The 2014 Annual Review

1 The Nobel Foundation 2014 Annual Review

EDITORS: Annika Pontikis, Public Relations Manager, Linda Toth, Coordinator DESIGN/PRODUCTION: Martin Zetterquist, Formalix AB PRINTING: Göteborgstryckeriet AB PAPER: Galerie Art Matt

All images in the Annual Review are © The Nobel Foundation, © Nobel Media AB or © The Nobel Museum AB, unless otherwise indicated.

COVER IMAGES: May-Britt Moser, photo: Alexander Mahmoud Children visiting the Nobel Museum, photo: Hans Nilsson Thorbjørn Jagland, and , photo: Ken Opprann A visitor wearing the age suit “Agnes” at Nobel Week Dialogue, photo: Niklas Elmehed Banner Nobel Week Dialogue, photo: Niklas Elmehed

Subject to changes regarding exhibitions, programmes and events during 2015 For questions regarding the Annual Review, please contact: [email protected]

The Nobel Foundation 2015 ®, Nobelprize.org®, Nobel Media®, Nobel Museum®, Nobel Center®, Nobel Prize Concert®, Concert® and the Nobel Medal are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation, P.O. Box 5232, 102 45 ,

2 A Word from the Executive Director

Lars Heikensten, Executive Director of the Nobel Foundation since 2011.

When the Laureates are announced in efforts. We can learn much from them October each year, it propels research- and they can inspire us to make our PHOTO: STEFAN TELL STEFAN PHOTO: ers, authors and peace advocates into own contributions. But we are not lfred Nobel lived and worked the spotlight. The world’s attention is content with this alone. In the spirit during the second half of the momentarily directed towards scien- of , we aim to tackle the A19th century. It was a time tific progress and humanist questions greatest issues of our time. Today, that that had much in common with our that affect us all, either directly or can involve everything from climate own age. It was characterized by indirectly. The Nobel Prize attracts change to children’s rights to good scientific progress, improved commu- enormous media attention. As an schools. This publication provides nications, increased trade and rapidly example, during 2014 over 50,000 more information about some of what expanding international companies. articles were published in digital has taken place over the past year. Alfred Nobel, was deeply involved in media. Our largest project at present is all of this. However, like our own era, The Prize’s status brings with it the Nobel Center at Blasieholmen in it was also a time marked by social both opportunity and responsibility. Stockholm. Exactly one year ago David and political challenges and by signifi- Over the course of the year we have Chipperfield Architects Berlin was cant environmental impact. Anti-intel- worked to produce a strategy for our announced as winner of the com- lectual and xenophobic tides were also future activities and for managing our petition to design the Nobel Center. part of Nobel’s time, as were military unique brand. It is the Nobel Com- The City Planning Commission of expansion and rampant nationalism. mittees that, through their independ- Stockholm, backed by broad support, Alfred Nobel was shaped by ent and careful work when selecting have this spring decided to allow the the ideals of the Enlightenment. He the Nobel Laureates, have built the proposed detailed development plan, believed that people could make a good reputation of the Nobel Prize. based on the winning proposal, to be difference; that it was possible to To tend and strengthen the Prize’s presented for comments and sugges- understand and change the world if unique position and to make it acces- tions. This at the same time as we only you had the knowledge and the sible to a broader audience, we have have secured over 80 per cent of the courage. Unfortunately, this is not also spent the past 20 years creating estimated financing needed for the something we can take for granted in an extensive array of public activities project and the work of developing our own age. In many places in the around the Nobel Prize. These include the new centre’s activities has entered world, people who question religious exhibitions, digital productions, school an intensive phase. It will be an arena and other dogmas are jailed and programmes, more actively engaging in where the historical perspective meets tortured. Also in Western societies, new media and events in Sweden and the major challenges of tomorrow; an and rationalism are challenged. , as well as in many other plac- inspiring place that focuses on humani- That is why Nobel’s vision remains es in the world, such as Brazil, , ty’s opportunities to shape, understand both important and potent. and the United States. and improve our world. The Nobel Prize is a fantastic The Nobel Laureates and their LARS HEIKENSTEN source of knowledge and inspiration. achievements are the focus of our EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

1 Carl-Henrik Heldin, Chairman of the Board of the Nobel Foundation. Table of Contents

1 A Word from the Executive Director

4 The 2014 Nobel Laureates

8 The Nobel Prize in Social Media

Chemistry Laureate 10 The Nobel Prize – A Source of Knowledge William E. Moerner.

