2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems September 25-30, 2011. San Francisco, CA, USA

Hardware Improvement of Cybernetic Human HRP-4C for Entertainment Use

Kenji KANEKO, Fumio KANEHIRO, Mitsuharu MORISAWA, Tokuo TSUJI, Kanako MIURA, Shin’ichiro NAKAOKA, Shuuji KAJITA and Kazuhito YOKOI

Abstract — Hardware improvement of cybernetic human HRP-4C for entertainment is presented in this paper. We coined the word “Cybernetic Human” to explain a with a realistic head and a realistic figure of a human being. HRP-4C stands for Humanoid Robotics Platform–4 (Cybernetic human). Its joints and dimensions conform to average values of young Japanese females and HRP-4C looks very human-like. We have made HRP-4C present in several events to search for a possibility of use in the entertainment industry. Based on feedback from our experience, we improved its hardware. The new hand, the new foot with active toe joint, and the new eye with camera are introduced.

1. Introduction

Up to now, several bipedal humanoid robots [1-17] have been developed. Currently, research on bipedal humanoid robots is one of the most exciting topics. It is no Fig. 1. Cybernetic human HRP-4C improved with exaggeration to say that the great success of HONDA new hands, an active toe joint, and a new eye with camera humanoid robot triggered the world’s research on humanoid robots [1-4]. However, the applications achieved by the current bipedal humanoid robots have been limited. so-called 3D jobs (dirty, dangerous and demanding), we Especially, those of human-size humanoid. developed HRP-3 equipped with dust-proof and drip-proof New ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative MObility) capabilities as well as precise motion [7]. Although HRP-3 was revealed in 2004 while the first ASIMO made it’s debut was developed as the succeeding model of HRP-2, the use of in 2000. New ASIMO showed us the capability of running at HRP-3 is limited and HRP-3 has been also used as a 6 [km/h] on December 13, 2005 [4]. New ASIMO as well as platform of R&D in our institute. the first ASIMO is presented in events, gives us a high-tech Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology stage show highlighting ASIMO’s unique capabilities, and (KAIST) also developed several humanoid robots. The latest goes on TV as an advertisement ambassador. model: HUBO2 (KHR-4) has a capability of running at 3.24 We have developed several HRP series humanoid robots [km/h] [8]. About 8 units have been used as a platform of with the collaboration of private companies. HRP-2 was R&D internationally so far. developed in 2002 to show the possibility of working From this introduction, it is so hard to figure out the humanoid robots [5, 6]. As a humanoid robotics platform for practical application of current bipedal humanoid robots. R&D, about 20 HRP-2’s have been put into use Though they have been used as a platform of R&D, and internationally so far. To show the potential for use in the have played as an advertisement ambassador showing the state of the art of each institute. To overcome this situation, Manuscript submitted to 2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. we thought that one practical application for them would be K. Kaneko, F. Kanehiro, M. Morisawa, K. Miura, S. Nakaoka, S. the entertainment industry, such as exhibitions and fashion Kajita, and K. Yokoi are with Humanoid Research Group, Intelligent shows, provided the robots can move very realistically like Systems Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial humans. For this reason, we developed HRP-4C [9] and Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan (e-mail: {k.kaneko, f-kanehiro, m.morisawa, made HRP-4C to present in several events to search for a kanako.miura, s.nakaoka, s.kajita, kazuhito.yokoi } @aist.go.jp). possibility of use in the entertainment industry [18]. Based T. Tsuji is with Vision and Manipulation Research Group, on our experience in demonstrating at various events, we Intelligent Systems Research Institute, AIST, 1-1-1 Umezono, improved the hardware of HRP-4C (see Fig. 1). Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan (e-mail: [email protected]).

978-1-61284-455-8/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE 4392

The rest of this paper is organized as follows; after another exception of deformation policy 1), because of the looking back on the design concepts and principal development delay. specification of HRP-4C in Section 2, we introduce the The principal specifications of HRP-4C, which was first overview of the events in which HRP-4C was presented in released to the press on March 16, 2009, are as follows. Section 3. We present the new hand, the new foot with toe HRP-4C is 1580 [mm] high and has 8-DOF face, 3-DOF joint, and the new eye, which have been improved from the neck, 6-DOF for each arm, 2-DOF for each hand, 3-DOF original. We examine these modifications in Sections 4, 5 waist, and 6-DOF for each leg, no toe joints, and 42-DOF in and 6 respectively. total.

