspore, the medival'yls {medius, middle, valva, larger spores of vascular Crypto-

a, valve), arising from, or on the gams ; the more correct form of Mac- middle of the valves. BOSPOKB ; Megaspor'ophyE {(piWoi', leaf), a carpel sporophyll Medul'la (Lat., pith, marrow) ; (1) the a (1) ; (2) a which bears megaspores ; Mega- pith ; (2) the central looser portion zo'oids (fwo;/, an animal, ctSos, resem- of the flesh in certain Fungi ; (3) the " MattuUa " of palms (Stormonth) blance), large motile daughter-cells of certainunicellular (Hazen); ^ Se'minis J the albumen of seeds ; Algae medul'lary, medulla'ria (Lat., seated Megazoosporan'ge {airoph, a seed, in the marrow), relating to the d,yy£iov, a vessel), in Hydrodictyon,

pith, pithy ; ~ Bun'dles, the more the special sporangium which con- lateral vascular bundles of the leaf- tains a swarm of megazoospores,

trace in Monocotyledons ; ^ oon- the ordinary method of propaga- Junc'tive Tis'sue= Pith; '^ Crown, tion, the protoplasm of a cell giving

= — Sheath ; ~ Phlo'em Bun'dles, rise to a large number, each pro- independent phloem bundles de- vided with four cilia.

veloped just within the ring of Megis'totherm ( iiAyums, greatest, normal vascular bundles ; ~ Rays, BepiiT], heat), a plant requiring a plates of parenchyma or cellular very high temperature for growth, tissue radiating from the pith to meiogyrous (ii.dwv, less, yvpbs, round), ' " the cortex ; the ' silver-grain of rolled inwards a little.

joiners ; '- Sheath, tracheids form- mei'on {ixelov, less), prefixed to an ing a circle round the pith, the organ, shows it is less than some

primary xylem bundles projecting other organ understood ; Meio- into the pith from the cambium- phyl'ly (0uXXov, a leaf), diminution

ring ; " Spot, an accumulation of in number of the leaves in a whorl, parenchymatous cells in certain as compared with the preceding

woods, as Alnus (De Bary) ; ^ whorl ; Meiosporan'ge ( -I- Spor- Sys'tem, sometimes used for the angium), Sauvageau's name for the whole ground tissue, but more smaller plurilocular sporangia en- properly the pith and medullary closing zoospores of Ectocarpiis

rays only ; Medul'liu, the cellulose virescens, Thuret ; meioste'monous from pith of the sun-flower and (aTi)ixoiv, a filament), with fewer

lilac (Braconnot); MeduUi'na (Lat. stamens than petals ; IVIeiotaz'y

= Pith ; meduUo'sus (Lat., mar- (Tii|is, order), the suppression of

rowy), having the texture of entire whorls ; Mei'otherm (Bepia), pith. heat), a plant inhabiting cool tem-

megaceph'aJus [/aiyas, large, KeipaXii, perate regions ; all are hardy in head), used of large capitula of England. 154 ; = "

MelampTTliie Mericaxp

Melampy'rine, Melampy'rite, » sub- with projecting ribs as in Melo- stance occurring in Mdampyrum cactus. nemorosum, Linn., the same as Mem'ber, any part of a plant regarded D0LCITE. with reference to its form and Mel'amsm (yiwXas, black), a disease position. producing blackness ; melanos- jnembrana'ceous, -cev^ (Lat.), mem'- penn'ous (trwepiia, seed), having branous, thin and semi-trans- dark - coloured seeds or spores ; parent, like a fine membrane, as

melanochlor'us (-xKiapoi, pale green), the leaves of Mosses ; Mem'brane,

blackish green, atrovirens ; melano- Memtra'na (Lat. ), a delicate pellicle

phyl'lus (ipxlWov, a leaf), having of homogeneous tissue ; Membra'na, leaves of a dark colour. gongylifera, the hymenium of melastoma'ceous, resembling or per- Fungi ; mem'branous Lay'er ; ~ taining to those plants of which myce'lium, interwoven hyphae the genus Melastoma is the type. forming a layer ; membranogen'ic Melez'itose (Fr., milfeze, larch), a (7eras, race), productive of a mem-

sugar from the larch. brane ; Membra'nula,t the indusium Melib'iase (mel, honey), a synonym of Ferns. of Rafwnasb. menmon'ius (Lat. from Memnon), me'Iinus ( /lifKivos, pertaining to brownish black, nearly as dark quinces), like quinces, or quince- as piceus.

coloured. Meneblaste'ma (ft.'/ipri, moon=a month, Mel'itose {md, honey), sugar from §\i.im)ixa, a sprout), Minks's term Eucalyptus " Manna," produced in for the soredia of Lichens.

Tasmania ; also spelled Meritoze, menlsca'tus (firivl(TKos, a crescent), "a

a synonym of Rajfinose ; Mel'i- cylinder bent into half a circle

zitase, an enzyme present in (Lindley) ; menis'coid, meniscoi'-

Sterigmatocystis nigra Saco. ; Mel'i- deus (elSoj, like), thin and concavo- zitose, a sugar existing in Alhagi convex, like a watch-glass. Maurorum, Linn. Menisperm'ine, an alkaloid from the Mellaro'se (Ital.), the name of a genus Menispermum. variety of the orange in which the menstrua'lis, men'struus (Lat.), last-

carpellary whorl is multiplied, pro- ing for a month or so ; cf. bimes- ducing an appearance of prolifioa- TRIS, TRIMESTEIS. tion (Masters). Menta'gra (Lat. an eruption on the mel'leus (Lat., pertaining to honey), chin) parasit'ica Sycosis ; Men- (1) with the taste or smell of ta'graphyte (tpvrov, a plant), the

honey ; (2) honey- coloured. Fungus supposed to cause the Mel'ligo (Lat., honey-like juice), used disease Mentagra or Sycosis. for "Honey-dew," the exudation Men'tum (Lat. the chin), an extension of Aphides. of the foot of the column in some mel'Iinus (mel, mdlis, honey), the Orchids, in the shape of a projec- colour of new honey. tion in front of the flower. Mellttaeph'ilae (iWKitto., a bee, (piXia, Merenoh'yma (fi^pus, a part, (yxyi">; I love), flowers which are adapted an infusion), spherical cellular

for fertilisation larger bees tissue ; ^ Cells, by the ; unpitted cells the colour and scent are attractive in the pith of trees, with inter- to man also (H. Mueller). cellular spaces, and much elon-

fiIelon'ida,j: Melonid'ium $ {/iTJXov, an gated radially ; cf. Palisade Cells; apple, el3os, like), an inferior, Mer'icarp, Mericar'pium (Kapirot, many-celled fruit, as an apple fruit), a portion of a fruit which

melo'niform (forma, shape), me- splits away as a perfect fruit ; as

lon-shaped ; irregularly spherical the two carpels in Umbelliferae, 155 ;

merldianns Mesophytum

meridia'nus (Lat. belonging to noon), bach to those bundles in which the

at mid-day or noon ; towards the protoxylem lies in the interior of

south (in northern latitudes) ; the primary strand of the wood, merid'iaji, applied by 0. Mueller to thus partly centripetal and partly the plane in Diatoms which con- centrifugal; Mesenter'ica (enrepov, tains the pervalvar axis. an intestine), "the mycelium of " Mer'idiak {/j.4pos, a part, S/o-kos, a disc), certain Fungals (Lindley) ; Mes'- term proposed by Clos for any iatem, contracted from Mesomer'iB- process upon the receptacle apart tem, the thickening ring of Sanio, from the floral organs, whether a ring of tissue producing the bundle

glandular or not (Crozier); Mer'ism, system ; Mes'oblast (pKaarbs, a bud),

Bateson'a term for the repetition of the nucleus ; Mesoblaste'sia, medial parts to form a symmetry or growth from Lichen hyphae (Minks); pattern. Mes'ocarp, Mesocar'pium {Kapiros, merismat'lc {ixepur/ia, a share), divid- fruit), the middle layer of a

ing into parts or similar portions ; pericarp ; Mesocauleorhi'za (/cai/Xos, ~ Tis'sue, formative tissue, cf. stem, pi^a, root), Gaudichaud's Mbbistbm. term for "the line of demarcation Mer'ispore {/lepos, a part, a-Topd, seed), between the ascending and de- " the segment of a sporideam ; Mer'- scending systems in his 'Phyta,'

istele ((TT'^Xi;, a pillar), a portion of (Lindley) ; Mes'ochil, Mesochil'ium the stele of a monostelic stem (X"Xos, lip), the intermediate part

received by each leaf ; merls'tic of the lip of those Orchids which Varia'tlon, see Mekism. have it separated into three dis-

Mertstem (/tepio-ros, divisible), nas- tinct parts ; Mes'ocMte (xitHiv, a cent tissue, capable of being trans- tunic), the middle layer surround- formed into special forms, as cam- ing the egg in Fucaceae, composed

bium, etc. ; Pri'mary ~ , forms the of cellulose and attached at the

; (/c6XXa, whole tissue of very young organs ; base (Farmer) Mesoool'la, t Seo'ondary '-, occurs in organs glue), a supposed intermediate layer alongwith permanent tissue, usually of the cuticle between the upper

in thin layers ; merlstemat'lc, and lower surfaces ; Mesoder'mis

pertaining to the Meristem ; meri- (Sep/j,a, skin), the middle layer of stogeuet'lc (yeverris, a begetter), tissue in the theoa of a Moss produced by Meristem, actively Mesogonid'lum {+ Gonidium), a - dividing cell tissue ; Mer'itlial, gonidium which is partially en-

Meiithal'lus (flaXXos, a young veloped in new tissue ; mesogon- shoot), an internode. im'lcus {yovi/ws, productive), having meroblas'tic {/J-epos, a part, ySXao-rJs, a the gonidial layer in the centre

bud) Embryog'eny, when only a part (Wallroth) ; Mesoplilo'em (0Xoi6!,

of the spore is concerned, cf. holo- bark), the middle, or green bark ;

BLASTic ; Meroeonid'ium, pi. Mero- Mes'ophyll, Mesophyl'lum ((piWov, a conid'ia, (+ Conididm), conidia leaf), (1) the interior parenchyma which arise from the simultaneous of a leaf, the whole interior ground de- septation of a hypha in Zygomy- tissue of the blade ; (2) the cetes, and mature together, while marcation between leaf and leaf-

ACROCONIDIA mature in succession stalk ; Mes'opliyte {ij>vt6v, a plant),

from the apex (A. Fischer) ; meros- Warming's term for those plants as a prefix, and its forms -merous, which are intermediate between -merus, as suffixes, denote parts or Hydrophytes and Xerophytes numbers, as dimerous, etc. avoiding both extremes of moist- mes'aroli (/tecros, in the middle, dpx^t ure and drought; mesophy'tum, (1) beginning), applied by Solms-Lau- a name given by Clarion to the 1S6 ;; ;;;

meBophyttc Metapberjr

Collar or junction of stem and restricted to constructive change;

root ; (2) by Lindley given as the cf. Anabolism, Katabolism ; meta- demarcation between the internode b'olize, to change as described.

and petiole ; mesophyt'lc, relating Metaoel'lulose {iieTh, with, + Celltt- to plants which require an average lose), found in Lichens and Fungi

amount of moisture it is the same as FnNOiNE ; Meta- only ; Mesopo- d'ium (iroOs, irodbs, a foot), the inter- ohlamyd'eae (xXa/ii>s, a cloak), Mao- mediate part of a leaf, the petiole millan's proposed term for Composi-

or leaf-stalk ; Mes'osperm {a-irepfia, tae ; adj. metaoMamyd'eous ; Meta-

seed), the second membrane or collench'yma ( -I- Collenchyma), a middle coat of a seed, thesarooderm; result of secondary metamorphosis

Mes'ospore (attopa, seed) ; Dietel's which has taken place at a late

term for an ffredo-spore which ap- period (C. Mueller) ; Metaora'sia parently will only germinate after (/c/jatris, a mixture), kinetic meta-

a resting period ; mesosty'lous bolism, transmutation of energy (-f Stylus), in trimorphic plants metad'romous {Sp6p,os, a course), those which possess flowers hav- a form of venation in which in ing styles of intermediate a single Pern-frond the first set of length ; Mesothe'oium (BiKri, a case), (1) the nerves in the segments are given intermediate layer of cells in the off on the upper, or the lower (basal)

wall of the anther ; in ripe anthers it side of the midrib (Prantl) ; meta- often occurs as the inner layer by gam'etal {+ Gamete) Bejuven- disappearance of the eudothecium es'cence, a cell or mass of cells proper the Thecium of Lichens acting as a gamete or zygote ; (2) Mes'otherm {S^pfi,ri, heat), a plant of (Hartog) ; Metagam'ophjrte {yd/ios, the sub-tropical or warm temperate marriage, tpvrov, a plant), Mac- zones, in Britain needing protec- millan's proposed name for his

tion against frost ; mesotri'arcli highest group of Phanerogams, " " (-)-triabch), when in a triarch stele a synonym of Siphonogamia ; the two principal xylem bundles Metagen'esia {yeveai^, a beginning), are more or less fused (Prantl) M'Nab's term for true alterna-

mesoxyl'lc (liiXov, wood), a synonym tion of generations ; Metaldne'sis of MBSARCH. (Khrjcns, a moving), the separation Mes'tom or Mes'tome (/ieerris, replete), of the threads in the raetaphasis Schwendener's term for the ducts of stage of nuclear division ; Het'amer a bundle, those parts which do {impos, a part), used by Sachs to

not conduce to its strength ; cf. denote a Phyton, or one of a Stereomb. number of similar parts of a series. Metar'abin (AteTii, with, beyond, Metamorph'osis (ij,eTa,iibp

UetaphloSm Mlerodlodangs

MetapMo'em{ + PHLOEM), VanTieg- each cell being dependent on the hem'a term for a simultaneous other cells of the organism ( Hartog). growth of bast - tissue with the metoe'ciouB {puTi,, beyond, oIkos, different hosts, Metaxylbm ; Metapliy'ta ((purov, house), existing on a plant), (1) plants which mani- heteroecious ; metox'euouB (^hos, fest sexuality or indicate by ac- a host) is a synonym. cessory characters that in their Metrogonld'ium {/iijrqp, mother, + ancestral lines sexually complete Gonididm) =Hetbroctst. Glands, peculiar progenitors have occurred ; (2) Mette'uian organs diflferentiation Plumbagineae which secrete plants with tissue ; to chalk. cf. Pbotophyte, adj. metaphy'tic ; mucilage and sometimes Met'aplasm (irXdcfia, moulded), Me'tuloids (metula, a small pyramid, Hanstein's term for the proto- cISos, like), modified cystidia, en- plasm which contains the forma- crusted with lime, which project tive or granular material; Met- from the hymenium of Peniophora, aplas'tid, used to designate the giving it a velvety appearance. metaphytic organism (Moore) Miasm', Mlas'ma {lilaa-im, defilement), Mefasperm {(rTrep/ia, seed), (1) a Naegeli's term for those diseases sporophyte in which the egg-organ which are due to microbes. is aborted, and no purely vegeta- Micel'la (L. Lat. from mica, a crumb), tive cells are to be found in either an aggregation of molecules in the in male or female plants ; (2) a syno- manner of a pleon, but larger

(Nageli) ; micel'lar Ag'gre- nym for Angiosperms ; (3) applied numbers by Boulger for the large-celled gate, a combination of Micellae. secondary prothallium in Sela- micran'dre {/uKpos, small, iviip, ivSpoi,

ginella, the secondary endosperm a man) = Dwabf-malb ; micro-aero- in Gymnosperras, and the endo- ph'ilous [iAjp, air, (piXia, I love) Bei- sperm, originally so-called, formed jerinck's term for anaerobic, needing but little free oxygen Microb'asis after fertilisation by the division \ ; of the secondary nucleus of the (;8di7is, a base), a variety of the car-

- Mi'crote, embryo sac in Angiosperms ; cerule, as in Labiates ; pi. metasper'mic, metaspe^r'mous, Micro'bia (^los, life), Pasteur's term

angiospermous ; Metaspor'opliyte, for such organisms as Schizomyvetes,

MacmiUan's expression for a Cryp- bacteria; adj. microhio'tic ; Micro- togam of the highest.specialisation, cen'trum {centrum, xevrpov, a sharp as Selaginella. point), applied to the granular Metas'tasis {iJ,eTdffTa

the cells ; metabolism ; (2) the IVIiCTOCoc'cus, pi. Micrococ'ci {k6kkos, shifting of an organ to some usual a, kernel), a genus of bacteria, position (Moquin-Tandon). sometimes used to express mi-

Uetaz'iii {fi.erd^v, between), a proteid, crobiotic organisms ; Microcon'id, the material of the fibrils of plastids Microconid'ium (+C0NIDIUM), the sizes (Schwarz) ; Metaxy'lem ( + Xylbm), smaller conidia, when two

the centrifugally formed vascular are produced ; Mi'crocyst (icdcrTis, a bundles superposed to the liber bag), an amoeboid cell which is sur- bundles (Van Tieghem). rounded by a membrane, the rest- meteor'ic (Mod. /iereapot, in mid air), ing state of swarm-cells of Myxo-

applied to flowers whose expansion gastres ; Mi'croderm (Seppia, skin), depends upon the weather. = MicEOBE; Microdl'odange (-f metis'toid {lajns, counsel, efSos, like), Diode, dyyeiov, a, vessel), Van composed of differentiated cells. Tieghem's term for pollen-sac 158 ;; -;

Mlcrodlode MidsmmneT Grovtb

llicrodi'ode, the same botanist's (1) the smaller sized spore in hetero-

expression - for a, pollen grain sporouB plants, as Selaginella ; (2) lU'crofonu (forma, shape), used of of late years applied to the pollen-

a heteroeoious Fungus with tel- grain ; adj. mlcrospor'lo, micros'

eutospores only, which germinate porous ; Mlcrospor'opliyll {(jiiXKov, only after a resting period a leaf), a leaf-like organ bearing

Miorogam'etes (+ Gamete), the ; miorosporophyl'- smaller and male motile cells lary Flow'er, a male or staminate

of Algae ; Ml'crogerm {germen, flower ; Mi'crostome (o-rA/ta, a

offshoot) = Microbe ; Sllcrogon- mouth), a small orifice ; Miorosty'- id'ium (+ GoNiDiuM), a small lospore (irri/Xos, a column, airopk, gonidium, as compared with others seed), stylospores of a small size, as

produced by the same species in Locvlaria ; microsty'lous, short- Mioromelittoph'llae (/xeXiTTa, a bee, styled, as applied to dimorphic

0iXew, I love), applied to those flowers ; Microsym'biont ( + Stm- flowers whose fertilisation is biont), the smaller of the two

effected by small bees and similar associated organisms ; Mi'crotlienn

insects ; the attraction is incom- (8epixri, heat), used for plants prehensible by human sense characteristic of the arctic alpine Mlcrom'eter (jxerpov, a measure), a zone, in England needing protec- device or apparatus to measure tion from drought and direct

minute dimensions ; Micromil'le- sunlight ; Mi'crotome (to/i^;, a meter, the thousandth part of a cutting), an instrument for section- millemeter, and the unit of micro- cutting for microscopical purposes scopic measurement, denoted by ]\Ilcrozoogloe'a (ivov, an animal,

the sign /u ; IVIicromyioph'ilae (/;ii>la, yKoibs, a sticky substance), a stage

a fly ; 0i\eai, I love), flowers which of Schizomyoetes when they are are fertilised by small flies which immersed in a gelatinous envelope

are often imprisoned ; adj. micromy- Mlcrozoogonld'ium ( + Gonidium), a

ioph'ilous ; micropliyl'line {(pvWov, motile form of microgonidium a leaf), composed of small leaflets Mlcrozo'ospore {a-iropA, seed), a or scales ; Mi'cropliyte (ipvTov, a motile spore, small in size com-

plant), used of bacteria ; adj. micro- pared with others of the same

phyt'ic ; Mlcropuccin'ia, with selen- species ; Mlorozo'oid {eWos, resem-

tospores only (Plowright) ; Mi'cro- blance), small motile reproductive pyle (ttvKti, a gate), the aperture cells in some unicellular Algae, as

in the skin of the seed formerly Sphaerella (Hazen) ; Ml'orozyme the foramen of the ovule, it (fu/iij, yeast), B6champ's name for marks the position of the ra- microbes and small ferments.

dicle ; adj. mlcropy'lar ; Mlcroscle'- mid, intermediate; used by H. C. rote {dKk-nphs, hard), a sclerotium Watson for -^ agrayian, and ~ modified by unfavourable vital arctic zones of vegetation ; ~ Er'ror, conditions, after a resting period see Deviation. it develops into a perithecium mid'dle, central; '~'Lainel'la, the mem-

(Zukal) ; Mi'crosome, Microso'ma, brane primary septum between

pi. Microso'mata ((7w/ia, a body), any two cells ; ^ Lam'ina, in a in the plural applied to small lignified cell-wall, the portion be- granules embedded in the proto- tween the •~ Lamella and inner r^ plasm; Microsporan'gium ( + lamina ; Lobe, see Lobe, Middle. Sporangium), a sporangium which Mld'rib, the principal nerve in a leaf.

produces microspores ; mloroBpor- Md'summer Growth, a second start an'giate Flow'er, male, or staminate into growth after ceasing ; it does

flower ; Mi'crospore (o-Topi, seed), not occur in all trees. 159 ;; ;

mlhl monang:ic

mlli'i (Dat., sing of ego, I), as an mixed (mixtua) For'est, one composed authority it means the particular of various kinds, growing inter-

form accepted as the true one by mingled i ~ Inflores'cence, one in the author using it. which partial inflorescence develop

Mil'dew, a. disease in plants caused differently from the main axis, as by the attack of the conidial form centrifugal and centripetal to- of in ~ Ves'sela, Erysipheae ; frequently used gether ; those having a popular sense for any small thickenings of more than one parasitic fungus. description, as annular and spiral mUia'rius {milium, millet), minute (Crozier) ; mixotroph'ic (rpo^ij. glandular spots on the epiderm food), half-saprophytic (Pfeffer) ' " Henslow spells it ' railiaris ; MU'i- mixtiner'vius t (Lat.) having veins ary Glands = Stomata. of various sizes.

Milk, an opaque white juice ; the mnl'old, resembling the Moss genus

latex ; .~ Sac, laticiferous vessels Mnium. in some species of Acer; ~ Sap = mo'bile, mo'hilis (Lat.), easily moved,

Latex {Crozier);~Ves'sels, latici- moveable or versatile ; Mobil'lty, ferous vessels. power of movement, cf. Motility. mill-sail shape, molendinaceous. Mock-plums,abnormal growths known mimet'io (/ii/iijri/cJs, imitative), used also as Bao-plums. of organs or plants which resemble modloliform'is {modiolits, a small each other in external appearance, measure, nave of a wheel, etc.,

but not in characteristic structure ; forma, shape), like the nave of a Mim'icry, resemblance to some wheel, depressed, with narrow other species, usually serving as orifice, as the ripe fruit of Gavi- protective. theria. min'iate, minia'tus (Lat. coloured Mol'ecule {molecula, a small mass), with cinnabar), the colour of red an aggregation of , hence the

lead ; more orange and duller than ultimate particle of a chemical

Vermillion. ; compound cf. Pleon, Micella ; minu'te, minu'tus (Lat. small), very adj. molec'ular. small, inconspicuous. molendina'ceous, -ecus, -a'ris (Lat. Miophyl'ly=MEioPHYLLY (Crozier). pertaining to a mill), furnished mioste'monous = meiostemonous. with large, wing-like expansions. Miscliom'any {/ilcrxos, a pedicel, /j,avla, Moline'tum, a plant association com- madness), increase in the number posed of Molinia caertdea, Moench of pedicels, as in jRhus Cotinus, (Warming). Linn., Mttscari comosum. Mill., etc. mol'lis (Lat.), soft, usually meaning mis'tus, mix'tus (Lat.) cross-bred. pubescent. Mit'om (ixirboi, I weave), Fleraming's molyb'deus,molyb'dos(/u.6Xii;85os,lead),

term for the network of threads of lead-ci)loured ; sad, neutral grey. protoplasm. Mon- (fi6vos, one), in Greek com-

Mito'sla {/xItos, a thread or web), pounds = one ; Monadel'phla (dSeX- Flemraing's term for nuclear di- 005, brother), a Linnean Class in

vision ; Karyokinesis of Schleicher which the anthers are united by adj. mito'sic, mlto'tic. their filaments into a single brother-

Mi'tra dilrpa, a head-dress), (1) the hood ; ad j . monadel'phlan, mona-

galea of a corolla ; (2) the thick del'phous ; monan'der, Necker's of rounded pileus some Fungi ; term for monan'drian, monan'drous mi'trlform, mitriform'is (forma, (aV-i/p, dvdpii!, a man), with one

shape), mitre-shaped ; ~ Calyp'tra, stamen ; Monan'drla, a Linnean one which is entire at the base class, with one-stamened flowers; (Hooker). monan'glc (a77eroi', a vessel), 160 ;;

monantliouB MonoSpigynla

Prantl'a word for a sporangium cited by (Jrozier for unicbllulab ; when enclosed by a hood-like in- monoceph'alous, -Zms (ice^aX'J;, a

dusium ; monan'thous (avBos, a head), bearing a single head or flower), one-flowered ; mon'arch capitulum ; monocbaB'ial {x^<"-^y (&pxh, beginning), applied to an separation), a cyme with one main xylem-bundle which consists of one axis; Monoch'asy, a uniparous cyme,

protoxylem-group ; - Bun' die, one either pure, or resulting from the

in which there is ; only one strand ; reduction of cymes (Urban) Mono- monari'nua {dpfyrjv, male), Necker's oMamyd'eae {-xXap-ii, a mantle), a,

expression for monandrous ; Mon- large division of Phanerogams as'ter [da-rrip, a star), in nuclear which have only one set of floral

division the mother-star, the envelopes ; monoclilamyd'eous, chromosomes forming a ring round -deus, having only one kind of

the central spindle ; Monax'on perianth ; monooliro'mlc (xjowM", (fifoiy, an axle), when the two colour), of one tint, unicoloroua ; transverse axes of an organ or or- monocll'nous, -mua, mouoclln'ian

ganism are equal ; mone'cious = {kKIvt], a bed), (1) hermaphrodite,

MONOECIOUS ; Monem'bryony (?/i- having both stamens and pistils in jSpuoc, an embryo), the production the same flower ; (2) applied to the of one embryo only ; adj. monem- capitula of Composites which have

bryon'io. only hermaphrodite florets ; Mono- Mou'grel, a cross or hybrid. cotyle'don (KOTv\T)Siiiv, a hollow), a monU'lform, moni/iform'is (monile, a plant having but one cotyledon or necklace, forma, shape), necklace- seed-lobe; Monocot'ylae, was sug-

shaped ; like a string of beads. gested by L. Ward as a shortened

Mon'ism (,u6i'os, one), employed by term ; monocotyle'donous, with a L. H. Bailey for " the doctrine of single seed-lobe, as grasses and

oneness ; the supposition that all palms ; monocy'cllc (icfeXos, a cir- phenomena and all forms of life cle), (1) when the members of a are derived from the unfolding or floral series are in one whorl, as

evolution of one single principle the calyx, corolla, etc. ; (2) annual

and substance." plants ; monodlclilamyd'eous (5t, Monob'asis {fiSvos, one, ^iai^, base), twice, -x^aixis, a mantle), having when the root is reduced to a small either one or both sets of floral en-

unbranched portion, as though it velopes ; monody'namoua (Sv'vaii.i.s, were only the base of the stem power), with one stamen much ;

Monoblas'tus (^Xao-ris, a shoot or longer than the others ; Monoe'cia bud), used of Lichen-spores when (oIkos, a house), a Linnean class

possessing a single cell ; Monocaro'- characterised by having flowers

tin ( + Cakotin) a lipochrome pig- with the sexes separate, but on

ment allied to Carotin, the colour- the same plant ; monoe'cious, -cius,

ing of the root of the carrot ; Mon'- the stamens and pistils in separate ocarp [xapnos, fruit), an annual or flowers, but borne on the same in- '" other plant that flowers but once dividual ; Homog'amy, fertiliza-

(Crozier) ; monocarpel'lary, com- tion from another inflorescence

posed of one carpel only ; monocar'- of the same plant (Delpino) pic, bien'nial- -', a biennial plant, monoec'iously polyg'amons, hav-

peren'nial- r" , a plant which lives ing hermaphrodite and unisexual many years before fruiting and flowers on the same specimen

perishing ; monooar'pian, monocar- monoe'cism, the state of pos-

pia/nus, monocar'picitfS, monocar'- sessing monoecious flowers ; Mo-

pous, only fruiting once ; mono- noepigyn'ia (^Tri, upon, 7111'^), a cel'lular (cdlvla, a little cell). woman), a class in Jussieu's system 161 ; ;;

Monogam monostromatic

containing monoootyledona with leaf), (1) one-leaved, as an involu-

epigynous stamens ; Mon'ogam crum of a single piece ; (2) used of (7(i/xo!, marriage), a plant with a leaf-bud where a single leaf is subtended investing stipule simple flowers, but united anthers ; by an ;

Monogam'ia, a Linnean order in (3) gamosepalous or gamopetalous ; the Composites with united an- Mon'oplast (irXaffTos, moulded), the thers, but ilowers free on the same organic form-elementof protoplasm, receptacle; monogam'icus, Necker's which group into polyplasts (Vogt)

term for monogamous ; monog'e- Mon'opode, Monopod'ium (ttoOs, nous {yivos, race, offspring), = en- TToSos, a foot), a stem of a single and

dogenous ; monogenet'lc Repro- continuous axis ; adj. monopod'lal duc'tlon, asexual reproduction monop'terous (vrephv, a wing), one-

monog'eiius, (1) monocotyledonous winged ; monopyre'nus (irvp^v, a (2) monotypio (Crozier, Diet. p. 18); kernel), containing a single stone

Mon'ograpll {ypa(f>a, I write), a or nutlet ; monosep'alouB, -lug ( + systematic account of a particular Sbpalum), gamosepalous, the seg-

genus, order, or group ; Mon'ogyn ments of the calyx being united ; {yvvri, a woman), a plant having a monOBiphou'ic (jrl

single pistil in a tiower ; Slono- applied to Algae consisting of gyn'ia, a Linnean order, having a a continuous tube, an algal solitary pistil or style, though it may filament of a single row of

have many carpels ; monogyn'ian, cells ; Mono'sls, the isolation of

monog'ynoua, -nv^, possessing but an organ from the rest ; fflon'o-

one pistil ; monogynae'cial {ywai- sperm (iTiripp.a, seed), a plant of

Kciov, women's quarters), simple one seed only ; monosperm'ouB,

fruits resulting from the pistil of -rmia, one-seeded ; monospi'rous

one flower ; Monohypogyn'la {iiro, {(Titeipa, a twisted cord). Spruce's under, yvvij, a woman), a class in term for that condition of the Jussieu's system containing mono- elater in Hepaticae, which con-

cotyledons with hypogenous sta- sists of a single spiral ; Monospi'ms,

mens ; monoi'cous [oIkos, a house), an elater of this kind ; mono- used by bryologists for monoe- sporan'giate {+ Sporangium), ap- cious. plied to a flower with sporangia monolep'idus (/i6cos, oDe,\cTls,\eTrlSos, borne on separate axis, as the

a scale), one-scaied ; monol'obus beech and oak ; further dis- (Xo^os, an ear-lobe), used by Spruce tinguished as mae'ro- or mi'cro-

for one-lobed ; monoloc'ular, mono- sporauglate, as they bear sporangia

locvla'ris {locubos, a little place), of the kind indicated ; Mon'ospore, one-celled, unilocular, applied to a special spore in Ectocarpus, by

ovaries, etc. ; monom'erous {ijApos,' Sauvageau considered to be a

a part), formed of a single mem- Gemma ; Monosporang'ium, used ber, as the fruit may be of one by Sauvageau for the organ which

carpel ; monomorph'ous {fiop(fnj, produces monosporea ; monoa'- shape), of one form only, not poly- taohous ((TTcixi's, a spike), arranged

morphic (Bailey) ; mouopet'alous, in one spike ; monoste'lic ((rTijkn, a -lus (iriraXov, a flower-leaf), (1) pillar), having a single axial cylin-

literally one-petalled ; (2) gamo- der of tissue, in which the vascular

petalous, where the corolla is com- tissue is developed ; Monoste'ly, posed of several petals laterally the state of having a single

united ; monophylet'io {ipvMi, a stele ; adj. mouostelous ; mono- tribe), originally descended from s'tichous, chu3 {(ttIxos, a row), in a

one tribe, as opposed to polyphyle- single vertical row ; monostro-

tio ; monophyl'lous -lus {tjiiWov, a mat'ic (aTpiifw,, bed-covering), ap- 162 ;; ;

monoBtylons Motor

plied to the leaves of Mosses aud Morph'ia, Morph'iae [Morpheus, the the thallus of Algae when com- god of sleep), the best known of

poeed of a single layer of cells ; all the alkaloids contained in the

monosty'lous, -Ivs ( + Sttlits) hav- opium poppy. ing a single style. mor'pliua (iJ.op(pri, shape), in Greek Mono'sy (/idvuiris, deserted), Morren's compounds = appearance, as rhizo- term for the abnormal isolation of morphus, having the appearance of

parts due to (a) Adesmt or (6) a root ; Morphogen'osia {yiveins, be- '> Dialysis. ginning), the production of morpho-

monosyimuet'rical {/idvos, one,

fierpos, proportionate), used of a relating to Morphology ; ~ Spe'cies, flower which can be bisected in Parmentier's term for such specific one plane only, zygomorphic forms as occur in Bosa, which are monothalam'ic, monothal'amous assumed to have departed from {66,Xa/j,os, a bed-chamber), (1) applied their ancestral form in conse- to apothecia consisting of a single quence of varied environment

chamber ; (2) when galls consist of Morphol'ogy (\o'7os, discourse), the

only one interior chamber ; mono- study of form and its develop- thal'mic, derived from a single ment.

flower, as most fruits (Crozier) ; Morpho'sis (iwp^uiris, a shaping), the

monothe'cal (B-rjKri, a case), having manner of development ; the order a single loculuaor cell; monot'ocous, in which organs furm from their cus {t6kos, child-birth), fruiting earliest to their final condition. once only, as annuals and biennials, moa'chate, moscha'tvs {moschus,

monocarpio ; monotrop'ic {rpoTrii, a musk), musky. turning), applied to bees which 'er, used in the sense of visit only one species of flower "parent"; ~ Cells, those which

monotyp'ic {niiros, a type), having divide to form other cells ; -- Plant, only one exponent, as a genus with (1) the parent plant, from which

but one species ; Monox'eny (levos, vegetative portions have been de-

a host), used of a parasite on one rived ; (2)the female or seed-bearing

host only, autoecious. parent of a hybrid ; ~ Skein, a Mon'ster, Monstrum (Lat., an un- continuous ribbon-like figure of natural production), an abnormal- chromatin in the early stages of

ity ; Monstros'lty, Monstro'sitas, nuclear division, further divided

some conformation deviating from into close ~ , looped ~ , and loose ~ the usual and natural structure; ~ Star = Monaster, a, stage of adj. mons'trouB. nuclear division. mon'tane, monta'rms (Lat.), pertain- Moth'er-of-Vin'egar, the active agent ing to mountains, as a plant which in acetous fermentation, Saccha- grows on them. romyces Mycoderma, Reess. Mor'ia X {fi-opos, a share), parts of a mo'tUe (motus, a moving), move- flower in general, as perttamoriua, able ; ^ Re'gion, (1) in growing

all parts in fives. members the region of elongation ; Mor'in {Moms, mulberry), a principle (2) in mature members a distinct derived from the yellow heart- organ, such as the pulvinus in wood of fustic, Madura aurantiaca, , Linn.

( Nutt. ; the name is derived from Motility t'r. motility), the power of

Morus, to which genus the plant movement ; ~ of Pro'toplaam, a ' was formerly referred; Morozy'mase suggested emendation of ' contrac- " {^viXTi, leaven), an assumed enzyme tility of protoplasm. in the mulberry, now believed to be Mo'tor (Lat. , a mover) Zone, another a mixture of diastase aud zymase. term for Motile Region. 163 ;;; ;;;

Mould multiparottt

Mould, applied to microscopic sapro- Mu'darin, a substance occurring in phytic fungi, such as Mucor and the bark of the "mudar," Calo- its allies. tropis giganiea, Dryand., and C. Uove'able, the same as motilis, (1) procera, Dryand. used of a versatile anther whose Mueller's Corpus' clea, ovoid or pear- attachment is slight, there- shaped bodies in Cecropia adtno- fore apt to be moved by wind or pua. Mart., which form a velvety

slight shock ; (2) with colours, coating on the under side of the " shot " or changeable (Henslow) ; base of the petiole ; they are util- (3) the annulus of an Agaric when ised as food by ants. it detaches itself from the stipes Mule, in botany, means cross-bred, a and remains free. hybrid.

Move'ment, motion, continuous or multang'ular, multangidar'is , mul-

transient ; ~ of Varla'tlon, see ang'tilus [mvltus, many, angvlus,

ALLASOTONIC. an angle), many-angled ; multlcap'- Mox'a (native name), the woolly salax (capsula, a small box), having leaves of Artemisia Moxa, DC. many capsules; multicil'iate (cUium, Mu'cedln {mucedus, mouldy), a tough an eyelash), with many cilia; mul'ti- viscous body associated with gluten ceps, multlcip'ital {caput, a head),

in vegetable gelatin (Goodale) with many heads ; it refers to the muce'dinous, musty, mouldy. crown of a single root), multicos'- mu'cic (mucus, nasal secretion), re- tate {casta, a rib), many-ribbed lating to gum; Mu'oilage (Fr.), the ribs running from the base of

vegetable gelatine belonging to the a leaf towards its apex ; multiden'- amylose group of carbohydrates tate {dentatus, toothed), with many

~ Canal'; ~ CaVity, space caused teeth ; multidigita'to - plnna'tus, by the breaking down of the cell- having many secondary petioles

wall of neighbouring cells ; " Slit, with digitate-pinnate arrangement an opening on the under surface of (Henslow). the thalluB in Anthoceroteae, like multifar'ious, multifar'iuji (Lat. mani- a stoma without guard-cells, lead- fold), multifa'riam (Lat. many-

ing into a cavity filled with gum ; ranked), many-ranked, as leaves in mucilag'inous, slimy, composed of vertical ranks.

mucilage ; Mu'cine, a constituent multif'erous, -rus (multifer, bearing of wheat-gluten which is soluble much), often bearing, fruitful.

in water ; Muoo-cel'lulose ( + Cellu- mul'tlfld, multifidus (Lat.), cleft into lose), alluded to under Celluloses. many lobes or segments. Mu'corin, an albuminoid substance multiflor'ouB, -rus {mvlttis, many, flos, occurring in species of Mucor jloris, a flower), many-flowered

(De Bary) ; mucorin'eous, resem- multifolla'tus (folium, a leaf),

- bling the Mucorineae. many leaved ; multiju'gate, mul- mu'cous, muco'sus (Lat.), slimy, cf. tijuga'tus, multiju'gus {jugum, a Muous. yoke), having many pairs or

Mu'oro (Lat. a sharp point), a sharp jugae ; multllat'eral {latus, a

terminal point ; Muoro'na J = side), many-sided, having several

MucBO (Lindley) ; mu'cronate, flattened surfaces ; multiloc'ular, mucrona'tus, possessing a short and multilocula'ris {loculus, a little straight point, as some leaves place), many-celled, as an ovary

; mucronu- ~ Spore = Muorona'tion=MuoBO Sporidbsm ; Multilo-

la'tua (Lat.), dim. of mucronate. cula'res, compound spores ; mul-

Mu'cua (Lat. nasal secretion), gum- tlnu'cleate ( + Nucleus), having like matter soluble in water ; mu'- more than one nucleus to a cell oouB, mucilaginous. multip'arouB {pario, 1 bring forth), 164 -;; ;;

multipartite membranouB

many-bearing, applied to a cyme mu'riform, muriform'ia {mwrua,a,-waXL, which has many axes ; multlpar'- forma, shape), (1) flattened cellular t i t e, multiparti'tus {partitiis, tissue, with cells resembling bricks

divided), many times divided, in a wall ; (2) Koerber applies the much cut. term to certain Lichen-spores. mul'tlplex (Lat. with many folds), muri'nus (Lat., of mice), mouse- where many of the same parts coloured.

occur together ; mul'tiple Corol'la, Muscardlne' (Fr. ), a silkworm disease one that has more than one whorl caused by Botrytis Bassiana, Bals.

of petals ; ~ Fruits, the fruit muscar'ifonn, muscariform'is (mtts- of a flower-cluster when confluent carium, a fly-flap, forma, shape),

into one mass ; — Pri'mary (1) fly-brush shaped ; (2) like the Soot, a root with several main genus Muscari as to habit or in-

divisions from the crown, as in florescence ; Mus'carine, a poisonous

Dahlia (Crozier) ; multipli'cate alkaloid from Ainanita muscaria,

{plica, a fold), folded often or P. Karst. ; Musca'rlum (Lat.), a

repeatedly ; ~ Flow'er, a double loose and irregular corymb.

flower ; MultipUca'tlon, multiplica' Mus'ci, sing. Mus'ous (Lat. ), Mosses tua (Lat, , increasing),augmentation, mus'clform, musciform'is (forma,

pleiotaxy, pleiophylly ; adj. multi- shape), moss-like in appearance

pUca'tus ; multipo'lar {polite, a muscio'olous {cola, I inhabit), grow-

pole), with more than two poles on Mosses ; mus'cold (eTSos, like), ~ Spin'dle, Guignard's term for resembling or belonging to Moss an achromatic spindle when ex- Musool'ogy (\670s, discourse), a

tending in a star-shape between hybrid term for Bbyologt ; an

several nuclei ; Multipolar'lty, the account of Mosses.

state in question ; multira'dlate, mush'room-head'ed, a cylindrio body mvltiradia'tus {radius, a ray), with topped by a convex head of larger

many rays. diameter ; fungiform. multira'mose {mvXtiis, many, ramus, muta'bilis (Lat.), changeable, either

a branch), much branched ; multi- in form or colour. sep'tate, multisepta'tus {septum, a mu'ticous, mu'ticus (Lat. curtailed, hedge), with many partitions docked), pointless, blunt, awnless. multise'rial, muUiseria'lis, multise'- mu'tUus (Lat. maimed), applied to a riate, midtiseria'lii {series, a row), flower nearly or wholly wanting

in several series ; multisil'iciuous the petals. Mu'tuallsm (mutual -(-ism), ( + Siliqua), having many pods or the same seed-vessels. as Commensalism ; that is, an Mummiflca'tion of fruits, used by association of two organisms which

Tubeuf to express the fungal rest- is beneficial to both ; also termed ing body or solerotium. Mu'tual Far'asitlsm. mu'nlens (Lat. ) fortifying ; munien'- Myoeloonid'ium (-hConidium) (jiiiiKijs, tla Fo'lia, protecting leaves which a mushroom), A. Fischer's term

overhang or otherwise guard parts for Stylospore ; Mycele' = My-

which need protection. ce'lium ; myce'loid {eldos, like), re- mu'ral, mura'lis (Lat., pertaining to sembling a mycelium ; myoe'lial,

a wall), growing on walls ; muia'- relating to a mycelium ; ~ Lay'er=

riUB (Lat.) means the same. MEMBRANOUS Mycelium ; ~ Strand,

; mu'rlcate, murica'tus { Lat. , like fibrous mycelium Myce'lium, the murex), rough, with short and vegetative portion of the thallus of hard tubercular excrescences Fungi, composed of hyphae; flla- muric'ulate, muricida'tus, diminu- men'touB ~, the thread-like loose

tive of the preceding. felting of hyphae ; mem'branous ^ 165 ; ;;

Mycelitba Myrrh

the layer formed by the interweav- roots; Mycorrhl'za (^/fo, a, root),

ing of the hyphae ; Myce'lltha {\Wos, Symbiotic Fungi on the roots of

a stone), an old term for SoLERO- plants, prot.hallia, etc. ; they may

TiuM ; mycetogenet'ic (yevirris, a be ectotrop'ic, ^ entirely outside,

parent), producing Fungi ; -' or endotrop'ic, ~ entirely within

Metamorph'osls, deformation of the cells ; M/oose, M/cosin, the

parts by Fungi ; mycetog'enoTiB special nitrogenous substance of (yhios, race, offspring), producing the cell-wall in Fungi corres-

Fungi ; ~ Chloran'thy, the deve- ponding to the animal substance

lopment of green in organs nor- chitin (Oilson) ; Myco'sls, a disease mally of some other colour, due to in animal tissue caused by snecies

a fungous parasite ; — Chlor'lsis, of Eurotium ; My'orooyst = MiORO-

where the chlorophyll is bleached CYST ; Mycropro'teln = Mtcopeo-

the action of of TEIN ; mycropvle = by hyphae some MiCEOPTLE ;

Fungus (Tubeuf) ; my'cetold, myce- My'crozyme = Microztmb.

toi'deua (elSos, like), fungoid ; with Myioph'Uae (/xuia, a fly, CKfw, I love),

the appearance of Fungi ; Myoe- plants which are fertilised by din-

tol'ogy, Mycetolo'gia (Kiyo!, dis- tera ; their flowers are dull in

course) =Mycologv ; Myce'tozoa colour and their odours are dis- (fujoi/, an animal), De Bary's term agreeable to man.

for Mtxogastrbs ; adj. myceto- mykoMep'tlc (liiKris, a mushroom,

zo'an ; My'olna, in Lichens, a globu- nXeTTixlts, thievish), applied to

lar stipitate apotheoium ; Mycooe- the hairs on the rhizome of Corallor- oid'ium (KT/xh, ktikISo!, a gall-nut), hiza innata, R. Br., "which seize

a gall produced by a Fungus ; My- the mycelium." codoma'tia (Sw/ranoj', a little house), myooh'rous (/uvs, a mouse, xpoils, of funsus-chambers, formations of the skin), mouse-coloured.

peculiar character found on the Myrmeoodoma'tia {/u.vp/j.'ri^, an ant, roots of plants, regarded by Frank dit>/ji,6.Tiov, a little" house), shelters as possessed of the power of at- formed by plants in which ants

; tracting Fungi and digesting them ; live mynneoopli'ilous (tpiKiai, I Mycol'oglst (Xi570!, discourse), one love), plants which are in- skilled in the knowledge of Fungi habited by ants and offer special-

Mycol'ogy, the science of Fungi ; ised shelters or food for them Myoom/copliyteB {

Marchand's term to include Fungi ed ; further particularised by War- and certain Lichens ; Mycophy'to- burg, as—myrmecod'omous {So/ws, phsrtes, the same writer's name for a house), affording shelter only

the remaining Lichens ; My'eoplasm myrmecotroph'io {rpo(pii, food),

(TrXdir/ia, moulded), Frank's term furnishing food ; myrmeoox'enous for bacteroids, as the on ff^xos, a host), supplying both

leguminiferous roots ; Mycoplas'- food and shelter ; Myrme'cophytea

ma, Eriksson's term for a latent {(pvTov, a plant), ant-plaits ; Myr-

symbiotic form of Pnccinia which meoosymbio'sis ( -t- Symbiosis), the may exist in the seed and develop mutual relations between the ants

into a mycelium when the host has and their host-plants ; adj. myr-

grown into a plant ; Mycopro'tein mecosymbio'tic.

( -f Protein), a gelatinous albu- My'rosin [nipov, sweet juice), a gluco- minoid resembling protoplasm, of side occurring in the seed of which the putrefactive bacteria Brassica sinapoides, Roth, and

are composed ; Mycorhl'zome ( -f- other Crucifers. Khizomb), -like struc- Myrrh, an aromatic eum-resin yielded ture in Corallorhiza and Epipogum by Commiphora Myrrha, Engl. 166 ; ;

myrtiform Neck myr'tifonn, myrtiform'is {myrttis, the nas'cent (nascor, to be born), in the

myrtle, forma, shape), resembling act of being formed ; ~ Tis'sue =

the myrtle ; myrtoi'deus (elSos, Mebistem. like) is a synonym. na'tant, na'tans (Lat., swimming), myu'rus {/uis, a mouse, oipa, a tail), floating under water, that is, wholly long and tapering like a mouse's immersed. tail. na'tive, used by H. C. Watson for Myxamoe'bae or Myxoamoe'bae, pi. undoubtedly indigenous. (/iiifa, mucus, i/ioip^, interchange), nat'ural, produced or eflfected by

the swarm-spores of Myxogastres ; nature ; ~ Graft, when branches Myxogas'tres (yatrrT^p, belly), Pries's are united by "approach" natur- " term for the group Slime Fungi," ally ; ~ Sys'tem, an arrangement otherwise known as Myxomyce'tes according to the affinity of the

and Mtcetozoa ; Myx'on, a con- plants, and the sum of their stituent of wheat-gluten precipi- characters, opposed to any arti-

tatpd by alcohol ; myx'opod (ttous, ficial system, based on one set of

iroSos, a foot), the amoeboid stage characters ; Naturaliza'tion, the act

in contrast to the mastigopod of becoming naturalized ; natural- fflyx'ospore ((nroph, a seed), a spore ized, of foreign origin, but es- formed in the sporangia of Myxo- tablished and reproducing itself as

gastres ; adj. myxos'porous. though a native. Nau'cum, pi. Nau'ca (Lat., a trifle), Nahrlos'ung (Germ.), a nutrient solu- (1) the fleshy part of a drupe (Lind-

; tion for laboratory cultures by ley) ; (2) seeds with a very large

mycologists usually restricted to a hilum (Henslow) ; Nau'cus, certain solution of horae-dung. cruciferous fruits which have no Nail, as a measure, about half an valves. inch in length, the average length naut'iform {nauticus, pertaining to

of a finger nail ; unguicularis. ships or sailors, forma, shape), = na'ked, wanting its usual covering, navicular (Crozier). as without pubescence, or flowers nave-ahaped, round and depressed, destitute of perianth, or buds with- with a small opening, modioliform.

out scales ; ~ seed'ed,(l) gymnosper- Navic'ulae (pi. Navicida, a boat), free mous; (2) formerly used of Labiates, fruatules of Diatoms like those of

from a false idea of the fruit. the genus Navicida ; uavic'ular, nanan'drous {pdvos, a dwarf, dviip, namavXa!ria, boat-shaped, cymbi-

avdpos, a man), used of certain Algae form ; navic'uloid (elSos, like), like - which produce Dwarf males ; the genus Navicula. Na'nism, Chodat's term for becom- neb'ulose, nehvlo'sus (Lat. vaporous), ing dwarf; na'nuB (Lat.), dwarf, (1) cloudy, misty, applied to such cf PUMILUS. finely divided inflorescences as napa'ceuB (napus, a turnip, + aceus) Eragroatis ; (2) used by Bischoff as na'piform {forma, shape), turnip- meaning smoke-ooloured( =fumeus). shaped or rooted, Necessa'ria {necessarius, unavoidable), nap'py, tomentose. Linnaeus's term for a division of hia

Nai'celne (^-A/j/cT), numbness), an opium Syngenesia ( = Oompositae) in which alkaloid forming silky, inodorous, the ray florets are female and the bitter crystals. disk florets male. Nar'cotine (ca/j/cwriKos, making numb), Neck (1), the collar or junction of

also an opium alkaloid, but of very stem and root ; (2) the point where little narcotic power. the limb separates from the sheath

Nar'dine, pertaining to Nard, Nardo- of certain leaves ; (3) the contracted stachys Jatamansi, DC. part of the corolla or calyx tube 167 ;

Neck-cells nervalia

(4) the elongated portion of the em- shunning the light ; ~ Pres'sure,

bryo sao or arohegonium ; ~ Cells when gases in plants are at a lower in the arohegonium of Bryophytes, tension than air, in consequence of the drawn-out portion, aa distinct the withdrawal of water. from the venter. Ne'ma (vrn^a, a thread), a filament neck'lace-shapecl, moniliform. Ne'meae, " Cryptogams whose spor- neorocoleopteroph'ilous (veKpbs, dead, ules elongate into a thread-like H-Coleopteron; 0iX^m, I love), when form in germination " (Henslow)

fertilised by carrion beetles ; ne- cf. Nbmobiastus ; Ne'mathece,

crog'enouB, -us {yivos, offspring), Nemathe'cium (6-fiKTi, a case), a applied to certain fungoid parasites wart-like elevation of the surface in which hasten the decay of the some Algae containing antheridia

plants on which they live ; necro- and paraphyses or cystooarps. ph'agous ((pdyoi, I eat), applied to Ne'matodes (v-qiMaTiiS-qi, thread-like),

saprophytes ; Nec'roplasm {irX6.criJ,a, Confervae.

moulded), the analogue of proto- Ne'matogone (vtiim, a, thread, 701-7;, plasm in a dead seed off-spring) ; Nec'roplast, ; Correns's term for an a protoplast whose organisation has asexually produced gemma on the

suffered irreparable injury and is protonema of Mosses ; ne'meous, dead; Necro'sis, (1) canker in plants; thread-like, filamentous (Crozier) (2) used by Escombe as meaning Nematomy'ces (/ii;/o;s, a mushroom), the death of an organism. a synonym of Hyphomycetous

Neo'tar (viKTap, the drink of the gods), Fungi ; Nemohlas'tus (/SXacrris, a, a sweet fluid extruded from various bud), used by Willdenow to in-

parts of the plant ; in the flower it clude Mosses and Ferns.

is called honey ; ~ Glands, the se- nemora'lis (Lat., sylvan), inhabit-

creting organs which produce the ing woods and groves ; nem'orose,

neotar ; -- Guides, lines of colour nemoro'sus (Lat., full of woods),

leading to the nectary ; ^ Marks = used as if a synonym of ne-

~ Guides (Crozier) ; ~ Spots = ~ •moralis. GniDES; Necta'rlum, or Neo'tary, the neogae'an, neogaefus (ceos, new, 7^, organ in which is secreted, earth). New World, that is, Ameri-

formerly applied to any anomalous can or West Indian ; cf. amphi-

part of a flower, as its spurred GABAN, QERONTOGABAN ; Ne'oplast petals; nectariferous -us (fero, I (irXoirr6s,moulded), a newindividual

bear), nectar-bearing ; Nectari'nus, arising from one or more previously

= Nbctaet ; Neotarily'ma (d\iu, I existing protoplasts, as the fer- wrap round), any appendages to a tilised egg-cell (Hanstein). nectary, as the long hairs in Meny- neph'roid, nephroi'deus {ve^pds, the

anthes ; Neotarostig'ma (a-Tly/jia, a kidneys, eWos, like), reniform, kid-

spot), some mark or depression in- ney-shaped ; Nephros'ta, Necker's dicating the presence of a nectari- term for the sporangia of Lyco-

ferous gland ; Nectarothe'ca (B-^kti, podium. a case), the portion of a flower Ne'reids, a mythologic name used by which immediately surrounds a Warming to designate water-loving nectariferous pore. plants which grow on rooks and nee' die-shaped, aoerose, acicular. stones. ueg'ative {negatiims, that denies), im- neri'tic {rqph-ris, son of Nereus), applied plying denial or absence of some to plankton which is coastal. quality or substance; '~ Geot'ropism, nerva'lls (Lat., pertaining to the apogeotropism, the growing in a nerves), (1) synonym of loculicidal, to gravitation contrary direction ; the dehiscence being along the ~ Heliot'ropism, apheliotropism. midrib of the carpels ; (2) relating 168 ;

Nervation nivalis

to the midrib of a leaf, as a tions plotted geometrically in

prolongation of it—as a tendril. two dimensions ; half- Galtonian Nerva'tlon, Nerva'tio {nervus, a nerve), Curve, a similar scheme, from the venation, the manner in which the maximum to minimum, or vice foliar nerves or veins are arranged ; versa. ner'vate, nerva'tus (Lat.), nerved nicked, emarginate or notched.

or veined ; Nerve, Ner'vus, in niootia'nus, tobacco-coloured, from the

botany, a simple or unbranched genus Nicotiana ; it usually means

vein or slender rib ; nerved, mer'- a full brown ; Nio'otln, an alkaloid viger {gero, I bear), having nerves, found in tobacco-leaves.

in a botanic sense ; ner'veless, with- nido'sus = mdoro'su3 (Lat., reeking),

out apparent nerves ; Nervlmotil'- having a foul smell, as of burnt ity (+ Motility), used by Dut- meat, or rotten eggs. rochet to denote the stimulating nid'ulant, ni'dvians (Lat., nesting), (1) effect of the substratum on a grow- partially encased or lying free in a

ing organ ; ner'vose, nervo'sus cavity, as the gemmae of Ma/r- (Lat., sinewy), full of nerves, or chantia ; (2) embedded in pulp, as

prominently nerved ; ner'vulose, the seeds in a berry ; nidula'tus nerijulo'sus, diminutive of ner- (Lat. ), nested, nestling ; NidiUar'-

vous ; Ner'vures, the principal ium, " the mycelium of certain veins of a leaf. Fungals " (Lindley). Nest-ep'iphyte ( + Epiphyte), an epi- Ni'dus (Lat., a nest), a favourable phyte which accumulates humus place for a seed or spore to ger- around itself for its growth. minate.

nest'ling, nidulant (Crozier). Nlederl)lat'ter(Germ. ) = Cataphylla. net'ted, reticulated, net-veined with nl'ger (Lat.), black ; Nigre'do (Lat.), any system of irregularly ana- blackness. stomosing veins. Night-posit'ion, the position assumed Neuramphipet'alae (veipov, a nerve or by leaves during darkness, the

sinew ; dfj-tpl, around ; TreraXov, a, edges being usually turned towards flower-leaf), Cassini's name for the zenith.

the Compositae ; Neura'tion ( -f uigres'cent, nigres'cens (Lat.), turn-

ation) = Nervation (Crozier) ; ing black ; ni'gricant, ni'gricans

neur'ose, neuro'sus = nbrvose. (Lat. ), becoming black ; this and neu'ter (Lat., neither of two), sexless, the last are used for tints which as a flower which has neither sta- turn black with age.