12 A Struggle for the Right to Go to School

14 A New Home for the Nobel Prize in Stockholm

16 Alfred Nobel

18 For the Greatest Benefit to Mankind

Chairman of the for or Juleen Zierath.

The Mosers at the Laureates in Hiroshi Nobel Museum. Amano and .


20 The Organisation Surrounding the Nobel Prize

22 The that Select the Nobel Laureates

24 The Nobel Foundation

26 Nobel Media AB

28 Nobel Museum AB

30 Foundation

32 Nobel Peace Prize Research & Information AS

34 Nobelhuset AB

The purpose of this annual review is to provide an overall picture of the Nobel Sphere as a whole and its member organisations. Supplementary information can be found in the Annual Reports of the Nobel Foundation and related organisations.


3 The Laureate in Physics was awarded for the invention of effective blue light-emitting diodes.

The Laureates in Physics, and Economic at the Royal Swedish Malala Yousafzai and Kailash Satyarthi Academy of Sciences. visiting the Norwegian Nobel Institute.

Litterature Laureate Jean Tirole4 with family. xxxx The 2014 Nobel Laureates

THE NOBEL PRIZE IN THE 2014 CHEMISTRY 2014 WAS AWARDED TO WAS AWARDED TO Isamu Akasaki, Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and and Shuji Nakamura William E. Moerner “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes “for the development of super-resolved fluorescence which has enabled bright and energy-saving white microscopy” light sources” THE MICROSCOPE REVOLUTIONIZED our ability to study LIGHTING PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE in our quality of life, but small objects. However, based on light’s wavelength, also consumes a substantial amount of the world’s a limit to the level of detail possible was calculated electricity. Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji to be 0.2 micrometers. Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell, Nakamura developed light-emitting diodes (leds), and William E. Moerner have discovered a way to thereby creating much more efficient light sources than circumvent this limitation. The methods make use were previously available. Leds are composed of very of fluorescence, a phenomenon in which certain sub- thin layers of semiconductors, materials with proper- stances become luminous after having been exposed ties that lie between those of electrical conductors and to light. In 1994, Hell developed a method in which insulators. Light is emitted when an electrical current one light pulse causes fluorescent molecules to glow, passes through these layers. Creating white light that while another causes all molecules except those in can be used for lighting requires a combination of a very narrow area to become dark. An image is red, green, and blue light. Red and green diodes were created by sweeping light along the sample. Moern- relatively easy to develop, whereas blue leds proved to er and Betzig helped create a method based on the be much more difficult to create. Ultimately, the Nobel fact that fluorescence in individual molecules can be Laureates used the difficult-to-handle semiconductor turned on and off using light. A single image is then gallium nitride to create them. During the 1980s and created by combining a large number of images in 1990s the Laureates successfully produced high-qual- which different molecules are activated. The methods ity gallium nitride, processed it, and combined it make it possible to see details that are only a few with other materials so that efficient blue diodes were nanometers—or billionths of a meter—long. Among created. other uses, this makes it possible to track processes occurring inside living cells.

Shuji Nakamura with family and friends. Stefan W. Hell with family.