2. Design Concepts of HRP-4C 3. Trials of HRP-4C

Since applications in the entertainment industry such as a The HRP-4C has presented in several events in search of fashion model or the master of ceremony are leading a possibility of use in the entertainment industry. Fig. 2 candidates for practical application of current bipedal shows some examples of events with HRP-4C. humanoid robots, we set the design concepts of HRP-4C as HRP-4C was first presented on the stage of a fashion follows when we developed it. show: the 8th Japan Fashion Week in Tokyo (JFW in Tokyo) which opened on March 23, 2009. The role of Design concepts: HRP-4C was master of ceremonies (MC) in the special stage A) Capability of bipedal walking named “SHINMAI Creator’s Project”. HRP-4C walked (see B) Realistic figure of an average young Japanese Fig. 2(a)), bowed and made a speech about one minute long. female Then HRP-4C turned and walked off stage. C) Configuration to imitate human-like motion In 2009 YUMI KATSURA Grand Collection in Osaka With regard to the design concept B), we referred to the (July 22, 2009), HRP-4C made the first professional catwalk anthropometry database of Japanese 1997-1998 [19], in appearance. HRP-4C wore a wedding dress made by the which the average is recorded. The data not recorded in the designer: Ms. Yumi KATSURA who is a leader of wedding database [19] is obtained by measuring a commercially dress design, as shown in Fig. 2(b). HRP-4C walked available skeleton [20]. smoothly up and down about 17 [m] each way on the In the process of the mechanical design, the principal catwalk, which was about 25 [m] long, and 6[m] wide. items were selected from among the database at designing HRP-4C then struck various poses, and gazed sidelong at the HRP-4C. The selected items were deformed as follows. delighted audience with a short speech. HRP-4C acted in a one man show in the Digital Contents Deformation policies: Expo 2009 (Oct. 22-25, 2009) as shown in Fig. 2(c). Using 1) Link length and breadth of HRP-4C are deformed the motion editor software [21], we successfully made a 5 to be from 90% to 110% of the average dimension minute motion for HRP-4C using a human actress’s motion of a young Japanese female. created by SAM who is a choreographer. HRP-4C didn’t 2) Circumference is deformed to less than 110% of the move her legs, but the way she moves her arms, head and average dimension of a young Japanese female. facial muscles were sufficiently human-like, and was also

But the ankle joint height and foot size of HRP-4C are able to tell jokes. exceptions of deformation policy 1) in consideration of the In the events held in 2009 as shown in Fig. 2, we effect on putting on shoes. The dimension of hand was also received several opinions from spectators. One of them

(a) Opening address (b) Fashion model (c) Actress SHINMAI Creator’s Project 2009 YUMI KATSURA DIGITAL CONTENT EXPO 2009 JFW in Tokyo Grand Collection in Osaka (Oct. 22-25, 2009) (March 23, 2009) (July 22, 2009)

Fig. 2. Examples of events with HRP-4C


Fig. 3. Target specifications of new hand Fig. 4. Principal dimensions of new hand based on average of young Japanese female [19, 22, 23] (Note: These values slightly change due to the condition of the elastic cover.)

(Note: Draw line doesn't show the strict outline of Japanese female hand shape.)