mens or pistils ; <- Flow'ers, func- ni'gritUB (Lat.), blackened, clothed

tionally asexual flowers ; neu'tral, in black.

pertaining to neither sex ; ^ Zone, Kip'ple, = Papilla. in Characeae, that line or place niteli'nus (Lat., pertaining to a dor- where rotating streams of proto- mouse), dormouse-coloured. plasm flow beside each other in nit'id (Crozier) = nit'idous, nit'idus opposite directions, the "indiffer- (Lat., shining), smooth and clear, ent line " shown by the absence of lustrous.

chlorophyll granules ; neutriflor'us Nitriflca'tion(mJi?Tim,nitre, -Ffication), (Jlos, fioris, a flower), used of the the action of a nitric ferment result- ray-florets of Compositae when ing in the production of nitrates and

neuter. nitrites ; Nitrobacte'ria ( + Bac- new, the first publication of a genus, teria), bacteria which produce species, variety or form. nitrification by their action

Newto'nian Curve, called also the ( -I- Cellulose), see binomial or Galtonian curve, a Cellulose. of varia- graphic representation nivalis (Lat., snowy) ; (1) growing 169 ;,;

niveouB nuclear

in as or near the snow ; (2) enow- square, according to rule, usual white, more correctly niveous. to structure. nlT'eoUB, nixfev£ (Lat., snowy), snow- NoBorogy {v6

white ; pure and lustrous. course), see Vboetablb Nosologt. no'bis (dative pi. of ego, I), used as Nos'toc-lay'er, in Lichens when the an authority in defining species, Algal layer consists of Nostoc or etc. allied forms (De Bary). Nocona'mum (deriv.?) Necker's term notate', nota'tus (Liit. marked),

for the sporangium of Selagindla (?) marked with spots or lines. noctur'nal (noctunxalis, by night), noteroph'ilouB (vorephs, moist, (pAeui, occurring at night, or lasting one I love), applied to plants which night only. are intermediate between hydro- no'dal {nodus, a knot), relating to a phytes and xerophytes ; by Warm-

Node ; ~ Cell, a cell at the base of ing termed mesophytes. the oogonium in Ghara, interposed notched, emarginate, nicked. between the egg-cell and the stalk- noth'us (Lat.), false or bastard, cell, with the "Wendungszelle," usually applied to the false root of ~ Di'aphragiu, any septum which a parasite. extends across the hollow of the nototri'bal [vuros, the back, rplffa, I stem at a node. beat), pertaining to those flowers nod'ding, hanging down, nutant. described by Delpino as no'totribe, Node, No'dus (Lat., a knot), that part whose stamens and styles turn so of a stem which normally has a as to strike their visitors on the

leaf or a whorl of leaves ; the back ; notorrbi'zal (p'ifa, a root),

"knot" in a grass-stem; Lindley used for incumbent ; the radicle

gives the following modifications : being on the back of the coty-

closed ~ ; com'pound~ ; dl'vided~ ledons in certain Cruciferae. -- entire' — ; o'pen ~ ; sin'gle ~ ; see no'vem (Lat.) nine; digita'tus,

his Glossary (1849), p. Ixii.; nodif- nine-fingered ; ~ lo'bua, nine-

erous {fero, I bear), bearing nodes; lobed ; ~ ner'vius, nine-nerved. no'dose, nodo'sus (Lat. knotty), Nucamen'tum (Lat., a fir-cone or knotty or knobby, chiefly used of catkin), an amentum or catkin;

roots ; Nodo'sity, Nodo'sitas (Lat. nucamenta'ceous, -ceits, (1) having

knottiness), a woody swelling the hardness of a nut ; (2) synonym Nod'ule, No'duLun (Lat., a little for indehiscent, monospermal fruit.

knot), a small knot or rounded Nucel'la, = Nucel'lus (Lat., a, small

body ; — of Diatoms = Stauros ; kernel), (1) the nucleus of an

no'duloae, noduLo'aua, the diminu- ovule ; (2) the body of the ovule tive of NODOSE. or macrosporangium containing the

No'menolature (nomendalwra, a list of embryo sac or macrospore ; Nucel'- names), the names of things in lum, Germain's form of Nucellus.

any science ; in botany frequently nuciferous {nux, a nut, fero, I bear),

restricted to the correct usage of bearing or producing nuts ; nu'ci- scientific names in taxonomy. form {forma, shape), nut-like in Nomolo'gia {i>6/j.os, custom, \6yos, dis- shape. course), relating to the laws which nu'clear {nucleus, a kernel), pertain-

govern the variations of organs ; ing to a nucleus ; ~ Bar'rel, » nomosper'mous (avipiia, seed), used stage immediately preceding the by Badlkofer to denote the seed nuclear spindle; ~ Disc, the mother-

normally occurring in the order, star stage ; r^ Dlvls'ion, either tribe, or genus. direct by fragmentation, or indirect no'nus (Lat)., ninth. by karyokinesis, the entire history

nor'mal, norma'lis (Lat. ), according to of the division of the cell-nucleus; -« 170 = ;,

nuclear Nut

Fi'brlls, chromosomes, cf. Spindlb- KiNESis, otherwise called Mitosis; riBRES ; ~ Fil'ament, the chro- (3) the hilum of a starch granule ; matin or chromatic filament ; ~ (4) in Lichens, the disk of the apo- Plate, see Mothbe-Stab ; ~ Re- thecium, containing asci ; (5) in duc'tion, "when a smaller number Fungi, the centre of the peri- of segments occur than at the theoium ; (6) a clove or young bulb;

previous divisions of the parent- ~ Bar'rel = nuclear Barrel ; ~ cycle (Hartog) ; ~ Ring, the equa- of the Em'bryo Sac, the secondary

torial arrangement of chromo- nucleus ; ~ of O'osphere, that in

somes ; c/. Mother- Star ; ~ Sap, the the oosphere (female pronucleus)

intermediate matrix (Schwarz) ; ~ with which a spermnucleus (male Spin' die, slender filaments from the pronucleus) coalesces to form a poles, and crossing the equator, germ nucleus ; closed ~ , that kind beginning in the skein stage, and of nucleus which occurs in the

completed ; ~ in the mother-star higher plants, cf. Open ~ ; gam'eto-

Star ; ~ = '- , Aster Threads Spindle- the nucleus of a gamete ; gen'era-

fibres ; nu'eleated, having a nu- tive ~ , an active nucleus in karyo-

cleus or nuclei ; Nu'clein, Stras- kinesis ; Germ ^ , a nucleus result- burger's term for Chromatin. ing from the fusion of a male and Nu'cleo-oen'trosomes (nucleus, a ker- female pronucleus; cf. Pronucleus; nel), a term used by G. Karsten in O'pen ~ the central body of Phyco- describing the nuclear division of chromaceae, of much looser struc- Psilotum iriquetrum, Sw. ; pro- ture than in higher plants, and bably the same as Strasburger's destitute of true nuclear mem-

"Secretion bodies"; ~ Hy'alo- brane (Hieronymus) ; Bejec'tiou '~ plasm, Strasburger's word for sister-nuclei to the female nucleus

LiNiN ; ~ Id'ioplasm, the forma- which play no part in fertilization

tive part of the nuclear hyalo- (Hartog) ; ~ Spln'dle = nuclear

plasm ; ~ Mi'crosomes ( Stras- Spindle. burger) = Chromatin ? Nucula'nlum (nucvla, a small nut), nu'cleolate (nucleus, a kernel), pos- Richard's term for a drupaceous or

sessing a nucleolus ; Nu'cleole, baccate fruit containing more than Nucle'olus, a sharply defined one stone or seed, adopted by

point in the cell-nucleus ; nuole'olo- Lindley for a superior stony-seeded

Nucle'olus, = Endondolbtjs ; Nu'- berry, such as a grape ; Nu'cule, cleophyaes (0u'u, I grow), tubular, Nuc'ida, (1) a diminutive of Nut-

septate projections in certain let ; (2) the female sexual organ of

Fungi which correspond to the Ghara ; nuculo'sus (Mod. Lat. ), con- base of the peritheoium, and ulti- taining hard nut-like seeds.

mately become ascophyses ; Nu'c- nuoumenta'ceous, an error for nuca-

) leoplasm ( -n-Xdafia, moulded nuc- mbntaceous.

lear protoplasm, the nucleo-hyalo- nude, nu'dus ( Lat. naked), bare,

plasm of Vines ; Nucleopro'teid naked, in various senses. (-1- Protbid), any protein which is nudicau'lous, nudicau'Us (nudua, a characteristic constituent of the naked, caulis, a stem), naked stem-

nucleus. med, not leafy; nudius'culus (Lat. ),

Nu'cleus ( Lat. a kernel ), (1) the somewhat bare. kernel of an ovule or seed, the nuUiner'vis (nvllus, none, nervus, a an organised nerve) = ENERVIS. NxTCBLLUS ; (2) pro-

teid body of complex substance ; it nu'merous, numero'sus (Lat., very contains one or more nucleoli, and many), in botany indefinite, not

divides either directly by Frag- readily counted ; the sign is oo.

mentation, or indirectly by Karto- Nut, Nux (Lat. ), a hard and indehi- 171 ; +;

Nut oblong

Bcent one-seeded fruit, often flattened the other way, antero- vaguely applied to such fruits posteriorly instead of laterally as those of the Labiatae and obcon'ic, obcon'ical, obcon'icus

Cyperaoeae ; spu'rious -' , a fruit {conus, a cone), conical, but attach-

which owes its hardness to some- ed at the narrower end ; obcor'-

thing other than the pericarp, as date, obcorda'tus ( -I- cordatus),

in Mirahilis ; Nux bacca'ta, a nut inversely heart-shaped, the notch

enclosed in a pulpy covering, as in being apical ; obcor'difonn, obcor-

the Yew. di/orm'is, are synonyms ; obcrena'-

nu'tant, nu'tans (Lat. ), nodding. tus (+ CRBNATUS), t, denticulate; Nuta'tion (nutatio, a nodding), the obcur'rens (currmis, running),^ run- revolution of the growing tips ning together and adhering at the

of young organs ; revol'viiig ~ = point of contact ; obdiploste'mo- ClRCUMNUTATION. nous, -us (SiTrXios, double, aTrniav, Nut'let, the diminutive of Nut, cf. a thread), where the stamens are

NnouLE ; variously applied to any double the number of the petals to fruit, dry independent as an achene, which the outer series are opposite ; or part of a sohizooarp. Obdiploste'mony, the condition it-

Nu'tricism {nutricius, that nourishes), self ; obim'brlcate, obimbrica'tus

a form of symbiosis in which the ( + IMBBICATUS), when the imbri- Fungus becomes the nurse and cation is from above, downward ;

feeder of the other symbiont, as in oblan'ceolate, oblanceola'tus {

Monotropa ; Nutrit'ion, the process LANCBOLATns), Strictly speaking of promoting the growth or re- this cannot occur, but the word is pairing the waste caused by vital used for tapering towards the base phenomena. more than towards the apex; ob'late Nux (Lat., nut), see Nut. (latus, broad), flattened at the nyctan'thous (I'uf, pvkt6s, night poles, as an orange. avdos, a flower), used of night- ob'ligate (obligatus, obliged), neces-

flowering plants ; Nyctan'thy, the sary, essential ; the reverse of fa- flowering ~ nocturnal cultative ; Gam'ete, a gamete condition of ; nyctltrop'ic (rpoirTi, a turning), which is incapable of further de- placing the leaves as during the velopment without union with

night ; Nyctit'ropism, assuming another gamete ; ~ Par'asite, an the sleep position. organism in which parasitism is nymphaeform'is (nympha, a pupa, imperative in order to attain com-

forma, shape) ; Koerber applies plete development ; ob'ligatory, ~ this to chrysalis-shaped spores of ob'ligative, as in obligate ; some Lichens. Sym'biont, an organism which is dependent upon another for its Oan'gium {Ciov, an egg, iryyiiov, a, existence. vessel), an apooytial oogonium oblig'ulate, obligtda'tus {ob, inverse, which forms oospores by free cell- -f LIGULATE), used of ligulatc florets formation, as in Saprolegnieae of Compositae extended on the (Hartog). inner side of the capitulum instead Ob, as a prefix, means inversely or of the outside; obligu'liflorous {flos,

oppositely ; as obovate, inversely floris, a flower), florets which are

ovate ; sometimes, but incorrectly, obligulate, as in Zoegea. used for sub-. oblique', obli'quus (Lat., slanting),

(6b, inverse, davatus, club- ) Obola'vate ( 1 slanting ; (2) of unequal sides. shaped), attached at the thicker oblit'erated (ohliteratiis, erased), sup-

end ; obcompres'sed, obcompree'sus pressed ; OWltera'tion, suppression. (compres'sua, pressed together). ob'long, oblon'gus (Lat., rather long). 178 +;

oboval Oetandria

much longer than broad, with pratensis, Linn. ; obtuslus'culus, nearly parallel sides. (Lat.), somewhat obtuse. obo'val, obova'lis {ob, inverse, + obval'late, obvcUla'tus {ob, about, ovALis), reversed ovate, the distal vallatus, walled round), apparently

end the broader ; obo'vate, ohova'- walled up, guarded on all sides ; ins, practically the same as the obvalla'ris, surrounded as by a

last ; obo'void (eTSos, like), an obo- wall, as in Narcissus obvaMaris, vate solid ; obrin'gens ( + ein- Salisb. GENS), t_ a ringent floret of the ob'verse, obver'sus (Lat. turned to-

Compositae, with an anterior lip wards) ; (1) the side facing, as jth, and the posterior lip fths of opposed to reverse ; (2) used when the whole, as though the lower lip the point of » radicle in a seed

were uppermost ; otootun'dus ( approaches the hilum ; ob'versely, KOTCTNDDS),? somewhat round. in an obverse form. Obscure', dbscu'rus (Lat., dark), (I) ob'volute, obvolu'tus (Lat. wrapped dark of or dingy in tint ; (2) uncer- round), a modification convo- tain in affinity or distinctiveness lute, when the margins of one (3) hidden. organ alternately overlap those of ob'solete, obsoWtus (Lat., worn out), an opposite organ, such as half-

wanting or rudimentary ; used of equitant ; obvolu'tive is a syno- an organ which is scarcely apparent nym.

or has vanished ; obsoles'cent ( Ocolu'sion {occlusus, shut up), the ESCENS), nearly obsolete. process by which wounds in trees

obstrue'tus (Lat. , blocked up), where are healed by the growth of callus, hairs or other appendages partially then said to be occlu'ded (M. Ward). close the throat of a tubular corolla. occulta'tus (Lat.), hidden. obsubula'tus (ob, inverse, + subula- ocean'ldus (oceanus, belonging to the Tus), very narrow, pointed at the ocean), used of a marine plant. base and widening a little towards ocel'late, ocdla'tus, ocella'ted {ocdlus,

the apex ; obsutura'lis {sutura, a a little eye), with a circular patch seam), J applied to the suture of a of colour.

pericarp ; septifragal. Ocel'lus (Lat. a little eye), an eye- obtec'tus (Lat.), covered over by spot as in HaZionyx, a genus of

something ; obtec'to-veno'sus, when Diatoms. the principal and longest veins are oohra'ceouB, -ceus {ochra, yellow connected only by simple cross- earth), ochre-ooloured, yellow with

veins ; ob'tegens (Lat.), covering a tinge of red. over. O'cbrea = Oorea; o'chreate = ocbbatb. Obtura'tor {obturatus, stopped up), (1) ochroleu'cous, -cus (fixP") yellow a small body accompanying the earth, \evKbi, white), yellowish pollen-masses of Orchids and Ascle- white, buff. piads, closing the opening of the O'crea (Lat. a greave), a tubular anther = Cakuncle (Hooker stipule, or pair of opposite stipules ; (2)

; o'create, ocrea'tus, fil. ) ; (3) a process of the wall of BO combined the ovary descending on the provided with ocreae. micropyle, in Plumbago. Ootagyn'la {dKrii, eight, 7u;^, a obturbiaa'tus {ob, inverse, + tfkbina- woman), a Linnean order of plants

Tus), reverse top-shaped, swollen with eight-styled flowers ; octag'y- at the bottom, narrowed at the uous, octagyn'icus, having eight

top. styles ; octam'erous (fi^pos, a part), obtuse', obtu'sus (Lat.), blunt or in eights ; ootan'der {Arnp, ivdpos,

J stamens ; Oc- rounded at the end ; — An'gled, a man), with eight stem-angles rounded, as in Salvia tan'dria, a Linnean class of plants 173 = ; ;; ;

octandroua oligodynamic

with eight stamens ; octan'drous, words are frequently spelled, Ecol'- having eight stamens. ogy, ecolog'ical, Ecol'ogist.

Oc'tant (octane, a half-quadrant), the offlci'nal,o^iji(i7i8 (Lat. , of the shops),

division of an oospore ; ~ Wall, used of medicinal or other plants applied to the septum which cuts procurable at shops. the oospore into octants, OSteet, a lateral shoot used for propa- octan'theroua (iKTu., eight, ii/ffiipos, gating, as in the houseleek ; OfT- flowery), having eight fertile sta- shoot, an ofiset.

mens ; octaii'nuB {appriv, a male), often-hear'iitg, producing more than Necker'a term for octandbous. once in the season, multiferous. octofa'rius (L. Lat.), in eight ranks or -oides, -odes, -ides, -oideus, suffixes

rows, from cUos, resemblance ; as petal- octog'ynous octagynous. oideus, resembling a petal. octoloc'ular (octo, eight, locvliis, a little Oid'ium, pi. Oid'ia (lioK, an egg, + ISiov, place), applied to an eight-celled a diminutive), a term used to de-

fruit or pericarp ; octopet'alous, note concatenate conidia (Cooke) lus {ircTuXov, a. flower-leaf), with not to be confounded with the

eight petals ; ootora'dlate {radius, form - genus Oidium, Link, the a ray), with eight rays, as some conidial stage of Erysipheae.

Compositae ; octosep'alous ( + Sbpa- Oil, used for any fluid fat-bodies in

lcm), with eight sepals ; octo- plants, chiefly stearic, palmitic, or

sper'inous (airipiM, seed), eight- oleic acids ; ~ Cells, gum-cells ; -

seeded ; Oc'tospore (aTopa, seed) = Plaa'tida, Elaioplasts ; ~ Tube, a the Cakposporb of Porphyraoeae synonym of Vitta in the fruit of

octosp'orous, eight-spored ; octo- Umbelliferae. ste'monouB {(tt-Ziikhv, a thread), with oleag'lnous, -ua (oleagineua, pertaining

eight fertile stamens ; octos'tichous, to the olive), oily and succulent, -us {(ttIxos, a series), in eight rows, o'leic (oleum, olive oil) Ac'id, a glycer- (oailus, = ocELLATB ide fat occurring in plants oc'ulate an eye) ; or Oc'ulus, (1) the first appearance of O'lein or O'leine, one of the vege-

a bud, especially on a tuber ; (2), table fats, the depression on the summit of ol'ens (Lat.), smelling, especially some fruits, as the apple, sweetly odorous. -odes (etSos, resemblance), a suffix for Oleores'in (oleum, olive oil, -1- Eesin),

similar to ; as phyllodes, like a leaf, the natural admixture of a resin od'dly pjn'nate, with a terminal leaf- and an essential oil, forming a let, imparipinnate. vegetable balsam or turpentine, odora'tus (Lat.), fragrant, usually olera'ceous, olera'ceus (Lat., herb- restricted to sweet smelling O'dours, like), (l) having the nature of a growing which, in flowers, are sometimes pot-herb, esculent ; (2) X due to essential oils which can be in cultivated places (De CandoUe). distilled off; at other times the Olib'anum (Arab., ol or al, the, scent cannot be collected by chemi- Lub^n, milk), a bitter and aromatic cal means. gum-resin from several species of Oede'ma (otdriim, a swelling), J the Boswellia, the frankincense of com- tumid glands on woody tissues of merce, Conifers. oligan'drous, -rus (iXlyoi, few, av^p, Oecol'ogy {oiKos, a house, '\6yos, a dvdpis, a man), with few stamens discourse), the study of plant-life oligan'thous, -thus (ai'Sos, a flower),

in relation to environment ; adj. few-flowered ; oligodynEim'ic (5im- oecolog'ical ; Oecorogist, a student fus, power), Naegeli's term for the of the life of the plant in relation poisonous condition of water con-

to its surroundings ; Notb. —these taining minute traces of copper 174 ;

oUgomeroas OomyceteB

or brass ; it kills delicate cells monadelphous flower, the stamens

of Spirogyra ; oligom'erous (liipos, being in one bundle. a part), parts consisting of few Om'phalode, Omphcdo'dium (ifi

members ; OUgom'ery, of few navel, el5os, like), the mark in the

parts ; ollgope'lic {iniKbs, clay), hilum through which the vessels applied to plants which prefer pass to the chalaza. certain rooks which yield a small one-ribbed, having one prominent amount of clayey detritus (Thur- rib, as in the leaves of many -' mann) ; ollgopsaju'iuic (^d^uyuos, grasses ; si'ded, (1) turned to one

sand), for plants affecting certain side ; (2) the parts turned the same

granite and dolomite formations way ; (3) unequal sided.

(Thurmann) ; both of these classes onisciform'is (onisciis, a wood-louse, belong to the dysgbogenotjs series forma, shape), Koerber's word for ; Oligopliyl'la(0iJXXoi',aleaf),Neeker'8 certain Lichen-spores resembling

expression for a bract ; ollgophyl'- a wood-louse in shape ; onis'cus

lous, having few leaves; oligosperm'- (Lat. ), used for lead-coloured, from ous, -Tnus (a-T4p/j,a, a seed), few- the tint of the same creature.

seeded ; oligoste'monouB (o-T^/iwy, a Onomatolo'gla (6voim, a name, Xi^os,

thread), with few stamens ; Oli- discourse), the rules to be observed gotax'y (rdjis, order), the decrease in the construction of names.

in the number of whorls in a flower ; Ontog'eny (Svra, things existing, Oligotrop'lo (rpoir^, a turning), em- yevos, race, oflFspring), the develop- ployed by Loew for bees which ment of an individual in its various

visit a restricted range of plants. stages ; adj. ontogenetic. oliva'oeous, -ceiis (oliva, an olive, + ooblas'tic (dov, an egg, /SXao-Tos, a

aceous) ; oll'veus (Lat. ), the colour bud) Fil'aments, see next ; Ooblas-

of a ripe olive ; olivas'cens (Lat.), te'ma (/SXao-xT/jna, a sprout) Fil'a- - turning olive coloured ; ollvae- ments, the Fertilisino Tubes of

form'is (forma, shape), shaped like Schmitz ; O'ooyst (/cmra, a bag), ol'ive-colour, an olive, drupaceous ; a female organ, an Oogonium ; ol'lve-green, yellowish green dark- Oogam'ete (-1- Gamete), a female

ened with black ; ollvlc'olor (color, gamete (Hartog) ; oog'amous (yd/jios, colour) = OLIVACEOUS. marriage), conjugation in which Olopetalar'ius (Skos, whole, iriToXov, a the two coalescing gametes are

flower-leaf), the floral envelopes of dissimilar form ; Oog'amy, the changed partially or wholly, as reverse condition of Isogamy; stamens or pistils changed into the female gamete never active, petaloid organs. the male a spermatozoon, and the (piXia, Om'bropMle (6/x^pos, a storm, product an Oosperm (Hartog) ; I love), Wiesner's term for a plant Oogem'ma (gemma, a bud), Caruel's

which likes rain ; ombroph'ilous, term for Archbgohium ; Oogen'esia

rain-loving ; Ombroph'lly, the con- (y^vem, beginning), the develop-

dition described ; Om'brophobe ment of the egg, the early stage of

(0oj3os, fear), a similar term for a the ovule ; O'ogone, Oogo'nium, pi.

plant disliking rain ; ombroph'obic, Oogo'nia (yovi), race, offspring),

hating rain ; Ombroph'oby, dislike a female sexual organ, usually a or impatience of rain. spherical sac, containing one or

omniv'oroua (omnivorus, all devour- more oospheres ; ookinet'ic (kLvt)- ing), applied to parasites which TiKos, putting in motion), tending attack many species and are not to produce the female element confined to one host-plant. Ool'ysis (XiJo-is, a loosing), viri- Omoplephy'tum (o/aoTrXeK^s, inter- descence, especially in carpels and laced, ^vrbv, a plant), applied to a ovules (Penzig) ; Oomyce'tes (/iixTis, 175 +;,; ;;

Oonucleus oppositlfoliouB

a mushroom), those Fungi which a thickening which causes a hinge- reproduce sexually by antheridia like motion of the cells themselves

and oogonia, the result being an (Schinz) ; cf. Lip-cells ; — of

oospore (Tubeuf) ; Oonu'cleus ( Flow'ers, the expansion of the Nucleus), the nucleus of an members at the period of maturity

- oosphere, c/. Spbrm nucleus ; anthesis. O'ophore {(popew, I carry), the oper'culax, oper'oulate, opercida'tus

OoPHriE in Archegoniatae ; Oopho- {operculum, a lid), furnished with rldan'gia (a77«o»', a vessel), J. a lid, as in many Mosses and

Smith's name for the macro- Myrtaceae ; Oper'oule, the lamina

sporangia of Marsilea, etc ; Oo- of the leaf of Sarracenia (Heckel) pborid'ium, a sporangium contain- oper'ouliform {forma, shape),

ing macroapores in Sdaginella shaped like a lid ; Oper'culum, a O'ophyte {(pvTw, a plant), that lid or cover which separates by portion of the life-cycle of a plant a transverse line of division, as during which it bears sexual organs; in the pyxis, and Moss capsules

the same as Oofhobe ; O'oplasm also in some pollen grains. (7rX(iff/4a, moulded), the protoplasm oper'tus (Lat,, hidden), the same as

of the oosphere ; O'osphere {cr(j>aTpa, tectus. a globe), a naked and nucleate opisthe'lial, an error for opis'tliial mass of protoplasm, which, after {dtrMios, hinder) Pore, Tschirch's coalescence with the sperm-nu- name for the posterior border of a

cleus, develops into an oosperm stoma ; opis'thodal is a synonym ;

the egg or ovum ; Com'pound ~ cf. EisoDiAL ; opisthod'romous one which contains several or {dpopios, a course), a flower is so many functional sexual nuclei, as termed, when the genetic spiral in Albugo (Stevens); O'osperm is assumed to pass as its shortest {

cell ; Oosporan'ge = Oosporan'- flower, between it and the axis of gium, pi. Oosporan'gia {a-iropi., a the stem. seed, dyyeiov, a vessel), the sacs or oph'iure {6<)>is, a snake, oipd,, a tail)

sporangia which produce oospores ; Cells, used by Jiinsson for AsTBO-

O'ospore, the immediate product SCLBREIDS of Tschirch ; the name of fertilisation in an oophore is from their resemblance to Echi- Oothe'ea (S^kjj, a case), the theca noderms. or sporangium of Ferns. O'pium (Lat., dried poppy - juice), opa'cuB (Lat., shady, giving shade), the concrete juice from the cap-

(1) not transparent ; (2) dull, not sules of Papavcr sommferum,

shining ; opake and opaque are Linn. ; ~ Al'kalolds are numerous, anglicised forms of the word. the best known being Morphia.

o'pen, not closed ; as '- Bun'dle, one Oplar'ium (m\6.pia, arms), Necker's which retains a portion of cam- word for Scyphus. bium capable of further differen- op'posite, opposi'tus (Lat., standing to closed bundle tiation ; opposed ; in front) ; (1) set against, as leaves nucleus of ~Nu'cleus, the Cyano- when two on one node ; (2) one phyceae (Hieronymus). part before another, as a stamen in

O'pening, expanding or becoming front of apetal ; opposi'te-pinn'atua,

unclosed ; -^ Cells, those special with leaflets on the same plane at cells by which the dehiscence of right angles to the common petiole; sporangia and pollen-sacs takes oppositiflor'us {flos,floria, a flower), place (a) either by tangential having opposite peduncles; opposi-

contraction on drying, or (6) by tifo'Uous (folium, a leaf) ; (1) with 176 ;

oppositipetalous Omitlioplillas

opposite leaves ; (2) opposite a orculaeform'is {orcvla, a small tun,

leaf, as a tendril ; oppositipet'- forma, shape), used by Koerber for alous, -lus (weVaXop, a flower-leaf), cask-shaped Lichen-spores.

placed before a petal ; oppositisep'- Or'der, Or'do (Lat., methodical ar-

alous ( + Sbpal), situated before a rangement), in botany, a group

sepal ; oppositi'vus (Lat. ), when between genus (tribe, suborder),

one part stands before another, the and class ; or'dinal, relating to reverse of " alternate." an order, as ~ Char'aoter, that Opseosper'mata (8i/'is, S^peas, sight, which marks it ofi' from kindred dTrepfia, a seed), tubercles on the orders. surface of some Algals containing Or'gan {Spyavov, an instrument), any spores (Lindley). definite part of a structure, as a

Opsig'ony (d^i70i'os, posthumous), the cell, a fibre, a leaf, etc. ; Or'gans of production and development of Reproduo'tion, those which are con-

proventitious buds (Wittrock) ; cf. cerned in the production of seeds

Prolepsis. or spores ; in Phanerogams the op'timal (optirmis, best), the most stamens and pistils are so termed advantageous for an organism or -^ of Vegeta'tion, those connected

function ; Op'timum refers to the with the growth simply, as roots

degree of temperature, light, etc., and leaves ; organ'ic, organ'icus, conduces to the vital relating to living ~ which best organs ; Cen'tre, activities of a given organism. the point or axis around which O'rae {ora, extremity) Radl'cum J = growth takes place, it may not be

Spongioles. the structural centre ; Organog^'eny Or'ange, (1) the fruit of Citrus Aur- (7^po!, race, offspring), or Organo-

antium, Linn. ; (2) a secondary gen'esls (yei/eins, beginning), the colour, red and yellow combined, formation and development of taking its name from the tint of organs from their primitive condi-

the fruit mentioned. tion ; adj. organogenet'ic ; Orga- orbic'ular, orbicula'ris (Lat., cir- nog'raphy {ypd^a, I write) ; Orga- cular), of a flat body with a cir- nol'ogy {\dyoi, discourse), the study

cular outline ; orbic'ulate, orbicu- of organs and their relations ; Or'-

Za'tes, disk-shaped ; Orbic'ulus, (1) ganoid {etSos, like), an organ of the fleshy corona in the genus apparently unknown function

round flat hymen- (Swingle) ; Or'ganism, a body pos- Siapelia ; (2) a

ium in Fungi. sessing organic structure ; organo- Orbil'la (orhia, an orb), the shield of plas'tic (irXacTTiKos, suitable for certain Lichens, as in Uenea. being wrought), with the power of Orohel'la, a general term for Lichens producing organs. which yield dyes, as Lecanora, Or'gya {dpymi, a fathom), six feet in

Moccdla, etc. height ; orgy'alis, a fathom long, oreliida'ceous, -cms, (1) furnished with the height of a man. two tubers at the roots, as species Orienta'tion {oriens, the east), (1) the

of the genus Orchis and its allies ; correct placing with regard to the order Or- quarters of the compass (2) pertaining to the ; (2) -

chideae ; orcliid'eoua, relating to rally means relative position, as the Orohideae. applied to organs, etc. Or'clill, also known as Ottdbeab, and Or'lflce, Orijic'ium (Lat. , an opening), Litmus, a valuable dye from an opening by which spores, etc.,

Lecaiiora tartarea, Ach., and other escape ; ostiole. Lichens. Orig'oma = Oryooma. Orcein, the colouring principle from Omithopli'ilae (6pi'i!, ipvWos, a bird, various tinctorial Lichens. (pMa, I love), plants habitually 177 ;;

Ormogon ovate

fertilised by pollen brought by Osmo'ais, the difl'usion of liquids

birds ; adj. onUthoph'UouB. through membranes ; adj. oBmo'tic. Or'mogon, cited by Crozier, = HoR- os'seouB, osfsens (Lat.), bony. MOGONB. Ossio'ulus, Osaic'ulum (Lat., a little Or'thoblast {dpSos, upright, ^Xaaros, a bone), the pyrene of a fruit, as a bud), used by Cramer for confer- medlar. void prothallia growing in an os'sifled (os, oasis, a bone, facio, I

ascending direction ; Orthophoto- make), becoming hard as bone, as taz'y (0(is, 0UTOS, light, ra^is, the stones of drupes, such as the order), the direct arrangement of peach and plum. such organisms as Volvox and Ostaiiphy'tuin {i(TTapi.ov, a little bone, Spirogyra assumed under the (pvTov, a plant), a plant which pro-

stimulus of light (Oltmanns) ; or- duces a drupe or drupe-like fruit. thophototrop'lc {wpoTri, a turning), Osteoscle'reids [dareov, a bone, the direct influence of light shown in (tkXtipo!, hard), the "bone-shaped" Vaucheria, Phycomyces, and shoots sclereids of Hahea. of flowering plants (Oltmanns). oa'tiolate, ostiola'tus (ostiolum, a little Orthoploo'eae (jrXoK-i;, a twining), those door), furnished with an opening or Cruciferae which have conduplicate mouth; Os'tiole, Os'tiolum, (1) the

cotyledons ; orthoplo'ceous, -ecus, opening of the conceptacle in some

when the incumbent cotyledons Algae ; (2) the aperture through

are folded round the radicle ; Or- which spores escape from the peri- (ririp/Mi, thosper'meae ( a seed ), thecium. plants whose seeds have albumen ostracodermat'inus (taTpa,Kov, a hard flat on the inner face, neither in- shell, dep/iiTivos, leathern), resem-

volute or convolute ; Or'thostichy, bling the shells of mollusea, applied pi. Or'thostiohies (trrlxos, a row), a to certain Lichens. vertical row, as in phyllotaxis -o'sus, a termination indicating aug- orthos'tichous, straight ranked mentation, as radio'sus, large- ortlios'tomous {a-Tip-a, a. mouth), rooted.

with a straight opening ; ortho- out'er, exterior, abaxial ; ^ Glumes, tac'tic (rd^is, order), used by S. one or more glumes at the base of Moore in the sense of normal, ap- a spikelet in grasses, enclosing one

plied to an interval in the Phot- or more flowers ; -- Perid'ium =

rum ; orthofropal, orthot'ropous Pbridium externum. [rpoTi], a turning), used of an ovule Out'growth, (1) another name for with a straight axis, the chalaza Emergence a tuberous excre- ; (2) being at the insertion and the ori- scence on roots. fice or foramen at the opposite end, Out'Une, the continuous boundary-

farthest from the hilum ; ortho- line of an organ, as a leaf. trop'lc, assuminga vertical position. o'val, ova'lis {ovum, an egg), broadly Oryg'oma {bpvypM,, a ditch or pit), elliptic. Necker's term for the cup of a Ovarioph'ylly {"ddpiov, omdum,"

Ob, Or'ls (Lat. ), a mouth or orifice. sis of a carpel into a leaf (Morren).

oscilla'ting= VERSATILE ; oscilla'nus, O'vary, Ova'rium {ovum, an egg), that oscillator'iiis (Lat. from oscillatio, part of the pistil which contains a swinging), has the same meaning. the ovules, the immature fruit, Os'culum (Lat. a little mouth) = formerly termed the Gbrmen. OSTIOLE. o'vate, ova'tus (Lat., egg-shaped), (1)

OBmom'eter ( dj/ios, a thrusting, shaped like a longitudinal section liiTpov, a measure), an instrument of a hen's egg, the broader end

to measure Osmosis ; s ' m o s e, basal ovoid. ; (2) used for 178 ; ; ;

Ovellum paleolate

Ovel'lum, Dunal'a term for a young paohyphyl'loua {tpiWov, a leaf), carpel bearing the same relation thick - leaved ; paohystleh'ous to a mature carpel as an ovule to a {(TTtxos, a row), thick-sided, applied seed. to cells only. Ovench'yma {ovum, an egg ; eYxy^ua, Pad, (1) a cushion-like growth; cf. an infusion), loose tissue of oval- SUBABCHBSPORIAL Pad ; (2) a popu- shaped cells. lar name in the United States for overhang'mg, projecting beyond the the floating leaves of water-lilies. Pa'gina (Lat., a leaf), the blade or o'vlform, oviform'is {ovum, an egg, surface of a leaf. forma, shape), ovoid, egg-shaped; paint'ed, having coloured streaks of o'vold, ovoi'deus {ddos, resem- unequal density. blance), an egg - shaped solid ; paired, conjugated, used of the teeth ovol'dal, having the outline of an in the peristome of Mosses ; Pair- egg ; ovula'ris {Mod. Lat.) = ovoid ing-cell, ; an equivalent of Gamete. ov'ulate, ovula'tus, (1) possessing pala'ceous, -ceus {pala, a spade or ovules (2) somewhat ovoid (Hens- ; shovel, -f aoeous), when the edges low) Ov'ule, Ov'nlum, ; the young of an organ, especially of a leaf, seed in the ovary, the organ which adhere to their support. after fertilisation develops into a paJaea'oeous = PALEACEOUS. seed ~ Tube, a thread-like ; ex- Palaeobot'any (jraXaios, ancient, tension of the amnios, rising beyond poTdvTi, a herb), fossil botany, the foramen ovuliferous {/era, ; I the study of plants in a fossil bear), bearing ovules, adj. ov'ular state; Palaeophytol'ogy {^vtov, a, O'vum, (1) the ovule; (2) = Zygote; plant, \6yos, discourse), the science (3) = OOSPHERE. of palaeobotany. oxalic, pertaining Oxalia, to wood pa'lar, pala'ris (Lat., pertaining to a sorrel ; ~ Ac'id, a vegetable acid of pale or stake), when the root is frequent occurrence ; oxaliferous perfectly continuous with the {fero, I bear), producing oxalic stem ; pala'ri-ramo'sns, when a or its salts acid ; Oxalileu'cite palar root has many branches. ( Tieghem's -t- Leucitb), Van name Pal'ate, Pala'turn (Lat., the palate), for a vacuole which contains oxalic (1) the prominent lower lip of a acid. ringent corolla ; (2) the projection oxyaoan'thous, -thus ((i|i>s, sharp, in the throat of a personate aKavBa, a thorn), furnished with gamopetalous corolla. thorns or prickles oxyoar'- Pale, many ; Pa'lea (Lat., chaflf), (I) the pus {Kapiros, fruit), when fruit is chaffy scales on the receptacle of

sharp-pointed ; Oxycel'luloses ( + many Compositae ; (2) the inner Celldlose) constitute the main bract or glume in grasses, called mass of the ground tissue of Phan- ' 'Palef'byNorth American writers erogams, and occurs with lignin in (3) the ramenta or chaffy scales the walls of wood-cells ; Ox'ydaaes, on the stipe of many Ferns ; ~ a general term for oxydising dathra'ta, the latticed scale of enzymes (Green). Ferns (Luerssen) ; palea'oeous ( + aoeous), chaffy, furnished with Pao'ket-form, the association of bac- paleae or chaff-like in texture; teria in such colonies as Sarcina. paleaeform'is {forma, shape), re- pachycar'pus (7ra;^i>s, thick, xapiros, sembling paleae ; Pal'eola, a dim- fruit), having a thick pericarp inutive of palea, or of secondary {dip/xa, skin or hide), pachyder'mous order, applied to the Lodiccle of applied to Mosses when the cells or grasses ; pal'eolate, pahola'tus, capsules are firm and resistant furnished with a lodicule ; paleo- 17'9 ;; ;

paleous Panicle

UferouB {fe.ro, I bear), bearing colouring matter of Palmella cm-

paleae ; pa'leouB, chaffy. enta, Agh. ; palmel'lold {elSos, re- PaleopliytOl'ogy=PALABOPHTTOLOGT. semblance), characteristic of the Pal'et = PALBA. genus named. Palingen'esis {irSXiv, again, -yiveais, palmiferous {paima, a date palm, a beginning), Haeckel's term for fero, I bear), producing palms. the doctrine of simple descent pal'miform (palma, palm of the also written Palin'geny. hand, forma, shape) = palmati-

Pal'isade Cells, perpendicular elong- FORM ; palminer'ved, palminer'ms ated parenchyma cells on the sur- = PALMATl N ERVIS.

face of most leaves ; ~ Parench'yma, palmit'ic {palma, a palm), relating ~ Tls'sue, tissue composed of the to palms, as ^ Ac'id, derived from said cells. Pal'mitia, a glyceride, a solid fat pal'lens (Lat., wan), pale in colour; occurring in palm oil. palles'cent, becoming light in tint Pal'mus (Lat., the palm of the hand), pal'lidus, pal'lld. somewhat pallid ; as a measure may denote a Span pallid'ulus, slightly pallid. or a Palm, nine inches or three.

Pal'lium ( Lat. , a covering or garment), palu'dal {palus, a marsh), Watson's a presumed gelatinous envelope of term for natives of marshes, wet all through Diatoms. the year ; pal'udine, Palm (palma, the palm of the hand), palu'dlnoUB (Crozier) = pal'udose, three inches, the width of the paiudo'sua (Lat., boggy), growing

hand ; — veined = palmatblt in marshy places.

VEiNBD ; palmar'is (Lat.), the palumbi'nus (Lat., of wood-pigeons), breadth of the palm, about three lead-coloured. pal'mate, palma/tus, lobed palus'ter (Lat., swampy), inches ; palus'trine, or divided, so that the sinuses palus' tris, inhabitating boggy

point to the apex of the petiole ground ; the latter Latin form is pal'mately, in a palmate manner, as more usual in botanic usage. -- ~ cleft = PALMatipid ; com'pound, pam'piniform (pampimis, a tendril, ~ divi'ded, " lobed = palmatilo- forma, shape), resembling the ten- ~ = palmatineevis dril of a vine. BATE ; nerved ; ~ {irai, ~part'ed = palmatipartitb ; Pan-apos'pory Tavris, all, +

veined = palmatinebvis ; palma- Apospoby), the condition of pro- tiform'la (forma, shape), the thalli being developed aposporously venation arranged in a palmate over the entire surface of the frond.

manner ; palmat'lfid, palmatif'idus pan'durate, pandura'tus {pandura, a {findo, fidi, to cleave), out in a musical instrument), fiddle-shaped, fashion nearly to the as the leaf of Rumex pvlcher, Linn. palmate ;

petiole ; paJmatilo'bate (lobatus, pandu'riform {forma, shape), re-

lobed), palmately lobed ; palmati- sembling the same. ner'vis (Tiervus, a nerve), palmately Pangen'esis (irSs, iravTos, all, y^veirts,

nerved ; palmatipart'ite [partitus, beginning), a theory that each divided), cut nearly to the base in separate unit of a body throws off

a palmate manner ; palmat'isect, minute gemmules during all stages palmatisect'us {sectns, cut), pal- of development, which may develop mately cut. it once, or remain dormant and be Palmel'la (jraXyitos, palpitation), the transmitted through the repro- zoogloea stage of Schizomycetes, ductive cells to later generations etc., when embedded in a jelly-like Pan'gens, De Vries'a term for the

mass ; not to be confounded with active particles assumed in Dar- the algal genus, Palmella, Lyngb. win's theory of Pangenesis. Palmel'lin, Phipson'a name for the Pan'iole, Panic'via (Lat., a tuft), 180 ; ;;

panlcled FaracoroUa

a loose flower - cluster, as a Papilla (Lat. a, nipple), pi. Papillae, branched raceme or corymb ; pan'i- (1) soft superficial glands or pro- cled, furnished with " a panicle tuberances ; (2) Also the aciculae panlc'ulate, panicula'tus (Lat. ), of certain Fungals " (Lindley) having an inflorescence of the kind papillar, papilla'ris, papillary, described panlo'ujiform ; {forma, resembling papillae ; pap'iUate, pa- shape), panicle-shaped (Crozier). pUla'tua (L*t. bud-shaped), having Panlfloa'tion (panis, bread, facio, I papillae ; papuliferous, -riis {fexo, make), the fermentative changes I bear), producing papillae ; pa- by which dough is converted into pil'liform {forma, shape), shaped bread. like a papilla ; pap'illose, papil-

Panmix'la (irSs, vavrbs, all, /d^is, a io'sus (Lat. ), covered with papillae, mixing), Weismami's term to de- pappiferous {pappus, plant-down, note the agency of modification or fero, I bear), bearing pappus ; pap'- evolution which results from the piform, pa/jpi/brm' is (/oj-ma, shape),

cessation of . resembling pappus ; Pap'po, Blair's pan'nary {panis, bread), pertaining to word for the down of thistles bread, or, suitable for making it pap'pose, pappo'sus, pap'pous, hav-

(Crozier) ; more correctly pan'ary. ing pappus ; Pap'pus, thistledown, Pannexter'na {pannus, a cloth, ex- the various tufts of hairs on temus, outside), = Epicaepium ; achenes or fruits, the limb of the pan'niform, panniform'is {forma, calyx of Composite florets. shape), having the appearance or Pap'ula (Lat. a pimple), a pimple or texture of felt or woollen cloth ; small pustule ; papuliferous, -rus Panninter'na {intermts, within) = {fero, I bear), bearing pustules ;

Endooabpidm ; panno'suB (Lat. pap'ulose, paptdo'sus, pap'ulous, ragged), botanically, the same as papillose, panniform. papyra'ceous, papyra'ceua (Lat. made panphotomet'ric (ttSs, Travrbs, all, 0us, of ), (1) papery; (2) white

0OTOS, light, lUTpov, a measure), used as paper ; ~ Ferns, filmy Ferns, of leaves which adapt their position parabolic, parabolical, parabol'icus to both direct and difl!used light {irapapoXri, a parabola), in botany,

( Wiesner) ; Pansperm'ism {cnrepiJ.a, a ovate-oblong or ovate, obtuse and seed), the universal diffusion of contracted below the apex, used of germa throughout the atmosphere. a leaf.

pantachob^ryus t (iravTaxV) on every Parabux'ine {wapa, from beside, -I- side, ^pvoi, I grow), growing in a BnxiME), and Parabuxinldine, alka- circular manner. loids occurring in Buxus semper-

pantog'enous (irSs, Travrbs, all, yevos, virens, Linn. ; Paracallua (-)- race, ofispring), applied to Fungi Callus), a substance resembling which grow everywhere, and are the callus of sieve-tubes, but difier- not confined to a single host. ing in reaction and chemical con-

Papa'in, a peptic enzyme from Carica stitution ; Paracarplum {Kapwos, Papaya, Linn. fruit), (1) an abortive pistil or papavera'ceous, belonging to, or re- carpel ; (2) the persistent portion

sembling the of ; poppy, Palaver ; some styles or stigmas Para- papa'verous, resembling a poppy. cellulose (-)- Cellulose) forms pa'pery, having of the texture paper, the epidermal cells of plants ; cf. CHARTACEOUS, PAPTBACEOUS. paraohromophorlc (xpw/ia, colour, papilioua'ceous {papilio, a butterfly + opia, I carry), applied to bacteria aoeous), a butterfly-shaped corolla, whose colouring is an excretory as in the suborder Papilionaceae product, but adheres to the or-

of Leguminosae, ganisms ; Paraoorolla ( + Corolla), 181 +;; ; ;

Paracyst FarasituB

any appendage to » corolla, the Param'yl, Paramy^lum {H/ivXav,

corona of a flower ; Par'acyst fine flour), a mucilaginous sub- (KiffTis, a bag), Tulasne's term for stance probably akin to starch, in

gametes in Peziza, etc. ; Paradi- the cytoplasm of some Algae, as phyl'lum (Sis, twice, (jtv'Wov, a leaf), Phaeophyceae and Bhodophyoeae a double leaf resulting from dicho- Parane'mata, pi. (>'^/ua, a thread),

tomy of the lamina (Kronfeld).j the paraphyses of Algae ; adj. par'afflnold (+ Paraffin, eXSos, resem- parane'matal, as ~ ru'aments =

blance), Kerner's term for a group Pabanbmata ; Paranu'cleolus ( + of scents, such as the Rose, Lime, Nucleolus), a secondary nucleolus and Elder. when there are more than one

Paragalac'tan irapk, from beside, -l- (Strasburger) ; Paranu'cleus ( -I- Nu- Galactan), a reserve substance in cleus), an apparently additional

the seeds of lupins ; Parag'amy nucleus, generally near the true

(7(£/ios, marriage), vegetative or nucleus, and sometimes budded ofl'

gametal nuclei lying in a con- from it ; parapeo'tic ( + pbctic) tinuous mass of cytoplasm which Ac'id, derived from by the

fuse to form a zygote nucleus action of alkalis ; Farapec'tin,

, apocyt'ial ~ the vegetative nuclei hydrolysed pectin ; Parapet'almn of an apocytium which fuse to form (mToXoii, a flower-leaf), any ap- an " Oospore " in Saprolegnieae pendage to a corolla, consisting

(Hartog) ; Paragen'esis (yiveai^, be- of several pieces (Moench) ; paxa-

ginning), all modes of reproduction pet'alous, -lua ; parapet'aloid (elSos, resulting in a body which simu- likeness), (1) bearing a parapet-

lates a zygote in the same or allied alum ; (2) of stamens which stand

forms (Hartog) ; Paraheliot'ropism on each side of a petal ; Para- (-hHEMOTBOPlSM), diurnal sleep, phyl'Iium {

the movements of leaves to avoid Stipule ; (2) a, foliaceous expan-

; a, the effects of intense sunlight cf. sion in some calyces ; (3) small

PAKATHERMOTROPic ; Parali'nin ( interfoliar appendage on Moss-

Linin), the substance composing stems ; Paraph'ysea {^6

equally distant at every part ; ~ flora, the parastades; (3) formerly

Chor'isls, lateral separation into used for the oystidia of Fungi ;

two or more members ; --' nerved, ~En'velope, the peridium of Ure-

~ ner'via, '- veined, parallelive- dineae ; adj. paraph'ysate ; Para-

no'sus, straight nerved or veined ; plas'ma (TrXatr/no, moulded), the (1) the lateral ribs straight as in more liquid interfilar portions of

; ( Alnus ; (2) the entire system, as in protoplasm ParaplectencU'yma -I-

the leaves of grasses ; parallelod'- Plectenohyma), a modiflcation of romous, -mu3 (dpo/ios, a course), hyphal-tissue (Lindau). having parallel veins, as in lilies Par'astte (n-a.p6.ai.Tos, one who lives at (Ettingshausen). another's expense), an organism

paramerid'ian {iraph, from, beside, -t- subsisting on another (the host) Mbridian), used of planes in a ~ Sap'rophyte, a parasite which Diatom-frustule which are parallel kills its host and then continues

to the meridian (0. Mueller); Para- to feed OQ it ; parasit'ic, deriving mlt'om {+ MiTOM), Flemming's nourishment from some other or

term for the more fluid portion of ganism ; ~ Castra'tlon, sterility in- the cell-substance contained in the duced by the efifects of a parasite

MiTOM ; the paraplasma of Kupffer Pafasl'tus spu'rlus = Epiphyte 182 ; ;

parasitised Partition

parasiti'aed, infected by a parasite ; the colouring matter found in the Par'asitlsm, the state of preying Lichen, Physcia parietina, De Not.

upon another organism ; Paras- parlpin'nate, paripinna'tus (Lat.), penna'tla (+ Spermatia), small pinnate, with an equal number of reproductive bodies resembling leaflets, that is, without a ter- spores, found in some Algals minal one. (Lindley). paroe'cious (Trapi, from beside, ol/cos, Paras'tades (ira/aatrTds, a door-post), a house), in Mosses, having the the coronal rays of Pasaiflora, cf. male and female organs in the Pakapetala. same inflorescence, the male naked Parasta'mea ( + Stamen) or Paraste'- in the axils of the lower bracts ;

mon [at-iiiiuv , a filament), an abor- paroi'cous is a synonym ; Paror- tive stamen, a staminodium. thot'ropism {dpffos, right, rpoTrii, a Parasfichy, Parotstich'ws {irapA,, from turning), Archangeli's term when beside, orfxos, a series), a secondary leaves place themselves with the

spiral inphyllotaxis ; Payastyle ( -l- lamina vertical, but not necessarily

Sttle), an abortive style ; Para- meridional. symbio'sis (-f- Symbiosis), when part'ed, part'ite, parti'tus (Lat.), the hyphae of a parasite envelope cleft, but not quite to the base. the algal constituents of a Lichen Parthenogam'ete {irapBivos, virgin + and inflict injury (Zopf); parather- Gamete), a gamete which develops

motrop'ic [Sepfwsy warm, t/jottt;, a without pairing (Hartog) ; Partho- turning), proposed by Macfarlane gen'esis {yivem, origin), a form of for paraheliotropic, is such cases as apogamy in which the oosphere de- the movements of leaves inDrosera, velops into the normal product of

Oxalis and Mimosa ; paraton'ic fertilisation without a preceding

[Tbvos, tension), efl'ect of light in sexual act ; Parthenog'eny (fevoi,

retarding growth ; paratransver'- race, offspring), has the same mean- san {transversus, lying across), used ing; Parthenogonid'ia (yovhs, off- of the planes parallel to the trans- spring), reproductive cells in a versan plane of a Diatom frus- colony of Volvox Olobator, Linn.,

tule (0. Mueller) ; paraval'var acting asexually ; Par'thenosperm applied to those ((TTrep/na, a ( + Vaive), planes seed), a body resembling which are parallel to the valvar a zygospore, but not resulting from plane of a Diatom, either epithecal the coalescence of the contents of

or hypothecal (0. Mueller). two sexually different cells ; Par*- Parench'yma (irapeyxeu, I pour in thenoapore {a-iropa, a seed), is the beside), used by Grew, and since same thing. his time for the tissue composed of par'tlal, partia'lis (Lat.), in botany cells more or less isodiametrio, usually means secondary, as ~ In- especially such tissue as the volu'cre, - Ped'jincle, — Pet'iole,

~ it is ' pith and mesophyll ; parenohy'- Um'bel; opposed to 'general." matous, consisting of parenchyma, par'tible, partib'ilis (Lat., divisible), spongy, porous. ultimately separating, or easily Parich'nos (irapa, beside, t^vo^, a foot- separable. print), the two lateral prints on par'tlm (Lat.), partly; other ex- the leaf-acar of Lepidodendreae. pressions are ex parte, pro parte. Par'ies (Lat., a house wall), pi., Partition {partitio, a, division into Par'ietes, the wall of any organ parts), (1) a wall or dissepiment pari'etal, parieta'lis, borne on or (2) a separated part or segment belonging to a wall ; ~ U'trlole, used (3) the deepest division into which by Noll for the layer of proto- a leaf can be cut without becoming

plasm next the cell-wall ; Pari'etln, compound (Lindley). 183 ;; ; partltuB pedate

paxtl'tus (Lat.) = pasted. pat'ulous, -lib8 (Lat.), slightly spread- Par'tridge-wood, oak-wood destroyed ing. by Stereum (Tubeuf). pauciflor'ous, -rus (paucua, few, flos, parvlflor'us {parvus, small, flos, floris, j^ori^aflower), few flowered; paucl- a flower), having smaller flowers fo'Ilus {folium, a leaf), having few

than in its congeners ; parvifo'llus leaves ; paucljuga'tus (jugum, a (folium, a leaf), with smaller leaves yoke), with only a fey pairs of than the allied species; par'vus leaflets in a pinnate leaf (Lat.), small. pau'siacus {pausia, a kin4 of olive), Pas'sage Cells, cells in the olive-green. | or endodermis of roots which pavoni'nus (Lat.,pertainiijg to a pea- retain thin unaltered walls, by cock), peacock-blue. which water can pass. pear-formed, ~ shaped, obovoid or Pas'aalus (n-i.saaXos, a peg), a gamo- oboonic with a tapering base. sepalous calyx. pearl-grey, "pure grey, a little verg- pas'oual (pascuum, a pasture), H. C. ing to blue " (Lindley). Watson's term for plants which P^brlne' (Fr.), a disease of silkworms grow in and grassy caused by Nosema Bomhyck, Naeg.,

commons, amongst less rank herb- a bacterial organism ; it is also

age tlian "pratal " ; pas'cuus (Lat.), named Gamine. relating to pastures. Fec'tase {tttjktos, coagulated), an Pasteuriza'tion,the preservation of fer- enzyme which forms vegetaible jelly menting liquids by heating to about from pectic substances oocurrinB; in 140° Fahr., so as to germin- the cell- wall.