ISAMU AKASAKI, PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD PHOTO FROM THE ROYAL OF SCIENCES, PHOTO: MARCUS MARCETIC, © KUNGL. VETENSKAPSAKADEMIEN MALALA YOUSAFZAI AND KAILASH SATYARTHI, PHOTO: KEN OPPRANN , PHOTO: JANERIK HENRIKSSON/TT ERIC BETZIG, PHOTO: ALEXANDER LJUNGDAHL PATRICK MODIANO WITH FAMILY, PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD 5 THE NOBEL PRIZE IN THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSIOLOGY OR MEDICINE 2014 2014 WAS AWARDED TO WAS AWARDED TO Patrick Modiano John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser “for the art of memory with which he has evoked the and Edvard I. Moser most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation” “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positio- ning system in the brain” GOOD STORIES are often characterized by their explo- ration of universal but difficult questions, at the same THE AWARENESS OF ONE’S LOCATION and how to find the way to other places is crucial for both humans and time as they are grounded in everyday settings and his- animals. To understand the ability to orient ourselves torical events. Patrick Modiano’s works center around in space, John O’Keefe studied the movements of rats subjects like memory, oblivion, identity, and guilt. The and signals from nerve cells in the hippocampus, an city of Paris plays a central role in his writing, and his area located in the center of the brain. In 1971 he stories are often based on events that occurred during discovered that when a rat was at a certain location the German occupation of during World War in a room, certain cells were activated, and that when II. At times, Modiano’s stories are based on his own the rat moved to another location, other cells became experience or on interviews, newspaper articles, or his activated. That is to say, the cells form a kind of inter- own notes. The majority of his works are brief and nal map of the room. In 2005 May-Britt Moser and full of impact. Several are also interlinked; episodes Edvard I. Moser discovered another type of cell close from earlier books are expanded on in later works and to the hippocampus that is important for determining the same characters reoccur in different stories. position. They found that when a rat passed certain Modiano made his literary debut in 1968 with the points arranged in a hexagonal grid in space, nerve novel La place de l’étoile. The Search Warrant (1997) cells that form a kind of coordinate system for naviga- is based on real-life events and is about a 15-year-old tion were activated. They then went on to demon- girl in Paris who becomes a victim of the Holocaust. strate how these different cell types cooperate. These Un pedigree (2005) has strong autobiographical discoveries open the way to understanding how the ­elements. Modiano has also written children’s books brain’s more advanced intellectual processes work. and film scripts.

May-Britt and Edvard I. Moser with their daughters. Nobel Diploma. Artist: Jens Fänge, Calligrapher: Annika Rücker, Book binder: Ingemar Dackéus, Photo: Lovisa Engblom. NOBEL LAUREATES, PHOTO: ALEXANDER MAHMOUD PORTRAIT MALALA YOUSAFZAI AND NOBEL PEACE PRIZE AWARD CEREMONY, PHOTO: KEN OPPRANN

6 THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE THE 2014 PRIZE IN ECONOMIC WAS AWARDED TO SCIENCES 2014 Kailash Satyarthi and Malala WAS AWARDED TO Yousafzai Jean Tirole “for their struggle against the suppression of children “for his analysis of market power and regulation” and young people and for the right of all children to MANY INDUSTRIES ARE DOMINATED by a small number education” of companies. If these markets are left unregulated, MUCH OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION, especially in poor society often suffers negative consequences. Prices can countries, is made up of children and young people. become unjustifiably high, for example. Powerful, To achieve a peaceful world, it is crucial that the rights but low-output companies can prevent new compa- of children and young people be respected. Injustices nies from entering the market. Since the mid-1980s, perpetrated against children contribute to the spread Jean Tirole has worked to develop a coherent theory of conflicts to future generations. Following the addressing these issues. Previously, researchers and tradition of , Indian activist Kai- decision-makers advocated simple rules, such as price lash Satyarthi has waged a peaceful struggle to stop caps or the prohibition of cooperation between com- children being exploited as labor instead of attending petitors in the same market. Tirole demonstrated that school. He has also contributed to the development these kinds of rules work well at times, but that they of international conventions on the rights of children. can be damaging in certain circumstances. Regulation Seventeen-year-old Pakistani Malala Yousafzai has should be adapted to suit specific conditions in each fought for girls’ right to education. After having suf- industry. Based on game theory and other theories, fered an attack on her life by Taliban gunmen, she has Tirole has suggested a framework for designing reg- continued her struggle and become a leading advocate ulations and has applied it to a number of industries, of girls’ rights. The Norwegian Nobel Committee sees from banking to telecommunications. The insight an important message in a Hindu and a Muslim, an gained can help public authorities to force companies Indian and a Pakistani, sharing the struggle in support to be more productive while avoiding hurting consum- of education and against extremism. ers and competitors.