mentioned that the hand of HRP-4C was out of proportion to follows. its body. Since the dimensions of HRP-4C are set to averages of young Japanese females except for the hand as D1) Lighter hand mentioned above, we decided that this opinion was worth D2) Capability of creating dance performance motion taking into consideration. We then developed the new hand It is ideal for entertainment use to imitate human-like as presented in Section 4. Another opinion from spectators hand motion as close as possible. A multi-DOF fingered was that the motion of HRP-4C was not natural. Although hand is necessary to achieve this. However, there were too there were numerous causes, we thought things could be many hurdles to realize this during the initial development improved by adjusting the joint configuration of HRP-4C to of the previous hand. In the present situation, we have kept be closer to that of a real human. Therefore, we developed the basic design. So based on design concept D), the new the new foot with toe joint as presented in Section 5. We also hand as well as the previous hand has 2-DOF. and two felt that the view from the HRP-4C might help us during servomotors are located inside of the hand. remote operation from a backyard in the events. Although Towards design concept E), planetary gears are used in we were sometimes supplied with images taken by fixed the new hand for the final reduction gear. Although miter point video cameras set up by event management, almost all gears and bevel gears were adopted inside of the previous camera images were useless because the robot was lost from hand, they are not used in the new hand. view. In addition, the view from the robot may be useful to To realize design concept F), we referred to the realize robot motion responding to spectators. To achieve anthropometry database of Japanese [19, 22, 23]. Although this, we implemented the new eye with camera into HRP-4C there are several measured items concerning human hands in as presented in Section 6. the database, the principal dimensions were selected from the database for designing the new hand. Fig. 3 shows the 4. New Hand selected dimensions and the average for young Japanese females. 4-1. Design Concept 4-2. Mechanism and Examinations We resized the human-size hand to further match HRP-4C. Since the joints and dimensions of HRP-4C are set Based on the design concepts D), E) and F), the new to average values of young Japanese females except for the hand was developed. During the mechanical design stage, previous hands and the budget for improvements was limited, the link length and thickness of the new hand were deformed we set the design concepts of the new hand as follows. to be from 90% to 110% of the average dimension of a young Japanese female. Fig. 4 shows the new developed Design concepts of new hand: hand and its principal dimensions. As shown in Figs. 3 and 4, D) Keep design concept of previous hand the dimensions of the new hand are almost that of a young E) Reduce backlash Japanese female. F) Realize the average size of a young Japanese female Fig. 5 shows an illustration of the new hand mechanism. The design concepts kept from the previous hand were as Fig. 5(a) shows the exterior of the new hand which has a


(a) New Hand (b) Abducted posture of thumb (c) Adducted posture of thumb

(d) Extended posture of 4 fingers (e) Flexed posture of 4 fingers

Fig. 5. Illustration of new hand mechanism

Fig. 6. Previous hand [left] Fig. 7. Japanese female hand [left] and new hand [right] and new hand of HRP-4C which is overlaid with its mechanism [right] (Note: Left picture doesn't show the strict size of Japanese female standard.)

thumb and 4 fingers. The new hand, without its palm plate, links, 4 fingers work together during extension and flexion is shown in Figs. 5(b) and 5(c). These figures tell us that the when driven by the 2nd servomotor. 1st servomotor with the 1st planetary gear (see servomotor The previous hand and the new hand are shown side by #1 and planetary gear #1 in Figs. 5(b) and 5(c)) enables side in Fig. 6. The left side of Fig. 7 shows a real Japanese abduction and adduction of the thumb. The new hand, female hand. Her hand length from crease is 170.0[mm], without its palm plate and thumb mechanism, is shown in while the average for young Japanese females is 167.8 [mm]. Figs. 5(d) and 5(e). As shown in these figures, the 2nd The right side of Fig. 7 shows the new hand on which is servomotor and the 2nd planetary gear (see servomotor #2 overlaid the mechanism. Fig. 6 shows how small the new and planetary gear #2 in Figs. 5(d) and 5(e)) are also located hand is compared to the previous one. Fig. 7 shows that a inside the new hand. Pulleys and timing belt are also located human-size hand with a realistic skin was developed. between them. The output torque of the 2nd planetary gear is However, there are cases where some spectators still feel the transmitted to proximal links of 4 fingers (index, middle, new hand attached to HRP-4C is still out of proportion to its ring, and little fingers), which are locked together, via a body. Since there might be numerous causes including a parallel crank mechanism as shown in Fig. 5(d). Since each psychological issue, we will carefully consider the solution distal link and each middle link are linked with proximal to overcome this issue in the future.