ate and then destroy Fungi and Peo'ten (Lat. , a comb) J = Stebigha. their spores contained in the fluids pec'tic {injKTds, coagulated), relating treated (Crozier). to pectin, as pec'tic Acid, supposed Patella (Lat., a small dish), an orbi- to form a large part of fruit-jelly ; cular sessile apotheeium, with a Peo'tin, or Pec'tlne, a jelly-like sub- distinct marginal rim from the thal- stance in fruits ; cf. Pbctose ; pec- (eWos, lus ; pateUar'oid likeness), tina'ceous ( + aceous) ; resembling

resembling a patella ; patel'liform, pectin ; gelatinous. patelUform'is (/orroa, shape), shaped peo'tinate, pectina'tus (Lat., like a like a small dish, circular and comb), piunatifid with narrow seg-

rimmed ; Fatel'lula, a diminutive ments set close like the teeth of a patella patel'lulate, possessing pa- comb pec'tinatory, ; ; applied by De tellulae. Bary to two series of vascular pa'tent, pat'ens (Lat.), spreading bundles whose members alternate patentis'simus (Lat.), extremely with each other as the teeth of spread out. two combs. pat'eriform [patera, a dish or saucer, Fec'tose (TTTjKTis, coagulated), a sub- foryna, shape), saucer-shaped. stance allied to mucilage which Path-fi'uders = Honet-guides, lines occurs in unripe fruits (Fr^my) of colour leading to nectaries. peoto'sio Acid, is associated with pathogenic, pathog'enous (TrdSos, pectic acid in fruit jelly ; Pectocel'- suffering, disease, yivot, race, off- luloses, cf. Cellulose. spring), producing disease ; Patho- peda'linerved, etc. = pbdatinervbd, genelty, the quality of disease probably a misprint in Henslow's

giving ; Pathol'ogy (X670S, dis- Dictionary. course), the science of diseases peda'lls (Lat.), a foot long or high. Veg'etable ~, that department of ped'ate, peda'tus (Lat., footed), in botany which treats of plant dia- botany, palmately divided or parted with the lateral divisions two-cleft 184 ; ;

pedately peltate

ped'ately cleft = ~ pedatifid ; pedunculea'uus, with a modified Teined, = pkdatinervbd of ; pedat'- state the peduncle (Henslow). Ifld, pedatifidm (findo, fidi, cleft), Peel, the rind or skin of fruit ; Grew divided in a pedate manner nearly spells it " Pill." to the base ; pedatiform'is (forma, Peg, an embryonic organ at the lower shape) = PEDATipiD pedatUo'bua, end of ; the hypocotyl of seedlings pedatiloba'tuB, pedatllo'bed (XojSJs, of Cucumis, Gnetum, etc., lasting earlap), palmate, with supplemen- till the cotyledons are withdrawn tary lobes at the base ; peda'ti- from the testa. nerved, peda'tinervis (nervus, a pela'gian=pelag'ic (-n-eKayoi, the sea), nerve), when the midrib stops inhabiting the open ocean, as dis- short, and two strong lateral nerves tinct from the shores. proceed from its base, giving rise pel'los (tteAios), black, livid. to others which extend only to the Pel'llcle, Pellic'ula (Lat., a small apex; pedatlpar'tite, pedatiparti' skin), a delicate superficial mem- tiLs [partitus, divided), with pedate brane, pellicular'iB, epidermis ; venation, and lobes free the nearly ; having the character of a pellicle ;

pedat'isect, pedatisec'tus (sectus, pelli'tus (Lat. , covered with skin), out), pedately veined, the divi- " skinned, deprived of skin or ap- sions nearly reaching the midrib. parently so " (Lindley). Ped'estal (pes, pedis, a foot, stela, a, pellu'cid, pellu'cidus (Lat,, trans- column), the persistent base of a parent), wholly or partially trans- leaf which disarticulates from it, parent. Cf. PULVINUS. pelog'enous (ittjXos, clay, 7e»os, off- Ped'icel, Pedicd'lus {pedicvius, a small spring), applied by Thurmaun to foot), (1) an ultimate flower-stalk, those rocks which yield a clayey

the support of a single flower ; (2) detritus, and the plants which in Hydropterideae {(piXeia, the sporophore ; thrive thereon ; peloph'Uous pedicel'late, pedicella'tus, pediciUa'- 1 love). Warming's variation of the

tua borne on ; {\//d/iiJt,os, X, a pedicel Ped'icle same ; pelopsam'mio sand), = Pedicel; Pedicel'lulus (dim. of yielding clay and sand ; pelopsam- pedicellus), a, filiform support to mog'enoua, giving rise to clayey

the ovary in certain Compositae ; sand (Thurmann). Pedlo'ulus, (1) = Pedicel; (2) the Pelor'ia (TreXiipios, monstrous), an ir- stalk of the apple and other fruits regular flower become regular by an (3) the filament of an anther, as ~ exceptional development of comple-

Authe'rae. mentary irregularities ; irreg'ular pedlferus {pes, pedis, a foot, fero, I '~ by the symmetric multiplication

bear), furnished with a stalk or of the irregular portions ; reg'ular support (Henslow) ; Pedi'lis, the ~ by the suppresssion of the ir-

contracted upper portions of the regular parts ; Pelorisa'tlon, the calyx tube in such florets of process of conversion of a flower Compositae as have a stipitate to a regular form, from its normal

pappus ; pedila'tus, furnished with irregular form.

a Pbdilis ; Pedun'cle, Pedutidvlus, Pel'ta (Lat., a target), (1) the round the general term for the stalk of a shield-like apothecium of Peltidea,

flower, it may also bear a cluster of etc. ; (2) a bract attached by its

single flowers ; peduncular'is, re- middle, as in Peppers ; pel'tafid lating to a peduncle or a modifica- {findo, fidi, to cleave), when a tion, as peduncular'es Cir'rhi, ten- peltate leaf is cut into segments

drils proceeding from a peduncle ; pel'tate, pelta'tus, target-shaped, as pedunc'ulate, peduncvla'tus, pedun- a leaf attached by its lower surface

cido'sus, furnished with a footstalk ; to a stalk, instead of by its margin 185 ; ;

peltatodigitatus Pepsin

pelta'to-digita'tus, a, digitate leaf away from the main axis penta- ; with the petiole much enlarged oy'clic (kiJkXos, a circle), a flower at the insertion of the leaflets with five whorls of members, cf. peltid'eua, pel'tifonn (/orma, shape), PENTAMBRons ; pentadac'tylous orbicular or buckler-shaped, as the {SdKTvXov, a finger), five-fingered,

apotheoia of many Lichens or the or with five finger-like divisions ;

caps of Agarics ; peltiner'ved, pel- pentadel'phoua, -phus {A5eX(p6s, a tiner'via, -vius (nerous, a nerve), brother), with five fraternities or

with ribs arranged as in a peltate bundles of stamens ; pentag^onal leaf peltoi'deus (eXSos, resemblance) {yai'la, an angle), with five angles ; ; = PELTIDEOS. Pentagyn'ia (^i^i-t;, a woman), a pel'vifonn, pelviform'is [pelms,a. basin, Linnean order of plants having five

forma, shape), basin-shaped, formed pistils ; pentag'ynouB, with five

like a shallow cup. pistils or styles ; Pentake'nium = pen'ciUed, marked with fine distinct Pentachaenium pentam'erous, ; lines. -r(M {fjApos, a part), with parts in pen'dent, peii'deris (Lat. ), hanging fives, as a corolla of five petals ;

down from its support ; Pend'ent, pentan'der (av^p, dvSpis, a man), of

used by Grew for Anther. five stamens ; Pentan'dria, a Lin- pen'dulous, pere'd«/«s (Lat.), hanging, nean class of plants possessing five pendent; penduli'nuB (Lat.), hav- stamens, the largest in that system

ing the habit of being pendulous pentan'drous, five-stamened ; pen-

(De CandoUe) ; Penduliflor'ae {flos, tan'gular, ( + angular) five-angled,

Jloris, a flower), Delpino's term for pentagonal ; pentapet'alous, -Ins wind-fertilized pendulous flowers. (Tre'raXoi', a flower-leaf), with five penic'ellate, an error for the next. petals ; pentaphylet'ic {(pvX-fi, a penio'illate, penicilla'tus (penicilltis, tribe), used of a hybrid which

a little brush ), pencil-shaped has five strains in its origin penicil'liform, penicUliform'is pentaphyl'lous, -lus [ipvWov, a leaf),

{forma, shape), shaped like an with five leaves ; pentap'terous,

artist's pencil ; Fenicil'lium, a tuft rus {rrepov, a, wing), five-winged ; of hairs. pen'tarch {apx^i, beginning), with pen'nate, penna'tus (Lat. winged) = five points of origin, applied to a pentarrhi'nus, Henslow's PINNATE ; peimaticis'sus ( ciasus, stele ; cut), with incisions of a leaf in a emendation of pentaii'nus (&ppT)v, pinnate manner; peunat'ifid, pen- male), Necker's term for pent- -lus natif'idus = pinnatefid ; pen'ni- ANDROUS ; pentasep'alous,

form (forma, shape), with ribs as ( + Sepalum), having five sepals in a pinnate leaf, but the upper pentasper'mouB {a-iripfia, a seed),

segments confluent at the apex, as five-seeded ; pentast'iclious [irrlxos,

in the date palm ; penniner'yed, a row ), in five vertical ranks penniner'vis {nervus, a nerve) Pen'toses, a name given to com- pennive'nlus (veim, a vein), pin- pounds resembling glucose, but nately veined. having only five atoms of carbon pentacarpel'lary (TrecTt, five + car- in the molecule.

pellary ), having five carpels Pep'o (Lat. , a pumpkin), Pepon'ida J ; pentacam'arus (-H Camarus), with Peponid'imn J, a gourd fruit, a one-

five loculi ; Pentaohae'nium or celled, many-seeded, inferior fruit, Pentake'nium (-1- Achenium), hav- with parietal placentas and pulpy ing the structure of a cremocarp, interior. but with five carpels instead of two Fep'sin (tt^^is, cooking, digestion),

pentacoc'cous, -cits ( + Coccus), the digestive principle or peptic with five cocci elastically splitting enzyme. 186 ; .; ;;

peptle pericentrlcus

pep'tlo (ireTTTiKos, promoting diges- lucent dots which look like little tion) Fer'mentB, those enzymes holes, as in Hypericum perforatv/m which convert proteids into pep- Linn. tones. perfos'sus (Lat., dug or pierced Fep'tones (ireTrros, cooked), albumi- through), perfoliate. noids after being acted on by fer- perfu'sus (Lat., poured over), com- ments, as Proteids, which are the pletely covered.

final result of their action ; they pergame'neouB, -neus (pergamena, are present in germinating seeds parchment), like parchment in -ceus peptoni'sing, applied to enzymes texture ; pergamenta'ceous,

so acting. ( + aceous), resembling parchment. per-, in Latin compounds increases Perian'dra, pi. {irepl, about, dviip, their force as per-similis, very dvSpos, a man), the bracts of the like. male inflorescence in Mosses

Ferapet'alum, J (irepl, about -t- Peta- perian'dricus (d^Spixos, manly), used lum), any appendage to a petal, a of a nectary when it is ranged

synonym of Nectakilyma and Pa- round the stamens ; Per'ianth,

KAPETALUM ; Peraphyl'lum {(pvKKov, Perian'thium {dv$os, a flower), (1) a leaf) = Paraphyllum. the floral envelopes, calyx or cor-

perour'rent {percurrens, running olla, or both ; (2) in Hepaticae the through), extending throughout inflated envelope surrounding the the entire length. fertilised archegonium, the Cole-

Perem'biyum (irepi, about, eix^pvov, STJLB or vaginule ; perian'theus, an embryo), that part of a mono- perlanthia'nus, relating to or pos-

ootyledonous embryo investing the sessing a perianth ; Feiianthoma'ma plumule and radicle, not externally (iMvia, madness), an abnormal mul-

distinguishable. tiplication of perianth segments ; Perench'yma (irripa, a sack, eyxvfia, periax'lal (fijw, an axle) Wood, an infusion), cellular tissue con- the so-called outer wood, as in the

taining starchy m atter ( Stormonth ) stems of .

pereu'nate, peren'nans (Lat.), peren- Feriblaste'sis ( -)- Blastesis), the en-

na'ting = peren'nialj^crere'mis (Lat. ), velopment of gonidia by surround- lasting the whole year through ing tissue. Feren'uial, is a plant which lasts Per'iblem {TepipXruxa, clothing), a several years, not perishing nor- layer of nascent cortex beneath mally after once flowering and the epidermis.

fruiting ; '~ Herb, the above ground pericalyo'lus (irepl, about -I- Calyx), portion dies each year, the root = PERiSTAMiNEUS ; Pericam'bium

persisting ; ~ Mon'ocarp, applied ("f Cambium), thin walled cells of by Mobius to such plants as Agave the central cylinder in contact with americana, Linn., which live long, the inner face of the endodermis

but die after once flowering. the pericycle ; Per'icarp, Pericar'p- per'feot, per/ec'tus (Lat., complete), ium {Kapirbs, fruit), (1) the wall of a is applied also (1) applied to a flower which fructified ovary ; (2) capsule in hermaphrodite ; (2) of an organ to the wall of the of which has all its constituent mem- Mosses ; (.S) improperly used bers. the protective husks surrounding

perfo'liate, per/olia'tus (per, through, certain fruits ; adj. pericax'plc, perl- folium, a leaf), used when a, stem perloar'pial, pericarpia'lis ; apparently passes through a leaf, cen'tral (Kevrpov, a sharp point) as in Bwpleurum perfoliatum, Linn. Cell = Auxiliary Cell; Peri-

per'forate, perfora'tus (Lat., pierced), car'yoplasm = Perikabyoplasm ; pierced through, or having trans- pericen'tricuB, applied to perigyn- 187 ; ;;

Perichaeth Perlgymindra

ouB stamens arranged concentrically surround each vascular bundle with the calyx; Per'icliaetli beneath the special endoderm in astelic stems (Van Tieghem) ; adj. (Crozier) = Perichabtium ; Peri- perldea'mic. chae'timn (x"'ti;, a mane) ; (1) the involucre around the base of the Perid'iole, Perid'iolum, pi. Perid'iola (dim. of Pbridium from TniplSiov, a seta in Mosses ; (2) Hooker's name little pouch), ( 1 ) a chamber of the for the perianth in Hepaticae ; perioliae'tlal, pmchaetia'lis, relat- gleba forming a nest of spores, free or attached funicle within ing to the same, as ^ Bracts, --' by a the pcridium of the sporophore Leaves, the organs composing the ; (2) ' periohaetium itself in Mosses, and ' a membrane by which the spores of some Algae are immediately the involucre in Hepaticae ; Per'i- covered " (Lindley) ; Ferid'inin, cliyle (x^'^oS) juice), a plant one of the colouring matters found whose water - storing tissue is between the epidermis and the in the Peridieae, a group of Fungi Perid'lum, a general expression for ehlorenchyma, as Ehizophora ; Per'icladlmn (/cXaSos, a branch), the outer enveloping coat of a the sheathing base of a leaf when sporophore upon which the spores it surrounds the supporting branch; develop within a cavity ; ~ ex- pericli'nal (kXIvui, I bend down), ter'num, the outer layer which curved in the same direction as opens in various ways and separates from the ~ iuter'num, the inner the surface or circumference ; <- Planes, planes which conform to layer directly enclosing the gleba ' ~ mitrifor'me, ' the receptacle of the exterior ; Fer'icllnes, periclinal certain Fungals " (Lindley) ; adj. walls ; Pericli'nium (kKIv-t), a bed), the involucre of the capitulum in perid'ial ; as ~ Cells, the outer cells of a, peridium which are Compositae ; Periclinoi'des, J a false involucre formed of the scales of coherent. the receptacle in Compositae, sur- Perid'roma {irepidpo/iri, a circuit), rounding the sides of an elevated Neoker's term for the rhachis of receptacle at its summit, as in Ferns. Periench'yma {Trepl, about, eyxv/ni, Evax ; Pericoo'oium, that portion of the protoplasm which envelopes an infusion), irregular cellular tissue, chiefly in glands and sphe- the nucleus ; in Germ. Kerntasche roidal masses (Henslow), cf. Peb- (Hanstein) ; Pericol'ium J (icoXeos, a sheath) = Pbkichaetium peri- BNOHYMA ; Perifor'ium = Pbbi- ; coroUa'tuB (-1- Corolla), used of PHORIUM ; Perigloe'a (7X0105, glue), a dicotyledonous plant with a the entire gelatinous investment of gamopetalous perigynous corolla a Diatom (Buflfham) ; Per'igone, Per'icycle (ki>k\os, a circle), the Perigo'nium (yoi/^;, offspring), (1) the outermost zone of cells of the stele a synonym of Perianth ; (2) of the immediately within the endodermis; same Pbkichaetium ; (3) lnter'nal~, Flot'a term for the pro- involucre of the male inflorescence cambium retained on the inner side in Bryophytes ; adj. perigo'nlal, as ^ Leaves, the perichaetial of the vascular bundle ; Per'ldenn, Perider'ma, Perider'mis(depiJ.a., skin leaves (excluding Bryophytes) or hide), the outer bark or epi- perlgonla'rius, (1) with the char- acter double phloem, at first restricted by of a perigone ; (2) Mohl to tough cork in distinction flowers, resulting from transforma- to the soft cork, now extended tion or multiplication of the floral to the and its pro- organs taking on the character of Per'ideBm perianth segments ; Perigynan'da, ducts ; phellogen ; {ditr/iri, a bundle), the layer of cells which Perigynan'dra, -drum (yWi * 1?8 ;; ;

Perlgynium Ferisperm

woman, iviip, dvSpos, a man), (1) ing ; ~ Tls'sue, in roots, the

the involucre of Compositae ; — piliferous layer, furnished with oommu'nls, ~ exte'rior, the in- root hairs ; peripher'ic, peripher'i- volucre, ~ Inte'rlor, the corolla of cus, pertaining to the circumfer-

a composite floret ; Perigyn'ium, ence, as of an embryo coiled round the hypogynous setae (1) of sedges; the outside of the albumen ; the flask (2) or utricle of Garex ; peripher'ico-termiiia'lia, belonging any (3) hypogynous disk ; (4) the to the circumference and apex of a involucre of the female inflor- body, used of stems which grow escence in Bryophytes in ; perig'- both length and breadth ; perl- ynous, literally means round the pbae'ricus, peripheric, circumferen- ovary, used of organs adnate tial.

to the perianth, or adnate with Periphlo'em {irepl, about -f Phloem), the lower part of the pistil ; the phloem-sheath or pericambium Perikar'yoplasm (napvov, a nut, periphloemat'ic, applied to concen-

TrX&aiw,, moulded), a zone of tric bundles in Ferns ; Perlphoran'- granular protoplasm seen in Gohaea thium (00/j^ai, I carry, dv$os, a scandens, Cav., in the cytoplasm flower), the involucre of Com-

of the resting pollen mother-cell positae ; Perlphor'ium, a fleshy and on its approaching division (A. elongated support to the ovary, A. Lawson) ; perimedul'lary ( + with the corolla and stamens

MEDULLARY) Zone, the peripheral attached to it ; Henslow spells " " region of the inner tissue out- it Periforium ; Per'xphragm wardly bounded by the pro- {tppiy/m, an enclosure), the peri-

toxylem ; cf. ciecummbdullaey ; cycle of the stem (Dangeard) Perimel'itae {md, honey), having Per'iphylls, Perlphyl'lla J [(piWov, a honey-glands placed in the lower leaf), the hypogynous scales or

portion of the perianth, as in lodicules of grasses ; Peripliyl- certain Gentianaceae (Huxley) log'eny {yevos, race, offspring), Perimer'lstem (-f Mbristem), con- bearing numerous leaflets round sists of several layers of cells the edge of a leaf-blade (Weis-

which at first divide in every di- mann) ; Periph'ysis (^i^u, I grow), rection, but subsequently divide a sterile capilliform hyphal tangentially in the external region branch, projecting from the wall (Guillaud); Per'ine {vepl, about), the of the pyrenocarp when there outermost layer of sculpturing on is no hymenium in the cavity pollen perinectar'ial {Tr\dt!-p.a, ; ( + Nectary), (Fuisting) ; Per'iplasm surrounding the nectarial area, moulded), protoplasm in the as in certain Gentians (Huxley) oogonium and the antheridium Perin'ltiin, the outermost of the which does not share in the con-

three coats of a Fern spore ; the jugation ; cf. Gokoplasm ; Peri- epispore. plast [irXiffTos, moulded), a hyaline

perin'teger (Lat. ), quite entire. structure enveloping the cell-

Periodic Move'ments, used to express nucleus ; Peripod'ium (irovs, irodos, opening and closing of flowers, foot), = Pebichaetium perlp'- the a ; the nyctitropic movements of terous, -rua {n-Tepoi', a wing), perip- leaves, etc., when occurring habit- tera'tu8, surrounded by a wing or

ually and with some regularity. border ; Perlscy'plie {aKiiipos, a cup),

peripet'alous, -us {wepl, about, Desvaux's word for Pbrichaetium ; TreraXoi', a flower-leaf), around the Per'lsperm, Perisper'mmm (a-Tippia, petals. a seed), (1) the ordinary albumen perlph'eral (irepujiepeia, the circum- of a seed, restricted to that ference of a circle), surround- which is formed outside the 189 ;

periapermlc perpendicular

embryo sac ; (2) the pericarp or Cyperaoeae (Laux); perlxy'lic, Van even the integuments of a seed Tieghem's expression for mbsaech

perisper'ralc, perisper'miciis, peri- -I- EXARCH ; Perizo'nium {^dvij, a Bperma'tus, (1) furnished with al- belt), the thin non-silicious mem- bumen " when the periaperm brane of a young auxospore, ; (2) is a single lamina, or perlar'iUB, perla'tus reduced to (Late hai. , perla, when the seed is not furnished with a pearl), (1) shining with a, pearly

a true perisperm " (Henslow) ; lustre ; (2) furnished with rounded Perisporan'gium (airopa, a seed, tubercular appendages (Henslow).

iyyeiov, a vessel), the indusium Note : not to be confounded with of Ferns, a membranous covering perlatus, carried through, derived

of the sorus ; Per'ispore, Peris- from pcrfero. por'ium, -rum, (1) the membrane per'manent, per'manens {permaneo, I

surrounding a spore ; or case ; (2) persist), persistent ~TiB'sue, fully

the mother-cell of spores in Algae ; formed tissue, as distinct from

(3) = Peeigynidm ; Peristach'yiunt merismatic or generative tissue. (iTTdxv!, a spike), the glume of Permeability (permeahilis, that can

grasses ; Perlstamin'ia ( -I- Stamen), be passed through), applied to Periste'mones (uTijixoiv, a filament), protoplasm, etc., and further dis- applied to petalous dicotyledons tinguished as EXTBAMEABILITY,

with perigynoua stamens ; Per'i- and INTEAMEABILITY, the power stem {ttTTrj/u, I stand), young cortex of allowing the passage of certain

in a nascent condition ; Fe?istome substances out of or into its Perist'oma, Peristom!ium (ardfui,, vacuoles respectively (Janse). a mouth), the fringe or its homo- Permuta'tion, Permuta'tio (Lat., a logue round the orifice of a moss- changing), enlargement of the

capsule ; perist'omate, peristoma'- floral envelopes with abortion of tus, perist'omus, provided with a the sexual organs (Penzig).

peristome ; peristomat'ic, peristo- permuta'tus (Lat.), completely malfieus, when perigynous stamens changed. are attached round the mouth of Per'nio (Lat., a chilblain), a local

the calyx tube ; perlsty'Iicua ( -f affection resembling an ulcer, Stylus), when epigynous stamens caused by cold. are inserted between the styles Perocid'ium + {irepl, about, dyKiSiov, a,

and limb of the calyx ; Perisy'plie tubercle), Necker's term for Peki-

more correctly Periscyphb ; Per'i- CHAETIUM. tlieoe = Perithe'cium, pi. Perlthe'- per'onate, perona'tus (Lat., leather cia (Si/kt;, a case), (1), a case with booted), thickly covered with a a small opening containing asci, woolly covering becoming mealy.

in Lichens ; (2) in Tungi, a re- Perovula'tae (per, much or very, ceptacle enclosing spores which ovulatus, ovuled), otherwise Semi-

are naked or in asci ; perithe'cioid NATAE, Van Tieghem's terms for (elSos, like) Glands, those on the phanerogams furnished with true pitcher of Nepenthes, resembling seeds. the perithecium of a Sphaeria perpe'Iic {per, very, tttjXos, clay), perit'ropal, (Macfarlane) ; perit'- Thurmann's term for rocks which ropous, -pus [rpo-n-ii, a turning), yield clay, pure and abundant, also used of a seed which is horizontal the plants which thrive thereon; in the pericarp, or of a radicle perpsam'mlc (^d/i/u.os, sand), yield- which is directed to the side of a ing an abundance of sandy detritus, pericarp; perlxylemat'ic (-f Xy- with the flora thereon growing. lem), said of concentric bundles in %ieTpend.ic'\ilax,perpendicvla'ris{La,t.), the roots of Acorus, Juncaceae and used of an organ with its direction 190 ; ;;

perpusillus pbaenogamous

vertical, either (a) to the horizon, Petalody ; petaliferous, bearing

or (6) to its attachment ; ^ Sys'- petals ; pet'aliform, petaliform'ia tem, = - shape), petal-shaped pet'- FiBBO VASCULAR System (forma, ; (Crozier). jjine, petcdi'nus, petal-like, or re-

perpusil'lus (Lat.), very small. lating to petals ; Pet'alode (elSos, persicic'olor (pernicum, a peach, color, resemblance), an organ simulating colour), persici'nus (Lat.), peach- a petal; petalo'deus (Lat.), (1) = coloured, Petalody having petals a rosy pink. ; (2) persla'tent, persis'tens (Lat. , persever- Petalo'dy, the metamorphosis of ing), remaining till the part which stamens or other organs into petals; bears it is wholly matured, as the pet'aloid, petaloi'deus, like a petal,

leaves of evergreens ; Persis'tence, or having a floral envelope resem- -- constancy, as ~ of Varia'tion, the bling petals ; An'ther, an anther variety or tendency to vary per- borne on a petal, the filament re-

sisting. sembling a petal ; Petaloma'nia

pei'sonsAe, persona'ttis (Lat. , masked), (fiavLa, madness), an abnormal

used for a bilabiate corolla having multiplication of petals ; Petaloste'- a prominent palate. mones (o-ttJ/xup, a filament), plants Perspira'tion (Crozier), see Tkan- with flowers whose stamens are

SPIEATION. adherent to the corolla ; pet'alous, pertu'sate = pertuse',^e?-

perforated), having slits or holes. petlola'ceus ( petiolus, a little foot or Pe'rula (Lat., a little wallet), (1) the leg + aceiis) (Lat.), having reference

scale of a leaf-bud ; (2) Lindley to the petiole by attachment, also gives it as a projection in the transformation, or appearance flower of Orchids, the Mbntum petiola'neus or petlolea'nus (Mod. ;

(3) = Pkeithecitjm ; per'ulate, Lat.), consisting of the petiole

perula'tus, furnished with protec- or of some modification of it ; pet'- tive scales. iolar, petio'laris, pet'iolary, borne

perval'var (per, through, valva, a on, or pertaining to a petiole ; pe- valve) Ax'is, the main longi- t'iolate, petiola't'us, having a pe-

tudinal axis of a Diatom frustule, tiole ; Pet'iole, Pet'iolus, the foot-

the line which forms the centre of stalk of a leaf ; Pet'lolule, Petiol'u- Itts, small the dividing plane, penetrates the (1) a petiole ; (2) the

cell-cavity in the epi- and hypo- petiole of a leaflet ; petiol'ulate, thecal directions at equal distances petiolvla'tiis, having a petiolule from the enclosing walls, and unites petiol'ular, petiolida'ris, belonging the centres of the valves (0. to a petiolule. Mueller). petrae'uB (Lat.), growing amongst per'vious, per'vius (Lat., passable), rocks ; petro'sua (Lat., rocky), having an open passage-way. growing amongst stones. Pes, Ped'is (Lat.), a foot, (1) used in Pezizaxan'thlne (-|- Xanthin), a such compounds as longipes, long- special orange-colouring matter, foot of twelve inches also termed Pezi'zin, Rosoll's name stalked ; (2) a

measurement ; c/. Foot. for the same pigment in Peziza

Pet'al, Petfalum (irh-a\ov, a, flower- aurantia, Pers., etc. ; pezi' leaf), one of the leafy expansions (rfSos, resemblance), peziza-, or cup- in the floral whorl styled the shaped. was taken by phaeiUc'eus = phoeniobus. Corolla ; the word Blair from Columna ; like, ~ phaenocar'pous -pus (aii>a, I appear, Kapvos, fruit), a distinct -shaped, petaloid ; petala'tus, having possessing petals or a corolla fruit, with no adhesion to sur-

Petalifloa'tion {facio, I make) = rounding parts ; phaenog'amous 191 ; ;;

Fliaenogams Phloem

{yifios, marriage), having manifest a way or passage), applied to stom-

flowers, phanerogamous ; Fliae'no- ata which lie in the same plane as

gams = Phanerogams ; Phaenol'ogy the epidermis. = . Fhel'lem (0eXXis, cork) = cork

Phae'ocyst (0ai4s, brown, swarthy, (Crozier) ; Phelle'ma, the outer- Kuans, a bag), Decaisne's name for most layer of the periderm, con-

the cell-nucleus ; phaeophy'cean sisting of true cork and phelloid

(0C/COS, a sea weed), relating to the (von Hoehnel) ; Phel'Ioderm [Sepfui, Phaeosporeae, a group of olive or skin), the innermost layer of the

brown marine Algae ; Phae'ophyll periderm ; Phel'logen {yemda, I (iWov, a leaf), the colouring produce), the central layer of the matter in the living active chro- three in the periderm, the active

matophores of brown seaweeds cork-producing tissue ; adj. phel-

; (ttXcio-tos, (Reinke) Fhae'oplast logenet'ic ; phel'lold {eTSos, re- moulded), the special name for semblance), cork - like, as tissue the chromatophores of Fucoideae which approaches cork in its

(Schimper) ; Phae'ospore (airoph, a quality ; Phel'lold, non-suberized seed), a member of the brown layers in the Phellema (von

Algae ; adj. phaeos'porous ; phae'ua Hoehnel).

(Lat. ), fuscous, swarthy. Phe'nogam = Phanerogam ; adj. Phai'opliyU (0aios, brown, ipiWov, a phenogam'ian, phenogam'ic, etc. leaf), a group of colouring matters = PHANEROGAMIAN, PHANERO- in the leaves of plants of various GAMIC, etc. tints of brown. Phenol'ogy, abbreviated from Phe- Phalan'ges, sing. P&al'anx {(pdXay^, nomenorogy (aivoiuvbv, an ap- a band of soldiers), bundles pearance, Xo'70s, discourse), record- of stamens in diadelphous and ing the periodical phenomena of

polyadelphous flowers ; phalar- plants, as leafing, flowering, etc. aiph'ytus (&pp-qv, male, (pvrbv, a adj. phenolog'lcal, as — Inver'sions, plant), polyadelphous. an abnormal inversion of the re- Phal'ljiie, a poisonous substance from lative blossoming of plants, caused

various species of Amanita ; Phal'- by meteorologic conditions (Rahn). lus, "the peridium of certain Fun- PhUIile'sia (^i^XXoi', » leaf, i\l

gals" (Lindley) ; the name is imme- wind), a name propounded by Re diately derived from Phallus im- and adopted by Berkeley for "leaf- " pudicus, Linn., the Stinkhorn curl or blister ; cf. phyllilesia. Fungus, now referred to Ithy- Phil'otherm {ipiXia, I love, Bepfni, phallus. warmth), used by Baker for plants Fhan'eri, pi. {^avepis, manifest), any which need warmth to complete organisms which are visible under their life-cycle. the microscope without the use of phleboi'dal {

reagents (Maggi) ; phaneran'thus has been applied to spiral, annular, {HvBoi, a flower), where the or porous moniliform vessels

flower is manifest; pbaneranthe'rus (Cooke) ; Phebomor'pha {iJiop(pii, (d.v8i)p6t, flowery), when the an- form), the mycelium of some thers protrude beyond the perianth Fungi. phanerogam'ic, phanerog'amouB, Phlobaph'enes, pi. {cfiKoibs, bark, phanerog'amu8 (y&iwi, marriage), /3ai/)^, a dyeing), amorphous brown

having manifest flowers ; phanero- colouring matters of the bark gam'ian, pertaining to Phan'ero- phloeo'des (ctSos, resemblance), bark- flowers in gama, plants with which like in appearance ; Phlo'em, Naeg- stamens and pistils are distmctly eli's term for the bast elements of a

developed ; phanerop'orous (iropos, vascular bundle ; it is separated in 192 ;; ;;;

Phloeoterma Phrairmltetum

exogens from the wood (xylem) photomet'ric (lUrpov, a measure),

by the cambium ; — I'slands, (1) applied to organisms which turn groups of bast-strands surrounded either end to the direction of the

by xylem (Chodat) ; ~ Kay, a ray or light-rays ; (2) leaves which assume plate of phloem between two a definite position in light, to obtain

medullary rays ; ~ Sheath, a layer the most of it, or to screen them- of thin-walled cells surrounding the selves from too much (Wiesner) vascular tissue next within the Photol'yais (XiJo-is, a loosing), the

cortex, best seen in roots ; Phloe- arrangementof chlorophyll granules oter'ma (repfia, a limit), the inner- under the stimulus of light, includ- most layer of primary cortex ing both apostrophe and epistrophe Phloe'um the t, cortical tissues ; Photomorph'osis {fidptpwaiSf con- Phlorid'zin (fil^a, a root), a white figuration), that kind of mechano- crystalline substance which gives morphosis which depends upon light

the bitter astringenoy to the root- as the cause ; Fhotosyn'taz (o-ncTof lo, bark of the apple, pear, cherry I put together), the formation of

- and plum trees ; Phloroglu'oin, a complex carbon compounds from body of frequent occurrence in simple ones under the influence of

the bark of trees, derived from light (Barnes) ; Photosyn'thesis glucosides. {

flower), the receptacle of the eapi- direction of light-rays ; phototon'ic tulum in Compositae. (toVos, tension), the increasing irri- (i/ius, photeol'ic 0aiTO5, light, al6\os, tability by the influence of light ; moving, motile), used of the sleep Fhotot'onus, the normal mobile

of plants ; pho'tio, exposed to light, condition resulting from the alter-

well-illuminated, as the margins nation of day and night ; Photo-

of pools, etc. ; Photoaesthe'sla tax'is (rtifis, order), the definite {durOrim, perception), Osapek's self - arrangement of organisms

term to express the power of an under the stimulus of light ; Photo- organ to respond to the stimulus t'rophy {rpoipii, food), unequal in-

of light ; Photo'bia (jSios, life), pi., crease on one side of an organ, due Tulasne's term for ectoparasitic to the incidence of light in relation

Fungi; photocleistogam'io ( -i-cleis- to the parent shoot (Oltmanns) TOOAMIC), used of flowers which do Photot'ropism {rpow^, a turning), a

not open in consequence of the synonym of Heliotbopism ; Pho'- rapid growth of the outer side trum, S. L. Moore's term for the of the petals, due to Photo- whole scale of illumination aflect- HTPONASTY (Hansgirg) ; Photo- ing Photolysis.

epinas'ty ( + Epinasty), epinasty Phrag'ma, pi. Phrag'mata {ippdyiia, induced by the action of light an enclosure), a spurious dissepi- (yevvda, (Detmer) ; photogenic I ment in fruits ; phrag'mifer (fero, produce), used of bacteria which I bear), phragf'miger, pAragrmigf^ent^

are luminous ; Photohyponas'ty ( + {gero, I bear), divided by partitions; Hyponasty), hyponasty caused by Phragmohaa'ld, Phragmohasid'ia,

( the effect of light (Vines) ; photo- pi. -I- Basid), septate basidia in Jdne'tic (kictjtikos, having the power Basidiomycetes (Van Tieghem). of movement), moving in conse- Phragmite'tum, Warming's term for quence of the stimulus of light an association of reeds, PhragmUea. 193 ;";; ; ;

Fhrygana Plijrllolobeae

Phry'gana, pi. {(ppvyava, Btioks for Phykenoh'yma (^Okos, sea - weed, firewood), an old term for prickly ^yxv/M, an infusion), " the ele- and stiff under- shrubs. mentary tissue of Algals" (Lindley);

Phthiri'asia {^Beiplacns, lousy disease), Phy'liocyan = Phycoctanin ; Phy- disease produced by aphides or koer'ythrin = Phycoekythkinb. plant-lice. Pli/la, pi. of Phy'lum. {(pvXov, a tribe), Phycobry'a (cf>SKos, sea-weed, ^piov, a system of organisms arranged in moss), a term proposed for Char- the assumed succession of de-

aoeae ; Pliycocecld'ia [ktikU, a gall), velopment ; adj. phylet'ic. galls due to the attack of Algae Phyl'la, pi. {ipiiWov, a leaf), the

(Lundstrom) ; Phy'coolirome (xpw/ia, vertioillate leaves which form the

colour), the colouring matter of calyx ; used in composition as

etc. ; - brown Algae, adj. phyoooliro- di-phyllous, two leaved, etc. ;

ma'ceous (-)- aceous) ; Phyoocy'anin Phyl'lade, a oataphyllary leaf {Kiavos, blue), the blue colouring Phyl'lary, Phylla'ris, a member of

matter in Algae ; Phycodoma'tia the involucre of a Composite flower; [dw/idTwv, a little house), plant Phyllid'ium, term proposed byBower shelters inhabited by other plants for the homologue of the leaf in

(Lundstrom) ; Phycoer'ythrine the gametophyte ; PhyUile'sia, the (ipvdpos, red), the red pigment of correct spelling of Phillilesia;

irioridean Algae ; Phycohae'matin Phyl'lite, a fossilized leaf ; Phyllo- {a'lij,a, blood), a special red colour- blas'tus (piKdtTTos, a bud), Koerber's ing matter in certain Algae, such term for Lichens which have a flat Shytiphloea tinctoria, Agardh leaf-like expansion of the thallus ; Phycol'ogist {\6yos, a discourse), a PhyUobiyon t (^pvov, a moss), the student or expert in the study of contracted pedicel of an ovary, as

Algae ; Pliyoorogy, the department in some peppers (Lindley) ; Phyl'lo- of botany which includes Algae clade, Phyllodad'ium (icXdSt/s, a Phy'coma, the entire mags of an branch), a flattened branch as-

Alga ; the thallus and reproductive suming the form and function of

; bodies Phycoma'ter [fiAr-qp, Doric foliage ; Phylloool'ly (/riXXa, glue), for mother), the hymeneal jelly the production of new leaflets from

in which some spores germinate the leaf surface (Penzig) ; Phyllo- Phycomyce'tes [p-inri^, a fungus), ey'anin (/ciiai/os, blue), a blue a group of Fungi which approach pigment occurring in chloro- the Algae in some characters phyll, which when combined with Phycophaelne (0aids, brown), the phylloxanthin produces a green brown colouring matter of Algae tint, Ktanophyll phyllodin'- ; cf. ; Phycoporpli'yrin (woprj>vpa, purple), eous, -eus, relating to phyllodes a, purple pigment from several Phyl'lode, Phyllo'dium, a petiole species of Zygnema (Lagerheim) taking on the form and functions (irvpp6s,_ Phycopyr'rliiae dark red), of a leaf ; Phyllo'dy, the metamor- a pigment occurring in the Peri- phosis of floral organs into leaves ;

dineae ; Phycoste'moaea J {(ttiJiUuv, pUyl'lold (elSos, resemblance), leaf- a filament), "hypogynous or other like ; ~ Clad'ode = Phyllocladb ; scales adhering to the disk Phyl'lold, a leaf-like appendage to

(Lindley) ; Phyooxan'tMue ( -f the stems of Algae ; phylloi'deus,

Xanthin), the yellowish brown foliaceous ; Phyl'logen [yewdui, pigment of Algae. I produce) = Phtllophob;

Phygoblaste'ma (ct>vyhi, - a fugitive, phyllogenet'ic, leaf producing ; ^Xao-Tij/na, a sprout), Minks's term phyllog'enous, growing upon'leaves;

for a modified form of soredia in epiphyllous ; Phylloloto'eae, pi. Lichens. (Xo;8os, a lobe),' plants with ooty- 194 , ; ;

PhyUomania Pbytogelin

ledons, green and leaf-like ; Phyl- ( + XANTHIN), the yellow colouring loma'nia {ixavla, madness), an ab- matter of leaves, xanthophyll

normal production of leaves ; Phyl'- Phyl'lula (oiiXa, a scar) J, the soar lome, Phyllo'Tna, (1) an assemblage left on a branch by the fall of a of leaves, or of incipient leaves in leaf. {(pOXav, a bud ; (2) recently used for the Pliylog'eny a tribe, yevos, leaf organ in a generic sense, po- lineage), ancestral history deduced

tentially that which answers to a from development ; adj. phylo-

leaf, cf. Oatjlome ; epipel'tate ~ genet'ic. when the base of tne expansion phymato'deuB (0C/ia, a growth or results from the growth of the tumour, eZSor, likeness), warted, upper surface of the primordial verrucosB. leaf, as in Cotyledon Urribilicus, Physe'ma (0i/iri;/ia, an inflation), (1) of Linn., and Tropaeolum majus, the frond an aquatic Alga ; (2)

Linn. ; hypopel'tate ~, when the a branch of Chara (Lindley). growth is from the under surface, physiologic (0i!i7is, a natural produc- as in the sepals of Viola (C. de tion, Ao7o9, discourse), relating

Candolle) ; PhyUomor'pliy (iiopipTi to physiology ; PhyBiol'ogy (veg'et-

form) = Phtllod Y ; Phyllopli'agist able), the science of the vital ((pAyui, I eat), term proposed actions or functions of plants and by Boulger, for plants which their parts. derive their sustenance by their Physo'des {(ppaa, a bladder, elSos, like-

leaves ; Phyl'lophor, Phyl'lophore, ness), vesicles in Algae filled with Fhylloph'omm {ipopeiii, I carry), the liquid containing structures, for- budding summit of a stem on which merly called "miurosomes" (Crato).

leaves are developing, especially Pliytal'bumoge(0uToc, aplant, -i- Albu-

applied to palms ; phylloph'orous, mose), a proteid found in seeds, as

producing leaves ; Phyl'lophyte of Abrus ; Phytobiol'ogy (/3io!, life, {(pvTov, a plant) {1) = Cobmophyte; Xo'7os, discourse), the study of the (2) a plant which draws its nourish- vital functions in plants ; Phy'to- ment chiefly from its leaves (Boul- blast (/SXao-Tos, a bud or sprout), ger); P&yllop'odes, pi. {ttoOs, ttoSos, Baillon's term for a cell in its first

a foot), dead leaves in Isoetes stage of development ; Phytoce- Playllopod'ium, a leaf regarded mor- cid'ia (icTiids, or kyikISiov, a gall), phologically as an axis, branched galls produced by other plants

or unbranched ; PhyUopto'sis (Lundstrom) ; Phy'tochemy ( -l- (TTTtio-iS, fall), an unnatural fall of chem), the chemistry of vegetation

root), its : leaves ; Phyl'lorhize {^'fi " and products Phy'tocMore leaf {X^oipos, green) = an organ intermediate between Chloeophtll ; and root, as the leaves of PSy'tocyst {KiffTii, a bag), Baillon's expression many water plants (Clos) ; phyllo- for a cell with its walls,

sipho'nlc {(Tltpav, a tube), having a cf. Phttoblast ; Phytoder'ma tubular stele, interrupted at the (Sepfm, a skin), any fungous parasite

insertion of leaves (Jeffrey) ; Phyl- growing on the skin ; Phyto-

losi'phony, the state described ; derm'ata, pi., skin diseases caused PhyUota'onin {rdus, a peacock), by Fungi; Phytodoma'tla, pi. Sohunk's word for a product of (dufiaTion, a little house), shelters chlorophyll, resembling phy Uocyan, in which other jilants live (Lund-

Phyllotax'y, strom ; Phytoero'sia, but dull green in tint ; ) a misprint (rafis, arrangement), of Lindley's for Phytoteeosia Phyllotax'is ; the mode in which the leaves are Phytodynamlcs (5i)^a^is, power), to the axis relating to the arranged with regard ; movements of adj. phyUotac'tic ; PliyUoxan'thia plants (Sachs); Phytogel'ln {gelo, 195 ; ; ;

Fhyto^neBiB FiUdium

I congeal), the gelatine of Algae anatomy, or ; Phyto- Pliytogen'esis (y^ve(ns, beginning), troph'ia (rpoipii, nourishment),

the origin and development of the plant culture ; Phytozo'ld {^Ciov,

plant ; Phytog'eny, means the same an animal, elSos, likeness) = An the-

as the last; Pliytogeog'raphy, EozoiD ; Phytozo'a, pi. of Phyto- Phytogeograph'ia (yfi, the earth, zo'on, antherozoids, mobile fertiliz- 7/3d0w, I write), geographic botany, ing bodies formed in antheridia.

the science of plant distribution ; pic'euB (Lat. ), pitchy black. Phytogno'sis (tkSo-is, knowledge), Pio'ro-er'ytliriii (ttik/jos, bitter, +

botany, phytology ; Phytog'raphist Eeythrin), a substance found in

(ypa(p^, a writing), a describing Lichens ; Picrotox'in (roiiKbi',

botanist ; Phytog'raphy, the de- poison), a crystalline narcotic scription and illustration of plants, bitter ingredient in the berries of descriptive and systematic or taxi- Cocculus iTidicus, the mediaeval nomic botany; phy'toid (elSos, like- and trade name of Anamirta

ness), plant-like ; Phy'tolite {\lBos, paniculata, Coleb. ; adj. pioro-

a stone) ; Phy'tollth, a plant in the tox'ic.

fossil condition ; Phytolithol'ogy, pic'tuB (Lat., painted), adorned with (\6yos, discourse), the study of colour, as though painted.

fossil-plants, palaeobotany ; Phy- Pie'tra funga'ia (Ital. ), "Mushroom- tol'oglst, a botanist ; 'ogy, stone," the sclerotium of Poly- Phytolo'gia, botany, the study of porus tuberaster, Fr.

plants ; Phytol'ysis (XuVis^ a loos- plla'ris J (Lat., from pilus, a hair), ing), error an (?) for Photolysis ; composed of small hairs, pilose, phytomastig'opod, see mastigopod; pi'leate, pilea'tus (Lat., wearing the Phy'tomer, pi. Phytom'era (/Ji4pos, piUus), having the form of a cap

a part), the unit of a plant, an or PiLEUs ; pi'leiform, pileiform'is internode with its leaves, an (forma, shape), pileus shaped, emendation of Pliy'ton, applied by Pi'leola, Pile'olus (piholum, a little Gaudichaud to a plant-unit, out cap), (1) a small cap or cap-like of a succession of which plants are body; defined by Henslow as a

built up ; Phyton'omy, Phytonom'ia primordial leaf like an extin- {vo/ios, law), botanic physiology guisher, which encloses the bud Phytonym'ia {8vo/m, a name), plant (2) the diminutive of Pileus ; (3) ; Phytoplank'ton "the receptacle of certain Fun- (-1- Plankton), floating pelagic gals " (Lindley).

plant organisms ; Fbytopathol'ogy Pileorlii'za (TriXeos, pileus, a cap, pl^a, {ira6o\oyiicbs, relating to diseases), a root), the root-cap, a hood at

vegetable , the science the extremity of the root ; Pi'leuB,

of plant-diseases ; Phytopol'itUB J (1) a convex expansion terminating (ttoMtjjs, a citizen), a plant which the stipe of Agarics, and bearing

is or seems to be parasitic ; Phyto- the hymenium, now extended to all ptocecld'la (ktjkk, a gall), galls sporophores in which the hyme- caused by Fungi (Loew) ; Phyto- nium faces the ground, the Cap; Btat'los (dT&dL^, a standing), the (2) used by R. T. Lowe to express various causes which tend to pro- the habit of Convolmilus Caput-Me-

duce equilibrium in , the dusae, Lowe.

of a, plant ; Phytotero'sla {repeiii, Pi'li, pi. of Pilus (Lat. a hair), hairs. I pierce), Deavaux's term for PiUd'ivun {wMdiov, a night-cap), an ; Phytoteratol'ogy orbicular hemispherical shield in {+ Tbkatology), the study of Lichens, the outside changing into monstrous a growths in plants ; powdery substance, as in Cali- Phytot'omy (to/htj, a cutting), plant 196 ; ;

piliferous piBiform

pUiferous, -rus {pilus, a hair, fero, I Pi'nlte, a, glucoside, sweet and cry- bear), (i) bearing haira, or tipped stalline, derived from Pinus Lam-

with them ; (2) hair -pointed (Lind- bertiana, Dougl.

ley) ; ~ Lay'er, the young superfi- Mn'na, pi. Pin'nae (Lat. a feather), a cial tissue of roots, producing the primary division of a pinnate leaf, root-hairs, them- when present ; pl'liform its leaflets, which sometimes (forma, shape), applied to the point selves are pinnate, are restricted by of a nerve in Mosses, when lilce a Bower to the " branches of the first long flexuose hair; pilig'erous (gero, order borne upon the phyllopo-

I bear), bearing hairs. dium," the axis of the leaf ; pin'- Pill, Grew's spelling of Peel. nate, pinna'tus, with leaflets ar- pi'locar'pine, the active principle of ranged along each side of a common Pilocarpus, a genus of Rutaceae. petiole; ~with anoddone=impari- pil'o-glan'dulose {pilus, a hair), used pinnate ; pinna'tely, in a pinnate by J. Smith for Ferns bearing fashion, as ~ com'pound, ~ cleft, — glandular hairs ; pilose, pilo'sus, ~ deoom'pound, ~ dlvi'ded, pi'lous, hairy, any kind of pilosity, lo'bed, ~ parted, ~ ter'nate, ~ usually meaning having soft and trlfo'liolate, ~ veined; pinna'tifld,

distinct hairs ; Pilos'ity, Pilos'itas, pinnati/'idus (findo, fidi, to cut),

hairiness ; pilosius'oulus (Lat.), pinnately cleft > pinnatilo'bate,

slightly hairy ; Pl'losism, abnormal pinnatiToia'tus, pinnatilo'bus (IdbiiH,

hairiness in plants ; defonn'ing -, a lobe), pinnately lobed ; plnnati- when in excess and completely dis- par'tite, pinnatiparli'tus, pitmately

figuring the species ; physiolo- parted ; plnnatiscis'sus, (scissus, g'ical i^, occasioned by circum- cleft), pinnately divided or cut stances, as growth in a dry soil pinna'tlseot, pinnatisec'lus (sectiis,

teratolog'lcal ~ , when it becomes a cut), pinnately divided down to the

disease, cf. defokming. rhaohis ; pin'niform {forma, shape),

Pil'ulaJ (Lat., a globule), (1) a cone like a feather ; pinuiner'ved {nervus, like a galbulus; (2) any spherical a nerve), pinnately veined, the inflorescence. veins running parallel towards the

Pi'lus (Lat.), a hair ; cf. Pill. margin ; pin'nulate, with pinnules ; pim'pled, papillose. Pin'nule, Pin'nula, pi. Pin'nulae,{l)

pin-eyed, a florist's term for those a secondary pinna ; (2) in Diatoms, flowers of dimorphic species, which thickened ribs on the valves, as in have long styles, the stigma show- Pinnidaria, ing itself at the mouth of the pi'noid (pinus, a pine, elSos, resem- corolla-tube. blance), like a pine-needle. Pinakenoh'yma {-n-tva^, a table, lyxvfi.a, Pip, (1) the popular name for the an infusion), the muriform tissue seedsof anappleorpear; (2) "small of medullary rays, whose com- seeds or seed-like bodies including

ponent cells are tabular ; Piaen- the bulbs of Lily of the Valley

ch'yma is a shortened form. (Crozier) ; (3) a florist's term for a Plnch'ing-Bod'ies, the Corpuscula of single flower of a truss.

Asclepiads : the junction of the Pip'erin, the active principle of white pollinia which clings to the leg of and black pepper. Piper nigrum,

an insect visitor ; " Traps, another Linn., a, white crystalline body pip'era- name for the same mechanism ; the isomeric with ; German equivalents are Klemm- tus, piperi'tus (Lat., peppered), korper and Klemmenfallen. peppery, having a hot, biting Pine'turn (Lat., a pine-grove), (1) a taste. to Coniferae a pi'siform, pisiform'is (piswm, a pea, work devoted ; (2) collection of the same in a garden. forma, shape), pea-shaped. 197 ; ; ;

Pistil Plane of Symmetry

Pls'til, PUi'd'lum (Lat., a pestle), (1) Placen'ta (Lat., a cake), (1) the organ the female organ of a fwwer, con- which bears the ovules in an ovary, sisting of ovary, style and stigma, often the margin of the oarpellary

when complete; (2) the archegonium leaves ; (2) in Cryptogams, the

of the genua Andreaea (Hooker tissue from which sporangia arise ; — placentiform Pla'- aad Taylor) ; pistiUa'oeous ( + shaped, ; is long aceous), giowing on the pistil ; centary, J a placenta which

pia'tillary, relating to the pistil ;-- and narrow and bears many ovules ;

' Cord, ' a cliaunel which passes Placenta'rlmn, placenta ; Plaoen- from the stigma through the style ta'tion, Placenta'tio, the disposition " into the ovary (LincJley) ; pis'til- of the placentae ; placentiferus late, pistilla'tus, (1) having a pistil (fero, I bear), bearing placentae (2) applied to a flower having pistils placen'tifonn, placentiform'ia {for- 'er- or like a only, a female flower ; piatiUlf ma, shape), quoit-shaped ous, -rus {fero, I bear), bearing flat cake.

pistils ; Pistillid'ium, pi. Pistillid ia, plaoochromat'lc (TrXtlf, tMkos, a flat arohegonia, organs analogous to body, pcpu/iari/cds, relating to colour),

pistils ; pistillig'erous {gero, I bear), used of Diatoms with endochrome

pistillif erous (fero, I bear), bearing in plates or disks ; cf. cocoocheo-

one or more pistils ; Pistillo'dy, the MATIC. change of floral organs into carpels. plaoo'des [wXaKdiSTjs, flat), used by Pit, (1) a small hollow or depression, Koerber for Lichens resembling a

as in a Cbll-wall ; (2) the endocarp rounded plate in figure. of a drupe containing the kernel or Plac'ophytes (TrXdf, a flat body, ipvrov,

seed-stone (Crozier) ; ~- Cham'ber, a plant), a term applied by Schuett the cavity of a bordered pit on to the Peridineae, Diatomaceae and

each side of a closing membrane. Uesmideae ; cf. Sac'cophytbs. Pitch, a resinous exudation from the plagiod'romouB {irXdyios, oblique, spruce, Picea alba, Link, etc. Spoiws; a course), applied to tertiary Pitch'er, a tubular or cup-shaped leaf-veins when at right-angles to

vessel, the terminal portion of a the secondary veins ; Plaglophoto-

leaf-blad ', usually containing a tax'y (0JS, 0UTOS, light, rdfis,

secreted iligestive fluid ; an as- order), the oblique arrangement of cidium;'~ shaped, campanulate, but- chlorophyll granules with regard

contracted at the orifice. to incident light(Oltmanns) ; plagio- Pith, the spongy centre of an exo- phototrop'ic (Tpoir-q, a turning), genous stem, chiefly consisting of assuming an oblique position to parenchyma; the medulla ;'~ Flecks, the rays of light, as the leaflets dark marks in timber due to the of Robinia, Tropaeolum, etc.,

cavities made by the larvae of in- (Oltraanns) ; plagiotrop'ic, having sects in the cambii.im, but at once the direction of growth oblique

filled up by cellular tissue (Hartig). or horizontal ; Plagiot'ropism, the pit'ted, marked with small depres- condition described.

sions, punctate ; used in a re- plain, applied to a margin which is

stricted sense for pits in cell- walls ; not undulate, though it may be ~ Ves'sels, dotted ducts, vessels sinuate (Crozier). with secondary thickenings leaving plait'ed, plicate. thinner spots. plane, pla'nus (Lat.), level, even, flat pitu'itouB {pituita, phlegm), relating Plane of Inser'tlon, a plane which to mucus (Crozier). passes through the point of inser- Pityri'asis {wlTvpov, scurf) versic'olor, tion of a lateral organ and coincides a skin disease caused hyMicrosporon with the main axis and that of the

Furfur, Rob, organ ; ~ of Sym'metry, that which 198 ,; ; ; ;

plaoluBculus Flastiu

divides an object into symmetrical mode = Plasmodium : Plasmo'diae,

halves ; planlus'culus (Lat.), nearly Caruel's term for Myxogastres flat. plasmo'dial, plasmo'dio, pertaining Planlitol'ogy {irXayKroSf wandering, to a Plasmodium ; Plasmo'diocarp, X070!, a discoaree), the department (KapTTos, fruit), an asymmetrical of pelagic botany, that is, of the sporangium of Myxogastres (Roata- floating organisma in the ocean finski) ; Plasmo'diogens (7^;'o!, Plank'ton, free-swimming or float- race, offspring), Macmillan's word

ing oceanic life ; fresh'water - for the protoplasmic units of a

that of lakes ; or rivers nerit'io '~ Plasmodium ; plasmodioph'oms found near the coast ; oceaa'ic ^ {(jjopcio, I carry), producing a true pelagic, far from land. Plasmodium ; Plasmo'dium, a mass Plaa'ogamete {ir'Ka.i'os, wandering, of naked much-nucleated proto- ya/xiTT)!, aepouse), a mobile ciliated plasm, showing amoeboid move- gamete or zoogamete, as in Chloro- ments ; aggrega'ted ~ , the myxa-

phyeeae ; Plan'ospore ((TTroph, a moebae congregated without fusion, seed), Sauvageau's term for a each cell giving rise to a spore or motile zoospore. foot-cell ; fused ~ , union of myxa- Plant, Plwnlta, a vegetable production moebae and subsequent fructifica-

nourished by gases or liquids and tion (Van Tieghem) ; Plasmol'ysis not ingesting solid particles of {Kiais, a loosing), a separation of food (except in the plasmodial the living protoplasm from the

stage of ; - Myxogastres) ~ Cane, by osmotic action ; the first year's growth of the sugar- plas'molysed, subjected to plasmo-

cane from seed ; ^ Cas'ein, a sub- lysis ; adj . plasmolyt'ic ; plasmo- -^ stance akin to animal casein ; pb'agous {^dyiii, I eat), absorbing Forma'tion, an assemblage of plants the living organic matter of the living together in a host-plant without selection (Boul- under the same environment, as a ger) ; Plasmosyn'agy {crvmya, I moor or wood ; ~ Pathol'ogy, the collect), accumulation of the pro-

study of plant-diseases ; Plan'tae toplasts of the polioplasm and of tris'tes, evening flowering plants, the plastids included in it, due to as Matthiola bicornis, DO., etc.; plasmolytic irritation (Tswett) plan'tal, pertaining to plants Plas'ome, a living element of pro- Plan'ticle, the embryo in a seed ; toplasm, shortened from Plasma-

Plan'tlet, little ; a plant Plan'tule, TOSOME (Wiesner) ; plas'tic, capable

Plan' tula = Plumule; Plantula'tlo of being moulded or modified ; ~ = Germination. SuVstances, those employed in Plasm, Plas'ma (rrXatr/ta, that formed), building up, as cellulose, starch-

used for Protoplasm ; Plasmamoe'- grains, proteids, etc. ; Plastic'ity,

bae ( + Amoeba), amoebiform the quality of being plastic ; Flas'tid, masses of protoplasm, the actino- 'ium, a protoplasmic granule

phrydia of Gobi ; plasmatop'arous in active cells, differentiated as [pario, I bring forth), in germina- centres of chemical or vital activity, tion the whole of the protoplasm as Chloko-, Chromo-, and Lbu-

of a gonidium issues as a rounded copLASTiD ; Plas'tidplasm, ( -f- mass, which at once becomes coated Plasm), a supposititious substance vpith a membrane, and puts out a differing from other forms of pro-

germ-tube ; Plas'masome, or Plas- toplasm by morphological charac-

jnat'oaome {crw/jm, a body), a proto- ters (B. M. Davis) ; Plas'tldule, plasmic corpuscle, shortened to Elsberg's term for the smallest

Plasomb ; plaamat'lc, ready, or mass of protoplasm which can exist

serving for growth, plastic ; Plas'- as such ; Plas'tin, an essential ele- 199 ;;; ;;

Piastogramy pleuroblastic

ment of the entire protoplaamio more whorls than the normal

cell-contents, including the nucleus number ; Pleiomor'phisin, Pleio- and the chromatophores (Zach- mor'phy (/topc/)^, change), the oc-

arias) ; Plastog'amy (ydfios, mar- currence of more than one inde- riage), the fusion of cytoplasta pendent form in the life-cycle of

into a Plasmodium, the nuclei a species ; Pleiont'ism, Delpino's

remaining distinct (Hartog) ; adj. term for Polymorphy; pleio-

plastogam'ic ; Plastog:'eny {yivos, phyl'lous, -lus {(pvWov, a leaf), with race, offspring), when oytoplastie leaves having no apparent buds

elements undergo a reorganisation in their axils ; Plelophyl'ly, having by fusion (Hartog) ; Plas'toid numerous leaves from the same {dSo!, likeness), a needle-shaped point, or more than usual the body found in the stalk- cells of the number of leaflets in & compound tentacles of Drosera, becoming leaf; Pleiopyre'nium ( + Pyrenium), rounded under stimulus; a rhab- small apothecia in one verruca, in doid. Lichens ; pleiosper'mous {cwepiia,

Plate, a flattened structure ; c/. a seed), with an unusually large >~, NUCLEAR SIEVE ~. number of seeds ; Pleiotax'is, Plelo- Plateau' (Fr.), (1) the tubercular disk tax'y (ra^is, order), increase in the in a bulb which produces the number of whorls in a flower scales upwards, and the roots Pleiotraohe'ae (-f Trachea), downwards, cf. Cobm (Crozier) "membranous tubes or tracheae ; (2) a similar structure in certain containing a compound spiral

Compositae, interposed between fibre " (Cooke) ; Pleiox'eny (fevos, the ovary and the other floral a host or guest), where a parasite organs (Leooq). can invade several species of host- platycar'pic, platycar'pous (wkaris, plants (De Bary). broad, Kapiris, fruit), broad-fruited ple'nus (Lat.), full, as Flos plenus Platylob'eae {\op6s, a lobe), used = a double flower. for certain Crucifers with flat coty- Pleocliro'icism [irkeov, more, xp™> ledons ; platylo'bate, broad-lobed colour, complexion), with various

platyphyl'lous {^iXKov, a leaf), colours in the cell-wall ; syn., Pleo- broad-leaved. chro'mlsm (xpw/ia, colour), adj.