The Peace Prize Laureates during the Prize Award Cermony at the City Hall. Jean Tirole with his children.

For more information about the Laureates of 2014 please visit Nobelprize.org

7 The Nobel Prize in Social Media Nobel Media has made major efforts within social media during 2014 to disseminate knowledge, inspire and involve the general public in the Nobel Sphere’s work. These efforts have been successful, resulting in a dramatic increase in the number of individuals reached through the official channels of the Nobel Prize.

INTEREST IN THE NOBEL PRIZE is global customize their own news stream. This announcement of the Nobel Laureates and, thanks to social media, many places great demands on media compa- in October. Social media was a central new groups can be reached. By being nies to be where users are and to offer and integrated part of the editorial active in social media, like Facebook, content relevant to each individual. advertising work in 2014. This is true Twitter and Google Plus, Nobel Media of both the choice of channels and the now reaches over 1.5 million users WITH THE NOBEL PRIZE’S UNIQUE history forms of media shared. who continually follow updates and of discoveries, achievements and life In connection with their selection, interact, comment on and share the stories, there is no shortage of amaz- each prize-awarding held organisation’s content in their own ing stories to publish, and work to a press conference to announce who networks. promote Nobel-related information on had been awarded the respective Nobel These initiatives fit perfectly with social media is done on a daily basis, Prizes. This news was published on the shift that is currently taking place year round. By guiding visitors to the the Nobelprize.org site, where the in the global media landscape. At its Nobelprize.org website, which offers announcements were also broadcast heart, the shift involves media consum- biographies, video material, podcasts, live via YouTube. At the same time, an ers no longer using traditional media games and other information related image was published in social media to access content to the same degree. to the Nobel Prize. that presented the Laureates and their Instead, the media must now come to achievements. Shortly thereafter, brief the users. An increasing number of peo- THERE IS A PARTICULAR TIME each year “congratulatory interviews” containing ple now access content that interests when the world’s gaze is trained the Laureate’s initial reactions were them via social media, where they can intently on the Nobel Prize: the published on the social audio platform

8 Joseph F. Coughlin from MIT’s AgeLab both spoke and tweeted about ageing during Nobel Week Dialogue. The suit his colleague is wearing in this photograph simulates what it is like to The Nobel Prize in Social Media live inside an 80-year-old’s body.