5. New Foot with Toe Joint using our controller [24, 25]. We also needed the mechanism for absorbing the landing impact. Although these didn't 5-1. Design Concept allow us to realize the narrow heel on the previous foot, we saw to it that the size of the previous foot was close to be the The new foot with an active toe joint was developed for average of young Japanese females according to the realizing human-like walking motion. Up to now, several anthropometry database of Japanese [19]. Fig. 8 shows the bipedal humanoid robots with toe joint have been developed. principal dimensions we considered from among the WABIAN-2R (WAseda BIpedal humANoid- No.2 Refined) database and its average of young Japanese females. Since developed by Waseda University has a passive toe joint. these hurdles are not cleared yet, we designed the new foot Bipedal walk with heel-contact and toe-off motion was with the active joint in consideration of the effect on putting realized using foot with a passive toe joint [10]. However, on shoes in accordance with the previous foot. we think that the passive toe joint may restrict relative The design concept H) is indispensable both to imitate motion between toe and ankle parts. H6 developed by the humanlike toe motion and to make arbitrary toe motion. For University of Tokyo has an active toe joint [11]. Using the safe operation, the design concept I) is required. active toe joint, bipedal and full-body motion was enhanced. However, it can catch something such as a lost article on the 5-2. Mechanism and Examinations floor or carpet fiber between the "U" shaped toe sole plate and heel sole plate. After careful consideration, the design Based on the design concepts G), H) and I), the new foot concepts of new foot with toe joint were decided as follows. with a toe joint was developed. As mentioned in Section 5-1, the new foot with the active joint is designed in Design concepts of new foot: consideration of the effect on putting on shoes together with G) No deviation from the appearance of previous foot the previous foot. Fig. 9 shows the sole size of the new foot H) Active joint with the newly developed toe joint. The sole size of the new I) Prevent the danger of sandwiching anything foot is 245 [mm] long and 105 [mm] wide. This is almost the between toe sole plate and heel sole plate same dimensions as the previous one. Figs. 8 and 9 show us

To keep the appearance of HRP-4C, the design concept that the size of the new foot is a bit larger than the average G) was adopted. When we designed the previous foot young Japanese female. The foot cover of the new foot is without a toe joint, its foot size was designed as a foot with almost the same as that of previous foot (Length: 270 [mm] shoes on. There were several reasons why the deformation × Width: 121 [mm]) [9], though this can change slightly policy 1) was not applied to the design of the previous foot. depending on the condition of the elastic cover. It is One of reasons was that the final appearance was decided by designed in the image of a foot wearing a shoe like the the covers put on the foot mechanism. So, we kept the previous foot. deformation policy 1) for the previous foot cover design. Fig. 10 shows the mechanism of the new foot with the Another reason was that it is easier to make a stable walk by active toe joint. This figure shows that the new foot is using a bigger foot. Therefore, we designed the previous foot connected to a shin link through 2-DOF ankle joint. The to be as large as possible keeping its sole outline inside sole rotational axis of toe joint is illustrated by using a dot-dash cover outline. The third reason was that we needed a 6-axes line in Fig. 10. As shown in Fig. 10, four bar linkage Force/Torque sensor on the foot to stabilize the humanoid mechanism is adopted between the toe sole plate and the

Fig. 8. Average of sole size of young Japanese female [19] Fig. 9. Sole size of HRP-4C (Note: Draw line doesn't show the strict outline of Japanese female sole shape.)


Surface A

(a) Tiptoe lifted up

Pulleys and Timing Belt

(b) Toe joint angle = 0 [deg.] Harmonic drive gear (Note: Red line doesn't show the strict outline of Japanese female foot shape.)

Output shaft axis of harmonic drive gear (Axis of active driven joint) Toe sole plate Heel sole plate . . Servomotor Four bar linkage mechanism Toe pitch axis (Axis of passive free joint #1) (c) Tiptoe lifted down Toe pitch axis