Plecolep'is, J Plecolep'idm (tA«u, I pleochro'Ic, pleochiois'tlc ; Pleo- plait, Xewls, a scale), the involucre mor'pMsm, Pleomor'pliy (/io/)07/, of Compositae when the bracts shape), the same as Pleiomoephism. are united into a cup. Ple'on, Naegeli's term for an aggre- Plectencb'yma {tXcktos, woven, gate of molecules, but smaller than eyXv/M, an infusion), a tissue of a Micella.

woven hyphae ; a pseudo-par- Ple'onasm (ifKeivaaixa, a surplus), enchyma, further divided into redundance in any part (Crozier). Pakaplectenchtma and Pkoso- Ple'rome (TrX-rfpuiia, that which fills), PLECTENCHTMA (Lindau). the cylinder or shaft of a growing Pleioblas'tus {wXelov, more, /SXatrros, point enclosed and overarched by a bud), used by Koerber for those periblem ; ~ Sheath = Bundle- Lichen spores which germinate sheath. at several points ; Pleiochas'lum plesiomor'pliouB (ttXijit/os, near, /iop

more than two branches ; adj. Pleu'ra (TrXeu/jo, a side or rib), the gir- plelooliaa'ial pleiooy'clie ; {k6k\os, dle or hoop of Diatoms (0. Mueller) a circle), perennial, as ~ Herbs Pleurenchyma (eTxu/ia, an infu- Plelom'ery {/Jiipo!, a part), having sion), woody tissue ; pleuroblas'tic 200 ;

pleurooaxpous plurivalvis

(pXaarbs, a bud), used of certain Pllca'tion, a fold or folding ; pUc'a-

forms of Fungi, producing lateral tlve, plicati'viis = plicate ; Plic'a- outgrowths serving ture, a fold or doubling plioat'u- as haustoria ; ; pleuroGar'pous, -pus {xapTos, fruit), late, the diminutive of plicate applied to those Mosses which (Crozier); pli'oiform [forma, shape), bear their fructification on lateral plait-like. growths, Plococar'piiun (ttXokij, a tress, Kapwos, cf. ACROCARPOtra ; pleuro- dis'oous {dltTKos, a quoit), when an fruit) = Follicle ; Plopocar'pium, appendage is attached to the sides an error for the last. of a disc ; pleurogy'rate, pleuro- Plum-pock'ets = Bag-plums. gyra'tus {yvpos, round), when Fern- Pliunba'glne, a crystalline principle sporangia have the annulus hori- in the roots of Plumbago. zontal; pleurogym'ius, pleurogyn'us plumb'eus (Lat., leaden), lead -col- {ywv, a woman), used when a oured. glandular or tubercular elevation pluma'tua (Lat.), feathered, pinnate. rises close to or parallel with Plume (Lat., the down of a feather), the ovary ; pleuroplas'tic (irXacrro!, Grew'a term for the Plumule; plu'- moulded), Prantl's term for a leaf mose, plumo'sus (Lat.), feathered, in which the oentral po tion first as tlie pappus of thistles. attains permanency, the meristem Plu'mule, Plu'mula (Lat., a little being marginal ; pleurorhi'zal, -ziis feather), the primary Jeaf-bud of (p/fa, a root), when an embryo has an embryo. its radicle against one edge of the plur-, plu'ri (Lat.), used as a prefix cotyledons, which are then acoum- for many or several, as plurilocular,

bent ; Pleur'osperms {(xwepfia, a many-celled, etc. seed), Angiosperms which began Plur-an'nual {+ Annual), L. H. with ohalazogamy, but have be- Bailey's word for an annual plant, come porogamous (Nawaschin) which is so only by being killed by

adj. pleurosper'mie ; Pleurospor- the cold at the end of the season, ang^ium {(nropd, a seed, dyyetovj a as Beseda odorata, Linn.; plurl- vessel), a sporangium which pro- oel'lular{-l-CELLULAK),many-OHlled;

duces pleurospores ; Pleur'ospore, plu'rlceps [-ceps from caput, a head), a spore formed at the sides of a with more than one head, as many

basidiura in Basidiomycetes (Van roots ; plurifo'liate, plurlfo'Uous

Tieghem) ; pleurotri'bal, or pleur'o- [folium, a leaf), having several several tribe (rpipa, I beat), used of flowers leaves ; plurifo'liolate, with

whose stamens are adapted to de- or many leaflets ; pluriflor'ous, -rus posit their pollen upon the sides of [fios, floris, a flower), with several insect-visitors. flowers; pluriloc'ular,pfer»7oc«/a'rJs plexeoblas'tus % (ir\4^is, a knitting, (loculus, a little place), many-

jSXacTTos, a bud), when cotyledons celled ; plurlpar'tite, pluriparti'lus rise above ground in germination, [partitus, divided), deeply divided but do not assume the appearance into several nearly distinct por-

of leaves ; plex'ua (Lat. , a twining), tions ; plurlpet'alous (tt^oXox, a

a network. flower-leaf), polypetalous ; plurl- Pli'ca, pi. Pll'oae (plico, I fold or sep'tate [septum, an enclosure),

) partitions pluri- plait), { 1 a plait or folding ; (2) with several ;

the lamella in Fungi ; (3) a disease spor'ous [a-iropd, a seed), having

of entangled twigs, the buds pro- two or more seeds ; plurlv'alent of nuclear ducing abnormally short shoots ; [valene, strong), used pU'cate, pUca'tus, folded into plaits divisions in which each element is usually lengthwise;plicat'ilis(Lat.), composed of two normal elements

the property of folding together ; (Haerker) ; plurival'vis ( + Valva), 201 ; ;

Fneumato-chymlfera Folioplasm

many-valved, as opposed to uni- tate fruit, that is, when the ovary

valved or folliculate. is borne by a gynopbore ; podo- Pneu'mato - ohymifera [Va'sa] J ceph'alous, -lii8 (/te^aXi), a head), {trvfO/ia, iryei/MTos, breath, air), with a pedunculate head ; Podo-

spiral vessels (Lindley) ; Pneu'- gyn'ium {ywri, a woman), an matode (oSds, a way), any open- elevation in the centre of a flower ing of the nature of a lentioel or which carries the ovary, a gyno-

stoma ( Jo9t) ; Pneu'matopliore, phore; adj. podogyn'icus, podo-

Pneumatoph'orum {(popioi, I carry), g'ynus ; podop'terou8 {irTcpov, a (1) used of air-vessels of any de- wing), having winged peduncles

; scription, as tracheids ; (2) inter- (Crozier) Pod'ospenn, Podosper'- cellular spaces in Rhizophoreae mium, -ma [ffiripiw., a seed), the

(Karsten) ; (3) J the membranous stalk of a seed, the funicle. (ir^uv, tube of a spiral vessel (Lindley) ; Po'gon a beard), used in com- pneumatotac'tic (toktikos, apt for position to denote any collection of arrangement), applied to those long hairs.

zoospores whose irritability is de- Polnt'al, an old term for Pistil ;

pendent on the presence of dis- pointless, muticous ; point'letted, solved gases, the products of apiculate. i-espiration of the zoospores in the Polaohe'na, Polacke'na Polahn'nmm

sporangium (Hartog) ; Pneumato- {iroKiis, many, a, without, xalvoi,

tax'yi the condition described I gape), Richard's term for >i. fruit

neg'ative ~ , the irritability which like a cremocarp. but composed of determines the escape of certain five carpels, cf Pentachknidm:.

spores, as io Achlya ; Pneuma- po'lar, relating to the poles of an

tof'erus ifero, I bear), the ex- organ ; ~ biloc'ular, applied to ternal membranous tube of spiral Lichen spores which have cells at vessels (Henslow). the opposite apices. Pock'et-plumB = Bag-plums. Po'lar (ttoXos, a pivot) Bod'ies, a poc'ulifonn, poculiform'is {pocvXum, portion of the protoplasm of a a cup, forma, shape), shaped like mother-cell thrown off as nucleated a goblet or drinking-cup. cells from the oospore before fertili-

Pod, dehis- sation ; ~ Cell, = ~ ~ Cor- a dry and many-seeded Body ;

cent frviit, a legume or ; ~ pus'ole, the centx'al mass in each -' -like, applied to such fruits as Aster of a dividing nucleus ;

those of CorydcUis, Hypecoum, and Glob'ule, = ~ BoDT ; '~ Nu'cleus Gleome. a fourth nucleus in each group at pode'tiifonn (H-PoDBTirM from ttoCs, the two extremities of the embryo iro56s, a foot, forma, shape), shaped sac, which move towards the middle

like a podetium ; Pode'tium, (1) a of the embryo sac and there coalesce stalk-like elevation rising from the to form the secondary nucleus thallus and supporting an apothe- Polar'ity, (1) the condition of having

cium in some Lichens ; (2) also distinct poles ; (2) the assumption applied to the support of the of a direction pointing to the poles,

capitulum of Marchantia ; and (3) as the compass-plant, Silphium the seta of Mosses ; Pode'ta J is laciniatum, Linn. given by Lindley as a synonym. Polem'biyony = Poltembryony. podicel'late, Leighton's term for po'leward [dissyl.], towards the poles, stalked, as applied to Lichens. in nuclear division. Podioil'lum J a very short j)odetium Polexosty'lus {iroXM, many, t'fu, out,

(Lindley) ; Pod'lum, Pod'ua, a foot- (TTiiXos, style) = Carcerule.

stalk or similar support ; Pod'ocarp, Fo'lioplasm (iroXios, grey, TrXdo-yaa, Podocar'pus (/copTros, fruit), a stipi- mflulded), Tawett'a term for the 202 = ;: ;;;

Folltropism PoUinaxlum

circulating portion ot the cyto- like insertion ; Do'sen ~ (Box ~ ), plasm. elliptic, with three longitudinal

Polit'roplsm Poltteopism. stripes and a pore in each ; Facet- poU'tus (Lat.), polished. tier'ter ~ (Facet ~ ), with facetted pollachig'enus {iroWaxij, often, yeeydoi, surface; Fal'ten ~ (Fold "), with I bring forth) = poltoarpic. smooth surface and three deep >- Pollen (Lat. fine flour), (1) the ferti- longitudinal grooves ; Glat'ter lising dust-like powder produced (Smooth ^ ), destitute of prominent

by the anthers of Phanerogams, markings ; Giir'tel ~ (Girdle ~ ),

more or less globular in shape, having a zone of varied marking ; '~ sometimes spoken of as "Micro- Eam'mrad ~ (Cogwheel ), having " spores ; (2) the antherozoids of regular projections on the equa-

Mosses (Hooker ; ~ torial Knot'chen >-', an and Taylor) region ; Carr'ler, the retinaculum of Ascle- abbreviation for Enotcheudo'sen piads, ^ <~ the gland to which the , (Nodule ),having a tuberculate '~ pollen-masses are attached, either surface ; Lin'sen ~ (Lens ),

immediately or by oaudioles ; ~ doubly convex in form ; Eah'men Cells, cavities of the anthers in ~ (Frame ~), with six small and

which pollen is formed ; ~ Cha'm- three broad streaks between the

ber, (1) a cavity at the apex of poles ; Eip'pen ~ (Rib ~ ), with some ovules beneath the integu- longitudinal ribs having punctate

ments in which the pollen -grains markings on them ; Kun'der ~

lie ) in after pollination, as in Cycas ; (Round ~ spherical form ~

(2) the extine of the pollen in Scha'len ~ (Shell ~ ), with three slits some Coniferae dilated into two which do not reach the poles, and hollow expansions to facilitate without pores, the pollen-tubes

dispersion by wind ; ~ Grain, emerging from the slits, cf. Spal-

Graji'iile, the small bodies which ten ~ ; Spal'ten - (Fissure --'},

compose the entire mass ; the with three longitudinal fissures,

latter term is also used for the sometimes with pores in them ; cf.

contents of the grain ; '- Mass, Schalen -' ; Span'gen ~ (Clasp pollen-grains cohering by a waxy ~), main ribs three, smaller ribs texture or fine threads into a single six, with three pores in the equa- body; ~ Sac, the micro-sporangium torial region, one between each

in Phanerogams ; ~ Spore = ~ two of the smaller ribs ; Sta'chel ~

Grain ; ~ Tet'rad, the shape of (Spine ~), having a spiny certain groups consisting of four surface, pores from three to

grains cohering in a pyramid, as many ; Wa'ben ~ (Honey-comb

in Oenothera ; ~ Tetrahed'ron = last ~ ), having an areolate surface ~ Tube, the tube emitted by a pol'lenate, to fertilise by pollen = Pollination pol- pollen grain passing down from PoUena'tion ; the stigma to the ovary and leEiferous, -rus {fero, I bear), ovules. —The various markings of pollen-bearing ; Pol'lenine, the con-

the pollen-grains in Acanthaceae tents of pollen-grains ; Fol'lenold = have received special names from POLLINOID. L. Badlkofer and G. Lindau, Pol'les (Lat., a thumb), an inch in which have been used in their length, nearly 25 mm. original form in the "Flora of pollioa'riB (Lat., pertaining to a " ; the following thumb), an inch in length, about the account of them may be useful length of the end joint of the thumb. Dau'ben -^ (Stave --) a modifica- Pollina'rium, pi. Pollina'ria {Pollen,

tion of Schalen- or Spalten ~ , with fine flour), (1) = Androecium ; (2) broadened fissures having a stave- = Ctstidium. 203 ;;;

pollinarins Folygamla

poUlaa'rius (Lat., pertaining to fine vault) = POLYCABPio ; polyoarpel'-

flour), polUno'suB, as though dusted lary ( + Cabpellum), of many car-

with pollen. pels, free or united ; polycar'pic, pol'llnate, to apply pollen to the polycar'picous [Kapiros, fruit), fruit-

receptive surface of the female ing many times, indefinitely ; used peren- organ ; pollinated, pollina'tus, by De Candolle to denote a

when a stigma is supplied with nial herb ; polycar'pous, -ptis, (1)

pollen ; Pollina'tion, the placing of = POLYCABPIO ; (2) of a flower in the pollen on the stigma or stig- which the gynaecium forms two or

matic surface ; lateral ~ , cf. plbubo- more distinct ovaries ; cf. mono-

, polycepli'alous,-Z«»(M(/iaX^, TRiBAL ; over ~ cf. nototkibal ; CABPic;

under ~, cf. stbrnotribal ; pollln'- a head), bearing many heads or ic Chain'ber = polycephali Pili, are hairs Pollen-Chamber ; capitula ; PoUia'imn, pi. PoUin'ia, a body divided at the end into several

composed of all the pollen-grains arms ( Lindley ) ; polychlor'is, an

of an anther-loculus, a pollen-mass error for polychoris ; Polychor'ion Polliniza'tlon Polyohor'is = Pollination ; Pol- t Polychorion'ides, % lino'dium, in Asoomyoetes, a male (x6/)iov, foetal membrane), syno-

sexual organ which conjugates nyms for Etaerio ; Polychro'ite with a female organ, directly or by (xpi5a, colour, complexion), the

outgrowth ; Pol'llnoids (eWos, re- yellow colouring matter of saffron ; semblance), naked motionless Pol'yclirome (xpdiia, colour), a sub- masses of protoplasm, spherical or stance occurring in the bark of the elongated, sometimes beaked, act- Horse-chestnut which gives rise

ing in the place of antherozoids in to varying colours ; Polyclad'ia,

Plorideae ; pollin'icus [pollen, fine Polyclad'y (kKA.Sos, a branch), plica, flour), composed of or bearing some a supernumerary development of

relation to pollen. branches and leaves ; adj. polycla-

Pol'verlne (Ital., polverino), calcined d'ous ; Polyeoc'cous, -cua {k6kkos, a

ash of a soda-yielding plant. kernel), having many cocci ; Poly- Polyadel'phia (TroXiis, many, d5e\0os, clo'nus, Polyclo'ny [kXCiv, a branch),

a brother), a Linnean artificial a synonym of Polycladia ; Poly-

class with stamens grouped into eotyle'don, pi. Polyeotyle'dones ( -t- several brotherhoods or bundles CoTYLEDON), a plant which has

adj . polyadelp'lious, polyadel'phian several cotyledons ; adj.polycotyle'-

polyad'enouB {aS^v, a gland), with donouB ; Polycotyle'dony, an in-

many glands ; Polyan'dria (i,vrip, creased number of the cotyledons,

avSpos, a man), a Linnean class of more than two ; polycy'cllc {/cfeXos, plants possessing many stamens in a, circle), when the members of a

each flower ; polyan'drlan, polyan'- series, such as a calyx, or corolla, drous, having an indefinite number are in several circles polyoys'tic ;

of stamens ; polyan'thous, -thus (KvffTis, a bag) composed of several (4;'9os, flower), having = a many cells (Baillon) ; polyderplious

flowers, particularly if within the POLYADELPHOUS (Crozier) ; poly-

same involucre ; polyarl'nus (Upp-qv, em'bryonate ( + Embryo), having male), Necker's term for polyan- more than one embryo in a

( DROus ; polyax'ial -I- axial), used seed ; Polyem'bryony, the pro- of an inflorescence in which the duction of more than a single

flowers are borne on secondary, ter- embryo in an ovule ; adj. poly- tiary, etc., branches polyblas'tus ; em'bryon'lc ; polyflor'ous, -riia (flos, (pXaffTos, a bud), Koerber's term for fioris, a flower), a barbarism for

those Lichens which have polysep- MULTIFLOROUS or POLYANTHOUS ;

tate spores ; polycam'arus {Ka/xapa, a Polygam'ia, a Linnean class con- 204 ;

polygamian polystomons

(^op^u, I carry), a taining plants with polygamous Polyphor'ium = polygam- torus with many pistils, as of a flowers ; polygam'ian Polyphyle'sls ( -1- phyl- ous polyg'amous {jd/ios, mar- strawberry; ; from more than one riage), witli hermaphrodite and ETIC), descent

descent adj. polyphylet'ic ; unisexual flowers on the same, line of ; (-1- Phylqgejjy), or on different individuals of Polyphylog'eny several lines poly- lineage through ; the same species ; Polyg'amy, the phyl'lous {(piWov, a leaf), having condition described ; polyg'amo- ; Pol'yphyll, an increase dioe'cious, dioeciously polygamous many leaves in the normal number of organs (Crozier) ; Polyg'eny {yivos, race) Pol'yplast {irKturTos, Huxley's term for Polyphylesis in a whorl ; ; group of mono- polygon'atus {yin, a knee), where moulded), a the organic the stem has many knots plasts which are ; protoplasm (Vogt). polyg'onus {ywrla, an angle), eloments of relating to the fungus multangular polygynae'cial (yvy- polyp'orous, ; Polyporus. aiKelov, the women's house), having genus polyrM'zous (ttoXiJs, many, multiple fruits formed by the united polyrhi'zal, having numerous pistils of many flowers; polygyn'ous, ^ifa, a root), (1) rootlets (2) where parasites have polygyn'ious (yuvri,B, woman), having ; many distinct rootlets apart from many distinct styles ; Polygyn'ia, a haustoria ; Polysar'ca {trhpi, Linnean order of plants so consti- their irapKos, flesh), an unnatural growth tuted ; Polyg'yny = Polygamy ; excess of nutriment ; Poly- polygyrus (yiipos,3. circle), in several due to ((rijKos. a stall), Desvaux's whorls or circles. se'cus J an Etaerio as in Mag- Polyhed'ron, pi. Polyhed'ra {-n-okieSpov, term for polysep'alous, -lu« + Sepal), a solid of many bases), a stage in nolia; ( distinct sepals poly- the growth of Hydrodictyon, when with many ; (alijxav, a tube), applied the hypnosperm or resting spore si'phonous of several coherent breaks up into several megazoo- to a filament

rows of cells ; pol'y- spores which put out horn-like ap- longitudinal sperm, polysper'mal, polysper'- pendages ; these polyhedra break -mus (airipiw., a seed), when up into zoospores. mous, pericarp has numerous seeds polylep'idus (-n-oXiis, many, Xeiris, a {a-wopa, a seed), a multi- yeTriSoi, a scale), having many Pol'yspore cellular spore composed of Me- scales polym'erous, -rvs (jiepos, a ; (Bennett & Murray) part), with numerous members to KiSPORES polyspor'ous, containing many each series or cycle ; polymor'phic, spores, used of Cryptogams, as in polymor'phous, -])hus (iwp(pr], a more than four or change), with several or various asci when eight spores occur; polys'tachous forms ; variable as to habit ; = polystach'yous (aT&xvs, Polymor'pliy, the existence of more (Crozier) having many spikes; than one form of the same organ a spike), polyste'lous (h- Stele), on a plant polyneur'is (vevph, a polyste'lic, ; than one plerome strand sinew), where the veins of a leaf, with more growing poinr, so that the especially the secondary veins, are at the has more than one stele, as numerous polyoi'cous (oT/cos, a stem ; Polyste'ly, the con- house), a combination of (a) ATJ- in Gimnera; dition specified; polyste'monous, TOICOUS, (6) HKTEEOICOUS, or (c) -mis (dT-qii-av, a filament), having SYNOicous, with Dioicous Mosses ; polyandrous poly- polyoTula'tus (+ Ovulum), fur- many stamens, ; stig'mus (-H Stigma) with many nished with many ovules ; poly- a stigma carpels, each originating ; pet'aloUB, -lus (-f Petal), having polys'tomous, -mus (a-Td/ia a, several distinct petals ; Pol'yphore; 205 ; ;

polystylous porraceouB

mouth), many mouthed, with pooph'UouB (Tria, grass, (piKiia, Hove), numerous suckers or haustoria meadow-loving plants which con- and polysty'lous, -Ins ( + Style), with sort with grasses (Pound

Clements) ; Po'ophyte (

poljliie'leus open by pores ; Pore, Por'ua, as a collective fruit ; (1) (drjKij, a nipple), used of a flower any small aperture, as in anthers, which contains several distinct for the emission of pollen in the -cm-s (t6kos, pollen grains themselves, in the ovaries ; polyt'ocous, a birth), fruiting year after year, epidermis as stomata or water- polyt'omoua, -mns pores in Polyporus, any of the caulocai-poua ; ; (2) (roiiri, a cutting), apparently pin- tube-like openings, forming the nate, but the pinnae not articu- hymenium; (3) large pitted vessels

lated to the common petiole ; Polyt'- or traoheids in wood ; ~ Canal', omy, (1) in an inflorescence, having the passage through a pit between -' Cap'sule, a more axes than in dichotomy ; (2) a neighbouring cells ; false polyt'riclious (flpif, dehiscing by pores, as in pinnation ; capsule

; '- 013/016, zone in Tpixos, a hair), having many hairs ; the poppy the Polyt'ropism (Tpow-q, a twining), the annual rings of certain trees, Arohangeli's term when leaves such as oak, which displays numer-

place their lamina vertically and ous tracheids ; ~ Cork, cork-cells in meridionally, the two surfaces lentieels with intercellular spaces ~ Pas'- facing east and west ; polytrop'io, between them (Klebahn) ; Loew's term for bees which visit a sage, the stomatic passage between— wide circle of flowers ; polytypic the inner and outer cavities ;

(ti^ttos, a type), applied to a genus cor'tical ~ , = Lenticel ; Poren-

having several species ; Polyx'eny ch'yma {iyxvf-a, an Infusion), tissue guest) = of elongated cells, and apparently (iho$, a Pleioxbny ; tissue Polyzygo'sis (fuyos, a yoke), the pierced by pores ; pitted ; conjugation of more than two porici'dal (caedo, cecidi, to cut), gametes (Crozier). applied to anthers which open

poma'ceous {jiomum, a fruit, + ac- by ])ores, porandrous ; por'iform

eous), relating to apples ; Pome, {forma, shape), like a pore (Leigh-

Po'mum, an inferior fruit of several ton) ; Por'ogams {yi.fi.os, marriage), cells, of which the apple is the phanerogamous plants which are type. fertilised by way of the ohalaza pomeridia'nus (Lat.), in the after- instead of the mioropyle (Treub) noon. Porog'amy, the condition de-

pomiferous, po'miftr (pomum, a fruit, scribed ; adj.porog'amous ; por'ose,

fero, I bear), pome-bearing ; po'- poro'sus ; por'oua, pierced with

miform,pom i/br»j.'i« (/orma, shape), small holes ; -- Ves'sels, pitted or

shaped like an apple ; Pomol'ogy, dotted vessels. Pomolo'gia (X670S, discourse), the porpliyr'eua(7rop0i;peos, purple), purple

science of edible cultivated fruits. in colour, purpureus ; porphyroleu'- Pomo'na, an account of the fruits cul- cus (XeuKos, white), light purple. tivated in any given district or porra'ceous, porra'ceus (Lat.), leek-

country ; the name is mythological. green 206 ; = -

porrect preventitious

porrect', porrec'tus ( Lat. , stretched prae'oox (Lat. , early ripe), appearing out), directed for- outward and or developing early ; precocious.

ward ; Cf. ABBECT. Praeflora'tion {praefloratio, blossom- por'ulus (Lat.), somewhat porous. ing before time) = Aestivation. Por'us = Pore. Praefolia'tion (prae, before, folium, a positive, the absolute or effective leaf) = Vernation. condition, opposed to negative, and prae'morae, praemor'sus (Lat., bitten prefixed for emphasis to such terms at the end), as though the end were as Geotroptsm, Heliotropism, Hy- bitten off.

drotropism, etc. praero'sus (Lat. ), apparently gnawed poste'rior (Lat., coming after), (1) off. next or towards the main axis, praeus'tus (Lat., burned at the end),

superior ; the reverse of anterior ; looking as if scorched.

(2) in anthers = extrobse ; poB- pras'inouB, pras'inus (Lat.), grass- ti'cal, posti'cous, posti'cus (Lat., green, leek-green, that which is behind), on the pos- pra'tal [pratum, a meadow), H. C.

terior side, next the axis ; extrorse Watson's term for those plants " Spruce and others use " postical which grow in meadows or luxu- for the ventral or rooting face of riant herbage ; praten'sis (Lat. ), the stem of Hepaticae. growing in meadows, or pertaining postventlt'ious, -tivs (post,aiter,venio, thereto.

I come), applied to growths which precator'ius (Lat. , relating to petition- arise subsequent to their normal ing), used for a rosary, as the seeds

time ; cf. preventitious. of ~ Abrus ; contex'tus, necklace poten'tial {poteiUia, force), existing in shaped, moniliform. possibility, not in action; used in pre'cius (Lat. ),preco'cioua = peabcox. " opposition to kinetic ; ~ Gam'eto- predom'lnant, " very conspicuous phyte, one which is functionally (Braithwaite).

; asexual ~ Par'asite, a sapro- Preflora'tlon=PRAErLORATiON ; Pre- which can live equally phyte as folla'tlon Pbabeoliation . a parasite ; ~ Sap'rophyte, a para- Preforma'tion (pre, before, formatio, site capable of existing as a sapro- a shaping), the theory of the func- phyte. tion of germ-plasm, a complex Potetom'eter {ttottis, a drink, iiirpov, a substance whose ultimate factors measure), apparatus for measuring direct the vital activities of the the amount of water given off by cell, and resultant form of the the leaves of plants (Moll) ; Poto- plant.

m'eter, a similar instrument for Prehaustor'ium (pre, before, -I- Ha0s- m'easuring the flow of liquids in torium), papillate epidermal cells tissues (F. Darwin). of Cuscuta, by which nutriment is pott'ioid (etSos, likeness), resembling obtained before the formation of the genus Pottia. haustoria (Peirce). Pouch = SiLiCLE ; ~ shaped, hollow premorse' (Crozier) = PRABMOESns. and bag-like, as the spur in many Prepo'tency (pre, before, potentia, ~ Orchids ; diges'tive ; used by Van power), the quality by which cer- Tieghem and Douliot for the root- tain pollen fertilizes a given pistil, cap of the lateral roots of Legum- in preference to other pollen. inosae and Cucurbitaceae. Pres'sure, stress or distributed force pow'dery, covered with a fine bloom, causing turgor or compression ; as the leaves of Primula farinosa, root~, pressure existing in the Linn, root-tissues tending to cause the prae-, or pre- (prae, before), expresses rise of liquid in the stem, priority in time or place. proventit'lous {prae, before, venio, I 207 ;; ;

prevemaJ Frocambiiuu

come) Buds, dormant eyes, pre- Primor'dia, pi. of Prlmor'dlum (Lat., sent on any given portion of the the beginning), a member or organ

stem, which produce epicormic in its earliest condition ; the Ger- " " j- branches (Hartig). man Anlage ; primor'dlal, pr prever'nal (pre, before, vemalis, of mordia'lis, first in order of appear-

the spring), early spring flowering. ance ; ~ Cell, a naked cell, one

Prickle, outgrowths of the rind or without a cell- wall ; ~ Eplder'nilB,

bark, as those of the rose ; prlck'ly, the epidermis when first formed armed with prickles. --Leaf, an intermediate form be- prl'mary, pWmaV«(s(Lat., chief), (1) tween the cotyledon and those of

used of the part first developed ; the adult plant produced by growth

(2) the main divisions of a leaf or from the plumule ; ~ Tis'sue,

; ~ Ax'is, umbel the main stem ; ground tissue ; ^ U'triole,the outer — East, consists of sieve tissues layer of cell-protoplasm lining the

and parenchyma ; ~ Cor'tex, the inner surface of a vacuolated cell

Pebielem ; ~ Des'mogen, = Pro- by some considered the same as

cambium ; ~ Lamel'la, of a spore, Ectoplasm. is the outermost layer of its coats, Pri'mospore [primus, first, airopb., a representing the original wall seed), term proposed by C. Mao- ~ Leaves, the primordial leaves millan for those cases in which the ' ~ Lay'er, see ' tapetal cell " (infra) spore is but little differentiated ~ Mem'brane, the first (?) cell- wall from an ordinary cell of the parent ~ Mem'bers, the primary shoot organism.

and root ; -- Mer'istem, the embry- prismat'ic, prismaficus (Lat., like a

onic tissue of a young organ ; ~ prism), prism-shaped, with flat faces

Pet'iole, the main rhaohis of a com- separated by angles ; Prismencli'- -' pound leaf ; Phlo'em = ~ Bast ; yma (^7xi'/'a, an infusion), pris- ~ Eoot, the main root developed matic cellular tissue.

from the radicle ; ~ Shoot, the main Pris'on-Flow'ers, those which imprison

stem developed from the plumule ; their insect-visitors until fertiliza- ~ Struc'ture, a nascent organ, as of tion is effected.

root or shoot ; ~ tape'tal Cell, or Proan'giosperms (pro, for, -I- Angios- Lay'er, the source whence the tape- perm), an Angiosperm in the act of tum is formed by bipartition of a becoming so from some ancestral

cell or layer of periblem ; the other form (Saporta and Marion ) ; Pro- part of the division becoming the angiosper'my, the state in question. /~ archesporium ; Tis'sue, (a) that Froantiie'sis {irpip, early, avdrjcris, first formed or (6) formed during flowering), flowering in advance of

the first season's growth ; ~ Wood, the normal period, as some flowers the wood developed by the pro- appearing in autumn in advance of cambium. the ensuing spring (Pax). primigen'ius (Lat., first produced) = Probas'id (pro, for, + Basidium), Van PRIMITIVUS. Tieghem's term for an organ inter- Prl'mlne, Pri'mina [primus, first), the mediate between a basidium and a outer integument of an ovule. sporophore in Basidiomycetes, bear- prim'itive, primiti'vus (Lat., first ing a teleutospore. of its kind), applied to the part probosoid'eus {jc)robo8cis, a snout), first developed; specific types, having a large terminal horn, as in contrast to varieties and hy- the fruit of Martynia.

-|- brids ; ^ Wall, a boundary between Procam'liium [pro, for, Cambium), the ooplasm and periplasm of the the embryonic tissue, consisting of oosphere in Gystopua Bliti, De somewhat elongated cells, from Bary (Stevens). which the vascular tissue is eventu- 208 ;; ;

Procarp Fromycelium

ally formed; Pro'oarp, Procar'pium ing scale, as when petals are re-

{Kapiros, fruit), an arohioarp with a placed by stamens ; opposed to special receptive organ, the tricho- RETROGRESSIVE METAMORPHOSIS. gyne. Progym'nospenns {pro, for, + Gym-

prooe'rus (Lat. ), very tall, as a tree. nosperm), prototypic Gymnos- Pro'cess, Proces'sics (Lat., a prolon- perms, as B&nnettites (Saporta and gation), any projecting appendage, Marion). Procss'sxis Hyme'nii, "the acioulae Projectu'ra (Lat., a jutting out), a of certain Fungals " (Lindley). small longitudinal projection on procum'bent, procum'beiis (Lat., some stems where the leaf ori- leaning forward), lying along the ginates. ground. Proios'pory = Prospory. Prob'able Er'ror, see Deviation, pro- Prolnne'sis (irpo, before, KiVijiris, a bable. moving), the early stage of nuclear Prod'ucts, substances resulting from division, up to the Aster. metabolism or chemical changes in pro'late {prolatiis, a bringing forward), plants. drawn out towards the poles. Produc'tum J [productus, lengthened), Prole (Crozier), = Pro'les (Lat., off- =Caloar. spring), (1) progeny; (2) sometimes Pro-em'bryo {pro, for, used race -f Embryo), (1) for ; (3) J the species. in Charaoeae, the product of tlie Prole'psis (7rp6\i7^is, anticipation), (1) oospore, upon which the Ohara- a foreshadowing, something of an-

plant develops as a lateral bud ticipation ; (2) "hurried develop- (2) in Archegouiatae the product of ment as in the disease known as

' the oospore before differentiation peach - yellows ' where axillary of the embryo ; (3) J the youngest buds develop into branches tlie " thallus of a Lichen ; proembryon'ie, first year (Crozier) ; prole'ptious relating to a pro-embryo, as the (Lat.), used by Wimmer instead of ^ Branch in Chora, a propagative praeoox. body having the structure of a Froleta'rian {proletaries, a citizen of pro-embryo arising from a node of the poorest class), a name suggested the stem. by M'Leod to denote plants having proe'minens (Lat., projecting), used only a small reserve, and self-fer-

of an unusually extended part. tilized ; cf. Capitalist. progam'etal {pro, for, -f Gamete), of pro'Ufer, prolif'erus, proUf'erouB

the nature of a Frogam'ete, a cell {proles, off-spring ; fero, I bear), which divides to form gametes, or bearing progeny as offshoots occasionally passes into a gamete Prolifera'tion, Prolifera'tio, develop-

(Hartog). ment proliferously ; prolific, pro- Progam'etange, Progametan'gium lif'icus (M. Lat., producing off-

{ayyeiov, a vessel), resting bodies in spring), fruitful, fertile ; Prollflca'- Protomyces macroaporus, Unger tion, the production of terminal pro'gamous, or lateral leaf-buds in progamic (Hartog), a flower ;

in advance of fertilization ; '- Cell, prollg'erouB, -rus {gero, I bear), a cell formed in the pollen-grain proliferous, in Lichens applied to which has the sperm-nucleus the spore- bearing portion of the

(Goebel). apothecium (Henslow) ; cf. Lamina progred'iena (Lat., advancing), ex- proligera. tending at one part, and dying in prom'lnent, prominens (Lat., jutting the rear, out), standing out beyond some progres'sive {progressus, an advance), other part. advancing ; ~ Metamorph'osia, the Promycele' = Promyce'lium (pro, for + appearance of organs in an ascend- Mycelium), the short-lived pro- 209 = ;

pronate FrotaJbumose

duot of tube-germination of a spore, Proph'ysiB = Pbosphysis. which abjointa a few spores unlike Prophy'togams (irpo, before, (pvTov, a the mother-spore,and then perishes. plant, yi/ios, marriage), Focke's pro'nate, ' 'inclined to grow prostrate" proposed name for vascular Cryp- (Crozier). togams. prone, pro'nus (Lat. , leaning forward), prop'rlua (Lat., special, peculiar), lying flat, especially the upper face partial. downward. Prosool'la t (Tpos, close to, jciXXa, Pronu'oleus (pro, for, + Nucleus), the glue), a viscid gland on the upper nucleus of a. conjugating gamete, side of the stigma of Orchids, to which on coalescing with another which the pollen-masses become pronucleus forms the germ-nucleus. attached, the Retinaculdm. Prop, used by Withering for SllPUiyE. Prosem'bryum (irpos, near, e/i^pvov, = propaculiferous (propago, a set or an embryo), Pebispermium ; layer, fero, I bear), bearing ofif-sets, Prosencli'yma (eyxvfia.,a,n infusion), as Sempervivum ; Propa'culum, a tissue of lengthened cells with

runner or off-set. tapering ends which overlap ; adj.

prop'agative, tending to increase by prosench/matous ; Prosenthe'sis asexually produced growths, as (evSrjcns, imposition), the quantity gemmae, soredia, etc. which determines the divergence Propa'gulum (dim. of propago, a set between two successive whorls in

or layer), (1) an off-set ; (2) in a shoot (Pax). Lichens, the powdery organs Pros'physsa (^lio/xai, to grow with),

which constitute the Soredia ; "abortive pistillidia of the muscal Propa'go, pi. Propa'gines, (1) a alliance " (Liudley) ; Prosoplec- bulblet the branch bent down tench'yma Pleotenchyma), a ; (2) (+ for layering. modification of hyphal tissue

propen'dent, propen'dens (Lat. ), rang- (Lindau). ing down. Prosporan'gium (vpo, for ; (nropa,

prop'er, true, or correctly under- a seed ; dyyelov, a vessel), (1) in ^ Juice, characteristic Chytridieae, etc., » vesicular cell stood ; any " " fluid " of a plant, as the " milk whose protoplasm passes into an of lettuce, etc. outgrowth of itself, the sporangium, Properlmer'istem (pro, for, 4- Pbei- and then divides into swarm-

meristem), a synonym of Peri- spores ; (2) in Phaeosporeae, an MEBISTBM. early formed sporangium, formed Proph'aslB, pi. Proph'ases (irp6, of a layer of the filament combined before, tjidns, an appearance), the with an outgrowth (Kuekuck)

changes in the mother-nucleus proste'lic ( -l- Stele), when an axis previous to division, including the consists of a single concentric formation of the nuclear plate and bundle (Jeffrey). the longitudinal division of the Pros'pory (irpiios, precocious, ffropa,

chromosomes ; Prophlo'em ( + a spore), abbreviated from Proios-

Phloem), (l)PfiOTOPHLOEM ; (2) the PORY, the precocious development cylinder of elongated cells with of spores in certain Algae; thickened walls, occurring in the Pros'tady (crrdSios, steady), the seta of some Mosses round the early fruiting stage described

protoxylem ; Pro'pliyllum (tpuWov, a above. ' , leaf), the bracteole at the base of pros'trate, prostra'his (Lat., thrown" an individual- flower, in German to the ground), lying flat. "Vorblatt' propliylla'tus, provided Pros'typus (itpbcrvwo^, = ' ; embossed)

with prophylla ; prophyl'loid (cISos, Raphe. resemblance), like prophylla. Frotal'bumose Proto-albumose. 210 ;;;

protandrouB Protoepiphyte

protan'drous {irpurros, first, dviip, flower), where flowering precedes

avSpos, a'man), the anthers mature leafing, hysteranthous ; (proterog'- before the pistils in the same ynous, -nus {ywri, a woman), when

flower ; Protan'dry, the audroecium the pistils are receptive before ripening before the gynaeoium, the the anthers have ripe pollen (Del-

pollen being dispersed before the pino) ; Proterog' yny, the state de-

pistils are receptive. scribed ; proteropet'alous [ireToXov, protea'ceous, relating to or resembling a flower-leaf), the state of obdiplo- the order Proteaceae. stemonouB flowers, when the epi- Protec'tive Sheath = Endodekmis. petalous whorl of stamens is the inner (Schumann) Pro'teid, (1) a group of albuminoids, ; proterosep'aloua

more or less resembling albumen ; (4- Sepalum), as above, when the with water, the group of proteids whorl in question is the outer.

constitute the bulk of protoplasm ; Protballa'tae (irpo, for, SoXXos, a (2) used also for ~ Gran'ule or ~ sprout), Haeckel's term for Mosses

Plas'tid ; ~ Ba'sls, that portion of and vascular Cryptogams ; pro- protoplasm which is not composed thal'llform (forma, shape), re-

of granules, it is sometimes absent sembling a proth alius ; Prothal'-

~Crys'tal=CEYSTALLOiD ; /-Gran'- lium, pi. Prothal'lia, Prothal'lus, ules, reserve materials, or aleurone a thalloid oophyte or its homo-

granules ; Pro'tein, a group of logue resulting from the germina- complex nitrogenous substances, tion of a spore, usually a flattened

as NucLEiN, etc. ; adj. pro'teinic leafy expansion and bearing sexual

'- Crys'tal=CKYsTALLOiD; ~ Grain organs ; Prothallogam'ia (yd/^os, = Aleurone Grain proteina'ceous marriage), Caruel's for ; term the

( + aceous), pertaining to protein, or vascular Cryptogams. composed of it. protis'toid (Protista = Protophyta +

Pro'tea ( Sachs) = Protbnchyma. Protozoa, from irptiyncTTos, the very Protench'yma (irpurros, first, eyx"!'^! first, efSoj, resemblance), in cell- an infusion), fundamental or ground division, not influenced by the

tissue ; Protene'ma = Protonema, cells forming part of a complex the filamentous embryo in Mosses. multicellular body (Hartog). Proteohydrorysls {Protbid+ Hydro- Pro'toblast (TpSros, first, /SXaoros, a lysis), the decomposition of bud), Baillon's term for the cell proteids by hydrolysis ; adj. before the formation of a cell- wall, proteoljrt'ic the naked proteohydrolyt'io ; mass of protoplasm ; Pro- (Xiio-is, loosing), tochlor'ophyll a decomposing ( + Chlorophyll), a

proteids ; — Eu'zyme, an unorgan- pigment found in etiolated leaves ised ferment which is the active with carotin and xanthophyll

cause in breaking up proteids (Montcverde) ; ProtooMorophyl'- Pro'teose, a soluble albuminoid llne, a product of reduction of found in gluten ; Pro'teoaomes the green principle of chlorophyll (o-u/io, body), granular precipita- (Timiriazeff), a cf. Protophyllinb ; tions in the cells caused by the protocoo'cold (elSos, resemblance), * action of certain alkaloids, as resembling the algal genus Proto-

caffeine. coccus ; Protooollench'yma (-f CoL- proteran'drous (irpdrepos, first, &vr]p, lenchyma), the earliest formed

avdos, a man), the anthers ripe elements of coUenchyma ; Pro'- ' before the pistils in the same tocorm (Kop/ios, a trunk), the tuber protandrous, one kind of of flower ; Phylloglossum and other Lyco- dichogamy (Delpino) ; Proteran'- pods, the only branch which deve-

dry, the condition described lops into next year's tuber ; Pro- proteran'thous, -thus [Mos, a toep'lpbyte (+ Epiphyte), a plant 211 ; ;

Frotogamophyta prozimal

which is primarily an epiphyte pure out a wall (Hanstein) ; Frotoplas'-

and simple ; cf. Hemibpiphyte ; tid, an individual or presumable

Protogamophy'ta (^iJmos. marriage, primitive type ; Frotoplas'tin, 0iiToV, a plant), a group of plants Hanstein's term for a hypothetic so named by C. Macmillan, substance, the ultimate source of

without definition ; Protogen'esls vital movement and chemical com-

(7^veo-is, a beginning), reproduc- bination ; ProtOBClerench'ynia ( -t-

tion by budding ; protogen'ic, pro- Sclbbbnchyma), used for certain togenet'ic (7^>'os, race, offspring), in coUenchyma which resembles true development, stractures formed hard bast, provisional coUenchyma

wlien tissues begin to differentiate, of Haberlandt ; Pro'tospore (o-Tropi,

c/. HYPEBOGENic ; protog'ynouB a seed), (1) a spore which develops (yvvT\, = a woman) pbotbeogy- a promycelium ; (2) certain energids

Nous ; Protog'yny=PROTEROQYNy or uninucleate bodies in PUdbolua,

Frotohad'rome ( + Hadbome) = etc. , the ultimate product of cleav-

Peotoxylem ; Protolep'tome ( + age (Harper); Protospor'opliyte

Leptome) = Pbotophloem ; Proto- (vTov, a plant), C. Maomillan's

mer'istem ( + Meristem), the meri- term for certain Cryptogams, not

stera of the growing point form- otherwise defined ; Pro'tostroplies, of ing the foundation a member ; pi. ((7T/)o0j), a turning), secondary Protone'ma {pTJ/J-a, a thread), the spirals in the development of

confervoid or plate-like growth in leaves (Lindley) ; ProtothaUogr'a-

Mosses on which the conspicuous mae, pi. ( -i- Thallogamab), Ardis- plant is dereloped as a lateral or soae'sterm to include Angiosperms,

terminal shoot ; adj. protone'mal, Gymnosperms, and vascular Cryp-

also protone'matoid ; ~ Em'bryo, of togams ; Protothal'lus (66XK6t, a

Cutkria mvltifda, Grev. , a form of shoot) = Hypothallus, the first

embryo which reproduces the nor- formed stratum of a Lichen ; Pro'-

mal plant (Church) ; Protophlo'em totroph {rpoijr)], nourishment), a

( -I- Phloem), the first formed ele- "lodger" in Lecidia intumescens,

ments of bast in a vascular bundle ; Nyl., which eventually gets its Protophyl'line, Timiriazeff's alter- nourishment by means of another native name for Pbotochloro- lodger, a different Lichen (Minks)

PHYLLINK ; Pro'topUyll, Protophyl'- Protot'rophy, the peculiar commen- lum (^uXXoc, a leaf), a leaf borne salism described above, also styled ' " by a Pbotocorm ; a cotyledon or ' Wet-nurse relationship ; also

primordial leaf, especially used spelled Pro'tropliy ; Protoxy'lem of a Cryptogam; Pro'tophyt {(jivrov, (-(-Xylbm), the first formed ele- a plant), a plant of the sexual ments of wood in a vascular bundle generation (Bower) ; Pro'tophyte, protozooph'ilous {^wov, an animal, pi. Protophy'ta, the simplest plants, ^iA4oi, I love), used of certain

the lower unicellular Cryptogams ; water-plants which are fertilized adj. protophyt'io ; Protopliytol'ogy by small animals, or protozoa. (X670S, discourse) = Pai,aeobotany; protru'ding {protrudo, I thrust out), Pro'toplasm, Protoplas'ma (7rXa

names ; Pro'toplast, the unit of prox'imaJ {proximus, next, nearest), protoplasm capable of individual the part nearest the axis, as opposed action, a cell either with or with- to DISTAL. 212 ; ;

proz7lar pseudog^n^tua

prox ylar irpo, J ( for, (iXov, wood), corm ; Pseudo'btd'liil ( -I- Bulbil), a

capable of forming wood ; Proxyle', growth from the roots of Acriopsis

Proxy'lem = Pbotoxylbm ; Prozy'- javanica, Reinw. , composed of two

mogen ( + Zymogen), a material internodes, and bearing leaves at

formed of the chromatin of the the apex ; Pseudo-capiUltium ( + nucleus which is extruded into the Oapillitium), Lister's term for a cytoplasm there becoming zymo- structure in JEnteridium, consisting gen (Maoallum). of the perforated walls of the

Prui'na (Lat., hoar-frost) semina'lis, component sporangia ; Bseu'do- " "the spores of certain Fungala carp,Pseudocar'pium,Pseudocar'pus

(Lindley) ; pru'iaate, prmiia'tus, (Kopiris, fruit), (1) a fruit with its pru'lnose, pniino'sus, pru'lnous, accompanying parts, as a straw- having a waxy powdery secretion berry = (Henslow) ; (2) Galbulus ; on the surface, a " bloom." Pseudooel'lulose ( + Cellulose), pruniferous {prunum, a plum, fero, see Cellulose ; Paeudocephalo'- I bear), bearing plums ; pru'niform, dium ( -f Cbphalodium), a growth pruniform'is (forma, shape), plum- formed in the protothallus by a shaped ; Pru'nus J = Drupe. germinating hypha investing an pru'rient, pru'riens (Lat., itching), algal colony of some other type causing an itching sensation. than the normal gonidia of the psammoph'UouB {'//d/ifaos, sand, ^i\iu, Lichen (Forsell) ; Pseudocil'ium I love), sand-loving, as the vege- (cilium, an eyelash), a motionless

tation of dunes ; Psam'mophyte whip-like body, proceeding in pairs

{tpuTov, it, plant), a sand-loving from each cell of Apiocystis Brauni- plant, as dune plants. ana, Naeg. (Correns) ; pseudo- Fseudacran'thic {\j/evdTJs, false, + cos'tate, pseudocosta'tris {costatus, ACRANTHic), applied to iiowers ribbed), false-ribbed, as where a from dichasial shoots which are marginal vein is formed by con-

apparently terminal (K. Schu- fluence of the true veins ; Pseudo- mann); Pseud-an'nual (-H Annual), cotyle'don ( + Cotyledon) = Pro-

an which hiber- EMBBYO ; Pseudodys'tropy {Sv

Bailey) ; Pseudan'nulus ( -f Annu- pous insects gain access to honey LUS), an apparent annulus of by secondary means, as when cer- specialized cells, exterior to the tain bees bore through to the

peristome in Mosses ; pseudan'thic nectaries, instead of entering (Mos, a flower), a flower which by the opening of the flower

simulates a simple flower, but is (Loew) ; Pseudoep'iphyte ( + Epi- composed of more than a single phyte), a plant whose stems die axis, with subsidiary flowers {Del- away at the base, and the upper pino) ; Pseudan'this, the state in part derives its nourishment from

question ; Pseudax'is ( -t- Axis) = its own aerial roots, as Aroids

Stmpodium ; pseudhomonym'lo ( + (Went); Pseu'do-fecunda'tion (-f-

Homonym), used by F. N. Williams Fbcundation ), two nuclei of four for a partial homonomy, as Oas- combine to form the egg, the other trolychnis and Gastrosilene ; Pseu- two form the albumen (Guignard)

dln'uUn ( + Inumn), a subordinate Fseudog'amy [yd/ios, marriage), constituent of inulin (Tancret) parthenogenetic fruiting, as polli- pseudobiator'ine, falsely biatorine, nation without impregnation of

having an apothecium without a ovules ; pseudogyra'tus {yvplis,

conspicuous thalline margin ; Pseu'- curved), falsely ringed, as when

dobulb ( -I- Bulb), a thickened and the annulus is confined to the

bulb-like intemode in Orchids, a vertex of the sporangium in Ferns ; 5813 ; ;;;,;

FseudobaustoTlum Fseudosperm

PseudoliauBtor'ium (+ Haustor- but not thickened ; Pseudonu'- ICm), an immature or rudimentary cleole ( + Nucleole), described by

organ observed in seedlings of Rosen as a cyanophilous nucleole ;

Omenta (Kinzel) ; pseu'do-herma- Pseudopar'asite ( + Parasite), a

ph'rodite ( + hermaphrodite), false parasite, either (a) a Sapro-

Kerner's term for flowers which phyte, or (6) an Epiphyte ; Paeudo-

have become functionally uni- parench'yma ( -f Parenchyma),

sexual by the suppression of either symphyogenetic cellular tissue ; cf.

stamens or pistils ; Pseudohy- Plectenchyma ; adj. pseudopar-

me'nluni (+ HymBNiuM), a cover- enchy'matouB ; Pseudoper'lantli ( -i- ing of sporidia, resembling the Perianth), the cup-shaped en-

hymenium of Fungi ; Pseudo-im- velope of the arohegonium which

pregna'tion ( + Impregnation), the develops after fertilization in cer-

coalescence of the two nuclei of the tain Hepaticae ; Pseudoperid'ium cells of a teleutospore (Dangeard & ( + Peridium), the outer envelope

Sapin-Trouffy) ; Pseudola'tex ( + of a sporophore in Uredineae

Latex), Heckel's term for an Pseudoperithe'cium ( + Perithe- abundant gummy juice, white oium), a covering of sporidia re-

or colourless, in certain species sembling a perithecium ; Pseudo-

of Vanilla ; Pseudoli'ber ( + Liber), plasmo'dium {+ Plasmodium), the Guillaud's term for libriform protrusion of the protoplasm of an tissue, derived from secondary amoeboid body,which may be drawn meristem without genetic affinity in or may absorb the whole in itself; with the cambium or vascular Pseadopod'ium (-f Podium), (1) a - bundles ; Pseudoll'chen ( + Lichen), temporary changeable foot like a. Lichen which does not possess protrusion of protoplasm in the an algal its is of Myxogastres the layer of own, but Plasmodium ; (2) parasitic on another Lichen-thallus; stalk-like extremity of the oophyte Faeudomonocotyle'don (+ Mono- bearing a sporogonium or gemmae

cotyledon), in Dicotyledons the in Mosses, etc. ; Pseudopyre'nium

early abortion of one of the coty- (-t- Pyeenium), the perithecium " " ledons, as in Owpsella (Pax) ; of certain Fungals ; (Lindley)

PBeudo-monocotyle'donous (-t- Mo- Fseudora'mulus ( + Ramulus), NOCOTyLBDON), having two or more a spurious branch in certain cotyledons consolidated into a species of Nostoc, a young fila- single mass, as in the Horse-Chest- ment adherent to an older one

nut ; ~ Em'bryo, having one coty- for part of its length ; Pseudora'-

ledon only developed, although two phe { + Raphe), an apparent raphe

were originally indicated ; Pseu'do- in Diatoms, a transitional form

morph {/jiopipi], a, form), an unusual towards its entire disappearance

or altered form, a term borrowed Fseudoreduc'tion ( -F Reduction ) from mineralogy; pseudomorpby'- the period of tetrad formation in

tus (01/TOT, a plant), when a capi- nuclear division (Rueckert) ; Pseu'- tate inflorescence affects the form of dorhize (^ifa, a root), (1) a root acapitulum of Compositae; Pseudo- shaped like a turnip or carrot in nemathe'cium {+ Nemathecium), bulbous Monocotyledons (Royer) a thread-like body in certain (2) a root-like mycelial structure Algae, which is now stated to be a which develops at the base of a parasitic Alga, Actirwcocciis sub- carpophore from its cells (Fayod) cutaneus, K. Rosenv. (Darbishire) Pseu'dosperm, Pseudosper'mium

Pseudonod'ule ( + Nodule), a space {(TTrip/ia, a seed), any: fruit which on a Diatom valve devoid of is indehiscent and resembles a markings resembling a nodule. seed, as the "nuts" or carpels 214 ; ; ;

pseudospennic Ptyohodo

of Labiatae, adj. pseudosper'- metrio movements of plants (Voech-

mic ; psevdosper'miciis ; pseudoa- ting).

per'mous ; Pseudosporan'ge, Pseu- psydomorphyt'us = psbudomorpht-

dosporan'gimn ( + Sporanbium:), an TUS. organ producing gemmae or pro- Pteram'pelld {irripis, a fern, fi/tTreXos, pagula, a simulated sporangium a vine), any climbing Fern (J.