SoundCloud. Facts and detailed infor- Media greatly increased the intensity of means for our world that people are mation about the awarded work were its social media reporting. During the now living increasingly long lives. The also published on a continuous basis in announcements week alone, over 500 audience included participants from social media channels. tweets were published on Twitter. Also, 90 countries. The event was broadcast The informative images and inter- the increase in the number of Tweeter in full on the Nobelprize.org website. views spread broadly and quickly in followers on the social network nearly By making active use of Twitter during social media. Moreover, many estab- doubled during this week. Growth on the event, questions and discussions lished world media players, such as Facebook was also strong. were captured from among the , Al Jazeera, South China audience, which actively participated. Morning Post and the Financial Times ONE CONFIRMATION that this was a suc- A “digital moderator” took part in Post, used these pieces in their own cessful prioritization came in the form the discussions on social media and coverage. of the Wall Street Journal’s article on integrated the different voices from the Nobel Media’s social media initiative meeting, which enriched the dialogue. THE MOST SHARED TWITTER tweet was with an enticing headline suggesting the announcement of the awarding that the Nobel Prize had become AS THE MEETINGS ARE EXTENDED to a of the Nobel Peace Prize to Kailash “cool” in social media, together with a global audience, the ambition is to Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai in host of facts about its strong growth. further develop the digital aspect of the form of an image. The most lis- Social media is also a useful tool these activities, with an increased tened-to sound file was the interview for adding new dimensions to physical focus on social media. The aim is con- with May-Britt Moser, Laureate in meetings. On 9 December Nobel tinued strong growth in the number of Physiology or Medicine, which she Media organized the Nobel Week individuals reached at the global level shared with Edvard I. Moser and John Dialogue event in Stockholm, on the and to involve them more fully in the O’Keefe. One fun detail is that Moser theme of ageing. During the full-day activities surrounding the Nobel Prize. herself tipped others off about the event, Nobel Laureates, world-lead- interview in social media. ing experts and representatives from FOLLOW THE NOBEL PRIZE IN SOCIAL MEDIA: As a result of the significant inter- the business world, politics and the facebook.com/Nobelprize.org est shown by the outside world, Nobel cultural sphere met to discuss what it twitter.com/NobelPrize


9 The joy of discovery and curiosity are encouraged in school children who visit the Nobel Museum.

The guiding principles under- pinning the Nobel Museum’s school-oriented activities are dialogue and participation. We believe that knowledge is created through interaction with others. CARL-JOHAN MARKSTEDT, MANAGER, SCHOOL ACTIVITIES

The Nobel Museum’s Åsa Husberg explains how Alfred Nobel discovered . 10 The Nobel Prize – A Source of Knowledge

The Nobel Prize is an inspirational gateway to the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace. It can also be viewed as a unique mirror reflecting its time. The Nobel Prize offers glimpses of 20th-century history, full of exciting tales about cultural and scientific advances. The Nobel Museum focuses on this aspect, in particular, in its many interactions with school students.

THE NOBEL MUSEUM’S school activities are magical world of literature through its year’s Laureates in October 2014, the not intended solely to arouse interest in Jungle Fever and Goosebumps school museum offered a special programme Alfred Nobel, Nobel Laureates and the programme, while older students can for upper-secondary school classes for Nobel Prize categories. Using the Nobel learn more about genetics and the dis- the first time, through which they were Prize as a starting point, the museum’s covery of DNA or the key to unlock- able to meet members of the various school programme also highlights the ing the secrets of the atom. Nobel Committees and to ask them importance of science, literature and questions about the Laureates and peace efforts for the individual and for WHAT IS IT REALLY LIKE to work as a their work. society. In the museum’s meetings with ? Through its school activities, students, it aims to encourage their the Nobel Museum also serves as a THE LEVEL OF DEMAND from school desire to participate in and belief in place for the research world to meet classes wishing to visit the Nobel their ability to exert an influence and with schools. Upper-primary school Museum far exceeds what the muse- contribute to change. Each of the muse- students have spoken with um’s current venue inside the old um’s programmes includes some form via Skype during the year, and a Stock Exchange building can accom- of active student participation. Often, theme day is also held each year for modate. To try to meet the demand, this means experiments or discussions. upper-secondary school students, at the museum’s education officers Role-playing and creative exercises are which they can meet scientists and instead travel to schools around the also common inclusions. discuss the year’s Nobel Prize. For the country to meet with teachers and In 2014, 570 school activities were fourth year running, the Museum’s students as part of the Akka school held for students and teachers at all Research Department organized the project. Twenty-nine teacher-training levels, from kindergarten to upper Forskarhjälpen programme, at which courses were held for more than 400 secondary school. The museum strives school students can try their hands teachers located throughout Sweden to achieve an effective collaboration at real research. This year’s DNA during the past year, including courses with schools in which the programmes Hunt project focused on analyzing focusing on entrepreneurship. The it designs serve as a helpful resource the origins of fish, and gave students Nobelväskans hemlighet programme for teachers and where the museum’s the opportunity to participate in and was conducted at a large number of activities supplement school education experience a real research project first locations, giving more than 4,000 in a meaningful way. The museum hand. In previous Forskarhjälpen pro- lower-primary school students the has longer-term collaborative projects jects, school students have taken part chance to take a trip back in time to in place with a number of schools in research projects aimed at improv- the 1800s, where they could blow and has also developed a programme ing solar cells and finding bacteria for soap bubbles in Alfred Nobel’s labora- tailored to special needs education. use in new antibiotics. tory, for example. In total, more than The Nobel Museum offers young- In conjunction with the press 30,000 school students took part in er students the chance to enter the conferences and announcements of the the museum’s school activities in 2014.