Fig. 10. Toe joint mechanism Fig. 11. Examples of toe joint posture

Fig. 12. Walking motion using the active toe joint (walking speed: 1.8 [km/h], step length: 400 [mm], step cycle: 0.8 [sec/step]

heel sole plate to drive the active toe joint. A servomotor and young Japanese female standard, it is illustrated to show that a harmonic drive gear are integrated in the heel sole plate in component parts realizing the toe joint mechanism are accordance with design concepts G) and H). To transmit the carefully placed to imitate human foot shape. As shown in output torque of the servomotor to the input shaft of the Fig. 11, the four bar linkage mechanism enables the height harmonic drive gear, pulleys and timing belt are utilized. of the toe joint to be close to floor level. It also means that The rotational axis of the active driven joint of the four bar the relative displacement between both sole plates (see linkage mechanism is connected with the output shaft axis of surface A illustrated in Fig. 11(a)) is not much, even if the harmonic drive gear (see Fig. 11(c)). One rotational axis of 3 toe joint rotates on its axis. Namely, this mechanism passive free joints of four bar linkage mechanism is prevents the danger of sandwiching anything between the consistent with the toe joint axis (see Fig. 11(c)). By using toe sole plate and the heel sole plate. this mechanism, the motion around the toe pitch axis is Fig. 12 shows a sequence of snap shots of walking achieved by driving the servomotor. motion using the active toe joints. This walking motion is Fig. 11 shows examples of toe joint posture. In Figs. generated by our new walking pattern generator [25], which 11(a) and 11(c), the toes are shown lifted up and down is in progress and is improved from our previous ones [26, respectively. Fig. 11(b) shows that the toe sole plate and the 27]. The walking speed is 1.8 [km/h] (step length: 400 heel sole plate are in the same plane. In Fig. 11(b), an [mm/step], step cycle: 0.8 [sec/step]). Looking at Fig. 12, we imitated outline of human foot shape is also illustrated by think the walking motion of HRP-4C mimics human using a red line. Although it doesn't show the strict outline of walking motion more closely by using the toe joints.


6. New Eye with Camera CMOS camera. Its resolution is 1280 × 1024, and the horizontal angle of view is 43 [deg.], and is connected a 6-1. Design Concept computer with USB. To integrate this tiny camera inside of the artificial eye, we first bored a hole that matches the We developed the new eye with camera towards both camera in the artificial eye. Next, we ground the bored providing visual information for operators and realization of surface carefully so that we could get a clear image from the motion in response to spectators. The design concepts of the tiny camera through these surfaces. new eye with camera were decided as follows. The new eye with camera is installed in the left eye of HRP-4C, while the right eye of HRP-4 has no camera. Design concepts of new eye: Looking at Fig. 14, it is clear that the new eye with camera J) No deviation from image of previous eye doesn't deviate from the image of the previous eye . K) Capability of providing visible information for Fig. 15 is a picture captured by the camera installed operators inside of left eye of HRP-4C. Although it is slightly dim, it is

It is obvious that the design concept J) is necessary to enough for operators to control by. keep the image of the previous face. Since a face seems to be We also carried out experiments on color recognition changed easily by something new such as makeup and color using the new eye with camera. In the color recognition contact lenses, we carefully considered where we can place a process, predefined colors in the image were extracted and camera inside of HRP-4C. Although we tried to place the the maximum connected area of the colors was acquired by camera on the forehead as a mole, its image was quite using a labeling algorithm [28]. In the experiments, the color different from the previous face. As a result, we decided to recognition results were transmitted from HRP-4C to the place the camera inside of HRP-4C’s eye. As explained in outside monitor though wireless LAN (IEEE802.11g) Section 3, the design concept K) is proposed through reducing its quality so that we could check the color experience. recognition process in real-time. Fig. 16 shows experimental results projected on the outside monitor. Since the quality of 6-2. Realization and Examinations the color recognition results was reduced for transmitting to the outside monitor, Fig. 16 is dimmer than Fig. 15. A blue To satisfy the design concepts J) and K), we integrated a circle shown in Fig. 16 indicates recognition results. As tiny camera inside the artificial eye. Fig.13 shows the shown in Fig. 16, the new eye with camera can be used for artificial eye and the tiny camera. The tiny camera is a color recognition.

Fig. 13. Artificial eye [left] and tiny camera [right] Fig. 14. New eye with camera installed to left eye

Fig. 15. View from new eye with camera Fig. 16. Experimental results on tracking a pink ball (Note: The picture quality is reduced to transmit from HRP-4C.)


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