(Davis) ; Pseud'ospore {a-iropd, a Smith). seed), a gemma or asexual vegeta- ptera'tua {wTepov, a wing), winged tive Pterid'lea = bud ; Pseu'dostele ( + Stelb), Pterid'ium, Samara. •when a petiole assumes the con- Pterldograph'ia (irTepU, irrepldos, a ditions of a stem, with similar fern, ypaip^, a writing), a treatise arrangement of tissues (Tansley) on Ferns, or the science of Ferns

Pseudostau'roB ( + Stattbos), a shortened by J. Smith to Pteri-

broadening of the stauros in some graph'ia ; Pterlg'raphist, and Pterl- pseudoster'eiis {(rrepeis, {(jiiyea, I love), a writer Diatoms ; J graph'ilist solid), partly grown as pter'idoid (dSoi, resem- together, the on Ferns ; bud-soales of the crown-imperial blance), used by E. Newman for

Pseudostro'ma (-1- Stroma), the Fern-like, as ^ Ac'rogens ; Pter'ido- peritheoium of certain jungi phyte (4>vt6v, a plant), a Fern, or

Pseudosyn'carp ( -1- Stncarp), a col- closely allied plant,

lective fruit; cf. Svncarp ; Pseu- pterlg'ynua (wTepov, a wing, yvvij, a

dothal'lusj (h-Thallus), the axis woman), wing-seeded ; pterocar'- of a crowded inflorescence as a pous, -pus (Kapiros, fruit), wing-

Glomerule or Umbel ; Paeudotrl- fruited ; pterooau'louB, -lis (/tauXos,

oh'ophore { + Trichophorb), a vege- astem), wing-stemmed;Ptero'dluni, tative filament of Algae, which = Samara pterogo'nua {yuvia,, an ;

simulates a triohophore ; Paeu- angle) ; pter'oid, pteroi'deus {dSos, eleva- dovivip'ary ( + Vivipabt), the pro- resemblance), (1) having an duction of leafy rooting shoots in tion of surface assuming a wing-like

the floral region, side by side with appearance ; (2) J. Smith uses " " the flowers, as in Juncus tmfonius, pteroid for Fern-like ; pterop'o-

Linn. (Potoni^) ; Pseu'do-yeaat ( + douB {irovs, ToSos, a foot), wing- Yeast), any yeast which does not footed, the petiole being marginally

produce fermentation ; Pseudozy'- winged ; pterosper'mous, -mus = (tTwepfia, a seed), with the seeds gospore ( + Ztgospore) Aztgos- pteryg'ynus {yvr^, a POBB. winged ; psJlo- (^iXos), a Greek prefix, usually woman), wing-seeded. meaning slender, but more cor- Pteryg'ium [irTepiiyi.oy, a little wing), rectly used for bare or naked, as a wing. psilostach'ya, which is cited by A. pteryg'opous, -ptis (irT4pv^, a wing, Gray as bare-spiked, under the jroOs, TTodos, a foot), having the

form psilostach'yus. peduncle winged ; pterygoaperm'- Paychoph'ilae (T-syche, 0iXew, I love), ous, -mus {(TirepiM, a seed), = ptero- plants which are fertilized by spermous. diurnal lepidoptera, possessing Pto'maSiie (xru/xa, calamity, corpse), brightly coloured flowers, with used of any alkaloid due to the honey in the flower-tube. activity of pathogenous bacteria. PsyohroKll'ny (\p6xpoi, cold, kKIvw, I Pty'alin {TriaXov, saliva), a ferment incline), Voeeh ting's term for the contained in saliva which trans- behaviour of growing parts under forms starch into a, sugar capable the influence of low temperatures of fermenting. psyohromet'ric {/ierpov, a measure), Pty'ohode, Ptycho'dea (tttiIJ, tttuxJs,

applied by Pfeffer to the hygro- a fold), the primordial utricle ; 215 ;;

Ftychoides pustmlOBe

Ptyohoi'dea {eUis, resemblance), (Lat., a cushion), an enlargement the outer surface of the same close under the insertion of a leaf, (Hartig). the swollen base of the petiole as Ptyx'is (TTTiJfis, a folding), vernation. in Mimosa pudica, Linn. pu'bens (Lat., arrived at puberty) = Pul'viB (Lat.), dust, powder, etc.

' pubescent ; puber'ulua (dim. of Pulvla'culUB (Lat. , small dust), ' the Lat. puber, downy, ripe), slightly powder contained in the spore- " hairy ; Pu'ber (Lat.), maturity, as cases of some Fungi (Hen- of flower or fruit; Pu'berty, slow). Pu'bertas, the transition from a pu'mllus (Lat., dwarfish), low or young state to maturity of func- little.

tion ; Pu'bes (Lat. ), Puties'cence, the Punc'ta, pi. of Punc'tum (Lat. , apoint),

hairiness of plants ; pubes'cent, the marking on the valves of Dia- piibes'cens, clothed soft hair with toms ; punc'tate, puncta'tus (Lat.),

or down ; pu'bera [Ae'tas], the marked with dots, depressions or period in a fruit succeeding the translucent glands ; puncta'ta Va'ta

fertilization of the ovules ; pubig'- = dotted vessels ; punctiflor'us erous igero, I bear), pubescent. iJlo8, floris, a flower), having dot- Puffing, the emission of spores in a ted flowers ; punc'tiform {forma, cloud ; the equivalent of the shape), in the form of a point or German "Stauben." dot, reduced to a mere point ; pugio'niform, pugioniform'ia {pugio, punctic'ulate, puncticula'tue, puuc- a dagger, forma, shape), dagger- ticulo'sus, minutely punctate PunotumVegetatlo'nis, the growing puUa'tus (Lat.), clothed in black. point. pulley-shaped, circular, and com- pun'gent, pun'gens (Lat., piercing), pressed in its circumference. ending in a rigid and sharp point, pullulate (pullulo, to bud), to bud, 8(3 in a holly-leaf.

as in spring ; Pullula'tion, sprout- punic'eous, -ceus, crimson.

ing ; especially characteristic of pure, applied to forests, means un- the yeast-plant. mixed, the growth being confined pul'lus (Lat., dusky), blacker nearly to one form. black. pur'ple, a secondary tint, a mixture Pulp, Pvl'pa (Lat. , the flesh of fruit), of red and blue in varying propor- the juicy or fleshy tissue of a tions. fruit pul'pose, pulpo'sus, pulpy. ; purpurar'ius (Lat.), pertaining to Pulsa'tion {ptdsatio, a beating), of purple ; purpura'tus (Lat.), em- vacuoles, the rhythmic increase and purpled ; purpuraa'oeus (Lat.), decrease of size in naked zoospores becoming or turning purple; pur- and Plasmodia. purel'lus (Lat.), purplish; pur- pulvera'ceous, -ceua, pulver'eus (Lat. ), pu'reus (Lat. ), purple ; Pur', pulver'ulent, pvlverulen'- powdery ; a colouring principle in madder, tus (Lat., dusty), powdered, as if Ruhia tinctoria, Linn. ; purpurl'nus, dusted over. (Lat.), somewhat purplish. Pulvil'lum (Lat.), in botanic gardens, purse-shaped, pouch-shaped. a hot-bed. pusil'lus (Lat., petty), very small, pul'vinate,^MZOT'mi'iM8(Lat.),cushion- or weak and slender. pulvin'iform, pidvini- shaped ; pus'tular {pustula, a pimple), having form'is, having the shape of a slight elevations like blisters cushion or pad ; Pulvin'ulus, pi. pus'tulate, pustvla'tus, as though or branched Pulvln'ula, simple blistered ; Pus'tule, a pimple or excrescences on the surface of blister ; pus'tuloae, pmtvio'sm some Lichens, soredia ; Pulyl'nus (Lat.), blistery or pimply. 216 ;:;

Pntamen quadrifoliolate

FuU'men (Lat., shells, rind), (1) the phores, amylum-oentres (Schmitz) shell of a nut (2) the hardened PyTenoli'clienes( + Lichen),Wainio's ;

endocarp of stone-fruit ; putamina'- term for Pyrenomy'cetes, that is,

oeus ( + aoeua), having the texture Fungi possessing perithecia. of the stone of a drupe. Pyrid'ion {pyrus, or pirus, a pear), Pyo'nid, Pyc'mde, Pycuid'lum, pi. used by Linnaeus for the pear-

Pyonid'ia (iruwos, dense), a cavity fruit, a tapering pome ; pyriferous

resembling a pyrenocarp in (fero, I bear), pear-shaped ; py'ri- Lichens, etc., containing gonidia form, pyriform'ia {forma, shape),

(pycnooonidia or stylospores) ; resembling a pear in shape.

Fyonld'iophore (,

pyonidium ; Pycnooonid'ium ( -f scissiie dehiscence, the upper

Comidiom), a conidium produced in portion acting as a lid ; (2) J the

; " a pycnidium, a stylospore Pycno- theoa of a Moss ; (3) the same as gonid'ium (-fGoNiDiuM) = Pycno- Soyphus " (Lindley).

CONIDIUM ; Pyc'nospore (a-iropd, a

seed) = PycNOCONiDiUM ; pycnos'- quadran'gular, quadrangular' iaCLat. ), - taohous (u-Tctxi's, a spike), in com- four cornered ; quadran'gulus,

pact spikes. quadrangula'tus (Lat. ), having four pygmae'us (Lat.), dwarf, pygmy. angles, which are usually right pyogenet'ic (ttOoj', pus, yevea-cs, begin- angles. ning), pus-forming, the funotion/of Quad rant (quadrana, a fourth part), certain bacteria. the quarter of an oospore, which

(ttC/j, fire, SiKavBa, a, is divided ~ pyiacan'tlius so by the Wall ; quad-

thorn), with red or yellow spines. rioap'BUlari( -l- CAPsnLA),havingfour pyram'idal, pyramida'lis (Lat. ), pyra- capsules ; quadricotyledo'neus ( + mid-shaped. Cotyledon), apparently with four Py'rene, Pyre'na (irvpijy, kernel or cotyledons, each normal cotyledon

stone), (1) a nucule or nutlet; (2) being divided to the base ; quad- a small stone of a drupe, or similar ricru'ral, quadricra'rie (cms, cruris,

: Pyrenar'ium, a pear-fruit, a leg), with four supports fruit ; quadri-

pome-like, but tapering ; Pyren- den'tate [dentatue, toothed), having

a'rius, a drupaceous pome, as in four teeth ; quadridigita'to-pin-

Crataegus ; Pyre'nin, Schwarz's na'tus [digitus, a finger), with four term for the constituent of digitate divisions, each of which is

the body of the nucleus ; cf. pinnate ; quadridiglta'tus, divided

Amphipyrenin ; Pyre'iiimu ; an old into four divisions Quadriere'mus ;

name for the receptacle of Sphaeri- (-f- ERBMns) = CoENOBiuM ; quadri-

aceous Fungi ; Pyre'nocarp (/capTros, far'lous, -rivs (Lat., fourfold), in

fruit) (1) = Perithboium ; (2) = four ranks, as leaves ; quad'rifld, - Drupe ; adj. pyrenocar'pous ; py- quadrifidus (Lat.), four cleft, reno'deous (eJSos, resemblance), like to about the middle or below

a pyrenoid, wart-like ; pyreno'dine, quad'rifoU {folium, a leaf) = quad- "globular and nuclear" (Leighton); rifo'llate, when the petiole bears Py'renoid (elSos, resemblance), four leaflets at the same point; minute rounded granular colourless quadrifo'Uolate, strictly, with four bodies, embedded in the ohromato- subordinate leaflets, but sometimes 217 ;;;

quadrifUrcate quinquefoliolate

used as an equivalent of quadrifo- quater'ni (Lat., by fours), growing liate ; quadrifur'cate (furcatus, four together. forked), dividing into four Quer'cite, a glucoside derived from like branches ; quadrigem'mate {gemi- acorns, sweet sugar, but not nus, a twin), growing in fours fermenting with yeast. quadrthUa'tus (+ Hilum), having Quer'oitrin, a glucoside in quercitron four apertures, as in some pollen- bark ; its colouring matter, and dye-stuff. grains ; quadrij'ugate, quadriju- a commercial ga'tus, quadrlj'ugous, -gus {jugum, (Juetelet- Gallon Curve, see Newton- a yoke), having four pairs of leaf- ian Curve.

lets ; quadrilo'bate (lohus, a lobe), quilled, normally ligulate florets with which have become tubular. four lobes ; quadriloc'ular, five {locnlus, a little space), having four qui'nary (quini, each), in fives ; quina'tus, to- cells, as some anthers ; quad'rinate, qui'nate, growing quadrina'tus, quadri'nus, with four gether in fives, as leaflets from the leaflets at the end of a petiole, in a same point.

digitate arrangement ; quadrinu'- Quin'ia, Quinin', or Quinine', an alka- in bark of cleate ( + Nucleus), used of a cell loid occurring the species with four nuclei, from the division of Cinchona, Remija, etc. (quincvncialis, of a binueleate cell ; quadripar'tite, quinoun'clal contain- quadriparti'tus {partitus, divided), ing five-twelfths), (1) arranged in in four-cleft, nearly to the base a quincunx ; (2) aestivation par- quadriphyl'lons {^iWov, a leaf) = tially imbricated of five parts,

quadrifoliate ; quadrlpo'lar (polus, two being exterior, two interior, a pole), in nuclear division, when and the fifth having one margin four daughter nuclei arise at the exterior, the other interior, as in

same time ; quadrivalent (valeo, to the calyx of the rose ; Quin'cunx be effective), applied to a cell which (Lat., the fraction -h), (1) an

divides into four daughter cells ; cf. arrangement like the five on dice,

BIVALENT {in Add.) ; quad'iivalve, four at the corners, and one in the five quadrivalv'ular (valva, a door-leaf), centre ; (2) in ranks, quin- " disposition four-valved. quefarious ; (3) the quaquaver'aal {quaqua, wheresoever, of objects so that the intervening verso, I turn round), directed or spaces are all hexagons " (Crozier). bending in every direction. Quinin', see Quinia. Quar'tospore {qwartvs, fourth, iriropa, Quin'icine and Quin'ldine, alkaloids a seed), C. Macmillan's term for a from Cinchona bark. spore enclosing protective and quisquan'gular, guinquangnlar'is more or less vegetative cells as in (quinquangulus, five-cornered), five-

( Riccia ; Quar'tme,a fourth integu- angled ; quinquecap'sular -I- Cap-

ment of some ovules, "in reality a sula), with five capsules ; quin- mere layer of either the secundine quecos'tate {cosia

quasiradia'tuB J {quasi, as though, toothed), with five teeth ; Quin- radiatus, spoked), slightly radiant, quere'muB ( -|- Eremus), a five-celled

as where the florets of the ray in gynobasic fruit, as Gomphia ; quin- some Compositae are small and in- quefar'ious, -rius (fariam, suffix = conspicuous. rank), in five ranks; quin'quefid (^d, Quas'sine, a bitter principle in quas- the root of findo, I cleave), five-

sia wood. cleft ; qulnquefo'liate, quinquefo- quater'nary, quater'nate, quaterna'- lia'tun {quinque/olius, five-leaved), consisting tus {quaternarius, of with five leaves ; quinquefo'liolate, four), an arrangement in fours quinque/oliola'tus, with five leaf- 218. ; ,; ;

quincLueJugate radical

lets ; qmnquej'ugate (jugum, a rac'emose, racemo'sus, rao'emous,

yoke), in five pairs, as of leaf- having racemes, or raoeme-like ;

lets ; ctuinquelo'tate quinqudoia'- race'muloae, racemido'sus, a dim- tiis (lohus, a lobe), five-lobed inutive of the last, somewhat race-

qulnqueloo'ular, quinquelocularis mose ; Kac'emule, a small raceme. {loculus, a little space), five-celled raoliemor'pliUB (Lindley) = eachi- quinquener'ved, quinquener' vis, MOEPHUS. viiis (nervus, a nerve), the midrib Raohil'la = Rhachilla. dividing into five, that is, the racMmor'phus [fidxis, the backbone,

main rib, and a pair on each side ; /J.op

door-leaf), five-valved ; = khachidi- a ; quinque- Rachis ra'ehiform

vein'ed, "the same as quinque- FOBM ; Kaclii'tis,in botany, a disease nerved " (Crozier). producing abortion in the flower Quin'tlne, Quinti'na{quintus, the fifth), or seed. a supposed integument of an ovule, reour'rent {recurrens, running back), the fifth from the outside, "in in venation, when the veinlets re- reality the skin of the" nuoellus turn towards the main rib.

(Lindley) ; Quin'tospore (airopi., a ra'dial, radia'lis {radius, the spoke seed), C. Macraillan's term for a of a wheel), (1) radiating, as

a, spore which has attained sexual from centre ; (2) belonging to potentiality, as in vascular Cryp- the ray, as in the flowers of

togams and Phanerogams. Composites ; -^ Bun'dle, a bundle quln'tuple, quin'tupled (quintupUx, or stele which has strands of

five-fold), multiplied by five ; ~ bast and wood in different radii,

--' -nerved, quinquenerved; ribted, a frequent occurrence in roots ;

quinquecostate ; when of five ribs ^ Plane, any plane which passes the four lateral arise from about through the axis of growth, and

the base of the mid-rib ; quin- cuts the surface at right angles ; tupliner'ved, quintuplivein'ed, ra'dlar, a system of branching quinquenerved, five-veined. uniformly on all sides (Goebel) ra'diant, rad'ians, radiating as

Bab'doid (pa^dos, a rod) = Rhabdoid. from a centre ; ~ Um'bel, when Sace, (1) a variety of such fixity as flowers on the outside are con-

to be reproduced from seed ; (2) spicuously larger than those which

used also in a loose sense for re- form the rest of the umbel ; ra'di- lated individuals without regard ate, radia'tus, (1) spreading from to rank. or arranged round a common Racema'tlon {racematio, the gleaning centre, as the circumference of a

of a ), a, cluster, as of circle ; (2) bearing rays, or ray- -' grapes ; Eaceme', Mace'mus (Lat. florets ; -veined = palmately

a bunch of grapes), an indetermi- veined ; ra'diating, passing in a

nate or centripetal inflorescence straight line from the centre ; radi- with lengthened axis, and equally a'tlform, radiatiform'is {forma,

pedicellate flowers ; racemlferous shape), when the ligulate florets of (fero, I bear), bearing racemes Compositae increase in length out-

racemiflor'us {Jlos, floris, a flower), wards ; radia'tim (Lat.), in a radi-

flowers borne in a raceme ; race'- ate manner, mlform, racemiform'is {forma, rad'ical, radica'lis {radix, radicis, a shape), in the form of a raceme; root), arising from the root, or its 219 ;; ;

radicant Banms

crown ; rad'icant, radi'cans (Lat., an enzyme which decomposes striking root), rooting, usually ap- Raffinose, a sugar occurring in

plied to stems or leaves ; rad'i- beet, and germinating cereals. cated, having a root or roots Rain-leaves, those which are adapted sur- (Crozier) ; rad'icating, rooting ; to shed the rain from their Radica'tion, Hadica'tio, the root- faces, and generally acuminate, cf. system of a plant, its disposition Drip-tip.

and branching ; radica'tus (Lat. ), ra'mal {ramus, a branch), belonging possessing roots, especially a tap- to a branch; Bamas'trum J {-astrum,

root ; Ead'ioel, Hadicel'la, = Radi- a sufiix, = likeness), a secondary

ouLA. ; Kadioella'tio (Lat.), = Radi- petiole or petiolules of compound

OATION ; radloio'olouB, -la (colo, leaves ; ra'meal, ramea'lis, per-

I inhabit), (1) when the flower is taining to a branch ; ramear'ius, seated immediately upon the crown restricted to aerial roots, which

of the root ; (2) dwelling in the arise from branches (Henslow). root as a parasite ; ra(Uciferous Bamen'ta, pi. of Bamen'tum (Lat., (fero, I bear), root-bearing, or scrapings, shavings), thin chaffy

rooting, as prostrate stems ; radi- scales of the epidermis, as the

ciflor'ous, -rua (flos, floris,a. flower), scales of many Ferns ; Ba'ments,=

flowering apparently from the Ramenta ; ramenta'ceous, -cem

root ; radic'iform (forma, shape) ( -f aceous), possessing ramenta, radici'nuB (Lat.), of the nature or clothed with them.

appearance of a root ; Rad'icle, ra'meouB, ra'mevs (Lat.), belonging Radi'cula, the hypocotyledonary to a branch. and primal internode, the rudimen- Eamie' (Fr.), the fibre of Rhea,

tary root of the embryo ; Eadi'cula Boehmeria tenacissima. Hook. & byssoi'dea, the mycelium of Fungi Am. rad'icose, radico'sus (Lat., having ramiferous, -rus {ramus, a branch, many roots), having large or abun- fero, I bear), bearing branches, ra-

dant roots ; radlc'ular, pertaining mose; Eamlflca'tion, -iio (facio, I to the radicle; radiculiform'is make), the scheme of branching or

{forma, shape), shaped like a separation into branches ; ramifi-

radicle ; Badiculo'da, BadiciQo'- ca'tus (Lat.), branched ; ramiflor'- dimn, the apex of the radicle in ous, -rus, {flos, floris, a flower),

grasses ; radic'ulose, radicido'sus, flowering on the branches ; ra'ml- bearing rootlets. form, ramiform'is {forma, shape),

Ba'dius, pi. Ka'dii (Lat., a ray), (1) shaped like a branch ; ramlp'arous the ray of Compositae, the outer- (pario, I bring forth), producing

most florets when distinct in form branches, ramose ; ra'millary, term

from those composing the disk ; employed by Massart for those buds (2) a partial umbel in Umbelli- of climbers which develop into

ferae ; (3) the structures knowa as short branches, fruit or leaves, cf. -' medullary rays ; medulla'ris = sarmentaby ; ra'mose, ramo'sus, Mbdullaby Ray. ra'mous, branching, having many Ba'dix, pi. Kadi'oes (Lat., a root), the branches ; ramosis'simus, very root or descending axis, the de- much branched ; ram'l^, to

veloped radicle. branch ; Ba'mulet, used by Grew Eaffla, Raph'ia, or Roffla, the native for the vascular strands in the Malagasy names for the fibre-like shell of a nut ; ra'mulose, ramvlo'- material obtained from the leaves sus, having many branchlets of RaphiapeduncvJ,a,^Qa,VLV., a,ndi Ra'mulus (Lat.), a branchlet R. vini/era, Beauv. Bamun'cuIuB, a twig, the ultimate Baf'flnase (Fr. rafBner, to refine), division of a branch; Ba'mus (Lat. ),a 220 ;

Bamusculnm reciprocal

branch ; Ramus'culum (Lat.), -lus, of an umbel, a partial umbel ; ~ (1) the same as ramulus, abranohlet; Flo'ret, ~ FloVer, an outer floret, (2) J "the mycelium of certain ligulate or tubular, of Compositae. " Fungals (Lindley). Becaules'cence (re, back, H- Caules- Range, the region over which a cenoe), the adnation of leaves given form grows spontaneously. on their stalks to the stem Bank, a row, especially a vertical (C. Schimper). row. Becep'tacle, Recepta'cvitim (Lat., a rapa'ceus {rapum, a turnip), fusiform reservoir), (1) that part of the axis or turnip-shaped. which bears one or more organs, Ba'phe, pr. ra'phy, Raph'a {pa(pij, a the torus ; (2) in Fungi, variously seam), (1) in a more or less anatro- applied, usually a hollow or cup- pous ovule a cord or ridge of like body containing other bodies, tibro-vascular tissue connecting the as (a) Leveill6's term for a sporo- base of the nucellus with the pla- phore {b) = ; Steoma ; (c) an

centa, the adherent fnnicle ; it may apotheoium in Ascomycetes ; occur on the of (d) side the ovule a pyonidium ; (e) the inner turned to the axis (ventral), or on portion of the sporophore sup- the external face of the ovule, that porting the gleba in Phalloideae ; is dorsal; (2) in Diatoms, the median (/) a cup of the Lichen-thallus, line or rib of a valve, and may which contains soredia ; (3) the

be heteropolar or isopolar (0. placenta ; — of a Flow'er, the

Mueller) ; (,3) the suture between axile part of the blossom the carpels in Umbelliferae which supports the sepals, petals,

(Crozier). stamens and pistils ; ~ of In- Kaph'id, pi. Raph'ides, Raph'ida, or flores'oence, the rhachis or axis Bhaph'ides (pa(t>U,j>a(til5os, a needle), of the head, spike, or other

needle-shaped crystals in the, cells dense cluster ; ~ of Oil, a cyst

of plants ; raphid'ian, pertaining to containing an oily secretion, as in

raphides ; ~ Cell, one which contains the rind of an orange ; ~ of raphides ; Baph'idines, Badlkofer's Secre'tion, any cavities of the term for free, needle-shaped cells, interior containing special pro-

with partly lignified cellulose- ducts ; Beoepta'cula accidenta'lia, walls, occurring amongst phloem- indeterminate passages filled with islands in certain secretion Acanthaceae ; ; ~ caeeiform'ia, J the raph'iold (eZSoi, resemblance) vittae of the fruit of Umbelliferae ;

Fi'bres, Roulet and Chodat's term ~ Suc'ci prop'rii ; ~ tubulo'sa, = for the preceding. CiNENCHYMA, laticiferous vessels ; rare-ripe, early ripe, precocious ~ Tesiculo'sa, receptacles of oil ; rath-ripe (Crozier) means the same. receptac'ular, receptacvlar'is, per- ra'rus (Lat., not close or thick), taining to the receptacle, or

thinly placed, not congested. attached to the receptacle ; ~ Tube, Batoon', a shoot from the root of a the calyx -tube. plant which has been cut down reoep'tive (N. Lit. receptivus), having

(Crozier). the quality of receiving ; ~ Spot, (1) Baumpar'asit (Germ.)=AuLOPHYTB. the point in the oosphere of Ferns, raven - black, in Latin pvilus, etc. , where the antherozoids enter ; coracinus. (2) that hyaline spot on a large ra' vidus, ra'vus (Lat. ), grey or tawny, planogamete where it will coalesce applied to doubtful tints. with a small (male) planogamete. Bay, Ra'dius, (1) the marginal por- Eecesa', = Sinus. tion of a Composite flower, when recip'rocal (reciprocus, going back-

distinct from the disk j (2) a branch ward and forward), mutual ; ~ 221 reclinate Begularity

Hy'brids, hybrids between the cati'vus, doubled back, a term of same parents, each being fertilized aestivation when the edges are

by the other. valvate and reflexed ; Keduplica'-

r6o'linate,?-ecK»ja'tos ( Lat. ,bent back), tion, an increase of parts by the

turned or bent downward ; re- insertion of additions on the same cli'ned, reoli'niag, having its base plan, as of whorls, etc. on the ground, also one plant reflec'ted (reflecto, I bend back), pressed on another. reflexed. reclu'sus (Lat., laid open), improperly reflexed', reflex' us (Lat., bent back), used for indnsus. abruptly bent or turned downward

reoon'ditus (Lat. , concealed), hidden, or backward ; Eeflex'ion, a terato- not readily seen. logical change in position. Recrudes'cenoe [renrudesco, to open Reflores'cence (refloresco, to blossom afresh), the production of a young anew), flowering again, a second shoot from a ripened . blossoming, reotlflo'rus {rectus, atT&ighti, flo/i,floris, refraot'ed, refrac'tus (Lat., broken), a flower), where the axen of the bent sharply from the base back- florets are parallel to the main ward. axis of the inflorescence, as in some Eegenera'tion [regeneratio, a repro-

Compositae ; rectiner'ved, rectiner'- duction), vegetative growth after

vis, -viiis {nervus, a, nerve) ; rec- amputation and the drying of the tlve'nius [vena, a vein), straight- wound. veined, parallel-veined, as in Eegermlna'tion {regermino, I sprout

grasses ; Rectipetal'ity {peto,l seek), again), resumption of germination Voeohting's term to express the after it has been completely inter- tendency of organs to grow in a rupted (L. H. Bailey).

straight line ; rectise'rlal {series, a Re'gion, the area occupied by given

row), in straight ranks ; rec'tus, forms ; '~ of Diatrlbu'tion, Watson's in a right line, straight, not term for the British regions defined curved, by him. recur'vate, recur'ved, recur'vus (Lat., Re'gma {i>vyiia, a fracture), a fruit bent back), curved backward or with elastically opening segments downward. or cocci, as in , a form

recutl'tuB (Lat., skinned), apparently of sohizocarp ; Re'gmacarp, Eegma- bare of epidermis, car'pium [Kapiros, fruit), a general red, a general term for the most name for a dry and dehiscent fruit. vivid of the primary colours, in Eegres'slon [regressio, a retreat),

Latin ruber ; ~ -brown, porphyreus Galton's term for Revbbsion ; re-

according to Lindley ; ~ Snow, gres'sus (Lat., gone back), (1) the discolouration of snow by Haema- same as k.bflex0S the change ; (2) tococctis nivalis, Agardh, etc. from one organ into that which Redu'ced Ves'sels, a term used by preceded it, as of petals into sepals, Rothert for (a) replacement of reg'ular, regula'ris (Lat., according to bordered pits by simple pits, (6) rule), uniform or symmetrical in

an incomplete development of the shape or structure ; of a flower, ao-

thickening bands and their looser tinomorphic ; ~ Pelo'ria, peloria arrangement. which have not produced their nor- Eeduc'tion {reductio, a leading back), mal irregular parts; regulariflor'ous diminution, as of the number of {flos, floris, a flower), when a disk chromosomes in nuclear division; ~ or head of Compositae contains Divis'lon = NUOLEAB Ebduotion. only tubular florets; regulariform'is redu'plicate, redwplica'tus (Lat., (forma, shape), approximating

doubled) = redu'pllcatlve, redupli- regularity ; Regular'ity, symmetry. 222 ";, ;

Bejection-nuclei Besiu-Tube

Rejec'tion-nu'clei, pi., certain nuclei quently used so as to include the which do not become part of the septura*of Oruciferae in the term. functional oospherea, the nuclei of Reproduc'tion, increase (a) asexually abortive oospherea (Hartog). from one individual, (6) sexually

Eejuvenes'oence (re, back, juvenesco, from two individuals or organs ; I grow young), the formation of reproduc'tive, applied to parts

a new cell from the protoplasm of which share in reproduction ; ~

a cell already existing ; meta- Cells, cells which have no power gam'etal '-, see metaoametal of further vegetative development, Rejuvenescence. but by coalescence give rise

Eeliq'uiae(Lat. , leavings) = Induviae. to a product which forms the remote', remo'tus (Lat., distant), starting point of a new plant scattered, not close together, the •~ Or'gans, the parts especially con- same as rarus. cerned in the production of seeds,

renar'lus {renalis, pertaining to the spores, and analogous bodies ; in kidneys), reniform. Phanerogams, the stamens and Kenew'aJ, the act of forming anew pistils. ~ of Cells = Rejuvenescence. rep'tant, rep'tans (Lat,, crawling),

re'niform, reniform'is {renes, the KEPENT ; creeping on the ground kidney"?, forma, shape), kidney- and rooting.

shaped ; reniform'i-corda'tiis, com- Res herha'ria (Lat.), the science of

bined heart and kidney shape, as plants ; botany. the leaves of Asarum europaeum, Reserve' (reservus, laid up), a storage; Linn. ~ Cel'lulose, a special thickening Ren'net, veg'etaWe, an enzyme which in the cells of seeds, such as the curdles milk, found in the flowers date, which can be turned to ac- of Oalium verum, Linn., and other count in germination as food mate-

plants. rial ; /- Mate'rial, the plastic Repair', making good, as ~ of Waste, products of metabolism, assimi- restoring the spent material. lated food material in a resting repand', repan'dus, repan'dous (Lat. condition, as starch and other

bent backwards), with slightly un- carbohydrates ; ~ Pro'teid, nitro- even margin, less so than "sinuous. genous substances stored in the creeping), pros- plant, as etc. re'pent, re'pens (Lat., proteids, amides, ; trate and rooting. ~ Tra'cheids, -like cells Repla'oemeut, a theory of fertilization from the parenchyma sheath, for which assumes that the female cell the storage of water (Heinricher). gets rid of certain elements which resll'ient (resiliei^s, springing back), leaves it an imperfect cell until springing or bending back, as some fusion with the male cell replaces stamens. them. Res'in (resina, rosin), a term applied Reple'tum (repletus, filled), a fruit to a group of oxydised hydro- with the valves connected by carbons, solidified or hardened tur-

threads, persistent after dehiscence, pentine, and insoluble in water ; ~

such as in Orchids, Aristolochia, and Cell, a cell which secretes resin ; — some Papaveraceae. Ducts, canals which contain fluid

rep'licate, replica'tus (Lat., folded resin ; .- Flux, an unnatural and back), doubled down, so that the abundant flow of resin caused by the upper part comes against the lower; attack of Armillaria mellea, Sacc.

rep'licative,repfo"ca«i'tn<5=replieate. on Conifers ; ~ Gland, a group of

Ee'plum (Lat., door-case), (1) aframe- cells which form resin ; ~ Glut =

like placenta from which the valves Resin-Flux ; ^ Pas'sage ; ~ Tube, fall away in dehiscence; (2) fre- an intercellular passage containing 223 ,;, ;,

resiniferous retrogresBiye

resin, a resin-duct ; resiniferouB, Betarda'tion, the influence of light

rns {fe.ro, I hear), secreting resin ; on growth in certain structures. Res'inocyst (/ditrrir, a bag), hemi- Ee'te (Lat., a net), network; retio'- spheric structures in the cell-wall ulate, reticvla'tus, netted like net-

of the hairs of the stem and leaf of work, as in certain cell-thickening ;

Begonia (Sohoennett) ; Eesino'sis ~ veined, netted veined ; reticu- = Resin-Flux. la'ted Ves'ael, one with netted

Respira'tlon (reapiratio, breathing), thickenings (Crozier) ; Betlcula'- the gaseous interchange between tlon, network, the regular cross-

the plant and the air in which the ings of threads ; Retic'ulmn (Lat. plant absorbs oxygen, and gives a little net), (1) a membrane of

off ; Inaula'tion ~ cross-fibres found in Palms at the

the plant gives off oxygen in the base of the petiole ; (2) applied

decomposition of vegetable acids ; to the network of linin in the

Inter'nal ~, gives off carbon dio- nucleus ; retiferus J {fero, I bear), xide, but does not absorb free re'tiform, rtliform'is {forma, oxygen, as in yeast-fermentation shape), apparently netted.

Nor'mal ~ , as defined ; Vincula'- retinacula'tus (Lat.), hooked ; Se- '^ tion , oxygen is absorbed, but no tina'culum (Lat., a tether), (1) the carbon dioxide is given off; it gland to which one or more pollinia

occurs in the early stages of ger- are attached in Orchids ; (2) in mination of oily seeds (Detmer) Asclepiads, a horny elastic body adj. respi'ratory, as — CaVity, ~ to which the pollen-masses are Cham'ter = Stomatio Chambbe. fixed, the Corpusculum of Bent-

res'tant (Crozier) ; res' tans (Lat. ham, Pollen-carrier of N. E. standing still), persistent. Brown, Translator of the Germans restib'ilis (Lat., restored), perennial. (3) the funiole in most Aoanthaoeae,

rea'ting, in a dormant state ; ~ Cell, which is curved like a hook, and an isolated cell which has passed retains the seed till mature.

into a quiescent state ; — Nu'cleus, a retiner'ved, retiner'vis, retiner'mus (rete, nucleus not in the act of division ; a net, nervus, a nerve), net- ~ Pe'riod, the time during which veined. dormancy is maintained, the in- retrac'tus (Lat., drawn back), when

volution period ; -' Sporan'gium, cotyledons are so far prolonged at dormant gonidia of such Fungi as their base as to completely hide the Saprolegma, which ultimately give radicle.

rise to swarmspores ; •" Spore, a Retort' Cells, special enlarged cuticu- spore with a thick integument, lar cells with an apex more or less needing time before germinating, recurved in Sphagnum. usually passing the winter or dry retrocui'ved, retrocur'vus, retrocurva'-

season in a dormant state ; — Stage, tus {retro, backward, curms, /- the resting period ; State, quies- curved), recurved, bent back cence, as of winterspores, or dor- retroflez'ed, retroflex'jis (Lat.),

mant bulbs. bent back, reflexed ; retrofrac'ted, resu'pinate, resupina'tus (Lat., bent retrofrac'tus (Lat.), refracted. back), upside down, or apparently Retrogres'sion (retrogressus, a so, as when the hymenium of a movement backward), reversion Fungus is uppermost. or development towards simpler

Besurrec'tion Plants, those which organisation ; retrogrea'sive, de- after being dried, when placed in cadent in structure; <" Metamorph'- water assume their living position, osis, in the occurrence as Anastatica and Selaginella lepi- of organs of lower grade in place dophylla. Spring. of the normal structures, as 224 ; ;

retrorse Kbizinea

pistils converted into stamens or Rhaohilla; Rhachil'la, a secondary petals. axis in the inflorescence of grasses retrorse', retror'sum (Lat.), directed Rha'cbis, Rach'is, the axis of an in- leaf backward or downward ; retror'sely florescence or compound or acu'Ieate, with prickles turned frond. back or down, as in Galium rhamna'ceous, resembling or belong- Aparine, Linn. ing to Rhamnaceae. retroaer'rate {retro, backward, ser- Eham'nase, an enzyme acting upon

ratus, sawed) =kuncinate ; retro- glucosides which occurs in the ver'ted, retrover'sus, inverted berries of Rhamnus infectoria,

Eetrover'sio (Lat. ), an inversion. Linn. ; Rham'nin, the colouring Eet'ting, steeping flax or in matter of the same fruit. water to obtain the fibro-vasoular Rha'phe (pa0^, a seam), usually portion freed from the cellular. spelled Raphe. retuse', retu'sus (Lat., blunted), with Rhapli'is, pi. Ehaph'idea (^o0is, a a shallow notch at a rounded apex. needle), more usually occurring as reversed', rever'svs (Lat., turned Raphis and Raphides. back), upside down, resupinate Rhe'gma, = Regma. Kever'sion, iJewj-'sio, a change back- Rhe'ine, a proximate principle of the ward, as to an earlier condition. oflSoinal rhubarb. Rheum. revolu'bilis (Lat.), capable of being Rheot'roplsm (pioi, I flow, Tpor-ij, a

rolled back ; rev'olute, revolu'tus turning), the phenomena in a (Lat.), rolled back from the margin growing organism produced by the or apex; revoluti'vus (Lat.), in influence of a current of water

aestivation when the edges roll (Jonsson) ; adj. rheotrop'ic. back spirally on each side, as in rhexigenet'ic {fi-fj^is, a rending, 76x05, Rosemary. offspring), the origin of tissues Revol'ver Flow'ers, Kerner's term for whenformed by mechanical rupture those flowers "which exhibit (De Bary) ; rhexolyt'lo (Xiirris, a within their outer portals a number loosing), when gemmae are de- of fine tubes resembling the barrels tached by the rupture of a cell and of a revolver." the disorganization of its contents revol'vijig Nuta'tion (Sachs), = CiB- (Correns). CUMNUTATION. Ehipid'ium (piiris, ^iirtSos, a, fan), a Khabarb'arin, a proximate principle fan-shaped cyme, the lateral being developed alter- of rhubarb ; rhabarbari'nus, rhu- branches barb-coloured, the colour of the nately in two opposite directions. officinal root, orange brown. rhizamor'phoid, = bhizomorphous. Bhab'dold (pa/35os, a staff, eMos, re- rhizau'thous, -thus (pl^a, a root, av8os, semblance), a rod-shaped body a flower), root-flowered, flowering

found in the cells of the tentacles from the root or seeming to do so ;

of Drosera, and in the mesophyll cf. eabicalis ; Khl'zanths, plants

cells of Dionaea, becoming more BO characterised, Rhizogens ; rMz- in the spherical on stimulation ; Khab'- auto'icous, Mosses when dolitli {\idos, a stone), a detached male inflorescence is on a short portion of a Rhab'dospliere {(r^xupa, branch, cohering to the female by

a sphere), applied to certain pela- a rhizoid ; Rhi'zel, Van Tieghem's gic Algae, Rhahdoaphatra Tubifer term for the "base" of the root, and R. Claviger, G. Murr. and that is, the root apart from its Blackm. ; Ehizid'ium, term sug- Ehab'dus J the stipe of some Fungi gested for Rhizoid in the oophore (Lindley). condition (Bower). Rhache'ola (^ct^is, a backbone), = Ehlzl'na, pi. Rhizi'nae, or Eliiz'ines, 225 ;; ;

BhlziophyBis Rbodospenuin

the root-hairs of Mosses, etc., off rootlets, the apex progressively Rhizoids (^liiris, sending stems or leaves = ; Rhiziophy'sia J a up ; (2) (Henslow) = Kadicle natural production), an expansion Caudex ; (3)

of the radicle, as in Nelumbium ; (Henslow); rMzomat'ic, -cus, rMzo'- Rhizo'bia (/3(os, life), the organisms matose, having the character of a

which cause root-tubercles in Legu- rhizome ; rMzo'mic is used by

minosae ; Rhlzoblas'tus t {^Xairrbs, Harvey for the same thing ; Rhi'- a bud), an embryo which emits zomorpta (/top^r;, shape), a root-

roots ; Bhi'zocarp {Kapiris, fruit), like branched strand of mycelial

used of Marsileaoeae, which hyphae ; rhizomor'pbic, -phoid,

produce sporangia on root-like -pbous, (1) root-like ; (2) resembl-

processes ; rhizocar'pous, rhizo- ing a rhizomorph ; RMzoph'agist caypic, -picus, (1) root-fruited, {^ayetp, to eat), Boulger's term for used by De CandoUe to denote a a plant which is nourished by its roots, perennial herb ; (2) producing sub- own an autophyte or rhi-

terranean flowers and fruit, in zophyte ; rhizoph'ilous (0iXeu, I addition to aerial, as Cynometra love), growing attached to roots cavliflora, Linn., and Ancma RM'zopliore {

rhizantha, Eiohl. (Huth) ; RM- leafless branch in Selaginella, whichr^

zocol'lesy (/crfXXa, glue), the union eventually emits true roots ; Rhi'- of the axes of two individuals of zophyU ((piWov, a leaf), Schnett'a the same species solely by the name for a compound pigment in

roots (Morren) ; Rhizocton'ia Algae, consisting of Phycoerythrin

(KTbms, murder), hyphae twisted and Floridean Green ; rhizophyl'- into strands like twine which lous, when roots proceed from

fasten on the roots of trees ; Rhl'- the leaves ; RM'zophyte {ipvTov, a

zogen (yevos, race, offspring), (1) plant), = Rhizophagist ; Rlii'- a plant which produces a root zoj)liyUa'ceae (^uXXoi', a leaf, +

and flower only, as Bafflesia ; (2) aceus), a division of Ferns pro- parasitic on the roots of other posed by E. Newman for those in

plants ; (3) any organ which gives which the fronds are attached to

_ rise to roots or rhizoids ; rhiz- the rhizome or root ; rbizopliylla'-

ogenet'ic, rhizogen'ic, producing ceous, resembling such Ferns ; Rhi- ~ Cells, ~ Tis'sue, roots ; the zophy'sis = Rhiziophysis ; Rhizo- mother-cells of the peripheral pod'inm J {ttovs, ttoSos, a foot), the layer of the central cylinder which mycelium or "spawn" of Fungi; frequently give rise to all the Rhizotax'is, Rhizotax'y {rd^is, order),

tissues of the rootlet ; Rliizog'enum, the system of arrangement of the the dilated base of the frond in roots ; Rhi'zula J the protonema some Algae, from which proceed of Mosses, etc.

holdfasts (Henslow) ; RM'zoid rhodel'lus (jibSov, a, rose), rosy pink ; (eZSos, resemblance), a hair, fre- rhodoch'rous (xprfa, colour), rose-

quently branched, serving as a coloured, pink ; Rbod'ogen (vexos, root in Mosses and Hepaticae, not offspring), an easily oxidizable

morphologically distinct from the body in the beet (Reinke) ; rhodo-

protonema, the same as Rhizine ; leu'cus {\evK6s, white), reddish

rhi'zoid, rhizoid'eus, root-like white ; Rhodol'ogy (X670S, dis- rhizoma'tiform {forma, shape), re- course), that part of botany which sembling a rhizome in shape treats of roses; Rhod'ophyll (0uXXoi', Rhi'zome, Rhizo'ma, pi. Ithizo'mata a leaf), a name for the compound (1) the rootstock or dorsiventral pigment of the (Reinke),

stem, of root-like appearance, pros- c/. Rhizophyll ; Rhodosperm'in trate on or under ground, sending (irjr^p/My a seed), rose-coloured 226 ;

rhombens Boot-Cap

granules arising from effects cortex of Fungi the of ; (4) in Lichens reagents in oell-oontents. the Stra'tum cortica'le, also styled rhom'beus, rhom'bio, rhom'bicue, Eind-lay'er. (fidfi^os, atop), shaped like a rhomb, Blng, see Annulus for the various an equilateral oblique-angled senses in which it in used; ^ Bark,

figure ; rhombifo'llus (folium, a the outer bark when disengaged in

leaf), rhomboidal-leafed ; rhombi- strips or layers (Hartig) ; ~ Fores, form'is [forma, shape), rhomb- vessels in wood when arranged

shaped ; rhom'boid, rhomboi'deus, in the annual rings, as seen in

rtaomboi'dal, rhomboida'Us [eUos, transverse section ; ~ Scale, dis- resemblance), ease approaching a rhom- caused by Trametes Phii, Fr. ; bic outline, quadrangular, with the ~ Type, an appearance in nuclear

lateral angles obtuse. division ; Eing'worm, a disease of rhynobos'porous {piyxo^t a beak, the skin due to Trichophyton CTopi., a seed), when the fruit ends tonsurans, Malmsten. in a beak. rin'gent, rin'gens (Lat., gaping), Ehytido'ma^(^ur£5w/ia, a wrinkle), the wide open, gaping, as the mouth of

formation of plates of cellular tissue a labiate corolla ; ringentlQo'rus within the liber. (flos, a, flower), the receptacle of Kib, a primary vein, especially the such Compositae as bear ringent

central longitudinal or midrib florets (Henslow) ; ringentifonn'is ribbed, furnished with prominent (forma, shape), apparently guping. ribs. lipa'rian, ripa'rlous, ripa'riua (Lat., Kicino'lein, the glyceride of Rioino- frequenting river-banks), growing leio Acid, present in the seeds of by rivers or streams. Ricinvs. Bipe, mature, the completion of an Kic'tus (Lat., the opened moutlj), organ or organism for its allotted

the mouth or gorge of a bilabiate function ; ri'pening, maturing. corolla. rlva'lis (Lat., pertaining to a brook), Ridge, an elevated line on the fruit growing by a brook-side.

of Umbelliferae ; either primary rivularia'ceous, resembling the genus

or secondary. Rimdaria ; rivula'rioid (elSos, re- rig^'ens (Lat.), stiff, rigid ; riges'cent, semblance), means the same.

riyea'cens, having a stiff consis- ri'vose, rim'sus ('i rimis, a stream), tence. having sinuate channels (Crozier). rigbt-band'ed = DEXTRORSE ; c/. Ap- rivula'rla (rivulus, a rill), growing by

pendix C. watercourses ; riv'ulose, having riff'id, rig'idus (Lat. ), stiff, inflexible ; small sinuate channels (Crozier). rigid'ulous, somewhat rigid. rlzo'mic, an error for rhizomatic. Ki'ma(Lat., a cleft), (1) a chink or Bod - fructifloa'tion, special simple ostiole of in cleft ; (2) the certain gonidiophores Basidiomycetes ; Fungi (Lindley) ; rima'tus, J (Mod. Bod'lets, straight rigid bacteria.

Lat.), rimose ; ri'miform (forma, Bogue, a gardener's name for a plant shape), shaped like a cleft; ri'mose, which does not come true from rimosus, ri'mous, with chinks or seed, a variation from the type. cracks, as old bark; rlmulo'sus Root, the descending axis, growing in J (Mod. Lat.), a diminutive of ri- the opposite direction from the mose. stem, enodo.-o, mostly developing Bind, (1) the outer bark of a tree, all undergroun'J, and absorbing mois-

the tissue outside the cambium ; ture from the soil ; ~ Bacil'lus, a (2) sometimes restricted to the bacillus which has its station on tissues exterior to the active roots, as the nitrifying bacteria ; ~ phloem; (3) the outer layer or Cap, large cells whicn form a cap- 227 .; ;

Boot-Hairs Totimdlfolious

like covering for the smaller cells ros'eolus (Mod. Lat. ), pink or pinkish.

in rear (growing point) ; ~ Hairs, Rose'tum (Lat.), a rose-garden. slender outgrowths from the cells ros'euB (Lat.), rosy, pale-red, pink.

of the piliferous layer of the newly Ros'ln, crude Resin ; ros'lnous (Grew)

formed portions of roots ; ~ Leaf, a = BESINOIJS. leaf springing from the base of the Ros'tel = ROSTELLUM.

stem ; — Parasit'ism, when plants Ros'tellate, roatella'tus (rostdlum, a are partially parasitic and their little beak), the diminutive of roots penetrate others, as in Rhin- rostrate, somewhat beaked ; Eostel'-

anthua ; ~ Poc'ket, the false lum, (1) a small beak ; (2) applied "Cap" in Lemna roots; ~ Pole, by Linnaeus to the caudicle or

the seat of new growth when radicle ; (3) a narrow extension of

the root is detached ; ~ Pres'sure, the upper edge of the stigma of the forcing of fluids into the certain Orchids, the abortive

xylem by osmotic force in the anterior lobe ; ros'trate, rosira'tvs,

roots ; ~ Sheath = Coleor- with a beak, narrowed into a ~ HizA ; ~ Stock = Rhizome ; slender tip or point ; ros'triform Tu'bercles, the result of attack by (foTTna, shape), beak - shaped Fungi or bacteria, a case of sym- Ros'trum (Lat., a beak), (1) any

biosis, and source of nitrogenous beak-like extension ; (2) the inner nourishment to the host. segment of the coronal lobes in Root, adventlt'ious, any not developed Asclepiads. as a branch of the primary root, but Ros'ula (dim. of rosa), (1) a small

from other members ; aer'ial ~ rose ; (2) = ; a collec- used of those which are developed tion of clustered leaves, as the above ground, as of epiphytes Houseleek ; roa'ular, rosvlar'is,

pri'mary <- , that developed at the ros'ulate, rosvla'tus, collected into opposite pole of the embryo to the a rosette. shoot, the main descending axis. Rot, applied to various diseases of roofing, radioant. fungous or bacterial origin.

Eoot'let, (1) a very slender root, or (2) rota'ceus J (rota, a wheel, -i- aceus)

the branch of a root ; Root'stock, a = rotate', rota'tus, wheel-shaped, rhizome. circular and flat, applied to a rope-shaped, funicular. gamopetalous corolla with a short ror'idus (Lat., bedewed), dewy, tube ; ro'tate-plane, wheel-shaped covered with particles which re- and flat, gamopetalous and with-

semble dew-drops. out a tube ; Rota'tlon, Rota'tio, rosa'ceous, -ceus (rosa, + aoeoua), (1) the internal circulation of the arranged like the five petals of a protoplasmic contents of a cell to normal rose ; (2) belonging the cyclosis ; ~ of Gyra'tion, the Rosa is the type peculiar rotation order of which ; in Characeae ; (3) rose-colour, pink. ~ of Pro'toplasm, the movement rosela'tus = (1) bostjlatus, or (2) round and within the cell ; rota'to-

KOSAOEOUS. plane = rotate-plane ; ro'tifonn, osel'la (dim. of rosa) = Rosette', a rotiform'is J {forma, shape), wheel- cluster of leaves or other organs in shaped, as of a gamopetalous a circular form, as Flaniago major, corolla with spreading limb and cluster of leaves Linn. ; — Shoot, a a short tube. on a branch from the same point rotund', rotund'us (Lat., round), the UmbHi'cal -- of Diatoms is a rounded in outline, somewhat central star-shaped projection or orbicular, but a, little inclined

depression of a few larger cells, as towards oblong ; rotunda'tus in Coscinodiacus. (Lat.), rounded; rotundifo'Uous, 228 ;;;

rough Kust

-liv^ (folium, a leaf), round- Ru'ga, pi. Ru'gae (Lat.), a wrinkle

leaved. or fold ; ru'gate, wrinkled.

rough, (1) scabrous ; (2) also of rug'ged, scabrous (Crozier). surfaces covered with stiff coarse ru'gose, rugo'sua, ru'gous, covered

hairs ; ~ Leaves, a gardener's name with, or thrown into wrinkles for the first true leaves of o ru'gTilose, rugulo'sus, somewhat

seedling ; rough'lsh, scabrous. wrinkled.

rubel'lus (Lat.), reddish. ru'miuate, rumina'tua (Lat. , chewed), rub'ens (Lat.), blush-red. looking as though chewed, as the rub'eolus (S. Lat.), somewhat red, albumen of the nutmeg ; ~ En'- rnddy. dosperm, mottled in appearance,

rub'er (Lat., red), red in a, general due to the infolding of a dark

sense ; rubes'cent, rubes'cens, inner layer of the seed-coat into turning red. the lighter coloured endosperm.

rubio'olous (rubiw, a, bramble, colo, I run'ciuate, runcina'tus (runcina, a inhabit), parasitic on brambles, or large saw), saw-toothed or sharply

attached to them ; Henslow spells incised, the teeth retrorse. it rubico'lus. Run'dle, used by Withering for

rubioun'dus (Lat., red, ruddy), blush- Umbel ; and Run'dlet, for a partial red. or secondary umbel. rub'idus (Lat.), reddish; rubid'eus Ruu'ner, a , an elongated lateral (Mod. Lat.), means about the shoot, rooting at intervals, the same. intermediate part apt to perish, rubig'iuose, rubigino'sus, rubig'inous, and thus new individuals arise ruhigin'eus (robiga or rubigo, rust), run'ning, repent, reptant. rust-coloured, usually implying it rupes'tral (rupes, a rock), H. C. is due to glandular hairs. Watson's term for plants of walls

Ru'bor, Rube'do (Lat.), redness of any and rooks ; rupes'trine (Crozier), kind. rupes'tris, growing among rooks, ru'deral, rudera'lis (from rudua, old or as Lichens, on rocks ; some

rubbish), growing in waste places write it rupea'ter ; Ruplc'ola [colo,

or among rubbish ; ~ Plants, those I inhabit), a plant which dwells

whioh are characteristic of rubbish among rocks ; adj. rupio'olous. heaps, etc. rup'tlle rup'tilis (ruptiis, broken),

Ku'dimeut {rudimentum, a first at- dehiscing in an irregular manner ; tempt),(]) an imperfectly developed ruptlner'vls, ruptiner'vius (N. and functionally useless organ, a Lat.), when a straight-ribbed leaf has its ribs interrupted and vestige ; (2) has been suggested as an equivalent of the German term swollen at intervals ; rup'turlug, " Anlage " ; c/. Incept, Peim- bursting irregularly.