11 The dress Malala wore when she was subject to an attack is part of the exhibition about the . Fighting for the right to go to school

On 10 October 2014 it was announced that the 16 year old Pakistani school girl Malala Yousafzai was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Two years before, on 9 October 2012, she was fighting for her life, just having been shot in the head by the Taliban, on her way from school. Malala wanted the school uniform she wore when she was shot to be part of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize exhibition at the Nobel Peace Center in Oslo.

MAKING THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE Both Laureates have been deeply season at school, and did not have a ­EXHIBITION is an annual occurrence involved in the making of the 2014 week to spare. But what she contrib- at the Nobel Peace Center. The eight Nobel Peace Prize exhibition – Malala uted, no-one knew existed: her blood weeks of production time, from the and Kailash. Kailash Satyarthi set stained school uniform that she wore announcement in October until the aside a full week to work with pho- when she was shot. Laureates come to Oslo for the Nobel tographer Lynsey Addario and jour- “My school uniform is very festivities in December, are however nalist Lyse Doucet. Malala Yousafzai important to me because I wore it unique every year. was in the middle of an intensive exam when I went to school. The day I was


12 “October 9th is not the day I was shot. It is the day I survived. I am alive, I survived, and my cause survived”. MALALA YOUSAFZAI

attacked I was wearing this uniform. It the uniform part of the exhibition. also carries the brutal story of Mala- is an important part of my life, now I The blue and white uniform carries la’s opponents, and the attack she want to show it to children, to people many stories. It carries the story suffered. The Taliban were unable all around the world. This is my right, of Malala, the girl growing up in a to stop Malala. She survived the it is the right of every child, to go to school, using the school yard as her attack. “October 9th is not the day school. This should not be neglected,” playground. From the age of 2–3 she I was shot. It is the day I survived. Malala said in an interview made for roamed the classrooms of the school I am alive, I survived, and my cause the exhibition. where her father was teacher and survived”, she said in an interview in headmaster. It carries the story of the 2013. TO BE ENTRUSTED with an object so sat- proud accomplishments of a school urated with stories, meaning, brutality, girl an important symbol of her right TODAY MALALA CONTINUES her strug- life and death is a delicate and serious to free expression and the right to an gle for girls’ right to an education. matter. Making sure the balance education. “Wearing a uniform made The school uniform is a key symbol between the brutality and the power me feel that yes, I am a student, I am of her continuous fight. The Nobel of the survival success story reached doing it, practically,” she said in an Peace Center is glad to ensure that the the audience was a key challenge for interview made for the exhibition. stories it carries now become part of the Nobel Peace Center when making But the blood-stained uniform many people’s lives.

13 We are extremely excited and honoured to have been selected to be the architects for the Nobel Center. We look forward to working together to develop a building that reflects both the values of Christoph Felger and David Chipperfield. the Nobel Prize and the high expectations of the citizens of Stockholm. DAVID CHIPPERFIELD

14 A New Home for the Nobel Prize in Stockholm

In April 2014 a jury unanimously declared David Chipperfield’s and Christoph Felger’s timeless brass shimmering building, “Nobelhuset” the winner of the architecture competition to design the Nobel Center. Thus, an internationally recognized architectural firm with solid experience of working in historic settings is the collaborator who will help to realize the new home of the Nobel Prize in Stockholm. The winning entry will comprise the basis for a new detailed development plan to be considered by the City of Stockholm during the spring of 2015.