ORDIUM ; rudljnen'tal, rudimen'- rura'lis (Lat., rustic), growing in tary, arrested in an early stage peculiarly rural places as the thatch

of development ; ~ Or'gans, those of a cottage. whose development has been rus'eiform (Ruscus, forma, shape), arrested at an early stage. with leaflets recalling the shape of rufes'cent, rufes'cens (Lat. ), becoming the phyllodes of Ruacus acideatus, reddish. Linn. Kuffle, used by Withering for the rus'sus (Lat.), red; russet, when

VoLVA of Fungi ; ruffled, with a meaning reddish-brown. strongly waved margin (Crozier). Rust, a fungous disease in cereals rufid'ulus (N. Lat. ), somewhat red. caused by Puccinia'graminis, Pera. ru'fous, rv!fus (Lat. ), reddish, of all it is also applied to other diseases shades. of plants from similar attacks 229 ;

rusty Sambucene

rus'ty, rubiginose, ferruginous, the sagit'tiform, sagittiform'ia (forma, colour of iron rust. shape), arrow-shaped.

ru'tilant, mi'Hans, rut'Uus ( Lat. , red, Sa'go, granulated starch obtained glowing), used for plants having from the pith of certain palms,

glowing flowers : red, orange, especially from species of Sagits. yellow, or an admixture of these. Saint-Valery' Ap'ple, a monstrosity in rytidocar'pus {pvrU, pvrldos, a wrinkle, which the petals are sepaloid, the KapTos, fruit), when the surface of stamens absent, and a double row the fruit is covered with wrinkles. of carpels present. Sal'ep, the dried tubercles of some sabulic'ola (sabvltim, sand, colo, I in- species of Orchis, also spelled

habit) ; sab'ulose, sainUo'sus, grow- Sal'op, Saloop'.

ing in sandy places ; Henslow Sal'lcin, a gluooside occurring in the prints the former word saibiUi'coltta bark of willows, species of Salix ; ; sab'uline (Crozier) is a synonym. Salicyl'ous Ao'id occurs in many Sac [saccus, a bag), a pouch, as Air flowers, especially of Spiraea, pro- ~, an empty cavity in the pollen bably by oxidation of its corre-

of Pinus ; Em'bryo ~ , see Embryo- sponding alcohol, Salioenin. sac; sac'cate, sacca'tus, bag-shaped. sa'lient (saliens, springing forward), sacchara'tus (saccharum, sugar), projecting forward. sugary, or yielding sugar, as the SaUgr'enin, an aromatic substance

sap of some species of maple ; sac- formed by the decomposition of cliariferous {/ero, I bear), sugar- Salioin, etc.

bearing ; Bacchari'nua (Lat.), saline', sali'nus {aaZ, salis, salt), (1)

sugary ; Sac'charose, cane-sugar. consisting or partaking of the

sac'clform, sacciform'ia {sacciis, a bag, qualities of salt ; (2) growing in

forma, shape), bag-shaped ; Sac'- salt-marshes ; ~ Mat'ters, chemical culuB (Lat., a little bag), the salts occurring in plants, the union

peridium of some Fungi ; Sac'cuB, of acids with bases,

sometimes applied to the coronet salmo'neus (saXmo, a salmon) ; sal- of Stapelia, etc. monlc'olor {color, colour), salmon- Sac'cophytes {irdKKos, a sack, ^vrbv, coloured, pink with a dash of a plant), Schuett's term for all yellow. plants which are not Placophytbs. Salpigan'thy (a-dXtny^, a, trumpet, Sacel'lus (sacellus, a little bag), X a dcSos, a flower), the transformation one-seeded indehiscent pericarp, of ligulate or disk-florets of Com- inclosed within a hardened calyx, poeitae into conspicuous tubular as the Marvel of Peru. florets (Morren). Sacbs's Cur'vature, a curved growth salBu'ginous, salsugino'stis {salsugo, of the root, due to a difference in saltness), growing in places inun- the rate of growth of the two sides dated by salt or brackish water,

of the organ (Wiesner). as saltings ; sal'sus (Lat., salted), Sack = Sao. is used in the same sense. sad' die-shaped, applied to such valves sal'ver- form, ~ shaped, hypocrateri- of Diatoms as those of Coecinodis- morphous (A. Gray). cus. Sama'ra (or Same'ra, Lat., the fruit Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocvs of the elm), an indehiscent winged sativus, Linn., which yield a yellow fruit, as that of the sycamore

dye ; ~ col'oured, = crocatus. samarid'eous, sam'aroid, aamaroi'- Sagit'tal, sag'ittate, sagilta'tua deus (elSos, resemblance), used of a [aagitta, an arrow), enlarged at the fruit resembling a samara. base into two acute straight lobes, Sam'bucene, a terpene derived from

like the barbed head of an arrow ; Samhucus nigra, Linn. 230 ; ;

Sanguine Sautellus san'g^uine, aanguin'eus (Lat., blood- gam which subsists by means of a red), the colour of blood, crimson. mycorhiza, or felting of hyphal Sanio's Law, the order of cell- tissue on the roots. divisioa of the cambium, as set saproleg'nious, allied to the genus forth in Pringshelm, Jahrb. ix. 60. Saprolegnia, San'tallB, a resinous substance from Sarcob'asis (crapl, a-apms, flesh, ^airis, red sandal-wood, Pterocarpus san- base), a oaroerule, used for gyno- talinua, Linn, f , whence its name. basis when very fleshy ; Sarc'ooarp . San'tonin, a bitter principle from Sarcocai-'pium {KapTrls, fruit), (1) wormwood, Artemisia Santonicum, the succulent and fleshy part of a Linn. drupe ; (2) a general name for a

Sap (sapa, new wine boiled thick), baccate fruit ; Sar'code, Dujardin's

the juice of a plant; ~ Canities, term for protoplasm ; Sar'coderm,

vacuoles ; ~ Per'iderm,distinguished Sarcoder'ma, Sarcoder'mis {Sep/j,a, from ordinary periderm by its cell- skin), a fleshy layer in seed-coats wall and contents being in a living between the exopleura and the

condition, serving as absorption endopleura ; sarcol'des {elBos, re-

tissue (Wiesner) ; ^ Pres'snre, the semblance), having the appearance

force exerted on passing upwards of flesh ; Sarco'ma t a fleshy disk.

through the tissues ; ~ Ve'siole, a Sar'ment, Barmen'turn (Lat., twigs, vacuole surrounded by a thin skin brush-wood), a long slender runner, of protoplasm; ~ Ves'sel, a duct or stolon, as in the strawberry

or continuous vessel ; ~ Wood, the sarmenta'ceous, -ceus ( -I- aceous) new wood in an exogenous tree, sarmentiferous, -rus (fe.ro, I bear), so long as it is pervious to the sarmentose; Sarmentid'ium, % a

flow of water, the alburnum ; the group of cymes or spikes arranged sap of oak is Grew's term for centrifugally as those in the cyme

the alburnum of that tree ; sap'less, itself (Lindley) ; sarmentit'ius, be-

dry, destitute of sap ; Sap'ling, a longing to twigs (Henslow) ; sax'-

young tree ; Sap'a = Sap. meutary, applied by Massart to sap'id, sap'idus (Lat., savoury), having the buds of climbing plants which a pleasant taste. develop into the long slender

sapona'ceous (sapo, soap, + aoeous), branches and tendrils ; sar'men- eoapy, slippery to the touch tose, sarmenlo'sus, Bannen'tous

sapona'rius (N. Lat. ), having scour- (Lat., full of twigs), producing long

ing qualities like soap ; Sap'onln, a and lithe runners ; Sanuen'tum, a soap-like principle from Saponaria runner, c/. Sabment. officinalis, Linn., and other plants. Sar'nian, H. 0. Watson's term for Sap'or (Lat., flavour), the taste which plants confined to the Channel

a plant offers. Islands ; Sarnia = Jersey. saprog'enous {ffarpbs, rotten, 7^x05, sathroph'ilous {tradpos, decayed, <^iXe'u, race), growing on decaying sub- I love), applied by Pound and

stances ; Sapromyioph'ilae ((^iXeu, Clements to those Fungi which I love), plants which are fertilized feed on "ofial."

byoarrion-or dung-flies ; the flowers sati'vus (Lat.), that which is sown

are putrid-smelling ; saproph'ilous or planted, as opposed to spon- - {(piKeia, I love), humus loving ; taneous or native. Sap'rophyte (ipvrov, a plant), a plant aatura'te-vl'rens (Lat.), green as

which lives upon dead organic grass ; a full deep green.

matter ; adj. saprophy'tal, sapro- sau'sage-shaped, allantoid.

phyt'ic ; Sap'rophytism, the state Sautel'lus (Fr. sautelle, a vine shoot), of subsisting on humus or similar a bulbil, such as those of Lilium

material ; symblo'tic ^ , a phanero- tigrinum, Ker; misprinted by 231 ; ;;; saw-toothed scMstaceouB

Heuslow as "Santellus"' with an scaly, squamose, scarious ; ~ Buds, erroneous derivation. leaf-buds of a strong character, saw-toothed is, or sawed, serrate. that well protected by scales ; sax'atlle (Crozler), saxa'tilis (Lat.), -- Bulb, one having separate scales,

dwelling or growing among rooks ; as in lilies. sax'icole, saxic'oliae, saxic'olous Bcan'dent, scan!dens (Lat., climbing), (colo, I inhabit), growing on rocks climbing, in whatever manner.

as do many Lichens ; Saxio'ola, a Scape, Sca'pus (Lat., a stem), (1) a dweller among rocks, printed by leafless floral axis or peduncle " Henslow as saxi'colus " ; saxi- arising from the ground, as in

fragous (frag, the root of frango, Cyclamen ; (2) the stipe of Fungi I break), rook-breaking, as plants Scapel'lus X the neck or caulicle of which grow in crevices seem to a germinating embryo (Lindley)

be ; saxo'sus (Lat.), stony. soa'peless, destitute of a scape. Scab, a disease due to various Fungi, Soaphid'ium (scaphium, a hollow causing roughness of the cortex vessel), the sporangium of ; Algae ; in the potato it is ascribed to Scaph'iumJ the keel of a papilion-

Sorosporium scabies, Fisch. de aceous corolla ; Scaph'obrya (/Spiioj,

Waldh. , in the United States attri- I sprout), a term applied to the buted to Oospora scabies, Thaxter. Marattiaceae, an order of Ferns in Bca'ber (Lat.), rough, scurvy; scab'- which the frond rises from between rate, scabra'tiis, made rough or two stipular appendages forming a

roughened ; scab'rid, scab'ridus socket. Bcab'ridous (Lat., rough), some- scaph'oid [a-Kitpri, a boat, eJSos, re-

what rough ; scabrid'ulous, and semblance), boat-shaped ; scaph'y- scabridius'culus, slightly rough form [forma, shape), used by J. Scabrlt'ies (Lat.), roughness of Smith for boat-shaped.

surface ; scab'rous, = scabbe, rough scaplflo'rous, -rus (scapus, a stem, to the touch. jlos, floris, a flower), having flowers soalar'iform, scalariform'is {scalaris, borne on a, scape ; sca'piform, pertaining to a, ladder, forma, scapiform'is [forma, shape), re- shape), ladder-shaped, having sembling a scape, a stem wanting

markings suggestive of a ladder leaves ; Bcapig'erous {gero, I bear), ~ Duct, ~ Ves'sel, a vessel having scape-bearing; sca'poid [elSos, re- scalariform markings, as in many semblance), soapiform (Crozier)

Ferns ; — Mark'ing, an elongated sca'pose, scapo'sus, having scapes

pit of a scalariform vessel (Crozier). Sca'pus ( Lat. ) = Scape. Scale, (1) any thin scarious body, Scar, a mark left on a stem by the usually a degenerate leaf, some- separation of a leaf, on a, seed by

times of epidermal origin ; (2) a its detachment, a cicatrix ; scarred,

triohome, if disc-like ; ~ Bark, marked by scars. outer bark which is thrown oflf in soa'rlose, scario'sus, soa'rioua (scaria, scale-like portions, as in the plane- Late Lat., a thorny shrub), thin,

tree ; '~ -formed, shaped like a dry and membranous, not green.

scale ; — Leaves, cataphyllary scar'let, vivid red, having some leaves, usually on underground yellow in its composition, shoots, but sometimes on the above- coccineuB. ground portions. scar'rose J, a variant spelling of sqaJl'oped, crenate. squarrose. scalpel'liform, scaZpelliform'ia (seal- scat tered, without apparent order. pdlum, a lancet, forma, shape), schista'ceous, -ecus [schistos, a stone

shaped like the blade of a pen- easily split, e.g., slate, -i- aceus),

knife ; often set vertically. slate-coloured, a deep-toned grey ; 232 ; ;

schistose Sclerotlnin

scbis'tose, schisto'sus, slaty, as to {aKtovpos, a squirrel, etdos, resem- tint. blance), curved and bushy, like a

SoMstog'amae {

for the same. tube, as in Mirahilis ; Sclerench'- Solii'zooarp (crx'fu, I split, Kapns, yma {lyxv/M, an infusion), (1) fruit), a pericarp which splits into formerly applied to stone-cells,

one-seeded portions, mericarps or SoLEEBlDS ; (2) afterwards proposed " - " split fruits ; sohizogenet'ic for bast or libt-r cells, which are (7^>'os, offspring), formed by split- immensely thickened, with their

ting ; r" intercellular Spaces are protoplasm lost ; ~ Cells, all formed by the separation of tissue thick-walled cells which retain

elements owing to the splitting of their pi'otoplasm (Tsohiroh) ;

the common wall of the cells adj. Bclerencby'matouB ; as ~ scMzogen'ic Deveropment, develop- Tis'Bue, composed of thick-walled

ment arising from division cells ; Sole'reid, a sclerotic or stone- schizog'enous, = schizo^enetic ceU, a strongly thickened or ligni-

schizo-lysig'enous (Xi^o-is, a loosing), fied cell ; it is sometimes spelled

arising from splitting or tear- Scle'rid ; scle'rised, sclerosed ; ing of the tissues, applied by Scler'oblast (/SXao-Tos, a bud), a

Tsohiroh to thoae cavities which stone-cell, or sclereid ; Soler'ogen arise at first from splitting of {ycvos, offspring), the hard lig-

, the cell-wall, but are enlarged nified deposits in such cells as by the breaking down of sur- those which compose the shell

rounding tissues ; sohizolyt'io, of the walnut, or grit-cells of the

applied to those gemmae which are pear ; Sclerogen'ia, Berkeley's detached by splitting through the term for induration of parts

- middle lamellae of the cells amounting to a disease ; scle'roid,

(Correns) ; Schizomyce'tes {/ivicris, scleroi'dus {etSos, resemblance),

a fungus), Naegeli's term for bac- having a hard texture ; scleropliyl'-

teria (Cohn) ; Soliizopliy'tae {(fivrdy, luB (^iWov, a leaf), having hard

a plant), was also used by Cohn for and stiff leaves ; soleropoi'dus (irovs,

the preceding ; ScM'zophytes, plants TToSos, a foot), when persistent

which increase by fission ; Schizo- peduncles become hard and horny ; apor'eae {a-iropa, a seed), a name BClero'sed, hardened, lignihed proposed by Cohn for the Schizo- Sclero'sis, the hardening of a

mycetes ; Schlzoste'ly (o-tijX?;, a, tissue or cell-wall by lignification column), when the single primitive of a membrane or intercellular

stele breaks up into as many deposits ; Solerote', a proposed

distinct strands as there are vas- emendation of Sclebotium ;

cular bundles ; adj. Bchizoste'lous. sclero'tlc, hardened, stony in

BCim'itar-sliaped, acinaciform. texture ; '~ Cells, grit-cells or

Sci'on, a young shoot, a twig used for sclereids ; ~ Parenoh'yma, grit-

grafting. cells or stone-cells in pears, etc. ; Scirpe'tum, Warming's term for an Solero'tiet, A. S. Wilson's name for

association of Scirpus plants. a small Sclerotium ; small concre- Scls'sion {scissio, a cleaving) Lay^er tions of lime have been also so

= Absciss - later ; soisalp'arous termed, in error ; sclero'tloid,Bclero'- {pario, I bring forth), used for told (ddos, resemblance), like a

pissiPAKOtJS, as bacteria. sclerotium ; Sclero'tium, pi. Sclero'- sciu'roid, sciuroi'des, aciwroi'deus tia, (1) a compact mass ofhyphae in 233 ;

scoblcolar Bcyphulns

a dormantstate.ooourring in several leaves, which curl up on the side groups of Fungi also applied attacked. ; (2) by some to the resting stage of scro'tiform, scrotiform'is {scrotum, a the Plasmodium of the Myxo- pouch, /orma, shape)pouch-shaped; gastres. Scro'tum, the pouch or volva of soolJic'ular {acobis, sawdust) =scoBi- some Fungi.

fORM (Crozier) ; Bcobioula'tus, in Scurf, small bran-like scales on the

fine grains like sawdust ; scoli'lfonn, epidermis ; Scur'finess, the appear- scobiform'is {forma, shape), having ance produced by membranous

the appearance of sawdust. scales ; scurfy, lepidote.

Scobl'na (Lat., a, rasp), the zigzag Bcu'tate, scuta'tua {scutum, an oblong rhachis of the spikelet in some shield),buckler-shaped,8cirfa'i4Pi7»

grasses ; scob'inate, scobina'tus, when the surface feels rough as Scu'tel {scutella, a salver) = Scutel-

though rasped. LUM ; acutella'ris, scu'tellate, scutd-

Scole'cite (o-KiiXijf , a worm), Tulasne's la'tus, shaped like a small platter ; term for the vermiform archicarp ECutel'Uform, sciUelliform'is {forma, of Ascobolus pvlcherrimua, the shape), patelliform, but oval and "Vermiform Body" of Woronin. round (Lindley) pi itter-shaped (A. ; Scot'tish Type of Distribution, used Gray); Scutel'Ium, pi. Scutel'la, by H. 0. Watson for those plants (1) a second and anterior coty- in Great Britain whose head- ledon in grasses, as in wheat

quarters are in Scotland. (Scribner) ; (2) the conical cap scorpio'id, scorpioi'dal, scorpioi'dis, of the endosperm in Cycadeae scorpioida'lis {irKopTrluiv, a scorpion, (3) in Lichens, such an apothecium elSos, resemblance), when the main as in Parmelia, with an elevated axis (pseudaxis) of inflorescence is rim derived from the thallus.

coiled like the tail of a, scorpion, sou'tiform, sctUiform'ia {scutum, a more strictly with flowers two- shield, forma, shape), buckler-

ranked, these being alternately shaped ; ~ Leaf, the first formed

thrown to opposite sides ; ~ Cyme leaf in Saivinia, the protophyU or CiNCiNN0S, the lateral branches which differs in shape from those developed on opposite sides alter- which succeed it.

nately as in Borragineae ; in some Scu'tum, (1) used by Jacquio to de- English textbooks erroneously note the outer corona in Duvalia, " " given as helicoid ; ~ Dichot'omy, Haw. ; (2) the broad dilated apex when alternate branches develop of the style in Asclepiads. dichotomously ; -- unip'arous scym'itaT-Bbaped (A. Gray) = scimi- Cyme, a oymose branching when TAE-SHAPBD. the right and left forks are alter- Scyph'a or Soypb'us (

(Solms-Laubach). shields on its edge ; Scy'pbi, pi. Sori'nium (Lat., a case), Necker's term "open cups" (Leighton); (2) J the

for the fruit of Myrtaceae, as of corona of Narcissfus (Lindley) ;

Lecythis ; adj. aorina'ceus. scyph'iform {forma, shape), cup-

scrobic'iUate, scrobicula'tiie {scrobi- like ; Bcyphipll'orous {(popeu, I

cvlua, a little trench), marked by carry), bearing cups ; Scyphog'eny minute or shallow depressions, {yevvda, I produce), Morren's term

pitted ; Bcrobiculo'sus, pitted or for the production of ascidia ; Bcy-

punotiform. pb'ose, possessing scyphi ; Scy- Scroll-gall, Kerner's term for mal- ph'ulua, the colesule or vaglnule of formations caused by insects on Hepaticae. 234 ;

Scytiunm seettis

Scy'tinnni (o-cunxos, leathern), used the union of the two polar nuclei by Neoker to denote an indehisoent ~ Fedun'cle, a branch of a many-

pulpy pod, as of the Tamarind. flowered inflorescence ; ~ Pet'iole, sea-green, glaucous. the footstalk of a leaflet ; ~ Boot, Seam, see Tkaohbid-sbam. a lateral root, or a branch from

Beba'ceous, seha'cRua (Lat., n, tallow the primary root ; ~ Scleren- candle), like lumps of tallow. ch'yma consists of elongated pro- aebiferous (sebum, tallow, fero, I senchymatous cells having ligni- bear), bearing vegetable wax or fied walls marked with narrow tallow. oblique ~ bordered pits ; Spore, a seo'ondary, secundar'ius, not primary, spore borne on a promycelium or

subordinate ; ~ Bast, the result of derived from another spore ; ~ the continued activity of the cam- Struc'ture, (1) any structure not bium, a formation of bast of the primary, or (2) after it has grown

same essential character as the beyond its early condition ; ^ primary bast, but not forming a Tis'sue, refer to Desjiogen, Vascu-

part of the original bundle ; ~ LAB Tissue, etc. ; ~ Wood, derived Bud, additional to the usual bud, from the cambium but not in the when more than one occurs in or original bundle as first formed, it near the axil; ~ Cor'tex, succes- difi'ers from the primary wood by sive formations of liber or bast not having spiral or annular vessels within the cortical sheath and like those on the protoxylem

primary cortex, exclusive of the ( Vines).

secondary cork, phelloderm ; ~ Sec'ondine = Secdndine (Crozier). Des'mogen, formed from the cam- Secre'tion (secretio, a dividing), a bium and destined to become substance formed from the fluids '- secondary permanent tissue ; of the plant by the agency of gland- Fun'gus, a parasite or sapro- ular cells; ~ Bod'ies, secretory sacs;

phyte which attacks a plant after secre'tory, producing a secretion ; ~ it has been injured or killed Sac, a unicellular or aggregated sac

by some other Fungus ; ~ Growth, containing excreta as gum, resin, additional or subsequent to prim- oil ; '- Space, an intercellular space

ary growth ; ~ Hy'brid, a hybrid containing similar products of

one or both of whose parents were secretion ; ~ Tis'sue, as above, it

also hybrids ; ~ Li'ber, = ~ forms a storehouse for the waste

Bast ; ~ Medul'-lary Bays, those products of the plant. which are intermediate between sec'tUe, aecl'ilis (Lat., out or cleft), the primary rays, and do not as though cut up into portions, as

extend to the pith ; ~ Mem'- the pollen of some Orchids. bers, all those which are de- Sec'tlon [sectio, a cutting), (I) a thin veloped from the primary members, slice taken usually for microscopic

if borne directly, they are said to inspection, in a given direction ; be of the first order, if on the (2) an important division of a latter, of the second order, and so genus.

on ; '^ Mer'istem, a cambium Sec'tor {Lat., one who cuts), the term

which arises in an organ after its pericycUo ~ , is used by Bastit for first development, by means of interruptions of the continuity of which further growth is pos- the central cylinder of the subter-

sible ; — Myce'Uum, rhizoid ranean portion of Polytrichum, as attachments to the base of the viewed in cross-section. sporophore resembling the normal see'tua (Lat., cut), parted, completely

mycelium ; '- Mu'cleus, the nucleus divided to the base ; in composition of the embryo-sac, resulting from it forms the suffix sect. 235 ;; ;

secuud geml-amplectnis

Becund', secun'dua (Lat., following or tive cell-divisions of the em- second), parts or organs directed bryo. to one side only, usually by se'gregate, negrega'tus (Lat., separ-

; is torsion ; secunda'tus (Lat., second ated), kept apart a Se'gregate in rank) is given by Henalow a species separated from a super-

as synonymous ; secundlflo'Tus species. (fios, fioris, a flower), the flowers Sei'rospore (ceipk, a string or rope, all turned in the same direc- (TTTopa., a seed), a spore produced in

tion ; Sec'undine, the second, that a branched row resulting from the is, the inner coat of an ovule division of terminal cells of partic- Secundi'nae inter'nae, an old term ular branches in certain Ceramia-

for Albumen of a seed ; Secun'do- ceae ; adj. setroBpor'ic. spore (+ Spore), C. Macmillan's seju'gous, se'jugiis {sex, six, jugum, term for a spore which can also a yoke), having six pairs of leaflets, act as a gamete, as in Ulothrix. as some pinnate leaves. Seleo'tion, Nat'ural, Darwin's ex- Se'des Floria (Lat. ), J the torus of a flower. pression for that which Herbert ' Seed, the fertilized and matured Spencer has termed the ' Survival ovule of a phanerogamous plant of the fittest." ~ Bed, Blair's word for Pla- Selenot'ropiBm (aeK-fiv-q, the moon,

centa ; ~ Bud, in Milne's Dic- rpoTTT], a turning), movements of

tionary cited for Ovaby ; ~ plants caused by the light of the

Coat = Testa ; ~ Leaf, ~ Lobe moon (Musset).

= Cotyledon ; -- Sport, a se- Self, a florist's term for having the

minal variation ; ~ Stalk, the same tint throughout, without

Funiclb or podosperm ; — Varia'- markings of other colours or tints tlon, a variation arising from a ~ -bred, the offspring of self-

seed, and not a bud ; — Vari'ety, a fertilized flowers (F. Darwin) ; ~

variety produced from a, seed- -ool'oured, uniform in tint ; ~ sport, or one which comes true FertUiza'tion, fertilized by its own '~ Par'asltism, parasitic on from seed ; Ves'sel = Pericarp ; pollen ; ~ Seed'age, proposed by L. H. Bailey its own species, as sometimes

for the state or condition of being happens with Viscum ; ~ PoUina'-

reproduced by seed ; Seed'ling;, a tion, the pollen of the same flower plant produced from seed, in brought into close contact with its

distinction to a plant propagated own stigma ; -- Steril'ity, when artificially. pollen though ripe is inoperative segeta'lis (Lat., pertaining to stand- on the stigma of its own flower. ing crops), growing in fields of sellaeform'is {sella, a saddle, forma, grain. shape), saddle-shaped. Seg'meut, Segmen'tum (Lat., a piece Se'men (Lat., seed), the seed of out off), (1) one of the divisions flowering plants; ~ coroicula'tum, into which a plant organ, as a leaf, the receptacle of certain Fungals may be cleft (2) each portion of (Lindley); ~ mul'tiplex = Spori- ; meristem which originates from a, DESM.

single Segment Cell ; .~ Cell, the Se'met {semen, seed), a term used by basal portion which is successively Grew and others for Anther, cut off from the apical cell in cf. Sbminb.

growth ; Segmenta'tion, (1) division sem'i (Lat.), half ; semi-adhe'rent, into members {a) similar, as in semi-adherens {adhereiis, sticking), ; a thallophyte, or (6) dissimilar, as half-adherent, that is, the lower ~ in a oormophyte ; (2) the division part or half; semi-amplec'tens,

of the apical cell ; (3) the primi- amplec'tus (Lat., wound about), 236 +; ;

semi-amplezicaiil semipetaloidens

eqnitant ; ~ amplecti'Tus is also complete dissepiment, practically

cited for the same ; Bemi-amplex'i- unilocular; Semili'chen ( + Lichen), canl, aemi-amplexicavflis {amplexua, Zukal's term for forms which when embracing, cavlis, the stem), ap- destitute of their appropriate Alga plied to leaves whose lower portion can subsist as eaprophytes, or

half embraces the stem ; semi- Fungi which can combine with

amplez'iis, half-embracing ; semi- some Alga to form a Lichen ; se-

anafropal, semi-anafropons ( -l- milu'nar, semllu'nate, semiluna'fus

ANATEOPODS) = amphitropous ; {+ LFKATE), lunate, shaped like a

semi-calyciform ( + caitctfokm), half-moon, or crescent-shaped.

half cup-shaped (J. Smith) ; Semi- se'minal, semina'lia (Lat., pertaining

cap'sula ( + Capsula) = CrpcxE ; to seed), relating to the seed

semiaqnat'lc ( + aquattc), term for ~ Leaf, a cotyledon ; ~ Sport,

those water-plants which root in = Seed-spoet ; Semina'tae, Van the soil, but produce aquatic leaves, Tieghem'sterro for plants furnished

otherwise living as land-plants with true seed-coats ; Semina'tio, Sem'icell, one half of a Desmid; the act of natural dispersion of

semicolum'nar, semicolumTia'rU ( seeds ; Se'mine, used by Grew to

COLU3IXAB), semitcrete ; aemicon'- include both his Semet and Chive,

nate (-i- coy>"ATE), applied to the genitalia ; seminif'erous, -rm snch structures as the half-united ifero, 1 bear), (1) seed-bearing; (2) filaments of certain willows (Win- used for the special portion of the mer ; semi-cor'date, semicorda'tus pericarp bearing the seeds ; (3)

{+ CORDATE), heart-shaped on = Dicotyledons ; ~ Scale, in Coni- one side only ; semlcordiform'is ferae, that scale above the bract- [forma, shape), somewhat cor- scale on which the ovules are placed

date ; semicycliadra'ceufl, ~ cylin'- and the seed borne ; seminific dricus (+ CTLDfDBlcus), semi- {/acio, I make), forming or pro- (-1- terete ; semidig'yiins digt- ducing seed ; Semlnifica'tioii, pro- xrs), when two carpels cohere pagation from seed ; seminiform'is near the base only; semidoub'le, (forma, shape), applied to repro- semidu'ptex, when the inner sta- ductive bodies in Cryptogams mens continue perfect, and the which are not part of the

outer are petaloid, half changed fructification ; Se'meniii, a sinis-

into a double flower ; semiellip'tic trorse carbohydrate occurring in ( -f ELLIPTIC), half-eUiptic, the divi- reserve-cellulose in the endosperm

sion being longittidinal ; semieq'ui- of some seeds (Reiss) ; Se'minose, a tant {+ equitam), half-equitant dextrose form from ordinary cel- Semlflor'et (-1- Flobet), a ligulate lulose belonging to the group of

floret ; semiflos'cular, semiflos'ca- grape-sugars (Reiss) ; Se'minTile.

lonB, semiflosculo' ius ( -1-fdosculab), Semin'idum, = Spobb ; SemlnuUf- having the corolla split and turned erus (fero, I bear), (1) that part to one side as in ligulate florets of of Cryptogams which bears the

Compositae ; Semiflos'cnle, a semi- spores, a sporophore ; (2) the cavity floret (Crozier); Semifru'tex (fnitex, of the ovary while the ovules are a shrub), an under-shrub ; semi- yet unfertilized. hasta'tos (-i- hastatus), hastate on semiorbic'ular, semiorhicvla'tus (semi, half, one side only ; semUan'ceolate ( + -I- OEBICULAB), half-round

LANCEOi,ATE),half-lanceolate, longi- or hemispherical ; semlo'val,

tudinally divided ; semilentic'ular semioia'lie, semio'vate, semiova'- LENTicrLAR). Sublenticular (Cro- tus {+ oval), half-oval, one side ( + zier) ; semiloc'uJar, semilocula'ria, only, or ovate in longitudinal halves semUix^ulus (+ doculae), with in- ; semipetaloi'deus + (peta- 237 ; ;

semlpollicBiia Bepticide

LOID), petaloid ; of the shape or sensib'ills (Lat.), sensitive, manifest-

texture of a petal ; semipolllca'ris ing irritability ; aen'aitive, sensiti'-

( + poUex, a thumb-breadth), about vus, responsive to stimulus, as

half an inch in length ; semlra'- the leaves of Mimosa pudica, Linn. dlans, semira' dlate, aemiradia'tus ~ Tia'sues, those in which the

{radians, emitting beams), when sensibility resides ; Sen'sitiveneaa,

only a portion of the outer florets irritability ; aen'sory, sensitive. of a Composite are radiant and Sep'al, Sep'alum [a-Keini, a covering),

different from those of the disk ; se- Necker's convenient term in uni- mire'niform, aemireniform'is {renes, versal use for each segment com-

the kidneySj/or-ma, shape), kidney- posing a calyx ; aep'aline, sepali'- relating shaped on one side only ; semi- nus ; aep'alouB, to sepals ; reticula'tus (reticvlatua, netted), sep'aloid, sepaloi' devs (eWos, re- when one of several layers is semblance), resembling a sepal netted, the others membranous Sepalo'dy, the metamorphosis of aemlsag'ittate, eemisagitta'tiis {sa- petals into sepals or sepaloid

gitta, an arrow), arrow-shaped on organs ; Sepal'ulum, Necker's di-

one side of the longitudinal axis ; minutive for a small sepal,

semisep'tate, aemisepta'tvs ( + sbp- aep'arate {separaius, put apart) TATBS), half-partitioned, the dis- Flow'era, those of distinct sexes,

sepiment not projecting far enough diclinous ; sep'arating Lay'er, the

it cells ; leaf-fall to divide into two semi- Absciss-latee, as in ; stam'inate, semistamiTiar'iiis, -ris Separa'tion, multiplication by natur- {+ Stamen), when part of the ally detachable portions, such as

stamens are changed into petals ; gemmae, bulbils, etc. gemisympIiiOBte'iiionls {+ m/Mpiw, aepia'ceua {sepia, a cuttle fish), sepia- I unite, ariiiiwv, a stamen), when ooloured, a dark clear brown. some of the stamens cohere, the Sepic'ola {sepes, a hedge, colo, I

rest remaining free ; sem'iterete, inhabit), an inhabitant of hedges, aemiter'es (teres, round and taper- Henslow prints it sepi'cohis.

ing), half-terete ; aemitrig'ynus Ssp'ta, pi. of Sep'tum (Lat., a hedge (rpJs, three, yviA], a woman), when or enclosure), any kind of parti- of three styles two are united half tion, whether a true dissepiment

way, the third being free on the or not ; aepta'lis (Lat.), belonging

ovary (Meissner) ; semival'vate, to a septum ; sep'tal, H. C. Wat- semivcUva'tus (,+ valvatb), when son's term for plants growing in the valves of a fruit are only par- hedgerows ; aep'tate, septa'tua,

tially dehiscent ; semivertic'Ulate divided by a partition ; " Spore = {+ vebticillatb), subverticillate Spoeidbsm. (Crozier). aeptem'fld {septem, seven, fd, the sempervi'rent, sempervirens (Lat.), root of fivdo, I cleave), cut into evergreen, retaining its leaves seven divisions; aeptempax'tite (yar- during the winter. titus, cut), divided into seven lobes; se'nary, sena'rius (Lat.), belonging septen'ate, seplena'tus, sept'enus, to, or containing, six. having parts in sevens, as in a com- Senes'ceuce {senesco, I grow old), the pound leaf, with seven leaflets

ageing of protoplasm ; a term used arising from the same point ; aep- by Maupaa for the condition of the tena'tal-pin'nate, used by Bab- offspring of a long continued series, ington for those brambles which which, after continued fission, ulti- have seven pinnules in each leaf, mately degenerate, and lose first septici'dal, aep'ticide, septicida'lis the power of conjugating, and {septum, a hedge or enclosure, finally that of fission. caedo, I cut), when a capsule 238 ; ;;

septiferons sezangular

dehisces through the dissepiments Serrula'tion, (1) being serrulate

or lines of Junction ; septif'erous (2) a serrulate tooth, {faro, I bear), bearing the parti- ser'rled, close together in rows tion or dissepiment. (Crozier). septifo'lious {eeptem, seven, folium, a Ser'tulum {sertum, a garland), (l)t a

leaf), seven-leaved. simple umbel ; (2) a selection of sep'tlform, sepli/orm'is {septum, a plants described or figured ; Ser'- hedge, forma, shape), having an tum, used for an account of a appearance of a dissepiment, as the collection of plants.

placenta of Plantago ; septif'ragal, ae'samoid {Sesamum, + elSos, resem- aeptif'racjus (frag, the root of blance), granular, like the seeds of frango, I break), when in dehiscence sesamum. the valves break away from the dis- sesqul (Lat.), a prefix meaning one

sepiments ; sept'ilis, of or belong- and a half ; sesquial'ter, (1) when

ing to dissepiments ; sep'tulate, the stamens are half as many again

having spurious transverse dissepi- as the petals or sepals ; (2) when a ments, (a) sparsely septate, (&) fertile flower is accompanied by a its true sense neuter flower, as in some indistinctly septate, ; grasses ; Sep'tulum, a little partition of any sesquipeda'lis (Lat.), a. foot and a kind. half in length. septupliner'vis, -viua {septuplum, in ses'sile, sea'silis (Lat., sitting), as sevens, nermis, a nerve), seven- though sitting close, destitute of nerved, applied to a leaf. a'stalk. Se'reh, a disease of sugar-cane, pro- Se'ta (Lat., a bristle), (1) a bristle or bably due to Hypocrea Sacchari, bristle-shaped body the ; (2) sporo- Went. phore of a Moss, the stalk which se'rlate, aeria'tv^ its se'rial, seria'Us, supports capsule ; (3) the arista {series, a row), disposed in series of or awn of grasses, when terminal rows, either transverse or longi- (4) a peculiar stalked gland in

tudinal. Rubua ; (5) by oyperologista ust-d seric'eotts, seric'eus (Lat.), silky, for the bristle within the utricle of clothed with close-pressed soft and certain species of Carex; it repre- straight pubescence. sents the continuation of the A. floral axis Se'ries (Lat.), (1) a row; (2) by (C. B. Clarke) ;

Gray used as equivalent to sub- seta'ceous, -ceus { + aceous), bristle-

kingdom, by others used for vari- like ; applied to a stem it means

ous groups. slender, less than subulate ; seta'ceo- sero'tiiial, sero'tlnous, -nus (Lat., serra'tUB, having the serratures end-

that comes late), produced late in ing in a bristle-like point ; setlfe'- the season, or the year, as in rous {fero, I bear), bristle-bearing autumn. se'tiform(^rma,shape),in the shape

Ser'ra (Lat., a saw), the tooth of a of a bristle ; setig'erous {gero, I

serrate leaf ; serraefo'lius, prefer- bear), bristle-bearing ; se'tose, seto'- ably serratifo'lius {folium, a leaf), sus (Lat.), bristly, beset with

having serrate leaves ; ser'rate, bristles ; Se'tula, the stipe of cer-

aerra'tus, beset with antrorse teeth tain Fungi (Lindley) ; setu'llform

on the margin ; ser'rate-cil'iate, {forma, shape), thread-like ; se'tu- toothed, and with a marginal series lose, aetulo'aus, resembling a fine of hairs; serra'tulus, slightly bristle. toothed, denticulate ; Ser'rature, Sex, Sex'us (Lat.), in botany, male Serratu'ra, the toothing of a ser- or female functions in plants. rate leaf ; Be/rulate, aerrula'tus, sexan'gular, aexangula'ris,8exan'gvlus serrate, but the teeth minute (Lat.), six-angled. 239 ; ;

sezfarlouB sig:moid sexfar'iouB, -vs {sex, six, fariam, Shift'lng, the same as Glidino

suflix = in rows), presenting six Geowth ; in Germ. Versohiebung. rows, extending longitudinally shl'mng, lucid, a clear and polished round an axis. surface. sex'ifld (sex, s\x,Jid = cleft), six-cleft Shoot, (1) a young growing branch or

(Crozier) ; sexolo'ular (locvlus, a twig J (2) the ascending axis ; when small cell), six-celled. segmented into dissimilar mem- sezpaytite, sexparti'tiis (Lat.), cut bers it becomes a Stem ; ~ Pole, that into six segments. point where new shoot-growth

Sex'tant (sextans, a sixth part), a begins, cf. Root-pole ; leafy ~ , a

radial cell division of segments branched shoot; thal'loid ^ , an in three series, a sixth part of the unsegmented shoot. original (De Bary). Short-rods, short bacteria. sex'tuplex (Lat.), six-fold or six-times. Shrub, a woody perennial of smaller Bex'ual, sexua'lis (Lat., pertaining to structure than a tree, wanting the

sex), (1) the distinction of sex bole ; shrub'hy, like a, shrub (3) applied to the phenomena Shrub'let, an undershrub.

of conjugation generally ; ~ Gener'- sic'cus (Lat.), dry, juiceless, contain-

ation, the stage which bears ing little or no watery juice ; aic-

the sexual organs ; in Ferns the cita'te (Lat. , abl. absol. ), in the dry

prothallus ; ~ Sys'tem, Linnacus's state, that is, herbarium specimens. artificial arrangement by the num- Sick'le- stage, of nuclear division, ber and position of the sexual Zimmerman's term for the Paba- organs. NUCLEUS of Strasburger, a crescent- Sbaft, Withering's word for Style. shaped body at one margin of the Shag-hal'rs, Villi, in German nucleus, supposed to represent a "Zotten." stage in the disappearance of the shag'gy, villous. nucleolus. Shake, defect in timber due to the Sieve-cells, the individual cells Pini, Fr. which attacks of Trametes ; constitute the Sieve Tubes ; also known as Bark-, Heart-, or ~ Disk, ~ Field, ~ Plate, the King-shake. pierced plate on the transverse sharp-pointed, acute. or lateral walls of vessels covered

Sheath, (1) a tubular or enrolled part on both sides by callus ; ~ or organ, as the lower part of the Pores, the openings in a sieve- leaf limiting layer plate; ~ Tls'sue, in grasses ; (2) a long articulated of surrounding cellular tissue, as tubes, whose segments communi-

; sheath'ing, cate of the the Bundle-sheath by means sieve-plates ; enclosing as though by a sheath. ~ Tubes, the tubes composing the

Shelf, conduc'ting, Dickson's term for tissue described ; ~ Xy'lem, ap- a ledge within the asoidium of plied byChodat to groups of sieve- Cephalotus follicularis, Labill. cells in the wood of Dicella. Shell, (1) the hard envelope of a nut sigllla'rian, resembling or allied to (2) a mass of layers in the cell- wall. Sigillaria, a genus of fossil plants Shel'ter-par'aBite, see Domatia. whose surface is marked with

Shield, (1) an apothecium or disk numerous scars ; sig'illate, sigilla'- arising from a Lichen-thallus, con- tus (Lat., sealed), as if marked Characeae, taining asei ; (2) in one with impressions of a seal, as the of the eight cells forming the rhizome of Polygonatum. stamini .de of slg'matoid globule ; (3) the (aiyiia, the Greek s, rfSos, Cypripedium (S. Moore) ;- shaped, resemblance), or sig'moid, sigmoi'- in the form of a buckler ; clypeate, deus, doubly curved in opposite

peltate, or scutate. directions, like the Greek s. 240 ;; = ,


Signs, arbitrary symbols for shortly the ripening of a single pistil ; ~ stating certain facts ; a selection of Gland, a single cell containing a those more generally used, is given special secretion ; ~ Qonid'iophore in Appendix A. ( -I- GoNiDiOPHORB), a single hypha Sil'iole, Silic'vla, Sil'ioule (Lat., a as in Penicillium; '- Hairs, not little husk or pod), (1) a short compound or branched, the pro- siliqua, not much longer than wide longation of a single epidermal (2) J = Cakpoclonium of Algae. cell; ~ Inflores'cenoe, a flower silLcic'oloua {silex, silicis, a flint, colo, cluster with one axis, as a spike, I inhabit), used of Lichens which , or catkin ; — Leaf, of one grow on flints ; Slllcifioa'tion, the blade, with incomplete segmenta- deposition of silica in tissues tion ; ~ Nuta'tlou, nutation in one Sil'loo-cel'lulose ( + Cellulose), the direction only ; ~ Pis'til, consisting condition of tissue when silex is of one carpel ; ~ Pit, ~ Pore, with intimately blended with it as only a slight enlargement at the in Equisetum hyemaie, Linn. centre, where it meets the neigh- (Tschirch). bouring cell; ~ prl'mary Root, a sUic'ulose (+ SiLictJLA), having tap-root; ~ Spor'opliore, a single silioles as fruits, or resembling a hypha or its branch, in German, silicle. Fruchtfaden ; ~ Stem, a stem which Sil'iqua (Lat.), SiUque, pr. Si-leek', is unbranehed. (1) the peculiar pod of the Cruci- simplicis'simus (Lat. ),entirelysimple. ferae, two valves falling away simulta'ueous {simultanevs, Late Lat. from a frame, the Rbpltim, on at the same time) Whorls, when which the seeds grow, and across the members are of the same age which a false partition is formed ; and developed at the same time. (2) X by Blair employed for Slnal'tin, mustard oil from Brassica Legume ; SUlquel'la, a subordi- alba, Boiss., formerly termed nate part of a fruit such as the Sinapia alba, Linn., whence the POPPJ) consisting of a carpel with name. two extended placentas ; siliq'ul- Sina'gTln, or Sin'igrin, a glucoside form (forma, shape), shaped like occurring in the seeds of Brassica a silique ; sil'lquose, eiliquo'sus, sinapoides, Roth, formerly termed when the fruit is a silique, or Sinapis nigra, Linn., the origin of resembles one. the name. sil'ky, sericeous. Sina'pin or Sina'pisin, an alkalojgl SilVa = Sylva. from Brassica alba, Boiss. (Han- Sil'ver-gialn, the appearance in radial bury & Fluekiger). longitudinal section of exogenous sin'gle, used of a flower which has wood, especially of oak, due to shin- only one set of petals, as opposed ing plates of the medullary rays. to double or any approach to sil'very, having a lustre like silver. doubling, sim'ilaiy Farts, J elementary organs slnia'trad sinistral. or tissues (Liudley). Binis'tral, sinis'trorse, sinistror'siis, similiflo'rous {similis, like, flos, floris, turned to the left ; cf. dextroksb, a flower), applied to an umbel when and Appendix C. its flowers are all alike ; Slmili- Sln'istrin {sinister, the left), a sym'metry ( -l- Symmbitby), when the carbohydrate from Urginea and two halves of a Diatom valve are other bulbs, formerly regarded as a similar (Schuett) ; oonsimilarity. gum. sim'ple, sim'plex, of one piece or Sin'ker, the secondary roots of series, opposed to compound, ~ Mistieto, Viseum album, Linn., Fruits, those which result from forming laterals which strik- Q 241 ;

sinuate Bocial

perpendicularly downward into leaves during the night, nyctitropic the wood of the host, movements. sin'uate, simca'tus {La,t.,cnrveA), with Blen'der, long and thin.

a deep wavy margin ; sin'uated, SU'dlng Growth, a, gradual change in

deeply waved ; sin'uolate, the relative position of vessels, ainuola'tus, repand, faintly or fibres, etc., due to their develop- minutely sinuate ; sin'uose, sin'- ment in a longitudinal direction. uous, sinuate. SUme-flux, a flow of liquid from Sin'us (Lat., a curve, a fold), (1) a diseased fruit and forest trees, due recess or re-entering angle ; (2) a to the attacks of various Fungi, pore in some Fungi (Lindley). producing a fermentation of the Si'phon {(Tl4>iity, a tube), a pericentral cortical elements down to the

elongated tube in the frond of cambium zone (Massee) ; Sllme- Polysiphonia and allied Algae Fun'gl = Mtxogastres. Bipho'neous, relating to Algae sli'my, mucous. possessing tubular structure SUng-firuit, ; applied to any fruit which Siphoniphy'ton {(pvTov, a plant), a by possessing contractile tissue Composite with all its florets projects its seeds to a distance. tubular ; Sipho'nogam (yi^p^i, Slip, (1) described by Loudon as a marriage), plants fertilized by shoot from the collar or lower part means of poUen-tubes, all Phanero- of the stem of a plant, used for

gams ; adj. siphonogam'ic, siplio- propagation, stem-suckers ; (2) a nog'anious, the condition being popular name for Cutting, but Siphouog'amy jsiphonoste'llo (

stages of division ; daughter ~ or Snail-plants, those which are sup- mother ~, according to their posed to be fertilized by snails and development. slugs, malacophilous plants. Skel'eton (o-KeXe7-6s, mummy), any snow-white, white of absolute purity, framework which persists after the niveus. destruction of the organ by fire or Snow-leaves, Jungner's name for cer- corrosion, as the remainder of the tain leaves which are thin or cell- wall in ash, or the starch grain leathery, folded in the bud, and after partial solution by an enzyme. with no pulvinus ; winter-leaves. Skin, a thin external covering, the Soh'ole, Sob'oks (Lat., a sprout), cuticle or epidermis, a shoot,especially from the ground ; slashed, laciniate. aobolif'erous {fero, I bear), bearing slate -grey, the colour of slate, vigorous shoots. schistaceous. so'oial (eocialis, pertaining to com- Sleep, the repose of plants, with panionship), when individuals of changes in position of organs such the same species usually grow in as leaves, due to absence of light ; company, and occupy a consider- ^ IIOTe'ments, positions taken by able extent of ground. 242 ;

Society Sorrowful Kowere

Soci'ety (Plant) see Association. grains (Saccardo) ; somat'io CeUs, soft, applied to tissue which readily cells not specially modified, the

yields to the touch ; ~ Bast, the opposite of reproductive cells tissue of sieve-tubes and paren- somatogen'lc (•y^i'os, offspring), chyma, opposed to the Hakd Bast Weismann's word for "acquired of layers of fibres. characters"; Somatot'ropism Sola'nin, a poisonous crystallizable (TpoTTTt, a turning). Van Tieghem's alkaloid in many species of Sola- term for the directive influence of num, especially in S. nigrum, the substratum on the growth of

Linn. , the potato, and the . an organism; frequently shortened

Solar (so^, solis, the sun) Plants, Grew's to Somat'ropism ; adj. somatrop'ic. name for those which twine with soot'y, fuliginous.

the sun, that is, dextrorse ; Sola'r- Sor'bin, a glucose occurring in Pyrus, ium, in botanic gardens a spot for some species of which were formerly exposing plants to the full rays of ranked under Sorbus. the sun. sor'did, sor'didus (Lat., fouled), dirty sol'dered, united together. in tint, chiefly applied to pappus

BOl'eaeform, soleaeform'is (solea, a when of an impure white ; sor- sandal, forma, shape), slipper- didis'simum, very dirty coloured, shaped, almost resembling an hour- grey. glass. Sorede' (crupJi, a heap), a proposed Solena'idy (truX^c, a tube, alSdia, emendation of Sore'dium, pi. Sore'- genitals), the conversion of the dia, in Lichens a single algal cell genitalia into barren tubes (Mor- or group of them, enveloped iu

ren) ; solenoste'lio (arriK-r), a pillar), hyphal tissue, which is able to

having a tubular stele with inter- , grow at once into a thallus when

nal and external phloem (Jeffrey). detached ; a brood-bud ; sore'dial, sol'ld, sol'idvs (Lat.), not hollow, pertaining to a soredium ; ~

free from cavities ; ~ Bidb = Branch, a branch produced by COEM. development of a soredium into a Bol'itary, solita'rius (Lat., lonely), new thallus, while still attached

single, only one from the same to the mother-thallus ; sore'diate,

place ; Stokes used this for mono- soredia'fus, bearing small surface

typic genera. patches ; soredii'ferous {fero, I solu'bilis (Lat., that may be loosed), bear), bearing soredia. (o-iipeu/ia, separating into portions or pieces ; Sore'ma what is heaped), Soluhil'ity, Soluhil'itas, the" con- a heap of carpels belonging to one

dition of being readily loosed. flower ; Soreu'ma = Soredium solute', solu'tus (Lat., unbound), free, (Henslow).

not adherent, becoming separate ; Sor'ghln, Passerini's terra for the Solu'tion, the detachment of various product of transformation of Sor-

whorls normally adherent ; the ghoru'bin, the natural pigment of opposite of Adhesion. Sorghum wlgare, Pers. So'ma {a-w/jia, a body), the body as BOriferous (crapds, a heap, /ero, I distinguished from the germ or bear), bearing sori ; Soro'se, Soro'- reproductive portion (L. H. Bailey), sis, Soro'sus, a fleshy multiple fruit, as pi. So'mata, granules of any kind ; a mulberry or pineapple ; adj. So'ma-plasm {TrXdirfw,, moulded), sor'ose. Weismann's term for the proto- Sor'rowful Flow'ers, " those which plasm of the body or vegetative exale their odours only at certain portion, in opposition to the germ- hours of the day, as Pdargonimn triste," plasm ; Somat'ia, starch-like struc- Soland. (Crozier) ; cf. tures in the fovilla of pollen- Plantab tristab. 243 ;

Sorua Sperm

So'rus, pi. So'ri {

brown ; (2) having the nature of, classification, the aggregate of all or bearing a spadix ; spa'dicose, those individuals which have the

resembling a spadix ; Spa'diz, a same constant and distinctive

spike with a fleshy axia, as in characters ; they may be distin- Aroids. guished as biologr'ic '~, morpho- Span, usually about nine inches, log'lc ~, or physiologic ~, ac- between the extremities of the cording to the basis of discri- little thumb and finger, Dodrans ; mination ; ~ H/brid, a hybrid sometimes the small span of seven between two species of the same

inches is intended, the space be- genus ; ~ Soror'es, Schroter's term tween the thumb and middle finger for any two species of Uredineae when stretched out. which inhabit two distinct hosts, Spanan'thus {(rravos, scarce, avdoi, a but show no morphological difier-

flower), having few flowers. ence, as in Puccinia ; specific, Sparga'nium-cor'tex (the genus Spar- relating to a species; ~ Cen'tre, ganium, + Cortex), applied to the particular spot where the fossil stems with a vertical system species is supposed to have origin-

of fibrous strands which do not ated ; ~ Chayacter, the diagnostic anastomose, as McdvUosa. which separates one species from spaxt'oid {(Tirdfrros, esparto grass, another; ~ Name, the Latin ap- eI3os, resemblance), used by Fayod pellative appropriated to a given for persistent mycelium which is species, usually an adjective, but corticated, sometimes a substantive used ad- sparse, spa/sus (Lat., spread open), jectivally. scattered ; sparsiflo'rus {jloa, floris, Spec'imen (Lat., an example), a plant a flower), with scattered flowers ; or portion of one, prepared for sparsifo'lius (folium, a leaf), with botanic study. scattered leaves. spec'tans (Lat., looking), " se in- Spatbe, Spath'a (a-irdd7i, a, spatula), a vioem spectantia folia," = opposite- large bract enclosing a flower leaved.

cluster, usually a spadix ; ^ Valves, Spec'trophore {spectrum, an appear- the bract-like envelopes beneath ance,

Spermagone spermocarpona

ozoid, (b) a pollen-grain ; ~ Cliro'- plastoids, the eight secondary or matin, that portion of the male spermatid mother-cells each con- nucleus which is receptive of tains two blepharoplasts (Coult.

staining ; ~ Nu'oleua, the nucleus Bot. Gaz. xxvi., Dee. 1898, p. 449) of a male gamete (male pronucleus) Spermatoey'tium (/ciiros, a hollow which coalesces with the nucleus vessel), a simple sporangium con- of an oosphere (female pronucleus) taining spermatozoids (A. Braun) ;

to form a germ-nucleus ; Sperm'- Speimatogam'ete, Hartog's term

agone, Spermago'nium {ydms, oflf- for a male gamete ; Spenuatogen'-

spring) = SpERMOGONB, etc. ; Sperm- esls (yivecii, a beginning), the

amoe'bae ( + Amoebae), Pring- development of the male elements, sheim's term for certain specialised antherozoids, pollen-grains, and

portions of the antheridial proto- analogous bodies ; Spennatogon- plasm of Saprolegniae, which id'ium (-1- Gonidium), A. Braun's fertilise the oosphere ; Speiman'- term for Spekmatozoid ; Sperm- gium (dyyeiov, a vessel), the atogo'nium (yovo^, offspring), the sporangium of an Alga (Lindley) male gametogonium, a cell which Spenn'aphore, Spermaphor'ium divides to form gametes, or itself (, I carry), (1) the placenta; passes into the state of one

(2) the funicle ; Sperm'apliytes (Hartog) ; Spermatoid'ium, one of (vr6v, a, plant), used to include "small cells containing gonidia in both Angiosperms and Gymno- Algae " (Lindley); Spennatokal'lum

sperms ; all plants except (fcaXia, a cabin), name given by

Cryptogams (Sachs) ; adj. spenn- Gibelli to the perithecium of Verru-

aphyt'ic ; Spermapod'ium or Spenn- caria ; spermatoldne'tlc (/cii-jiri/cos, apodoph'onim (ttoCs, ttoSos, a foot), having the power of movement), a branched gynophore in Umbelli- tending to produce the male

ferae ; Spenna'rium, Gibson's term element in plants ; Sperm'atophore for Spertn'ary, employed by T. J. (tpopiio, I carry), a structure bearing

Parker for a male organ of repro- a spermatium ; Sperm'alofihjte

duction,as a gamete ; Sperm'atange, (01/Tov, a plant), a'TEanerogam,

Spermatan'gium (iyyuov, a vessel), a plant with true seeds ; Sperm'- (1) the antheridium of Bangiaceae atoplasm {irXdfffm, moulded), the

; (T. Johnson) ; (2) by A. Braun em- protoplasm of a male cell Sperm'- ployed for spermogouia and an- atoplast (TrXaiTT-os, moulded), a

theridia generally ; Spermat'ia, pi. male sexual cell ; Spennato- of Sperma'timn, male non-motile sphae'rla, pi. {(r^aipa, a ball),

gamete-cell ; Sperm'atid, Sperm- Itzigsohn's term for a presumed atid'ium {elSos, resemblance), (1) male body in Spirogyra, declared the mother-cell of antherozoids by Pringsheim to be an undoubted

(2) formerly used for an Algal error ; Spermatotham'nia {Bdftvos,

spore ; spermatiferous (fero, I a bush), the antheridial filaments

bear) ; spermatig'erous (gero, I of Rhodophyceae (A. Braun) ;

bear) bearing spermatia ; Spermato- Spermatozo'id {^wov, a living conid'lum (-l-CoNiDiDM), A. Braun's creature, eXSoi, resemblance), a male

term for Spermatium ; Spennato'- ciliated motile gamete produced

cyst, Spermatocystid'ium (/ciio-Tis, a within an antheridium ; Spermato- bag), the mother-cell of autheridia, zo'on, by Shaw taken as the

especially of Mosses ; Sperm'atooyte product of a blepharoplast (kuto^, a hollow), (1) Goebel's term sperm'lc, relating to a seed

for the preceding ; (2) used by (Crozier) ; spermid'eus,, producing, Shaw for four primary organs, seed; Spermiff'ium = Achbnb; each containing a pair of blepharo- spermocax'pous (Kajoiros, fruit), has 343 ;; ;;

Spermoderm spicate

been used as a synonym of phanbe- bearing at its apex a rounded

OGAMons ; Sperm'oderm, Sperm- tumour (Lindley) ; apbaerocaypouB oder'mis {d^p/J^a, a skin), the cover- {Kapwos, fruit), when a fruit is ing of a seed, the seedooat globular; spliaerocepli'alUB(/ce0aX57, Spermodopli'oruin {ipopein, I carry), a head), having flowers in a close globular head the gynophore in Umbelliferae ; ; cf. SoROSis Spennogem'ma {gemma, a bud), Sphaeroohor'iaiB ( -1- Chorisis), division of in all Camel's term for Arohbgonium ; the an axis direc- Sperm'ogone, Spermogon'mm (761'os, tions, as in "witches-broom," etc.

offspring), a cup-shaped receptacle (Fermond) ; Sphae'ro-crya'tals =

in which spermatia are abjointed, Sphaeraphides ; Sphaerophy'tum differing from a pycnldium by its {tpDrdf, a plant), a Fern, its spor- = smaller spores ; Sperm'o-uu'cleuB angia being globular ; sphae'roid

SPBRM-NtJCLBus ; sperm'ous = sPBR- {eldoi, resemblance), globular, any

Mic ; Sperm'opliore, Spermoph'orum solid figure approaching that of a -' J {(popea, I carry), (1) the gynophore sphere ; Cell, a reserve-receptacle in placenta in some calcareous Lichens Umbelliferae ; (2) the ; (Zukal);

(3) the modified shoot of the syn., spheroi'dal ; Sphae'rospore, thallus of certain Algae, producing Sphaerospor'a (ixiropb., a seed), a

male organs (Darbishire) ; Sperm'- name proposed in substitution for

ophyte (^urdK, a plant), cited by Tbtraspore ; Sphaer'ula, a globose Crozier for a Phanerogam or peridium emitting sporidia buried

; Spermotlie'ca X in pulp (Lindley) ; ~ aacig'era, the

(6-qKri, a case) = Pericarp ; Sper- receptacle of certain Fungi (Lind-

m'um, a seed or its analogue. ley) ; Sphe'roblast (/SXaffrds, a bud sphac'elate (cr^diceXos, gangrene), dark or shoot), a wood-ball on the beech and withered as though dead and other trees, from a dormant Sphacel'ia, formerly a genus, now eye, disconnected from its vascular

known to be the conidial stage of bundles (Ward) ; spher'ioal, sphe'-

ergot, Claviceps purpurea, Tul. ; ricus, relating to a sphere ; sphe'ri-

Spbac'elic Ac'id is derived from cus Li'mes = orbicular ; Spher'-

ergot (Tubeuf ). ulea, rounded bodies occurring in Spbaeraph'ideB {o-4>atpa, a sphere, the sporangioles of Selaginella pa01s, a needle), clusters of crystals (Janse). in plant-cells of a more or less Sphagne'tum, Warming's term for a

spherical form ; Sphere-erys'tala Sphagnum bog ; spliag'noaB, re-

and Sphe'ro-crys'tal are synonyms ; sembling or allied to the genus Sphere-yeast, a growth form of Sphagnum. Mucor which resembles yeast Sphalerocaypum, -pinm (atjiaKepo^, un- Sphaerench'yma {^yxvp-a, an infu- steady, Kapiros, fruit), an accessory sion), spherical cells composing fruit, as an achene in a baccate cellular tissue, as the pulp of calyx-tube. fruits. Spblngoph'ilae ((T(ply^ = Hawk-moth, spbaeria'ceous, resembling or allied (piKitii, I love), flowers fertilized by to the Fungus genus Sphaeria. hawkmotha and nocturnal lepi-

Sphaer'ites (a-tpaipa, a sphere), starch doptera ; they have a strong sweet grains which have been asserted to smell, and honey in the flower-tube

be crystallized bodies ; Sphaero- (H. Mueller) ; adj. aphingopli'ilous.

bacte'ria ( + Bacteria), bacteria Sphrigo'ais (

which become detached ; Sphaero- Spi'ea (Lat.), = Spike. blas'tus t (/SXooTos, a bud), a coty- api'cate, spica'tus (Lat., spiked), like ledon which rises above ground, a spike, or disposed in a spike

346i = ;; ;;

spicifonn Spirlcle

spi'ciform, spiciform'ia (forma, cells of the cortex on the inter-

shape), spike-like ; spioif'erous, nodes, ending in a spine ; Spines rua of the leaves, as of Holly, {fe.ro, I bear) ; spiciflor'us (jlos, jloris,3, flower); spioig'erous, hardened extremities of the lobes,

-rus {gero, I bear), bearing flower or spiny elevations ; Spinel'la (dim.

spikes ; spi'cose, and spl'cous of spina), a prickle ; spinello'sus,

(Crozier)=splCATE; Spic'ule, Spi'c- armed with small spines or hairs ; tda [spiculum, a small needle), (1) spines'cent, spines'cens, ending in a

a diminutive or secondary spike spine or sharp point ; splnif'erous,

(2) the point of a basidium in Fungi; -rua (fero, I bear), bearing thorns ;

also (3) their acioulae ; (4) a fine, spi'niform {forma, shape), thorn-

fleshy, erect, point (Lindley) ; spio'- like ; spi'niger, spinlg'erous {gero,

ular, spiky ; spic'ulate, spicula'tus, I bear), bearing or producing

with a surface covered with fine thorns ; spimfo'Uus {folium, a

points ; Spicula'tion, Nylander's leaf), having spiny leaves ; spinl- term for a hyphal constriction in car'pous {KapirSs, fruit), with spiny

spore-formation, the extremity be- fruit ; spl'nose, spino'su.-i, spi'nous,

ing left as a spicule. spiny, having spines ; Spin'ula

Spike, Spi'ca (Lat, , an ear of corn), (Lat. ), Spin'ule, a diminutive spine; (1) an indeterminate inflorescence, spinules'cent, slightly spiny, or

with flowers sessile on a common having spinules ; spinuliferous,

elongated axis ; (2) an aggregation -rua (fero, I bear), having small

of sporophylls at the apex of the spines ; spln'ulose, apinulo'aus,

shoot ; com'pound ~ , an inflor- with small spines or spinules escence consisting of spikes. spi'ny, beset with spines, or Spl'kelet, Spic'vla, a secondary resembling a spine. spike, a cluster of one or more spi'ral, spira'lia {apira, a coil), as

flowers subtended by a common though wound round an axis ; ~

pair of glumes, as in grasses. Duct, a spiral vessel ; ~ Flow'er, Spil'us t (aTrlXoi, a stain), the hilum when the members are arranged <- in grasses. in spirals and not in whorls ;

Spi'na (Lat. ) = Spine. Mark'ings, secondary deposits in

Spin'dle, any structure which in shape tracheids ; ~ Phyllotax'y, see Phtl-

suggests a thread-spindle; ~Fi'bres, LOTAXY ; ~ Tor'sion = Torsion ; the achromatic filaments which ~ Ves'sels, ducts having markings ~ make up the nuclear spindle ; in a spiral form. Pole, an extremity of the nuclear Spi'ralism {trimpiiSiis, spiral-shaped),

spindle ; ~ Hairs, resembling monstrosity of a flower due to malpighiaceous hairs, attached torsion. centrally, with the ends hooked Spire {criretpa, a twist), (1) a young ~ leaf or shoot of grass; (De Bary) ; shaped fusiform ; (2) "the

Achromat'ic ~ , or Nu'clear — , the continuation of the trunk in ex- thread-like protoplasmic figures in current trees like pines " (Orozier) nuclear division between the (3) one turn of a coil or twist. poles. Spi'rem {a-ir-elpTj/ia, a coil), a pre- Spine, Spi'na [La-t., a thorn), a sharp- liminary stage of nuclear division pointed woody or hardened body, as in Lilium, the nucleus assuming usually a branch, sometimes a an involved filamentous condition petiole, stipule, or other part or "ribbon" from which the Spine-arm, in the genus Najan, the chromosomes are formed. representative of a barren stigma Spl'riole {(TweTpa, a twist), a delicate -- — (Rendle) ; Cell, ( 1 ) a transitional coiled thread in the surface cells of achenes, Arm (Rendle) ; (2) in Chara, certain certain seeds and which 247 +;;; ;;;

Spirillum sporangiopliorouB

uncoil when moistened, as in quent in water-plants ; ~ Parench'-

CoUomia ; Spiril'lum, pi. Spiril'la, yma, loosely aggregated tissue, or having conspicuous intercellular (1) a term for Antherozoid ; (2)

also see next ; Spirol)acter'la, pi. ( spaces. Bactbrium), bacteria whioli form Sponsa'lia (Lat., espousals), Flanta'r- spirally curved filaments, as the um, J = Anthesis; the fertilization genus Spirillum, Cohn ; Splrofl- period. Dril'lae, pi. (cf. Fibril), Payod's sponta'neoUB {spontaneus, voluntary) terra for the spirally twisted Genera'tion, the assumed origin of hollow threads which he asserts living organisms from non-living constitute all living protoplasm matter. ' Spi'roism, the coiling of an organ spoon'form, ' having the inner surface

in development (Morren) ; Spirolo'- of a leaf concave or dish-shaped, beae (\o^bs, a lobe), Cruciferae as the outer leaves of a cabbage- which have cotyledons folded head " (Crozier).

transversely and radicle dorsal Spor'a (ffiropa, a seed), = Spore ; ~ spirolo'bous, with the cotyledons cellulo'sa, — compos'ita, ~ multi-

up, locula'riB = ; spor'al, spirally rolled shown thus o II ||; Sporidesm

Spi'rospart (avapros, sown, scat- relating to a spore ; ~ Arrest', par- tered), hypothetically the finest tial or complete arrest of the spirals of hyaloplasm, which con- development of the spores them- stitute theSPlROFiBRiLLAE(Fayod). selves, and consequent loss of Spith'ama [crnSa/iij, a span), a span reproductive function (Bower). of seven inches, from the tip of sporad'ic {

splen'dens (Lat., gleaming), glitter- endogenously producing Spores ; ing or shining. (2) J " sometimes applied to the Splint, a forester's term for Albur- volva among Fungals " (Lindley) NOM or Sapwood. Sporangid'lum, (1) the columella of

split, cleft or divided, parted ; ~ Mosses ; (2) "the spore-case of -' " Fruit = Cremocarp ; Lay'er, certain Fungals (Lindley) ; Spor- a loose felt of hyphae in Geaater, ang'lole, Sporan'giola or Sporan'- connected with the inner peridium, giolum, (1) a small sporangium in and torn into flakes at maturity. Mucorini produced in addition to

spodoch'rous {(riroSbs, ashes, xp6a, the larger sporangia ; (2) formerly

colour), of a grey tint. used for Ascus ; (3) organs of an

Spong:'elet = Spongiole ; Spong^iole endophyte in Selaginella, composed (apongia, a sponge), a name given of filaments rolled into the shape

to the root-tip, formerly thought of a ball ( Janse) ; (4) Sporangiolum to be a special absorbing organ, the is used in a double sense by Lindley

Epiblema of Schleiden ; Spong'iola (a) for spore, (6) a case containing radica'lis, De CandoUe's name for sporidia; Sporangloliferum (fero, the root-cap ; ~ pistUla'ris, the I bear), the axis on which the extremity of the pistil, the stigma thecae of Ferns are borne (Lindley); ^ semina'lis, the caruncle of certain sporangif'erous, bearing sporangia seeds; spongio'sus (Lat.), spongy, Sporan'giophore, Sporangioph'arum

soft ; spong'y, having the texture {ipopea, I carry), a sporophore of a sponge, cellular and contain- bearing a sporangium, such as the

ing air, as in many seed coats ; ~ sporophyll in Equisetum, or the

Cor'tex, cortical tissue with air- columella in Ferns ; sporangiopli'- bearing intercellular spaces, fre- orous, bearing sporangiophores 248 ;; ;

Sporaugism sporogrenous

Sporan'glsm, the condition of pro- is used as equivalent to Asco-

ducing sporangia ; Sporan'giospore SPORE ; Sporido'chia, Sporido'cMum

' ((Tiropi, a seed), a term proposed (Sox^'tov, a holder), ' the receptacle for the spores of Myxogastres or even the stipe of certain ; " Sporan'gium, c/. Spobanob. Fungals (Lindley) ; spor'o-antlier- Spore, Spor'a (

bion ; in Cryptogams the analogue individuals ; ~ -hermaph'rodlte, of seed in Phanerogams, understood when some are hermaphrodite and

by Saceardo as a Basidiosporb ; others bear asexually produced further particularized by C. Mac- spores ; ~ -oog'onous, bearing millan into Pri'mo-, Secun'do-, Ter'- spores in one individual and

tio-, Quar'to-, and Quln'to-sporea, oogonia in another ; Spor'oblast according to their assumed develop- (jSXacrTos, a bud), Koerber's word

'-' ment; Bul'bils, abortive apothecia for Mbrispore ; Spor'ocarp, Sporo- in certain Lichens ; <- Case, = car'pmm (xapirot, fruit), (1) a

Sporangium ; ~ Cell, a, spore, or many-celled body resulting from a cell which gives rise to a spore a sexual act as from an archicarp,

(Crozier) ; ~ Group, = Sporidbsm ; serving for the formation of spores ~ Hy'brid, a hybrid arising in the (2) the induaium or body enclosing gametophytic stage ; ~ lult'ials, the sporangia in Hydropterideae small processes borne by the fertile Spor'ocide {cido, stem of caedo, I hyphae of Oraphiola, which pro- out), a germicide, any agent which duce spores by one or more bi- destroys the vitality of spores or

partitions of their contents (E. germs ; Sporoclad'itim (/cXd^os, a

Fischer) ; — Lay'er, alayer of mother- branch), a branch on which the cells of the spores of Phascum reproductive bodies of some Algae

'~ Sport, a, variation arising ; from are found Sporoconld'ium ( + CoN-

a sexual reproductive act ; cf. ~ idium), used by A. Braun for

H/brid ; Spor'ellng, a young plant AcROSPOEE ; Sporocys'ta (Kiicms, a from a germinated spore; Spor'e- bag), the sporangium of an Alga ; plasm (7rXa(r/ua, moulded), the pro- Spor'oderm, Sporoderm'ia (dep/ia, a toplasm in a sporangium destined skin), of the integument a spore ;

to produce spores ; Spor'ld, see Spor'ocyte {k6tos, a, hollow), Goe-

Sporidium ; Spor'idesm {Sea-iws, a bel's term for the mother-cell of a

bond), a pluricellular body, be- spore ; Sporocy'tlum, a simple spor- coming free like a spore, in which angium containing Bpores( A. Braun) each cell is an independent spore Sporodo'chium, pi. Sporodo'clila with power of separate germina- (Soxeio", a holder), the sporiferous

tion ; aporidiferus ( + Sporidium, apparatus in Fungi belonging to bear), fero, I bearing sporidia Tuberculariae, cf. Sporidochia ; sporldiform'ls {forma, shape), Sporogam'ia {yiiJ.os, marriage), term shaped like a sporidium ; sporidig'- which has been suggested for the

erua {gero, I bear), sporidifer'us heterosporouB Cryptogams ; Sporo- Sporid'iole, Sporidi'olum, pi. gem'ma {gemma, a bud), A. Braun's Sporid'iola, formerly used for term for the oogonium (nucule)

spores in the lower Cryptogams of Ohara ; Spor'ogen {yivos, off- Sporid'ium, (1) a synonym or dim- spring), a plant which bears spores,

inutive of Spore, or a granule a Cryptogam ; sporog'enous, pro-

which resembles a spore (Fries); (2) ducing spores ; — Fil'aments, Olt-

a, spore abjointed from a promy- mann's term for certain outgrowths

celium ; (3) by Saooardo the term of the fertilized carpogonium of 249 ; ;

Sporogone spurred

in Dudresnaya ; the ooblastema-fila- duced in a perithecium, but not = ascus (Ellis and Everhart), menta of Schmitz ; ^ Lay'er an

~ nucleus formerly used vaguely for spore ; Hymbnium ; Nu'cleus, the resulting from the fusion of the sponilif erous, -rua (fe.ro, I bear) nuclei of the spermatiura and the sporuUg'erus (grer-o, I bear), bearing

carpogonium of Florideae (Olt- eporules ; Bporulig'enous (yivoi,

mann); Spor'ogone, Sporogo'nium offspring), producing sporules ; iyovi), progeny), the sporooarp in Sporula'tlon, the production of MuBcineae, the -whole product of spores (Crozier). a sexual act remaining attached spot'ted, when colour is disposed in to the oophyte or plant bearing spots on a ground of a different

the sexual organs ; spor'oid (cISos, colour. having a gradually out- resemblance), spore-like (Crozier) ; spread'ing, Sporomyce'tes (/iif/ci/s, a mush- ward direction, as petals from the room), Marehand's term for a ovary. group to comprise Myco-, Siphon-, Spring-wood, the wood produced characterized Theca-, and Basidio-myoetes ; early in the year, by Spor'opliore, Sporoph'orum {(popeoi, larger ducts and cells than the later growths. I carry), (1) J the Placenta ; (2) a branch or portion of a thallus which Sprout, a shoot or germinated seed ; ~ sprnuting, bears one or more spores ; (3) in Cell, one produced by Ferns and Mosses, the Sporo- or vegetative growth j ~ Chain, a cells produced ~ PHYTE ; Sporophy'as, A. Braun's chain of so ; - term, the same as Sporophyd'lum Gem'ma, = Chain gemma ; ~ (dimin. of 4>vds, a shoot), T. F. Germina'tlon, the germination of Allen's term for the nucule of a spore in which a small process, Charaoeae while still unfertil- or germ-cell, protrudes from the

ized ; Spor'ophyll, Sporophyl'lum surface, becomes cylindric, and (

sporopliyl'lary ; ~ Leaves, stamens form in which the thallus consists

and pistils ; Spor'ophyte {(pvrov, a, of a sprout-cell or chain. plant), in Ferns and Mosses, the spumes'cent, spumes'etna (spumeus,

plant in the life-cycle of alternation foamy), froth-like in appearance ; which produces spores; Sporosteg'- spu'mose, spumo'sus, frothy. ium (

(Allen) ; Sporota'mimn J (Taiietov, a usually nectariferous, as the calyx storehouse), the cellular layer im- of Larkspur or the corolla of the

mediately beneath the disk of the Violet ; (2) sometimes a solid spur-

shield of a Lichen ; Sporothala'mia like process ; (3) a contracted lat- (flaXa/tos, a bed-chamber), com- eral bearing shoot, sometimes, in pound or branched sporophores, as forestry, with a few foliage leaves

of fruticose Lichens or Agarics (A. in a tuft, and a terminal bud ; (i)

Braun) ; Spor'ozoid (fuox, a living a buttress-like projection of a tree-

creature, elSos, resemblance), a trunk ; (5) see Ergot; fo'llar ~, Zoospore. a short branch, bearing leaves only;

Sport, variation starting from a bud fruit ~ , a short branch which bears or seed. blossom buds, as in the Peach Spor'ula, Spor'ule (dim. of Spora), spurred, calcarate, producing a

(1) a small spore ; (2) a spore pro- spur. 250 -;; ;

spurious Standaxd

spu'rious, spw/ius (Lat. , illegitimate), (Lat., rough, scurfy), rough or

counterfeit, false ; ~ Branch, = scurfy with spreading and out-

PsEUDORAMCLUs ; ~ Dissep'iment, a standing processes, as the tips of

partition in fruit but not from the bracts ; squarro'so-denta'tus, having primary infolding of the margins of teeth which do not lie in the plane

a carpel or upward growth of the of the leaf, but at an angle ; -' torus ~ = squar'rulose, aquarrvlo'sus, ; Fruit Pskudocarp ; diminu- ~ Tis'sue, cell-aggregation of felted tive of squarroae. hyphae in Agarics, or of ooenocytes stag-head'ed, a forester's term for a

in certain Algae ; ~ Whorl, organs tree which ia bare of leaves at the developed at different times, which, top. by some displacement, appear at Stalk, any lengthened support of an the same level. organ, aa the seta of a Moss ; '-' Squa'ma (Lat. , a scale), a scale of any stalked, borne on a stalk ; Gland,

sort, usually the homologue of a a glandular hair ; Stalk'let,

leaf ; ~ fructifera, a seminiferous a secondary petiole, the stalk of

scale ; squama'ceous ( + aceous), leaflets.

scaly ; squa'mate, squama'tus, Sta'men, pi. Sta'mina, or Sta'mens

furnished with scales ; Squama'tlo, (arriiuiiv, a filament), a male sporo- the unnatural formation of rosettes phyll in a flower, one of the of scale-like leaves aa in the Bose- elements of an androecium con-

Willow ; S^uamel'la, diminutive of sisting of anther and filament Squama, a scale of the second ster'ile ~ a body belonging to the order, or reduced in size, as in the series of stamens, but without

disk of Composites ; squamelllf pollen ; stam'inal, stamina'lis, erous, -Its (fero, I bear), scale- stamina'ris, stamln'eal, staminea'lis,

bearing ; squamel'Iiform {forma- relating to stamens, or consisting

shape), shaped like a scale of stamens ; stam'inal Col'umn =

Squamel'lula, (1) a sub-division of Androphorf. ; ~ Leaves, the the pappus-limb in Compositae stamens regarded as metamor-

(2) a, scale-like appendage within phosed leaves ; Stam'inalpode (ttoCs, the tube of certain corollas TToSos, a foot), Goethart's name for squamlf'erous, -rus (fero, I bear), the organs in the androecium of

bearing scales ; squamlflo'rus {fios, Malvaceae which produce the floris, a flower), having a perianth stamens on their margins ; stam'- of scale-like bracts, but not disposed inate, applied to flowers which are

round an axis aa in Coniferae wholly male ; Etamin'eous, -neus squa'miform, aquamiform'is [forma, (Lat., consisting of threads),

shape), soale-like; squamig'erous relating to stamens ; Staminid'imn, - (gero, I bear), scale bearing pi. Staminld'ia = Antheridia ; squa'moid (elSos, resemblance), stajninife'rous, -m,s (fero, I bear),

squamiform (Crozier) ; squa'mose, staminig'erous (gero, I bear), - squamo'sus, squa'mous, scaly or stamen bearing ; Sta'minode, scale-like; ~ Bulb = Scaly Bulb Stamino'dium, (1) a sterile or

(Crozier) ; squa'mulate = squamu- abortive stamen, or its homologue,

; = LOSE (Crozier) Squa'mule, Squam'- without an anther ; (2) vla, the hypogynous scale of Antheridium (Gray's Manual, ed.

grasses, the lodicule ; squa'muli- i., p. xxxvi) ; Stam'inody, the con- form, squamuliform'is (forma, version of other floral organs into

; shape), resembling a small scale ; stamens stam'inose, stamino'sus, squa'mulose, squamulo'sus, beset when the stamens form a marked with small scales. feature of the flower. squar'roBe, squarro'sus, squar'rous Stan'dard, (1) the fifth or posterior 251 ;

stans stellular

petal of a papilionaceous corolla cross, yi/ios, marriage), Delpino'a

(2) a tree or bush with a clear stem. term for cross-fertilization ; adj. stans (Lat., standing), supporting Btaurogam'ic ; Stau'ros, in Diatoms, itself in erect an position. (1) the central nodule of the valve ; Star-rings, small central steles in the (2) a transverse band without

fossil MeduUoseae. markings ; staurophyl'lus {(pi\Kov, Starch, a carbohydrate of the same a leaf), cruciate. percentage composition as cellulose; Ste'aiin {areap, suet), an abundant an amylose which occurs abund- ingredient of animal and vegetable

antly in grains as a reserve fats ; irTTjuis, material Stearop'tene ( + winged

in plants ; ~ Buil'der, a plastid = volatile), a solid crystallizable

which forms the starch-grain ; ~ matter allied to camphor, present Cel'lulose, the framework of starch- in many essential oils. grains, remaining after the soluble Steg'ium {aTeyri, a roof or covering),

parts have been removed ; ~ term proposed by Miers for the

Genera'tors = Leucoplastids ; ~ thread-like appendages sometimes Grain, ~ Gran'ule, a body of de- found covering the style of Ascle-

finite shape, varying according to piads ; Steg'mata, pi. fiat, tabular the plant which produces it, having cells in certain Ferns, etc., contain- the appearance of parallel layers ing a mass of silica in contact with

around a hilum ; ~ Lay'er, a form their inner wall (Mettenius) ; also

of Bundle Sheath, consisting of a termed Covering-plate ; stegocar'- single layer of cells filled with pous {Kapiros, fruit), applied to those

small grains of starch ; ~ Pro- Mosses whose capsules have a dis-

du'cer = Leucoplastid ; ~ Star tinct operculum. of Chara atelUgera, Bauer, stellate ste'lar {(rT-qXii, a pillar), possessing a

nodules or internodes on the roots, stele ; Stele, an axial cylinder of

filled with starch ; ~ Sub'stance, tissue passing from the plerome into A. Meyer's term for the pure- the older tissues, in which the vas-

starch material, apart from any cular tissue is developed ; some- associated or transformed matters times more than one,c/. Poltstblt, which may be also present. ScHizosTBLT ; ste'llc, relating to star'ry, stellate. a stele or its tissues. starved, when a plant or part is less SteUd'ium, pi. Stelid'ia (

denote the retardation especially like form ; ~ Scales, trichomes, of longitudinal growth. discs borne by their edge or centre ; State, the most trivial variation from stelliferus (/ero, I bear), star- the type. bearing ; stelliform'is [forma,

Sta'tion {statio, a standing still), shape), star-shaped ; stellig'eraB botanically means a particular (gero, I bear), star-bearing or pro- locality for a given plant. ducing ; Btella'to-pilo'suB, covered StatoapePmuB ((ttcItos, standing still, with stellate hairs ; stelUner'viuB airepfia, a, seed), when a seed is {nervua, a nerve), star-ribbed, aa straight or erect within the peri- the leaves of Hydroeotyle vulgaris,

carp ; Stat'ospore (airopb., a seed), Linn. ; Stel'lula (Lat., a little star), a resting spore. (1) a whorl of perigonial leaves in Staurogam'ia ((rravpos, a stake or Mosses ; (2) a small rosette ; stel'- 252 ;

stellulate Stigmarhize

lulax, Btel'lulate, stdlula'ttis, di- a flower destitute of pistil, or a minutive of stellate. stamen wanting the anther ; (2) Stelolem'ma (arlikTi, a pillar, Xefifna, used for a male or staminate bark or skin), a sheath of thickened flower ; (3) free from living organ- perideBmic or stelar tissue in an- isms, such as bacteria; ~ Basid'lum, giospermoua petioles (Straaburger). a body in the hymenium of Agarics Stem, the -^ main ascending axis ; like a baaidium, but not producing n^ Bud, the plumule; -clasp'ing, apores, possibly a paraphysis ; ~ amplexicaul ; ~ Leaf, a leaf given Cells, cells of unknown function in off from the stem, as opposed to a the pollen-grains of Gycas and radical leaf; ~ Par'aaite, a parasitic microspores of Isoetes and Selag- plant which lives on the stem of its inella; Steril'ity, Steril'itas (Lat.),

host, aa Loranthaceae ; ~ Ten'dril, barrenness, incapacity of producing

a tendril which ia morphologically seeds ; SterUiza'tion, the act of steri- a. stem structure ; subterra'nean, lizing ; ster'ilize, to make free from ~ , a rhizome ; atem'less, having no living organisms or their germs, visible stem, acaulous ; Stem'let, a Ster'om = Stbrbome (Crozier). small stem, as the plumule. stemotri'bal (a-repvov, the breast, stenocar'pus ((rrivos, narrow, Kapwos, rpL^a, I beat), Delpino's term for

fruit), narrow fruited ; stenopet'al- those flowers whose anthers are so ous (ir^raKov, a flower-leaf), narrow- arranged aa to dust their pollen on

petalled ; stenophyl'lous, -lus the under part of the thorax of {

wall ; (2) the contraction of a IffTrifju, to stop), Morren's term for an arrest of metamorphosis. stephanocar'pns {iTTeavih5Ti$, wreath- SticMd'ium((rnx'5iov, alittle bladder), ing, Kapms, fruit), with fruit ar- (1) in Rhodophyoeae, a special ranged so as to resemble a crown branch of the thalluawith imbedded

Stepbanodopliy'tum {(jivrbv, a tetragonidia ; (2) = Carpoclonium. plant), a plant producing an in- stiohooar'pus, stiohooar'picus [(ttIxos,

ferior achene, as Compositae ; a row, KapTTOs, fruit), when fruit is

Stepha'noum, % a aynonym of diapoaed along a spiral line ; stichus, Cremocakp and Ctpsela. in Greek compounds = row or rank, Ste'reid ((rrepeos, solid), a lignified usually vertical.

cell from the stereome ; Ste'reom or stictopet'alns (o-tiktos, punctured, Ste'reome, the elements of a bundle -ireTaXov, a flower-leaf), when petals which impart strength to it, the are covered with glandular points. fibres, or strengthening tissue Stig'ma, pi. Stig'mata, or Stig'mas generally (Schwendener) ; Ste'reo- {aHyfrn, a point), (1) that part of plasm (jrXiicr/ia, moulded), the solid the pistil or style which receives

part of protoplasm (Naegeli). the pollen ; (2) a, point on the Sterig'ma, pi. Sterig'mata {,(TT-lipi.yim, spores of Equiaetum; (3) a caducous a prop), (1) in Fungi, a stalk from point on the apex of the columella

which a spore is abjointed ; (2) in Mosses ; (4) an old name for

any leafy prolongation or elevated Sterigma ; (5) a coloured spot in

line from the blade of a leaf down unicellular Algae ; ~ Disk, a disk

the stem by deourrence ; (3) forming the stigmatic surface as in

Desvaux's name for Cakcebulb ; Asclepiads ; ~ of Mosses (Hook. Sterig'mum is a synonym of the Muse. ed. 2) the mouth of the

last definition. archegonium ; Stig'marhize (pifo, a gter'Ue, ater'ilis (Lat.), (1) barren, as root), a form of Stigmaria, regarded Stigmarhizome Stipulode

by Renault as a root ; StlgmarM'- Sting'lng-halr = Stino .

zome ( + Rhizomk), Benault'a term Bti'pate {stipatun, surrounded), for a form of Stigmaria which he pressed together, crowded ; Stlpa'-

holds to be a rhizome ; Stlgma'rla, tion, an accumulation in the tissues roots of fossil plants having regular or cavities. dotted or pitted markings ; Stlg- Stipe, Sti'pes {La,t., a stock or trunk), ma'tae, Van Tieghem's term for a support such as (1) the stalk Phanerogams having stigmata which bears ; the pileus of Agarics ; Btigmat'lo, xlUjmat'iciLa, relating to (•2) the " "leafstalk of a Fern ; (.3) tlie stigma ; ~ Cells, of arohegonia, the support of a gynaecium or

= LiD-oBLLS ; ~ Cham'ber, that carpel. part of the rostellum in Orchids Stlperia, Stlpel'lum (dim. of in which the retinaculum is de- Stipula), a minute stipule on a veloped ; ~ Flu'id, ~ Secre'tion, the partial petiole of compound viscid fluid secreted by the stigma leaves ; stip'ellate, stipeila'txis, at maturity, securing the adhesion furnished with Stipellae. of pollen grains and their subse- Stlpel'lua (dim. of Stipes), a quent germination ; Stlgmat'icae, synonym of the Filament of an Knuth's term for wind-fertilized anther. flowers with conspicuous stigmas stiplferus ; % (atipes, a stock, fero, I stigmatiferous (fero, I bear), bear), bearing small flower-stalks,

stigma-bearing ; Btigmatlfonn'ls as the receptacle of some Com- shape), lilte (forma, shaped a posites ; sti'plform, atipiform'is stigma, or having the appearance (forma, shape), having the appear- of one ; stlgrmatol'deus (eMot, re- ance of the trunk of an endogenous semblance), =stigmatiformis; Stlg- tree, as the Papaw ; Btlp'itate, matoph'orus J {

which bears the stigmas ; stlg'- STIPIFORM. matose, stigmato'sus, provided with Btip'tious = STYPTious, astringent. stigmas, or having them conspicu- stlpula'ceouB, -ecus (Stipdla + acetis), ous ; Stigmataste men {

covered with stinging hairs ; Stim'- stipules ; Stip'ulo, Stip'ula (Lat., ulus, the particular active agent stubble), an appendage of a leaf on which produces definite chances in each side of the leaf-insertiou of the organism, as moisture, light, those plants which possess them ; eto. Btipulea'nuB, resulting from the Sting, a hollow hair seated on a gland transformation of a stipule ; Btlp- which secretes an acrid lymph, as ullferoua, -rue (fero, I bear), bear- in nettles. ing stipules ; Stip'ulode, a stipular 254 ;; ;;;

atipnlose Straw

organ of one cell, in one or more to the callus-plates in Algae ; ~ rows subtending the branchlets in of Pol'len, hyaline protoplasmic

Ghara ; stip'alose, stipulo'sus, hav- deposits in pollen-tubes (Degaguy). ing very large stipules. Stop'ples, the projections or lids in pol- stirpa'lls J {stirps, a trunk, a plant), len-grains which fall away to admit

growing upon a stem ; Stirps, pi. of the passage of the pollen-tube. Stir'pes, (1) a race or permanent strag'gling, divaricate. Tariety, as the Red Cabbage ; (2) Stor'ax, = Stybax. formerly equivalent to species. Stra'gulum J (Lat., a covering), the Stock, (1) a synonym of Race; (2) paleae of grasses. the stem which receives the scion straight, in a right line, not curved ~ <- in grafting ; (3) a caudex or ribbed, veined, when the ribs rhizome which emits roots. run in a straight line, as in the

Stole, Sto'lon, Stol'o (Lat., a, shoot), leaves of many Monocotyledons. a sucker, runner, or any basal Strain, (1) in atavism, the influence

branch which is disposed to root of some ancestor ; (2) a, slight stoloniferous -rus (fero, I bear), variety of race. sending out or propagating itself Stra'men (Lat.), straw; straminel'lus

by ; stolon'iform {forma, (N.Lat. ), somewhat straw-coloured shape) Stem, "a slender creep- stramln'eous, -neua, straw-like or ing stem with minute leaves" straw-coloured. (Dixon and Jameson). Strand, a bundle of vascular tissue,

Stom'a, pi. Stom'ata {

municating with internal tissue ; contracted and expanded in an according to Tschiroh of four types irregular manner. angiosper'mal ~, archego'nial, ~ Strap, the ligule of a ray floret in eiso'dial-, and opisthe'lial ~; (2) Compositae (Crozier) ; ~ shaped, the ostiole of certain fungi, cf. ligulate or lorate.

Epiphbagma ; sto'matal, atomat'lc, Stra'ta, pi. {stratum, a layer), layers

pertaining to stomata ; stomat'ic of tissue ; Stratifica'tion Ifacio, I

Cells = Gx7ARD-CBLLS ; stomatifer- make), the successive deposition of ous, -rus {fero, I bear), bearing layers on the cell-wall, and the

stomata ; Stomat'ium = Stoma ; arrangement of the said layers

stom'atose, in Mosses, possessing strat'ified, disposed in layers ; ~

stomata ; Stom'ium, an opening Thal'lUB, a Lichen thaUus in which on the side of Fern-sporangia, the gonidial layer or layers are between the lip-cells, through evident ; stra'tose, in distinct

which dehiscence takes place. layers (Crozier) ; Stra'tum, a layer

Stone, the hard endocarp of a drupe of tissue ; ~ ceUulo'sum, the bark ~ Cells, the individual cells which layer next within the epidermis have become hardened by second- '- cortioa'le, any bast layer ; — ary deposit, the components of gonidia'le, ~ gon'imon, the algal sclerogen; ~ Fruit, a drupe such layer in Lichens ; ~ lig'neum, a, as a plum or peach. layer of wood ; ~ medulla're, the Stool, (1) " plant from which offsets medulla or pith ; ~ sporidiiferum, flesh of Agarics ; ~ sporoph'- or layers are taken ; (2) when the several stems rise from the same ormn, the hymenium of Fungi. root, as in wheat. Straw, the jointed hollow culm of Stop'per, a word applied by Archer grasses. 255 ;; ;

streaming Strycimiu

Stream'ing, the flow of protoplasm, the perithecia are immersed, a com-

as in Myxogastres. pound fungus - body ; stro'matoid Btreptocar'pus ((ttettos, twisted, (eldos, resemblance), having the Kaptrbs, fruit), fruit is when nature or seeming of a, stroma ; marked by spiral stripes. stro'matous, producing stroma Strl'ae, pi. (stria, a furrow), markings (Crozier). on the valves of Diatoms which strombullf^erouB, -rus (strombus, a present the appearance of lines spiral shell, fero, I bear), strom- stri'ate, stria'tus, marked with fine b'ullform, strombuliform'is (forma, longitudinal parallel lines, as shape), when the fruit is spirally

grooves or ridges ; Stria'tion, of twisted ; Strom'bus, a spirally cell-wall, markings believed to be coiled legume, as in Medicago ; due to the manner of formation in strom'bus-sliaped, like a snail-shell. bands by the protoplasm. Strophan'thine, a poisonous alkaloid strict, stric'tus (Lat. , drawn together), from Strophanthus hinpidus, DC. close or narrow and upright, very Stroph'es, pi. (arpo^ri, a turning), straight. any spirals shown in phyllotaxy. Strig'a (Lat., a swathe), "a small Stroph'iole, Stroph'iola (strophiolum, straight hair-like scale " (Henslow). a small chaplet), an appendage to strig'illose (strigilis, a currycomb), = the hilum of some seeds, caruncle ; STBiGOSB (Henslow) ; stri'gose, stroph'iolate, possessing such ap- strigo'aus (Lat., lank, meagre), beset with sharp-pointed appressed Stroph'ism (aTptxjyfi, a turning), a stiff bristles straight and hairs or ; tendency to twist in response to hispid. some external stimulus (Czapek) Stri'olae, pi. (stria, a groove), lines of Strophogen'esis (yheci^, beginning), minute pustules on the outer sur- differentiation of a single original face of cells of Sphagnum (Spruce) generation into the phases regarded stri'olate, finely striate. as alternation of generations (Stras-

strike, to emit roots, as from a burger) ; Strophoma'nia (ftavia, cutting. madness), special torsion, as in the String, any fibre or strand (Crozier). stems of certain monstrosities. striped, marked with longitudinal Struc'ture, Structu'ra (Lat., fitting stripes of colour. together), the peculiar organization

Strob'U = Strobile ; strobila'oeous, of plants, with special modifica-

ceus ((XTpb^iKoi, a cone, + aceua], tions ; adj. struo'tural ; ~ Bot'any, resembling relating to or a cone ; includes Organography, Morpho- Strob'ile, StroVilus ((rrpi/SiXos, a fir- logy, Anatomy, and Histology of cone), (1) an inflorescence largely plants. made up of imbricated scales, as Stru'ma (Lat., a scrofulous tumour), Fir-cone stboei- the Hop or ; (2) cf. a wen or cushion-like swelling on strobillferous, -rns LOID ; (fe.ro, I an organ ; striuulferous (fero, I bear), cone-bearing ; strobili'nus, bear), having a strumous or goitre- ; strobil'iform, strobili- cone-like like swelling ; stru'miform, strumi- form'is (forma, shape), cone- form'is (forma, shape), with the strob'Uoid (elSos, shaped ; resemb- appearance of a wen ; stru'mulose, '- lance), cone-like ; The'cry, the atrumtdo'siis, somewhat strumous,

assumed origin of Pteridophytes, or having a small struma ; stru'- in those forms whose sporophytes mose, strumo'sus, stru'mous, as are the most primitive, as Lycopo- though scrofulous. diwm and Mgidsetum (Bower). Strych'nia, Strych'nin, a powerfully Stro'ma (arpu/ia, a mattress), a poisonous alkaloid from Strychnos cushion-like body, on or in which Nux-vomica, Linn, 2S6 ; ;

study-set Bnbcespitoae

Stud'y-set, the principal Bet of a col- epigynous stamen ; styloste'muB, lector's plants, enriched by notes. hermaphrodite; Styloteg^ium(T^os, stujired, solid, farotate (Crozier). a covering) = Sttlostbgium. Stu'pa or Stup'pa (Lat., the coarse styp'ticus (Lat., from (mnrTiKos), part of flax), a tuft or mass of hair astringent ; usually implies use to or filaments matted together stanch a wound. stu'peous, stu'peus or stuj/petie, Sty'rax, or Stor'ax, (1) a solid resin from Styrax officinale, Linn. (2) woolly ; Btu'pose, stupo'sus, tow- ; like, with tufts of long hairs. at the present day a similar balsa- Btyg'iUB {Styx, Stygis, an infernal mic resin from Liquidamhar sty- river), used of plants which grow raciflua, Linn. in foul waters. Btyrido'phytus (aravpbs, a cross, Bty'lar (stylus, from cttuXos, a column), 01ITOP, a plant), with cruciform relating to the Style, as ^ Brush, petals (Henslow). sweet- the collecting hairs of flowers, cf. Buav'eolent, suai/eolens (Lat. ),

CoiiBCTORS ; -' Canal, the tube or smelling, fragrant. loose tissue through which the BUb (Lat.), under or below, in com- implies an approach pollen-tubes pass ; ^ Col'umn, the pounds usually to the condition designated, some- column of Orchids ; ~ Foot = Stz- (Lat.) = sty- what, or slightly ; suhacau'lis ( -f- LOPODiUM i styla'tus ACAULIS), with the stem hardly Losus ; Style, Sty'lus, (1) the usually ; acute), attenuated part of a pistil or carpel apparent sub'acute ( + somewhat acute ; suhaer'ial (aeriua, between the ovary and the stigma ; airy), situated almost on the ground ~ of Hepaticae, = Inteklobule ; ~ which is covered of Mosses, (1) an old term for the level, as a rhizome with leaves, etc., but above the neck of the arohegonium ; (2) the soil ; subapicula'ris ( -i- apiculabis), ostiole of certain Fungi (Lindley) ; Style-ta'We, used by Haworth for when the stem is prolonged be- the flattened apex of the style in yond an inflorescence without

branch or leaf ; subaplo'ulate, with Asclepiads ; Bty'llform, styliform'ia point ; BUbarbores'- (forma, shape), style - shaped, an ill-defined ( abborescent), with a drawn out; styUferous (fero, I cent -I- tendency to become somewhat bear), bearing a style ; styli'nus (Lat.), belonging to the style; Sty- tree - like ; Bubarchespor'ial ( -f- Ub'cub = STTriAB Canal; Btylo'- ABCHESPOEIAL) Pad, Bower's term deuB (Lat.), furnished with a style; for a cushion-like group of cells Stylogonid'ium (+ Gonidium), a below the archesporium in Lyco- ( axile), gonidium formed by abstriction podium ; Bubax'ile -I- subaxil'lary, from special hyphae in such Fungi nearly axile ; below ; Bubbiator'ijie biato- as Aecidiomycetes and Basidiomy- the axil ( + as in the Lichen cetes, that is, uredo-, teleuto-, and bine), somewhat Biatora ; Bubbilocula'ris baaidio-spores ; Sty'lopod, Stylo- genus ( + partitions pod'ium (ttoCs, TroSis, a foot), the EiLOCOLABis), with enlargement at the base of the which do not quite join, but leave

a small interval ; subbys'soid ( + styles in Umbelliferae ; sty'lose, stylo'sus, having styles of a remark- byssoid), somewhat cobwebby BubbifIdo - rum'pens (+ bim- able length or persistence ; Sty'lo- t " bursting into somewhat Bpore (a-iropi., a seed), a spore borne DUS), two divisions " (Lindley) ; BUb- on a filament ; adj. styloapo'rouB ; caulescent), with Stylosteg'ium ((rriyii, a roof), a cauleB'oent (+ peculiar hood surrounding the a very short stem, a trifle more developed than aoaulescent ; sub- style, as in Asclepiads ; Styloste'- ces'pitOBe (+ caespitose), some- mon X ((rTi)iJ,wv, a filament), an 257 ;; ;;

Subclass Bubpedimculate

what tufted (Crozier) ; SuVclaas geniculate), slightly bent or (+ Class), a group of Orders or kneed; Subgen'us {+ Genus), a Cohorta next in rank to a Claaa, group, ranking as a section, or or intermediate between Class and possibly a true genus held doubt-

Cohort; subconcat'enate (+ con- ful ; subglobose' ( -I- globose),

catenate), growing in imperfect nearly globular ; subgluma'ceous

chains or connections ; subcon'ical (+ glumaceous), somewhat glu-

( + CONICAL), slightly conical maceous ; subhyme'nial ( + hy- subcontin'uous (continuua, un- mbnial), below the hymenium broken), rarely or imperfectly -" La/er or Subbyme'mum, =

septate (Crozier) ; BUbcon'volute, Htpothbcium.

subconvolu'tus ( + convolutb), Subic'ulum (Lat., an underlayer), a

partially convolute ; suboor'date felted orbyssoidstratum of hyphae,

\+ cordate); aubcordifor'niis ( + bearing perithecia. cobdiform), somewhat heart- subim'bricate, avhimhrica'tua (mib,

shaped ; subcre'nate ( -i- crbnate), somewhat, + imbricate), some-

obscurely crenate ; subcul'trate ( -f what overlapping ; subinsip'ldua CULTRATe), slightly oultrate ; sub- (insipidus, tasteless), almost devoid

den'tate (-(- dentate), imperfectly of flavou : subja'cent {jacens,

; dentate Bubdentic'ulate ( + denti- lying), lying just below (Dixon &

octlate), with small or imperfect Jameson) ; Subking'dom, the main

marginal teeth ; subdlfform'ls ( + division of a kingdom, a primary DiFFORMis), having some amount botanic division, as Phanerogams

of irregularity ; sub'effUse ( + and Cryptogams.

BFP0SE), slightly spreading ; sub'- subla'tus (Lat., lifted up), when the entire (+ entire), having very ovary has a support, real or ap-

slight marginal incisions ; subepi- parent.

derm'al (+ epidermal), below sublentic'ular (stub, somewhat, -f

the epidermis ; ~ Tis'sue, = Ht- LENTicuLAB), more or less doubly

PODBRMA. convex ; sublit'toral ( + littoral), Su'ber (Lat., the cork-oak), cork or employed' by H. C. Watson for

phellogen ; suber'eous, = suberose ; those plants which have a tendency Suberiflca'tion (/acio, I make), or to grow near the sea, but not Suberiza'tion, conversion into actually shore-plants; submayginal

cork, cutinization ; su'berized, con- ( -1- marginal), near the margin. verted into cork ; '- Mem'brane, submerged', submersed', svimier'sus with cell-walls turned into cork (Lat., dipped or plunged under),

Su'beriB, the substance of cork, growing under water ; submersib'l- nearly the same as cutin; su'berose, 11s, capable of existing when sub- eubero'sus, su'berous, corky in tex- mersed. ture. subnas'cent (suhtiascor, I grow up sub'erect, suherecfus (saJ, somewhat, under), growing or arising from + ERECT), nearly erect, but nod- below some object,

(Babington) ; sube- ding at the top subni'ger (sm6, somewhat, -I- niger),

rose' {+ BROSB), alightly gnawed = nigricans ; sub'nude (nudus, in appearance. naked),nearly destitute of covering, Sub'ex (Lat., aupport, underlayer), as leaves or hairs ; sub'obtuse ( -l- that part of the axis which bears obtusb), slightly obtuse or blunt oataphyllary leaves (Kerner). suborbic'ular ( + orbicular), nearly below), a Subfam'ily [sub, Suborder circular ; Subor'der, Subor'do, a or group of genera within an group of genera lower than an ; subflez'uose flexuose), Order ( + order ; subo'vate ( -I- ovate), some- ; subgenic'ulate somewhat wavy ( + what ovate ; subpedunc'ulate ( -|- 258 ; ;

Bubpetiolar SucclnoBlB

PBDnNCULATE), supported on a very subtend' {subtendo, I stretch under-

short stem ; sul)pet'iolax, subpeiio- neath), to extend under, or be

la'ris, subpet'iolate (+ pbtiolate), opposite to ; subten'ding Leaf, that under the petioles, as the buds of leaf whose axil gives rise to a Platanus ; subperiphaer'icus (+ bud or peduncle. PEEiPHEBic), nearly peripheric, Bubterete' {sub, somewhat, + terete),

used of an embryo, ; such as in somewhat terete BUbtrop'lo ( + Atriphx[^.Y.GT3,y); subramea'lis tropic), applied to half-hardy

( + rambal), growing on a branch plants which in temperate climates

below a leaf ; subra'moae, auh- can thrive in summer only. ramo'sus, subra'mous (+ ramose), BUbterra'neous, svbterra'neus (Lat.), (1) having a slight tendency to underground.

branch ; (2) with few branches ; Sub'tribe (sub, under, + Tribb), a

subrig'ia ( + rigid), slightly rigid division between a tribe and a subro'aeus (+ rosbus), somewhat genus.

rose-coloured, pinkish ; subrotund' Su bula (Lat. , a small weapon), a

( + ROTirND), roundish ; subscypli'i- fine sharp point ; Su'bule, Duval- form (+ scyphiform), somewhat Jouve'a term for the terminal,

boat-shaped ; Subsec'tion ( + Sec- non-twisted portion of the awn

tion), the division of a genus of grasses ; su'bulate, sviula'tus,

below a section, a small section ; awl-shaped; Su'buli, pi., "the Bubser'rate, suhnerra'tiis (+ ser- aoiculae or sharp processes formed

rate), vaguely serrate ; Bubses'sUe by some Fungals " (Lindley) ; (-1- sessile), nearly sessile, almost su'bulifer, subuUferous {/ero, I

devoid of a stalk ; Sub'sbrub, an bear), bearing sharp points ; su'buU- under-shrub, or small shrub which form, subuli/orm'is {forma, shape), may have partially herbaceous awl-shaped.

stems. Bubum'bellate {sub, somewhat, -I- um- Subsid'iary (subaidiarius, serving for bellate), somewhat umbellate, as support) Cells, certain epidermal the inflorescence of some Rosaoeae. cells which are less thickened or Subvari'ety, Subvari'etas {sub, under, situated lower than the guard- + Variety), a trifling variety or cells which they surround (Stras- form.

burger). Bubven'tricose {sub, somewhat, -t- Bubsim'ple (svh, somewhat, -f simple), ventricose), somewhat inflated

with few divisions ; Subspe'cies, a Bubvertic'iUate (-i- vekticillate), group of forms ambiguous in rank, in imperfect or irregular whorls. between a, variety and a species, Succeda'neum {succedaneus, substi- marked by asterisk,* tuted), a substitute. usually an ; Subspor'al (mropa, a seed) Cells, Succes'sive {succesaiims, following) applied to certain colourless cells Whorl, one whose members did in I'ithophora, found in spore- not originate simultaneously, but bearing individuals (Wittrock). in succession. Sub'stitute (aubstitutus, put in place sucoiferous {succus, sap, fero, I bear), of) Fi'bres, like libriform fibres, producing or conveying sap.

but a much reduced form of pro- suoeinc'tuB ( Lat. , ready ) = circina- seuchyma, the " Ersatzfasern " of tus. Sanio. BUGcin'euB or sucin'eus (Lat., of

Substomat'ic {sub, below, -f stomatic) amber), amber-coloured ; Suc'cinite, Cbam'ber, = Stomatic Chamber. the commonest and best known Bubstra'tose (sm6, somewhat, + form of amber, resin exuded by stratified, stratose), somewhat or Pinus succinifera, Goepp., J ; Suc- in layers. cino'siB, Conwentz's term for an 259 , ; ;

succise Superflcles

of certain abnormal occurrenoe of resin in valves ; (2) lamellae fossil amber-trees. Fungi (Lindley); Bul'ciform (/orma, Bucclse', aucci'sus (Lat., cut off), as if shape) = stiLCATE. abruptly cut or broken oflf at the Bulfu'reous, etc., see situhure- lower end. ous, etc. suc'cose, succo'aus (Lat., juicy), suc- Sulphotaoter'ia (sulphur, brimstone culent, sappy. -f Bacteria), those microbes which its Buc'cubouB, -bus (Lat., lying under), reduce sulphur out of solutions ; sul'phur-col'oured, = the oblique insertion of distichous sulphureus ; leaves of Hepatioae, bo that the •~Rain, pollen from pines brought upper overlaps the lower on the by currents of air ; Sulphurar'ia, dorsal side of the stem, as in Planchard's name for Algae which Plagiochila. reduce sulphates from waters con-

Buc'culent, sitcciden'tus (Lat., sappy), taining those salts ; sulphurel'lus,

juicy. slightly sulphur-coloured ; BUlphu'- Suc'cuB (Lat., sap), any juice which reous, -rev^, the colour of brim- can be expressed from a plant. stone, a very pale yellow Suc'ker, (1) a shoot of subterranean BulphureB'cens, becoming sulphur- , some- coloured sulphurl'nuB, origin ; (2) an ; sulphury times restricted to the penetrating in tint. organ or papilla. Smn'mer-spore, any spore which Su'crase (Fr., Sucre, sugar, + ase), = germinates quickly, and retains

Invbetask ; Su'crose ( + ose), a its vitality a short time only, as group of sugars, such as cane- conidia and uredospores, in con- sugar and maltose, trast to winter- or resting-spores. suffrutes'cent, suffrutea'cens {sub, Sum'mit, used by Grew and his suc- somewhat, frutex, a shrub), ob- cessors for Anther.

scurely shrubby ; Suffru'tex, an Sun-plants, plants which prefer full

undershnib ; suffru'tlcose, suffru- sun-light ; their stems are often tico'avs, sufiintic'ulose, somewhat short, the leaves have the palisade shrubby. cells well developed (Willis).

BufFul'tus, (1) supported or propped ; sup'er (Lat. ), above ; often modified

(2) Suflul'tua, a plate or disc form- into supra- ; superagrar'ian ( +

ing the basis of a bulb ; when much agrarian), a name applied to a lengthened gives rise to the term zone which includes the region of Btdbus sufultua (Endlicher). vegetation in Great Britain above

Su'gar, a group of sweet, crystalline the limits of cultivation ; super- substances and soluble in water arc'tic, those plants which are

(sucroses and ) ; Beet ~ confined to the highest zone in extracted from specially selected Great Britain, the most alpine of

strains of Beta vulgaris, Linn.; the flora in our islands ; super- Cane ~', or saccharose, from Sac- axil'lary, superaxilla'ris {+ axil- "• charum officinarum, Linn. ; Fruit lary), growing above an axil

= Laevulose ; Grape ~ = Glu- supercompos'itus = supracompos-

cose or Dextrose ; Inver'ted ~ ITUS ; Supercres'cence {cresco, I

occurs in some ripe fruits and grow), a parasite (Crozier) ; super- honeydew; Ma'ple ~, from Acer cres'cent, growing above or on — saccharinum, Wangenh. ; Palm another body ; Buperdecom'pound species of Arenga, etc. = from suPRADBCOMPOtJND ; Superfe- sul'cate, sulca'tus (Lat., furrowed), cunda'tion (-h Fecundation), the grooved or furrowed. union of more than two gametes. Sul'ci, pi. of Sul'cuB, (1) small grooves Superflc'ies (Lat., the surface), or FossuLAB in some Diatom Cor'poris, ~ Placenta'ris, "the 260 . ; ;;

superflolarius sutural

" hymenium of certain Fungals back), prostrate, with face turned (Lindley). upward. superflciar'ius (Lat., on another's Suppor'tlng (svpporto, I carry or land), on the surface of an organ. bring up) Plant, a plant upon or

Super'flua, pi. of Super'fluum {super- in which another grows ; a host flnus, overflowing), aLinnean order plant (Crozier). of Syngenesia (Compositae) con- Suppres'sion (suppressio, a keeping taining plants with the florets of back), complete abortion. the disk hermaphrodite, and those supra = above, in compounds from of the ray female. Latin ; supra-axU'lary ( + axil- Superfoeta'tion {super, above, + lary), growing above an axil ; sup- FoetatioB), the fertilization of aa raoom'poslte, supracompos'itiis, sup- ovary by more than one kind of radecompos'itus {compositus, com-

pollen ; superfoUa'oeous = supba- posed), excessively subdivided

FoijACEOus ; superfo'lius = supra- suprafolia'ceous, -ceus ( + folia- FOLinS. CEOUS), inserted above the petiole,

super'lor (Lat. , higher), (1) growing growing above a leaf ; suprafo'lius or placed above ; (2) also in a {folium, a leaf), growing on a leaf lateral flower on the side next the Bupraterra'neous, used by Spruce

axis : the posterior or upper lip of as the opposite of subterraneous,

a corolla is the superior ; ~ O'vary, as ~ Perianth;c/. Spruce,Cephalozia, when all the floral envelopes are p. 92. inserted below it, on the torus supreme' {supremus, highest), as the cf. HALF-SUPERIOE. top or highest point. supema'tant {supematans, swimming surculig'erous, -rus {surculus, a young above), floating on the surface. branch, ge,ro, I bear), bearing supemu'merary (sup&rnumerarius, suckers ; aur'culose, ^urcvlo'svs,

; ~ over and above), additional producing suckers ; Sur'culus, (1) a Buds, are either adventitious '-, sucker, a shoot rising from an or POSTVENTITIOUS — underground base, as from the Superpar'aslte (super, above, + root ; (2) the leafy stem of Bryo-

Parasite), a parasite of a parasite ; phytes and Lycopods (Bischoff) Su'per-plant, a plant which grows Sur'oulum is used by J. Smith for upon another, either as an epiphyte the rhizome of a Fern. or parasite. surcur'rent (Fr., sur = upon, + cur- superpo'sed, superpos'itus (Lat., rent = running), having winged placed over), vertically over some expansions from the base of the

other part ; Superposit'ion, placed leaf prolonged up the stem. vertically, or in parts of the flower, SurTace-yeast, the same as HiOH- opposite. yeast. Supertubera'tion (av/per, above, + Sur'foyl, Grew's word for outer scales. Tuber), the production of second- sur'sum (Lat., upwards), directed

ary tubers upon the normal primary upward and forward ; ~ hamulo'-

tubers ; Superspe'cles ( + Species), BOs, bordered with hooks pointing a group of sub-species or new to the apex.

species regarded as an entity. Buspend'ed, suspen'sns (Lat. , hung up), aupervac'uus (Lat.), redundant. banging directly downward, or supervolute', supervolu'tus, rolled from the apex of a cell ; SuEpen'sor over, when applied to plants, the (1) of the embryo, a thread of

same as convolute ; supervolu'tive, cells at the extremity of a developed convolute aestiva- supervoluti'w^, embryo ; (2) the cell which supports tion. the conjugating cell in Muoorini. supine', supi'nus (Lat., lying on the Bu'tural, sutura'lia {sutura, a, seam), 261 ; ;

Sntnre sympliixintlierons

relating to a suture; Su'ture, (1) lives in a state of Symbiosis ; Sym'blont (SymWo'tes, of Tubeuf), a junction or seam of union ; (2) an individual existing in SymWo'- a line of opening or dehiscence ; STitara'rluB, possessing !> suture. sis, the living together of dissimilar Swarm, a number of spores or organisms, with benefit to one only, unicellular Algae of similar origin, or to both ; also styled commen- which remain in company without saUsm, consortism, individualism, , nutricism, prototrophy being united ; cf, Adblphotaxt ; '- '~ Cell, ^ Spore, a motile naked and syntrophism ; antagonls'tic struggle between two protoplasmic body, a zoospore ; is a the

Swanu'ers, zoospores ; swarm'ing, organisms ; conjunc'tlve ^ where the moving by means of cilia, applied symbionts are intimately blended to zoospores. so as to form an apparently single swtm'ming, used vaguely for aquatics body ; contin'gent ~ , when one lives interior of another which float or have floating leaves ; plant in the also restricted to those wholly for shelter, noo parasitism, in Grerm.

immersed and free ; ~ Appara'tus, Baumparasitismus ; disjunc'tive ~ in Azolla, three apical episporic when the association is only tem- ~ spongy masses of tissue, surround- porary (Frank) ; mntoalls'tlc

ing a central conical body with an when of reciprocal advantage ; sym-

array of fine filaments (Campbell). hio'tic, relating to symbiosis ; ~ Switch-plants, plants whose leaves Sap'ropbytism, the condition of a are wanting or redaced, with green higher plant as a Phanerogam, shoots acting in place of leaves. in symbiosis with a Fungus sword-sliaped, ensiform. (Macdougal). syclmocar'pous, -pus (ffvxfos, frequent, symmetran'thUB {irv/i/xeTpta, propor- Kapwos, fruit), able to produce fruit tion, avflos, a flower), when a many times without perishing, as perianth is divisible into equal

trees and herbaceous perennials. parts by several planes of division ; Sy'oon=Sycon'ium, or Sy'conus {(tvkov, symmet'ric, symmet'rical, (1) act-

fruit of the fig-tree), a multiple inomorphic ; (2) similar in the hollow fruit, as that of the fig. number of members in calyx, Syco'sis ((riKaais), a skin disease corolla, and androecium; sym- ascribed to species of Microsporon. metricaypus {KapTros, fruit), a fruit SygoUi'phytum, error (?) for Syncolli- which is symmetric, as first de-

pb'ytmu {(T&yKoWo!, glued together, fined ; Sym'metry, Symmetfria, cap- tpvTov, a plant), a plant in which able of division into similar halves. the perianth becomes combined Sym'patby {ffviiwdBeia, fellow-feeling), with the pericarp. (1) the faculty of ready union in

Syl'va, or Sil'va (Lat., a wood), grafting ; (2) readiness to hybridize,

applied to an account of the trees or receive foreign pollen ; adj.

of a district, or a discourse on trees ; Bympathefic.

syl'van, relating to woods ; sylvat'- Sym'pedae, pi. (o-iV, with, ir4dri, a Icoa or silvat'icua, growing amongst fetter), applied by O. Mueller to

trees ; sylves'tral, used by H. C. those Diatoms having superficial

Watson for plants which grow in symmetry ; Sympet'alae, (x^aXw,

woods and shady places ; sylves'tris a flower leaf) = Gamopetalab ; or s^ves'tris, growing in woods sympetal'icus, t the cohesion of the Bylves'trine (Crozier), growing in stamens to the petals, as in Malva woods; Syl'viila, (1) a plantation; sympefalous, -lus, with united (2) a small Sylva. petals, gamopetalous. sym, a modification of syn (ow), with Bymphian'tlierons,-r'u«((n'/(^v'(i), Icause Sym'bion (jSios, life), an organ which to grow together, afffijpos, flowery), 262 ,; ;;

symphicarpous syncotTledonouB

a synonym of Synantherua and male flower in certain Aroideae Syngenesiu8(HeDslow);syinpMoar'- Synan'dry, Morren's term where pous (Kapiris, fruit), with confluent stamens normally separated are

fruits; sympliiogeiiet'ic (yepos, a soldered or united ; Synan'gia, pi. race), formed by union of previously of Synan'gium (iyyctov, a vessel),

separate elements ; symphyan'tlie- an aggregated exaunulate Fern

rouB t = symphiantherous ; Sym- sporangium forming a series of phyllo'dium ((piXKov, aleaf), theoom- locuh, as in Marattia (J. Smith)

bined ovuliferoua scales in the adj. synan'giaJ ; synanthe'ricus flower of certain Coniferae (Warm- (avBiipos, flowery), the growing ing) symphyl'lous, of in ; gamophyllous ; together anthers, as Com-

symphyogenet'ic = symphiogenetic posites, syngenesious ; Synan'- symphyoste'mouous (aTTjiJMv, a therae, a name for Compositae stamen), having the stamens united. adj. synan'therous ; Synantherol'- Sym'phyais (aiiupxins, growing to- ogist (X670S, discourse), an expert in gether), (1) coalescence ; (2) fusion the study of Compositae ; Synan- of parts (Bessey) ; Symphys'ia is a the'rus, a flower with coalesced

synonym. anthers ; Synanthe'sis {av8ri(ris, symphyste'monous = symphyoste- flowering), simultaneous anthesis, mbnous. stamens and pistils ripe at the symphytan'therus = symphianther- same time, synacmy; Synantlio'dy U3. (elSos, resemblance), the lateral symphytogfynus (cnJ/i^uTos, innate, adhesion of two flower-buds on the yvvri, a woman), the calyx and same stalk, or on two peduncles

pistil more or less adherent, the which have become fasciated ; Syn-

ovary being inferior ; symphyt'ic, an'thy {dv8os, a flower), Morren's formed by fusion of several nuclei, term for the adhesion of two or

as a gameto-nueleus (oogamete) of more flowers ; adj. synan'tMc, ayn- Peronoaporeae or (isogamete) of an'thous; Synantbzophy'tiun [aiv,

Dasycladus (Hartog) ; symphy- with, i.Bp6os, crowded, tf>uTov, a tothe'lus (BTJKri, a nipple) = stm- plant), a plant whose fruit is com-

PHYTOGYNUS. pounded of many carpels ; the word Sym'plast((ri>j', with, jrXao-TAs, formed), as cited by Henslow, seems to be an assemblage of energids, as in an error for Necker's group Syn-

Canlerpa prolifera, Lamour. ; Sym- athrophytum; Sjmau'tlirose, a sugar plo'cium, or Symplo'Mum (7r\e/cw, I found in the roots and tubercles of plait), old names for the sporangium certain Compositae.

of a Fern ; Sym'pode, Sympod'ium Synap'sis [avvivTw, I join), the con- (ttoOs, iroSos, a foot), a stem made densation of the nuclear filament up of a series of superposed to one side of the nucleus previous branches, so as to imitate a simple to heterotypic mitosis.

axis ; adj . sympod'ial ; ~ Dichot'omy Symap'tase (avvaTrrbs, joined), the where at each forking, one branch same substance as Emulsin. continues to develop and the other Synannoph'ytus {avpapfwahj conjunc- aborts. tion, vTiv, a plant), gynandrous. syn ((rim, with), adhesion or growing Syu'carp, Syncar'pium {

together ; cf. SYM ; synac'mic KapTrbs, fruit), a multiple or fleshy (i-K/iTl, a point = prime of life), aggregate fruit, as the mulberry,

adj. of Synac'my, the stamens and or ; syncar'pous, -pus, pistils mature together, being the composed of two or more united

opposite of Hbteracmy; Synan'- carpels ; Syncaypy, the accidental

drimn (dvijp, dvSpos, a man), the adhesion of several fruits ; syn- cohesion of the anthers of each cotyle'donous, -neua( + Cottlbdon), 263 ;,; ;

Syncyte systematic

with coalesced cotyledons; Syn'cyte, Synop'sls {irivo\j/i.s, a glance), a con- Syncyt'ium, (kvtU, a small box), a densed description of a genus or structure derived from the more or other group of plants. less complete absorption of the cell- synpet'alous (civ, with, Tr^raXoi', a walls, which places their lumina in flower leaf), = gamopetalous ; direct contact. synorhi'zus {/i(fa, a root), having a syned'ral, syned'rous, -dnia (aiveSpos, radicle whose point is united to -Ins of the same seat), growing on the the albumen ; synsep'alous, angles. (+ Sepalum), gamosepalous, the Syne'ma ((riiv, with, vfiiw,, a thread), sepals coalescent ; synsper'mous, Synsper'my {(nrep/ia, a seed), ( 1 ) the column of monadelpbous sta- adj. of of several seeds ; syn- mens, as in Malvaceae ; (2) % that the union part of the column of an Orchid spor'ous ((TTTopct, a seed), "pro- which represents the filament of pagating by conjugations of cells,

; syn- the stamens (Lindley) ; Syner'gids, as in Algae " (Stormonth) Syner'gidae {(rvvep-yo^, an assistant), stigmat'icus (iTTlyna, a point), when the two nuclei of the upper end a pollen-mass is furnished with a of the embryo sac, which with the retinaculum by which it adheres to third (the oosphere) constitute the the stigma, as in Orchids. egg-apparatus. syntac'tic (awTaKTiKhs, putting to- Syn'gamete (c^dv, with, + Gamete), gether), used of irregularity which C. Macmillan's expression for the is zygomorphic (Pax). cell which arises from the fusion Syntag'ina, pi. Syntag'mata ((rvv,

of two gametes ; cf. Oosperm, with, Tay/ia, an array), Pfeffer's Zygote; Syngenes'ia {y^nens, be- term for bodies built up of Tag- finning), a Linnean class, with mata, themselves aggregations of owers having united anthers, MoLBCULBS ; syntep'alous ( + Tep-

Oompositae ; syngenes'ious = syn- alum), the united ; syntro- 'lous, syngeneafvs, (1) with ph'icus (rpoipii, food), epiphytic

anthers cohering in a ring ; (2) Syntroph'ism and Syntroph'y, the belonging to the order Oompositae antagonistic symbiosis of Lichen

' Syn'grammae {ypanim, an outline). with Lichen ; Sya'trophs, ' Lodgers" Diatoms with linear symmetry (0. in Lichens ; Synzyg'ia J {^vyds, a, Mueller) ; Synchor'iou J (xipi-ov, yolie), the point of contact of op- foetal membrane), Mirbel's name posite cotyledons.

for CARCBRUliE ; Bynooh'reate ( + Sy'phon, = Siphon. OcEBA), having opposite united Syring^'in, a substance occurring in stipules which enclose the stem in Syringa, the Lilac; Byringi'nuB,

a sheath ; synoe'clous ( oIkos, a house) lilac-coloured, a light purple. having antheridia and archegonia in SyTingoden'dron, used by palaeo-

one inflorescence ; bryologists seem botanists for old or partially de-

to prefer the form synoi'cous. corticated sigillarian stems ; the Syn'onym {a-wuvv/xos, having the same name was formerly generic. name), a superseded or unused Systellopliy'tiun (avariWa, I wrap

name ; Synon'ymy, all that relates closely, tftvTbv, a plant), when a to synonyms. persistent calyx appears to form Bynopli'tliy, the corrected abbrevia- part of the fruit. " tion of " Synophthal'my {

with, icpBakiih, an eye), see next scheme of classiflcation ; syste- —Moquin-Tandon's term for adhe- matic, systemat'iciis, relating to

sion of (1) embryos ; (2) buds ; Syn- system ; ~ Bot'any, the study of

oph'ty (deriv., see last) ; SynopU'yty plants in their mutual relationships (Crozier), = Synophthy. and taxonomic arrangement. 264 ; ;

Systole Tarazacine

Syst'ole (crva-ToX^, a contraction), the from the looulus, which part is des- contraction of the contractile titute of pollen-grains. vesicles in certain Algae, plasmodia, Tala'ra X {talaria, the winged shoes and zoospores. of Mercury), the wing or ala of a Syst'roplie {rj, rolling up), when papilionaceous corolla.

strong light causes chlorophyll Ta'lea (Lat. ), a cutting, a small branch grains to congregate into a few for propagating.

masses (A. F. W. Schimper) ; adj. tall, exceeding the normal height. 8ystropli'ic,as~ln'terval, orSystro- tangen'tlal {tangens, touching), at ph'ion, thatportion of the Photkum right angles to the radial or med- in which systrophe can take place ullary rays. (S. Moore). Tan'ghln, the poison occurring in the systyl'ius {a-in, with, o-tuXos, a ordeal poison plant of Madagascar, column), the lid fixed to the Gerbera Tanghin, Hook. columella in Mosses, and elevated Tan'gle, the same as Skein (Crozier). above the capsule it when dries ; tan'kard-sbaped, thickened and systy'lus, when styles coalesce into gradually enlarged downward, then one body, as in Bosa systyla, Bast. suddenly contracted or ended, as some varieties of turnip (Crozier). tabaci'nus, pale brown, " tobacco- Tan'nin or Tan'me Ac'id, an important coloured ; " the name is from Nico- group of astringents, especially tiana Tabacum, Linn. abundant in some barks, as that of

Tabasheer', a, siliceous concretion the oak ; Tan'nln-aaes, ~ -ve'sicles, occurring in the joints of . strongly refractive globular bodies Ta'bes (Lat., a wasting away), a in cells, which contain tannin. disease, the loss of the power of Tap-root, the primary descending growth and consequent wasting root, forming a direct continuation

away ; tabes'cent, tabe^ceiis, wast- from the radicle ; tap-root'ed, ing or shrivelling. possessed of a tap-root. Tab'let [tabula, a board or plank), ta'per, cylindric but angular, and (1) the frustule of Diatoms when gradually diminishing towards the - quadrangular ; (2) the rectangular end ; point'ed, acuminate, as the

colony of Oonium ; Tab'ula, the leaf of Salix alba, Linn. ; ta'pering,

pileus of certain Fungi ; tab'ular, regularly diminishing in diameter. tabida'ris, flattened horizontally Tape'slum (Tiir-qs, a carpet), dense ~ Koots, buttress-like roots of and wefted superficial mycelium, certain tropical trees (Kemer). having ascophores seated on it tabula'tus,J(Lat., boarded or floored), tape'tal, relating to the ; layer on layer. ~ Cell, cell of a tapetum ; '- Lay'er taenia'nus J {taenia, a band), long, = Tapetum ; Tapete', a suggested cylindric and contracted in various emendation of Tape'tum, a mem-

places J taeniop'teroid, in fossil brane of granular cells investing botany, resembling the genus the sporogenous cells in the arche- Taeniopteris. sporium, absorbed as the spores Ta^ma, pi. Tag'mata (riyim, an mature. array), Pfeffer's term JEor all ag- Taphrencb'yma {rd^pos, a ditch,

gregations of molecules ; tagmat'lc lyxv/m, an infusion), = Both- Com'plex, a higher molecular RENCHTMA. system. Taplo'ca, prepared starch of the roots Tail, any long and slender prolonga- of several species of Manihot.

'-' tion ; point'ed, excessively acu- Tarax'acine, a bitter crystalline

minate, caudate ; tailed, said of principle found in dandelion, anthers which have a prolongation , Weber. 265 ;

tartareoua tephms

tartar'eouB, -ius (Mid. Lat., ta/r- Teleutoconid'ium = Teleutogonid'iiim trum, wine tartar), having a rough {reXevrii, an end, + Goniditjm), crumbling surface, like some = TELEtriospoKE ; Teleu'tospore Lichens. ((TTopd, a seed), a resting bilocular taw'ny, fulvous, a dull brownish- spore of Uredineae on germination yellow. producing a promycelium. taziform'is {taxus, the yew, forma, Telog'amae (reXos, an end, yifuis, shape), arranged distichously like marriage), Ardissone's term for

the leaves of yew. Florideae ; Telogonid'ium ( -t- 60NI- tajdnom'io = taxokomic. dium), a gonidium arising from Tax'is (rdfis, order), used by Czapek successive generations in the same

to express reaction of free organ- cell (A. Braun) ; Tel'ophase {(piais, isms in response to external an appearance), the last phase of

stimuli by movement ; Taxit'ery nuclear division. {ripas, a monster), a modification Tem'peratures, the sum of, used to which is so slight as to admit of mark a given period in the life-cycle comparison with the normal formj; of a plant. Taxol'ogy (X670S, discourse) or temulen'tous {temulentiis, drunken), 'omy (vbiios, law), classifica- nodding in a jerky irregular

tion ; Taxono'mist, one skilled in manner, cf. nutans (Heinig).

classification ; adj. taxonom'ic. Tem'uUn, an active principle occurring Tear, a drop of gum or resin in its in Lolium teimdentum, Linn.

native state ; tear-shaped, like the Tenac'ultuu, pi. Tenac'ula (Lat., a pip of an apple, lachrymiform. holder), haptera or holdjfasts of

Teeth, (1) any small marginal lobes; Algae ; adj. tenac'ular. (2) in Mosses, the divisions of the Ten'dril, a filiform production, cauline peristome. or foliar, by which a plant may Teg'men (Lat., a covering), (1) the secure itself in its position. inner coat of a seed, previously Ten'sion (iensio, a stretching), due to

the secundine of an ovule ; (2) J turgidity in cells, and manifested the glume of a grass pi. Tegmen'- by movements of parts. ; ^ ta, the scales of a leaf-bud ; Ten'taole {tentacuium, Mod. Lat., a folia'cea, fvlcra'cea, petiola'cea, feeler), a sensitive glandular hair, stipvZa'cea, modifications of leaves, as those on the leaf of Drosera stipules and petioles, petioles and Tentao'uloid (eXSoi, resemblance),

stipules only (Lindley) ; tegmina'- applied to long processes which tus (Lat.), when the nucellus is pass through mammiform protuber- invested by a covering. ances of the perigloea of Diatoms tegTunent'ary [tegumen, a cover), re- (BuflPham).

lating to some covering ; Tegfu- tenuifo'lious -lius (folium, a leaf), mea'tum, (1) the indusium of a thin or fine-leaved; Tenuinucel-

Fern ; (2) the spermoderm. la'tae (tenuis, narrow, + Nucbllds),

Te'la (Lat. , a web), elementary tissue, Van Tieghem's term for those plants

as meristem ; <^ contez'ta, a weft with true seeds, in which the

of distinct hyphae, felted tissue ; nucellus is reduced to a layer of Ger. "Filzgewebe." cells or wholly absorbed by the teleian'thus (reXeios, perfect, dv$os, a endosperm ; ten'uis (Lat.), thin. flower), hermaphrodite. Tep'al, Tap'alum (anagram of petoZawi), Teleol'ogy (reXeos, gen. of tAos, com- a division of the perianth, sepal or

pletion, XA70S, discourse), the petal ; restricted by H. 6. Reichen- doctrine of final causes, or theory bach to the two unchanged petals

of tendency to an end ; adj. of Orchids. teleolog'ic. teph'reua, teph'rus (re^pos, ashy). 266 ";; = ;,

tephroBius Teatule

ash-coloured ; tepbro'aius, ashy- the secondary petioles proceed in grey. threes from the summit of the

Tepida'rium (Lat., a tepid bath-room), main petiole ; tema'tely trlfo'lio-

' in botanic gardens a ' Cape House. late, with three leaQets attached Teratog'eny (repas, Tiparos, a sign or at one point, as in clover (Crozier) prodigy, yevos, ofifspring), the pro- ter'nus ternate. duction of monsters; Teratol'og7 Ter'pene (modif. of Turpentine), a (X670S, discourse), the study of group of hydrocarbons present malformations and monstrosities; in turpentine, liquid resin, or

adj. teratolog'lc. essential oils ; terp'enoid [etSos, Ter'ebene, a terpene which holds resemblance), Kerner's name for resin in solution, as turpentine that group of flower-scents pro- the name is from Pistacia duced by terpenes, as Orange-

Terebinthus, Linn. ; terebin'tliine, flowers, Gardenia, Thyme, etc. pertaining to, or consisting of, terpln'nate (ler, thrice, + pinnate) turpentine. = TRIPINNATE. Ter'cine, Terci'na {ter, thrice), a terra'neus % (terra, earth), growing supposed third integument of an on dry land. ovule, really a layer of the primine terres'trial, terres'tris (Lat., pertain- or seoundine. ing to the earth), used of plants of

Terebra'tor {terebra, a borer), Lindau's the dry ground ; the Latin terras'ter

name for the so-called triohogyne is also employed ; ter'reus (Lat. " " in Oyrophora ; Terebratorhy'plia earthen), earth coloured ;

( + Hypha) means the same. ter'ricole, terrio'olous [colo, I in- Tere'do (Lat., a boring beetle), disease habit), living on the ground, as caused by the boring of insects. some Lichens. terete', teres (Lat., rounded), circular Ter'tiospore (tertius, third, (Xiropa, a in transverse section, cylindric and seed), C. Macmillan's term for a, usually tapering. fertilized egg which undergoes tergem'iaal, = tergem'inate, tergem- rejuvenescence and segments into ina'tus, tergem'inus (three at a birth), usually four spores, motile and "thrice twin" (Lindley). similar to the spores of a gameto- terglferous (tergum, a back, fero, I phyte generation ; the result of bear), tergisperm'ous, -us {

Ferns ; Ter'gum, back, dorsum. tessula'rls {iessenila, a small square ter'ininal, termina'lie (Lat., relating stone), of cubic dimensions, all to boundaries), proceeding from or sides equal.

~ Bud, tessella'tus (Lat. , of squared belonging to the end or apex ; tea'sellate, a bud which is apical. stones), chequer - work, as in Terminol'ogy (ripim, a limit = term, Fritillaria Meleagria, Linn. X1S70S, discourse), glossology, defi- Tes'ta (Lat., a brick or tile), the

nition of technical terms ; Ter*- outer coat of the seed, usually minus (Lat.), a term, a technical hard and brittle. word. testa'oeoua, testa'ceus (Lat., of bricks ter'nary, terna'riua (Lat., consisting or tiles), brick-red. of three), in threes, trimerous teatic'ular, testic'ulate, testicvla'tus ~ Hy'hrid, the result of crossing a (Lat.), shaped like the tubers of

hybrid with a species different from Orchis, and fruit of Mercurialis ; either of its parents. Testlc'ulua X, Tea'tia J (Lat.) = ter'nate, temaHus (temi, by threes), Anther. in threes, as three in a whorl or Tea'tule (testida, a dim. of Tbsta), an

cluster ; ter'natepin'nate, when old name for Fbttsiule. 267 ; ,

teter tetrastlohouB

te'tsr (Lat., offensive), having a foul produced spores of Florideao, etc.

smell. usually in groups of four ; tetra- TetraWas'tus (rhpas, four, iSXatTTit, g'onoUB {ywvla, an angle), four-

a bud), Koerber's term for those angled ; Tetragryn'la {yvvii, a Liohen-spoios wliieh consist of woman), a Linnean artiflciiil order, four cells; tetracam'arons, -run the member."! having llowors with

( + Camarus), of four closed four pistils ; tetrag^ynouB, of four

carpels ; tetraoarpel'lary {Kapnbs, carpels or styles ; tetram'erous, -rua

fruit), of four carpels ; Tetracaro'tln (/U6/90S, a part), of four members ; (+ Carotin), alipochrome pigment tetramor'pliic {/iop^, shape), having resembling carotin. flowers of four forms, varying as Tetrachae'nlum J (tet/jAs, four, + to length of style, anthers and Aohabnium), a fruit of four ad- stigmas, as in Epiijaea reprnn,

herent aohenes, as in Labiatae Linn. ; tetran'der, tetran'droua Tetraoliooar'plum (Ttrpaxa, four- (&v^p, dvSpbi, a man), with four

fold, Kaptrbs, fruit) = Tktba.spohe stamens ; Tetran'drla, Linnean ; a

tetrachot'omouB, tetrachol'vmu.i class of tetrandrous plants ; tetra- (Tf/icw, I out), when a cyme, in its nu'cleate (-fNmii.i'.us), having four

restricted sense of fascicle, bears nuclei (Brebner) ; tetra- pet'aloua,

four lateral peduncles about the lua (iriTaXof, a, flower loaf), having terminal flower. four petals ; tetraphylet'lo {(pvXri, a tetracoo'coua, -cus (tet/jAs, four, tribe), applied to hybrids with four

k6kkos, a berry), (1) consisting of strains in their descent ; tetra- four closed carpels ; (2) applied to phyl'louB, -lua {(p6\\oy, a leaf), four- bacteria when in four segments ; leaved. tetracy'ollo (/ciixXos, a circle), when tetraplocau'louB {TerpavMos, fourfold u, flower is composed of four whorls + Caums), having quaternary axes of organs. (Pax).

Tet'rad {TGTpdSioVt a set or group of tetrap'terouB (rerpis four ; irTepov, a four), a body formed of four cells, wing), four-winged, four produced in as the formation of pollen in the angles ; tetrapyre'nus (nupriv, a pollen-mother-cells, kernel), with four stones or floods teirad'ymous {TeTpdSv/ios, fourfold), in the fruit ; tetraque'ter, tetra- having four cells or oases (1) ; (2) que'trous (qmxilra, a square), with when the lamellae of an Agaric are four sharp angles ; tet'raroh {i.pxv, arranged so that alternate lamellae beginning), with four vascular are shorter than the intermediates, strands in a librovasoular cylinder and one complete lamella terminates or stele. a set of four pairs, short and long. tetrarl'nuB (tct/jAs, four, appifv, male), Tetradyua'mla (rer/jis, four, Siiva/its, Necker's version of tetrandrous ; power), a Linnean class which is tetraaohls'tio (ffxiffTos, split), divid- characterized by possessing tetrady- ing into four ; tetraaep'aloua, -hi^

namous stamens ; tetrady^namous, ( -I- Sepalum), having four sepals ; mua, having four long stamens and tetraapenn'ous {o-r^p/xa, a seed), short, in Cruoiferae tetra- two as ; with four seeds ; TetraBporan'gium foUa'tua, tetrafo'llua (/oKam, a leaf ), ( + Sporanoiom), a unicellular spor- four-leaved, more correctly tetra, angium containing tetraspores ; phyllous ; tetrag'onal {yavla, an Tet'raapore {airopi, a seed), a spore

angle), four-angled ; Tetragonldan'- formed by division of the spore-

glum ( -I- Gonidanqium), a sexual re- mother-oelli into four parts ; tetra- productiveorganinFIoridean Algae, spor'lo, tetraapor'oua, bearing tetra- producing tetragonidia ; Tetra- spores; tetraa'tlohouB, -chiia {aHxos,

gonld'lum ( + Gonidium), asexually a row), in four vertical ranks. 268 ;; J-;

teztUe thedger

tex'tile, te3flilU(La,t., woven), used for is a synonym ; Thal'lome, a thallns- weaving, like growth ; c/. Caulosce ; Tlial'- Tex'tnre, Textu'ra (Lat., a web), lophyte (^uToj/, a plant), a plant applied by Starback to hyphal whose growth is thalloid, no clear

structures in Discomycetes, thus : distinction of leaf or axis ; Thal'- ~ epideimoi'dea, the walls of lUB, pi. Thal'Ii, (1) a vegetative

hyphae more or less confluent ; ~ body without differentiation into

globo'sa, when the cells are nearly stem and leaf ; in Fungi the whole of isodiametric, the separate hyphae the body which does not serve for

not distinguishable ; — intrica'ta, reproduction ; (2) Goebel's term for the hyphae runningin various direc- the organ of attachment in Ter- tions, with walls not coalescent niola, a genus of Fodostomaceae, ~ ob'llta, hyphae nearly parallel, composed of coalesced dorsiventral

and having small cavities with branches ; ~ Qonid'ia,, the gonidia

thickened walls ; — porrec'ta, in the thallus of a Lichen ; the hyphae with large cavities and no Lichen thallus is subdivided into,

thickened walls ; ~ prismafica, ~ lepo'des, crustaceous ; ~ pla'-

cells not isodiametric, hyphae not codes, foliaceous ; ~ tbamno'des, distinguishable. fruticose. thalamiflor'al, thalamiflor'ous (8£Ka.- Tham'nlumt (Siiim, a shrub), the fios, a bed-chamber, Jloa, floris, a bushy thallus of such Lichens as

flower), when the parts of the Cladonia rangi/erina, Hoffm. ; tham- flowers are hypogynous, separately noblas'tns {pXaaros, a bud), used

inserted on the thalamus ; Tliala,- by Koerber for a fruticose Lichen. miflor'ae, a group of Phanerogams Theba'lne (from Thebes, where opium ) BO distinguished; Thala'mlom, ( 1 " a was much employed), one of the hollow case containing spores in crystallized alkaloids occurring in " " AlgaU ; (2) the disk or Lamina the opium poppy.

proHfera in Lichens " ; (3) "a form The'ca (Stikti, a case), (1) the spor- " of the hymenium in Fungals (all angium of a Fern ; (2) the capsule

from Lindley) ; Thal'amus, the re- of a Moss; (3) J an anther; (4) ceptacle of the flower, the torus. used by Necker for the fruit of

tbalas'sinus, thalas'sicns (Lat., from Myrtaceae j (5) J "a cell of any 6i\a

Alga. of an anther ; {H) "a hollow space TliaUid'iiun (0aXK6i, a sprout), a in the pericarp formed by doubling " vegetative reproductive body, of the endocarp (Gray) ; The'ca- especially amongst Thallophytes pbore ((popiw, I carry), the stipe of

and Muscineae (Kemer) ; tlial'line, a carpel, homologous with the

thalli'nus, thallo'dal, thallo'dic, petiole ; The'caspore (mropi, a

thallo'des, thal'loae, pertaining to a seed), = AscospoBE ; thecaspor'-

thallus ; Thal'logamB, term used by ous, used of Fungi which have Focke for Vascular Cryptogams the spores in Asci (Stormonth)

Thallog'amae {yd/juis, marriage), theca'tuB, bearing a theca ; the'clal,

Ardisaone's term for Algae ; Thal'- possessing tbecae or pertaining to

logen (yews, race, offspring), a them ; ^ Al'gae, the hymenial

synonym of Thallophyte ; thal'- gonidia of Lichens ; Thecid'ion,

loid (etSos, resemblance), having Thecid'ium % = Achene ; thecif the nature or form of a thallus eroua (fero, I bear), bearing thecae

applied to Hepaticae in which the or asci ; the'ciger, thecig'erus (gero, I vegetative body is not a leafy stem, bear), theca-bearing, applied to the

3,3 Marchantia ; tlialloi'dal (Crozier) hymenium of Fungi, and branches 269 ; ;

Tbecinm thyroid

of Mosses which bear setae of irritability ; thennotrop'lc {rpoirii, The'cium, a layer of tissue below a turning), relating to Thermot'- the epithecium, which contains roplsm, curvature dependent upon the sporangia in Lichens (Minks), temperature (Wortmann). c/. Epithecium, Htpothecium. TbloTsfeoing Lay'er, an apparent layer Tbe'ln, the most important alkaloid of cellulose on the inner face of

in the leaves of Thea, the tea- a cell- wall ; ~ Btng, Sanio's term plant. for a ring of meristem in which Tbe'ke, sometimes used for the theca the first flbro-vascular bundles (ascus) of Lichens. originate. tbeleph'oroid (Thdephorus, etSos, re- Tblgmot'roplsm (Blyna, anything semblance), like the genus Thde- touched), curvature induced in phorus. climbing plants by the stimulus of thele'pboruB (BiMi, a nipple, tpopew, a rough surface (Czapek) ; Thlgmo- I carry), covered with nipple-like tax'la (rdfij, order) is a synonym prominences. adj. thlgmotac'tlc. thelotre'moid, having tubercular Thorn, usually an aborted branch, apothecia like those of Thdotrema. simple or branched. thelyg'enons (^8fj\vs, female, yivot, Thread, used by Blair for the Fila-

race, offspring), inducing the ment ; Thread-lnd'lcator, a form of female element, as ~ Castra'tion, apparatus for measuring the rate of

the production of pistils in the growth ; thread-shaped, filiform.

male-flowers of a host by Uelilago. three-an'gied, trigonous ; ~ cleft,

Tlieobro'mlne, the active principle of trifid ; ~ cor'nered, ~ edged, with the cacao-bean, Theobroma Cacao, three sides, plain or incurved, and ~ Linn. ; theobro'minns, the deep three acute angles, triquetrous ;

chocolate brown of the seed of the leaded, trifoliate ; ~ lohed, tri-

same'plaDt. lobed ; ~ nerved, with three tlieorefic (Sew/ojri/cAs, speculative), principal veins ; — parted, tri-

pertaining to theory, as distinct partite ; ~ ranked, with three

from practice ; ^ Di'agram, a floral vertical rows on a stem ; ~ ribbed, diagram of the theoretic com- the midrib and one rib on each ponents, not necessarily the same side more prominent than the rest as seen on inspection. ~ valved, trivalvate. ther'mic {S4pfi,ri, heat), warm ; ~ Con'- thrlce-diglta'to-pln'nate, = trites- stant, the sum of the mean tem- NATE. peratures of the days of active vege- Throat, the orifice of a gamopetaUnu tation, up to some definite phase corolla or calyx, the fauces. in the plant's life, minus a certain Thmm (Grew), Thromb (Blair), (1) initial temperature determined by the filament of a stamen, 12) in several years' observations, and Composite florets, the anthers

varying for the species fOettinger) thnun-eyed, applied to a, short-

Ther'mo-cleiBtog'aiiiy ( + Ci.ei.stoo- styled dimorphic flower, such as a amt), when flowers do not expand primrose, the stamens alone being as a consequence of insufficient visible in the throat of the corolla. warmth (Knuth) ; Thermotaz'is Throsh-fon'^, the disease iiscribed (rofij, order), changes produced to Dermalium albirann, Laurens.

warmth ; adj. thermotac'tic Thun'der-broom = by ; Witches' beoom. tliermoph'Uic(i/>iXii>i, Hove), applied ThyU, Thyl'la, Th/lose, Th/lloBe to those bacteria which thrive in (Germ, lliylle), rf. Tvlose. high temperatures; Tliennot'onus thy^roid {dvpeot, a shield, elSos, re- (tA'oj, strain), the relation between semblance), shield-like, peltiform temperature and the manifestation (Heinig). 270 ,;

ThyrBe tomeatons

Thyrse, Thyr'auii - (Lat., the Bacchic watery sap ; Conjtm'ctive , ground Btafl), a mixed inflorescence, a tissue arising from the plerome or contracted or ovate panicle, the young stele; cntlc'ulaiized ~ , modi- main axis indeterminate, but the fied cell-walls, as eijidermis and

secondary and ultimate axes ey- periderm ; embryonic ~, = Mesi-

mose ; tbyrsiferoUB, -rns [fero, I KTEM ; ei'tra-ste'lar ~, see GuonHD bear), bearing a thyrse; ttiyrsiflor'iiB TiSBtTB; false ~ = bi-obious ~ ; (jloH, jUrris, a, flower), the flowere glan'dular ~, composed of secreting

in a thyree; thyr'slform {forma, cells or glands ; Brouud ~ , funda- shape), shaped like a thyrse ; mental tissue, neither vascular nor tbyr'sold (d3oj, resemblance), like epidermal, either within or without

a thyrsus ; Tbyr'sula, the little the stele ; beterog'eiunui — , con- cyme which is borne by most sisting of various kinds of cells Labiates in the axil of the leaves. homoge'neouB ~, when the cells

Tige, pr. teej (Fr., tige), are uniform ; intra ste'lar ~ = stem ; Cos-

n^el, = Tlgelle', Tigd'la, Tlgel'- JtJNOTivB-TiKsujE; ; lim'ltary ~

lum, Tiyd'lue, a miniature or epidermal tisBue ; parenchy'iiiat- initial stem, used for (a) caulicle ouB ~, (a) thin-walled, as pith

or hypoootyl, (6) plumul"! ; tlgella'- cells ; (6) thick-walled, as coUen- tus, J (1) having a short stiilli, as chyma ;[per'maiient •^ , iwJult tissue the plumule of TJean pri'mary ~ first the ; (2) when formed tissue

the stalk is well marked ; Tigel'- proBencliy'niatouB ~ , woody tissue Inla, X a short filament or stalk 8Clerencliy'ma.t0UB ~, thickened or observed in the Truffle; tigellula'ris, hardened, as fibres or eclereids vascular. sec'ondary ~, resulting from Tlg'liue, the acrid principle in the growth from continuouB meriste-

seodB of Cr'Aon Tiglium, Linn. matic activity ; sieve ~, of long Til'ler, a sucker or branch from the articulated tubes, communicating

bottom of the stem ; til'lering, by means of their sieve-plates in

throwing out stems from the base their walls ; spu'rlouB ~- , an

of the stem ; TU'low (Crozier), = approach to a tissue, by hyphae TiLI/EB. massing into a felt, or thJeir apices Tim'ber-line, the upper limit of ar- forming a eolle';ti\e apical growing

boreal vegetation on the mountains. point ; tegumen'tary ~, the ex- tinctor'lous, -riwi, tinctor'ial (Lat., ternal epidermal layer ; tra'cheal

pertaining to dyeing), used for dye- '- , composed of tracheids, especially ing, imprinting colour. adjaptea for the conveyance of Tln'der - fnugr'us, Polyporus fomen- liquids; vaB'cular ~, the com- tarixut, Fr. ponents of the vascular system of Tinolen'dte [rdyui, I extend, + a plant. Lbocitis), Van Tieghem's term for Tmema (tm^m«. section), a cell directing spheres, the centrosomes. ruptured in setting free a Mobb- Tip, used by Grew for Anthbk. gemma (Correns). Tis'sne, the texture or material tofa'ceuB (Lat., formed of tufa), (1)

formed by the union of cells of tufa-coloured, bufiy drab ; (2) similar origin and character, and gritty. mutually dependent; tissues united Toise (Fr., a fathom), a measure for- form systems, these again form merly used in France, 6'395 feet, organs ; ~ Cord, central cord 1-9492 metre, fi French feet.

(Crozier) ; aq'ueous — , a form of Tolu', a resinous exudation from hypoderma, consisting of thin- Myroxylon tolui/erum, H. B. K. walled parenchyma wanting chloro- to'mentOBe, tomerUo'mit, tomen'totu, plastids, but containing much densely pubescent with matted 271 ;

tomentulose trabecular

wool, or short hairs ; tomen'tuloae, ing ; a'pical -- , lateral displace-

slightly tomentose ; Tomen'tum ment of the segments of the apical (Lat., cell in cushioning), (1) pubescence ; in certain Mosses, resulting (2) J mycelium. the twisting of the resultant stem

tomip'arous {rbui], a cutting, pario, (Correns) ; antid'romous ^ , against I produce), Bory applies the term the direction of twining, as may

to all plants which reproduce be caused by friction of support j

themselves by fission ; Tom'iange homod'romous ~, in the same direc- (iyyetov, a vessel), the organ which tion as twining, the internode

produces Tomies ; Tom'le, pi. gyrating in the same way ; Torsion- Tom'les, Van Tieghem's name for sym'metry( + Symmetry), Schuett's asexual reproductive bodies which term for those Diatoms whose valves

are neither ypORES nor Diodes, are twisted ; toral'vus (Mod. Lat., living cells which do not arise from squeezed out), spirally twisted, not an adult stage, but produce an quite as in contorted, there being no

adult individual direct ; Tom'iogone obliquity in the insertion, as in the

{ySvos, offspring), the organ which petals of Orchis ; tor'tills (Lat., produces Tomibs. twisted), susceptible of twisting ;

Tongue = Ligule ; tongue-sliaped, tor'tus, twisted ; tor'tuoua, tor- long, nearly flat, fleshy and tuo'mis, bent or twisted in different rounded at the tip, as the leaves directions.

of some Aloes. torula'ceous ( -I- aeeous) ; tor'iUold, Ton'oplast (t6vos, strain, TrKasros, resembling the genus Tonda, Pers. moulded), De Vries's term for a tor'uloae, torvZo'sus {tondns, muscular vacuolar living membrane, eon- part), cylindric, with swollen trolling the pressure of the cell- portions at intervals, aomewhat

sap ; Tonotax'is (rdfis, order), moniliform; ~ Bud'dlng, increasing sensitiveness to osmotic variation by budding as yeast. (Beyerinck). Tor'us (Lat., a bed), the receptacle Tootli, see Teeth ; toothed, dentate of a flower, that portion of the Tooth'let, a small or secondary axis on which the parts of the

tooth ; tooth'letted, finely denticu- flower are inserted; when elongated late (Lindley). it becomes the Gonophgee and

top-shaped, inversely conical. Gynophoee ; ~ of Pits, the thicken- Topia'ria, pi. (Lat.), ornamental gar- ing of the closing membrane in

dening ; topia'rian, top'iary, relat- bordered pits. ing to the same, especially used of Touch'wood, decayed wood due to trees and shrubs clipped into formal fungus-mycelium, formerly used shapes. as tinder. top'ical (tottikos, local), local, confined Tox'in (toIikoi', poison), a poisonous to a limited area. secretion by certain Fungi, which topha'ceouB, = TOrACEns (2). kills the cells of the host-plant and Tor'als [torus, a bed), Bessey's pro- facilitates parasitism. ^ posed name for Thaiamifloeae. Trahec'ula, pi. Trahec'ulae (Lat., a torfa'ceus, turfo'sus (Henslow), grow- little beam), a cross-bar, '(1) the ing in bogs. transverse bars of the teeth of the marginal ineiaions are peristome in torn, when Mosses ; (2) plates of deep and irregular. tissue forming partial septa in the to'rose, toro'sm (Lat. , fleshy, brawny), microsporangium of Isoetes ; (3) the cylindrio, with contractions or lacunar tissue in Selagindla, be- swellings at intervals ; the diminu- tween the cortex and the central tive is tonilo'suB. bundle; trabec'ular, like a cross- Tor'sion, a spiral twisting or bend- bar; .~ Duct, ~ Ves'sel, a vessel 272 ; ;

trabeculate TransmlaBlon

with cross-bar markings ; trabeo'u- apical axis, passing through the

late, trahecvla'ltis, cross-barred ; centre of the pervalvar (main

Trab'ecule, = Tbabbcula. longitudinal) axis of a Diatom ; ~ Tra'chea (Lat., the windpipe), a Plane, the plane at right angles

spiral duct or vessel ; tra'cheal, to both valvar and apical planes, belonging to or resembling tra- passing through the pervalvar and

cheae ; ~ Cells, tracheids ; ~ of the transapical axis (0. Mueller) vascular bundles, the woody por- Transec'tion {sectio, a cutting), a tion, the cribrose part associated term proposed by C. Macmillan

with ; = for "transverse section." bast tra'cheary, trachbai, ; Tra'oheld (eMos, resemblance), a Trana'fer (transfero, I bring over), of closed cell having secondary thick- water, the passage of water by

ening ; vasiform wood-cell of Good- ducts or cells.

ale ; ~ Seam, a group of peculiarly Transforma'tlon {trans/ormatio, a thickened cells found in the leaves change of shape), (1) metamor-

of Conifers on both sides of the phosis ; (2) morphologic changes

vascular bundle, and formerly re- in an organ during its existence ;

garded as part of the transfusion adj. transformed' ; as ~ Branch,

tissue ; Trachench'yma (fyxuitio, may be a tendril, thorn, or simi-

an infusion), tissue composed of larly changed organ ; ~ Cell, the tracheids or spiral vessels; Tra'- final shape of the cell, as a fibre, cheome, stated by Potoni^ not to traoheid, etc. be the tracheal, but the hydral Transfu'aion [trans/usio, a pouring

system of the bundle, he therefore out), transference ; ~ Tis'sue, of

names it HvDROMB. two kinds of cells ; (a) unpitted, trachycar'pous, -pim (jpaxtis, rough with abundant protoplasmic con-

to the touch, Kapiroi, fruit), rough- tents ; or (6) tracheidal cells, with

fruited ; trachyspenn'ous, -mus similar contents ; ~ Strand, con- (atrepiMi, a seed), rough-seeded. sisting of parenchymatous or Tractel'lum (tractus, dragged), the slightly thickened cells at the anterior flagellum of the zoospore junction of the phloem and xylem of Saprolegnieae (Hartog). bundle elements, when a ring of Trag'acantli, a gum which flows from sclerenchyma is formed. Transit'ion (transitio, over) Astragalus Tragacanlha, Linn. ; a passing Tragacan'thiu, the same as Bas- Cells, cells which are continuations SORIN. of sieve-tubes, the longitudinal trail'ins, prostrate but not rooting. division into sieve-tubes and com- trajec'tile, trajec'tilis {trajecttts, a pass- panion cells stops, and Transit'ion- ing over), when the connective tissue is formed; transitor'iUB completely separates the anther- (Lat., adapted for passing through), cells. temporary, soon passing away (S. Tra'ma (Lat., weft), a mass of hyphae F. Gray). in the lamellae of some Fungi, from Transla'tor (Lat., a transferrer), em- which the hymenium springs ployed for the Retinaculum of

Fayod subdivides it thus : ~ con- Asclepiads. tex'ta, the hyphae usually parallel, Transloca'tion (trans, across, localio,

or slightly oblique ; ~ inver'sa, a placing), the transference of when they are derived from the reserve material from one part to

sub-hymeniura ; ^ permix'ta, when another. without apparent order. Transmis'sion {trai\smiasio, a sending transa'pical {trans, across or beyond, across), used for the conveyance + apical), used by 0. Mueller for of stimulus as in Drosera and ~ Ax'is, at right angles to the Mimosa pudica, Linn. , other leaves 273 ;; ; ;

Transmutation tiiarcli

acting in sympathy; — Cells = till pollination is efieoted ; cf. Teansjusion-tissub. WlOKBB-HAIBS. Transmuta'tion (transmiito, I ehift), Traps, pi., Prison-flowers, such as chemical chsmge by addition or Aristolochia, which confine insect alteration of composition without visitors until pollination has taken complete resolution into its ele- place. cells ments ; '" of Host, = LlPOXENY. Traube's Cells, artificial formed Transovula'tae {trans, across, + by various solutions of gelatine Otulum), Van Tieghem's term and other colloids, which have for Phanerogams furnished with been used to explain the phe-

transitory ovules ; Transpira'tion nomena of intussusception. {apiratio, a breathing), the ex- traiunatrop'ic {rpaSfia, a wound, halation of watery vapour from rpoirii, a turning), showing the -' the stomata of plants, not mere influence of wounded root-tips ; . - Cur'vature, the bending of roots in Trans'port (transporto, I carry across), consequence of injury to their tips the conveyance of assimilated sub- Traumat'ropism, PfeflFer's term for stance from one part to another; the phenomena consequent on the translocation. infliction of wounds on the tip of transver'sal [transversiis, athwart), a growing root. lying crosswise; •- Ax'is of Diatoms, Tre'liaiase, an enzyme which hydro- that axis which lies in the trans- lizes Tre'balose, a sugar found in versal plane, cutting the per- many Fungi and stated to be valvar (main longitudinal) axis (0. identical with the "Trehala"

Mueller) ; ~ Wall, that which (Persian Manna), a waxy excretion divides the basal and median walls produced by a coleopterous larva of the proembryo of Arohegoniatae, to form its cocoon. at right angles into upper and tremel'loid {Tremdla, eXdos, resemb-

lower halves ; traasver'san Plane, lance), jelly-like in substance or that which passes through the appearance, like the genus centre of a Diatom frustule verti- TremeUa. cally to the pervalvar axis (0. Tree, a with an evident

Mueller) ; tran'sverse, transver' sus, trunk ; tree-like, resembling a

transversa'lis, across, right and left tree, but smaller ; dendroid. as to bract and axis, collateral tri, in compounds, from Greek (rpeis) Lindley gives "broader than long" or Latin (

as the definition of trcmsversvs ; ~ Triachae'nium {tri, from tres, three + Clio'rlBis, when two or more organs Achabnium), like a cremocarp, but

instead of one appear above or of three carpels ; Triadel'pliia

within another ; ~ Geot'ropism, = {iSe\(p6s, a brother), a Linnean

DiAGBOTBOPisM ; ~ Hellot'roplsm order of plants with their stamens

; = DiAHBLioTROPiSM ~ Planes, in three sets ; triadel'phous, fila- the axis of growth those which cut ments in three brotherhoods ; Tri-

and surface at right angles. ake'nium = Teiachaenium ; trlan'- trape'ztform, trapeziform'is (rpoTrffiov, der = trian'drous, trlan'drian {iviip,

a figure of four unequal sides, dvSpds, a, man), having three

forma, shape), an unsymmetrical stamens ; Trian'dria, a Linnean four-sided figure, as a trapezium, class of three-stamened plants almost the same as rhomboid trian'gular, triangula'ris {angvlus, tTap'ezoid, -dens {etSos, resemb- an angle), with three angles lance), like a trapezium. triangula'tus (Lat.), three-angled Trap-hairs, the special hairs which trian'thous {S.v8oi, a flower), three-

confine insects in certain flowers flowered, as a peduncle ; tri'arcli 274 ;

triarinuB tricuspidate

(o-PXV, beginning), a fibrovasoular of the procarp in certain Algae, cylinder with fertilization three ligneous groups; by which is effected ; triari'nus {S.ppriv, male), decker's (2) in the Lichen genus Qyro- term for teiandeous. phora, by Lindau termed Tbre- Tribe, Tri'bus (Lat., a division of the ERATOR ; trichogyn'ial, relating to

people), a group superior to a a trichogyne ; Tricliolo'ma (Ka/ia, genus, but less than an order. a fringe), when an edge or border trihlas'tus (rpets, three, jSXoo-tos, a is furnished with hairs ; Trich'oma, bud), Koerber's term for a Lichen- pi. Trlchom'ata, (1) the filamentous spore, which is trilocular and able thallus of such Algae as Conferva to germinate from each loculus. (Lindley) ; (2) the filaments in trib'uloid (eZSos, resemblance), like Nostoc. the fruit of Tribulus, beset with trichom'anoid ( Trichomanes, elSos, sharp bristles, echinate (Heinig). resemblance), like the genus Tri-

Tri'oa (deriv. ?), a button-like apo- chomanes in habit. theoium of the genus Gyrophora. Trich'ome, Tricho'ma {rplxu/ui, a tricam'arus {tri, three, + Camarps), growth of hair), any hair-like out- when a fruit is composed of three growth of the epidermis, as a hair

loculi ; tricar'lnate (carinatua, keel- or bristle ; Trlch'ophore (0opew, formed), with three keels or angles, I carry), a row of cells of a procarp

as certain Diatoms ; tricarpel'lary, bearing the trichogyne in Florideae; tricar'pellate, trlcar'pous, -pus Trichoph'onun, the stipe of Fungi " (KapTos, fruit), of three carpels when formed of " filaments

trlcel'lular (-(- cellular), consist- (Henslow) ; trichophyl'lus (^liXXoi-, leaf), ing of three cells (A. Braun) ; a hair-like leaves, that is,

triceph'aloas, -Z«a ()ce0aX^, a head), finely cut ; Trichosporan'ge = Tri- triple-headed, with three heads of chosporan'gium (+ Spobanoium), flowers. Thuret's term for the multilocular TrlcMd'ium (9p!|, rpixos, a hair or sporangium of the Phaeosporeae,

bristle) = Stbbigma ; triohiferous apparently of jointed hairs ; triclio- {fero, I bear), producing or bearing tial'lic (SaXXos, a sprout), when

hairs ; trich'iform {forma, shape), the shoot ends in one or more

bristle-shaped (J. Smith); Tricli'ite, multicellular hairs or tuft of such ; a needle-shaped crystal of amylose ~ Gemma'tion, the origin of young in starch grains, stated to form the plants from the hairs scattered on »- latter by aggregation (A. Meyer) the thallus of Asperococctis ; Trichobacte'rla (-f- Bactbria), those Growth, with filiform thallus, the

bacteria which possess cilia ; Trioll'- tips bearing tufts of hairs. oblast (jSXaiTTos, a bud), used by trichot'omous, -mits {rplxa, in a Sachs for such Idioblasts as are three-fold manner, To/jmi, a cutting), especially distinguished by their three-forked, branching into three

size or branching ; trlcliocar'pus divisions ; Trichot'omy, division (itapTTos, fruit), when fruit is covered into threes. with hair-like pubescence ; tri- tricoc'cous, -cu8 (tri, three, + CocotJS),

cboceph'alus (xe^aX^, ahead), when consisting of three cocci ; trl'color, (color, flowers are collected into heads, colour), having three colours ; and surrounded by hair-like ap- trioos'tate (costatua, with ribs), (elSos, re- having tricotyle'donus pendages ; tricho'des three ribs; semblance), resembling hair; Trich- (+ Cotyledon), when three coty- ogo'nlum \yovT), race, oflfspring), ledons are present, or when one or a proposed emendation of Trich- two are so deeply divided as to OGYNE ; Trioh'ogyne (71/^7;, a seem double. woman), (1) the receptive filament tricus'pid, tricus'pidate, tricuspida'tut 275 ; ;;

trtcuBsate Trioecia

(Iricuspia, having three points or containing three nuts within an tines), tipped with three cusps or involucre, as Caatanea sativa, Mill. pointed tips. trig^onal (rplyuvos, three-cornered), tricus'sate (tri, three, + cussate), three angled ; Trig' ones, pi., used for whorls of three leaves Spruce's term for the thickening in each, the leaves of each whorl the angles of the cells of the leaves alternating with those above and in certain Hepatics, or as in coUen-

below ; c/. UBcnssATB (G. chyma; trlgonocar'pus (Kapwis, Henslow). fruit), fruit having three evident triojr'olio (rpi, from rpch, three, angles : trlg'onous, -nus, three- KVKKoi, a circle), when the members angled, with plane faces. of a series are in three whorls. Trigyn'ia (vpi, three, yvvii, a woman), triden'tate, tridenta'tus (irideTis, three- a Linnean order of plants with

pronged), three-toothed, trident- three styles ; trig'ynous, -nus, with pointed. three pistils or styles. tridigr'itate, tridigita'tua (tri, three, triiUa'tua {tri, three + Hilum), digitus, a finger), thrice digitate, having three apertures, as in some

ternate. grains of pollen ; triju'gate, triju- tri'duuB (triduum, the space of three ga'tus, triju'gouB, tri'jugus (jugum, three pairs of days), lasting three days. a yoke), with pinnae ; tridy'mus {rplSufios, triple), when of trilam'ellar (tri, three, lamdla, a three laminae in Agarics, the plate of metal), applied to a com- middle is the larger. pound stigma having three divi- tridy'namous {rpi, three, Svva/us, sions flattened like bands ; power), when three stamens out trilat'eral, trilatera'lis (latus, of six are longer than the rest lateris, a side), prismatic, with trie'der {ISpa, a seat), triangular. three sides; trllo'bate, trilo'bus trlen'nis, trlennia'lis (triennium, the (Idbus, a lobe), three-lobed space of three years), lasting three triloc'ular, trilocida'ris (loculus, a

years. little cell), three-celled ; tri'm- trifar'iam (Lat., triply), trifayious, erous, -nts [fi^pos, a part), in ius, facing three ways, in three threes, three membered parts. vertical ranks. trimes'tris (Lat., of three months), trifid, trif'idus (Lat.), three cleft. lasting three months, or maturing triflo'rous {tri, three, flos, floria, a in that time, aa Lavatera trimtstris,

flower), three - flowered ; trifo'- Linn.

llolate, trifoliola'tus ( + POLioiiATE), trimor'phic, trimor'phous (rpi, three, with three leaflets ; trifo'Ilate, liopT], shape), occurring under trifolia'tua, trifo'lius (folium, a three forms, of stamens and styles, leaf), three-leaved. long, short, and intermediate (Lat., having three triform'is % Trimonoe'cism ( + Monoecism), forms), bearing flowers of three monoecious, but existing in

different kinds, as certain Com- trimorphous condition ; Trimor'-

posites ; trimorphic. pbism, heterogony, with long-, trlftir'cate (trifurcus, with three short-, and mid-styled flowers. prongs), having three forks or trl'mus (Lat.), lasting three years. branches. triner'vate, trinerva'tus, trinerved', trlg'amous (rpi, three, yii/ios, mar- triner'vis, triner'viv.a (tri, three, riage), bearing three kinds of nervus, a nerve), three-nerved

flowers ; trimorphic. tiinervula'tus (Lat.), with three trigem'lnous (trigeminus, triplets), nerve-like strands in the placenta tergeminate, trijugate. trlno'dal (nodus, a knot), with trl'glans (tri, three, glana, an acorn). three nodes or joints ; Trioe'cia 276 ;;; ;;

trioecious tritemate

(otKos, a house), a Linnean order of ,~ -pinna'tus, = tripinnate ; trip'li- plants with trioecious flowers cate-ter'nate, = tritemate (Crozier)

trloe'cloua, with staminate, pistil- trip'llci-ter (Lat,), thrice repeated ; late, and hermaphrodite flowers on triplicos'tate {costatus, ribbed),

three distinct plants ; trioe'olously having three ribs, triple-ribbed ; hermaph'rodite tripUform'is shape), as = teimorphic ; (forma, ' trioi'couB, -cus, the mode of spelling tripliform'ia Fo'lia, ' leaves re- " preferred by bryologists ; trioper'- sembling the triple-leaved form tripli- oulate, triopercula'tus (+ Opbr- (Lindley) ; triplinerved',

otjlum), having three lids ; triov'- ner'vis, -vius {nervus, a nerve), see ulate, triowia'tus (+ Ovclum), TKIPLE-NEBVBD, etc. triple with three ovules ; tripaleola'tua trip'lo-caules'oent {tripliis, + (+ Palea), consisting of three caulescent), when a plant has a paleae, as the flowers of bamboo third (tertiary) system of axes

tripar'ted (partitue, cleft), parted trip'lus (Lat.), threefold ; triplo- to the base in three divisions; cau'lous (+ Caulis), possessing tripar'tible {partibUis, divisible), ternary axes (Pax). tending to split into three parts. trip'terouB, -rus {rpi, three, Trrepby, tripar'tite (triparti'lue, three-fold), a wing), three-winged. divided into three parts. trique'ter, tiique'trous, trique'trus tripen'nate, tripenna'tua (tri, three, (Lat., three-cornered), three-edged,

•pemvx, a feather), = tripinnate ; with three salient angles. tripet'aloid, tripetcdoi'deua [ireTaXov, triqul'nate, triqui-na'tua (tri, three, a flower-leaf, elSos, resemblance), as -^ QniNATUS), divided into three,

if three-petalled ; tripet'alous, -lus, then into five ; tri'sect, trisec'ted, into having three petals ; Triphyl'lome trisec'tus (sectus, cut), divided

((pSKKov, a leaf), hypothetically three, three-cleft to the base ; three segments to form a carpel, trisep'alous, trisep'aZua (+ Sep- two hypophylls, superior and fer- alum), having three sepals ; tri- tile, the third sterile and inferior sep'tate (-1- Septum), with three

(Pasquale) ; triphyl'lous, -lua, three- septa or partitions, as in