THE NOBEL CENTER at Blasieholmen will major importance to house activities middle section, and an upper storey be one of Stockholm’s more attractive for the benefit of the entire city. With above the rooftop, harmonizes with tourist destinations. It is estimated the establishment of the new Nobel the traditional design of Stockholm’s that the centre will have 600,000 Center at Blasieholmen, the city district of stone buildings. visitors each year. Activities held at will gain a coherent line of cultural the centre will range from lectures by institutions that stretches from the city A MUSEUM VISITOR’S stroll along the world-renowned Nobel Laureates to centre to Skeppsholmen. The quays building’s various stairways, from the programmes for school children of will be upgraded and the promenade ground floor up the Nobel Auditori- all ages. The Nobel Center will also along the waterfront will become um, links each of the building’s func- serve as a venue for extensive scientific more accessible and attractive. Togeth- tions and, in itself, can be made into conferences, at the same time as exhi- er with the Nationalmuseum’s park, an exciting experience. In this way, the bitions based on ultra-modern inter- a new public space will be created on Nobel Center’s central purpose as a active technology will showcase the the sunny southern side. vibrant public venue for meetings, new Nobel Prize’s importance for humani- discoveries and inspiration is affirmed. ty. Temporary exhibitions, programme­ CHIPPERFIELD’S “NOBELHUSET” comprises The top floor of the building will activties and the opportunity to enjoy a total of eight levels, including six house one of the world’s most excit- the surroundings from the café will above ground and one parking garage. ing meeting places, the grand Nobel encourage visitors to return. Its façade will combine sections of Auditorium, offering a panoramic view transparent glass with warm, gleam- of Stockholm. The auditorium will SINCE THE MID-20TH CENTURY, the ing metal beams and stone laminate. function both as an appropriate setting City of Stockholm has earmarked The buildings distinctive appearance for formal events and for other large the site on Blasieholmen peninsula, allows it to be perceived as a “soli- gatherings. Future Nobel Laureates will adjacent to the bay Nybroviken and taire” structure, at the same time as receive their prizes here, which lends Nationalmuseum, for a building of its three-tiered structure, with base, the venue a most special kind of magic.

“We view the winning proposal as a concrete interpretation of the Nobel Prize as Sweden’s most important symbol in the world. Stockholm will gain a building – magnificent but without pomp, powerful yet graceful – with qualities like those the City Hall gave the capital a century ago.” PER WÄSTBERG, WRITER, MEMBER OF THE SWEDISH ACADEMY AND CHAIRMAN OF THE NOBEL COMMITTEE FOR LITERATURE


15 “Home is where I work and I work everywhere”. ALFRED NOBEL

16 Alfred Nobel

Alfred Nobel was an inventor, entrepreneur and a very successful businessman, who continually travelled between his factories. Nobel built up an enormous fortune that he chose in his will to dedicate to a prize that would reward outstanding efforts within the different fields that he was most involved in during his lifetime.

ALFRED NOBEL was born in Stockholm These experiments were dangerous ment’s central ideas, both in his in 1833. His father, Immanuel, was an and led to several fatal accidents. In practical work and in his philosophy. inventor and and his mother, one such accident, Alfred’s younger He combined his religious doubt with Andriette, came from a wealthy fam- brother Emil was killed. Nobel finally a belief in the natural sciences, was a ily. When Immanuel’s company went solved the problem of handling this true optimist about technology and an bankrupt, he moved to Russia and highly volatile liquid by mixing it with entrepreneur who actively took part in found success within the war industry. a type of sand, kieselguhr. The result industrialisation. In 1842 the rest of the family followed was a mouldable mass that was easy Alfred Nobel died on 10 Decem- and Alfred and his brothers received a to package and that could be shipped ber 1896 in his home in San Remo, first-class education there from private and handled safely. It was patented in Italy, and his will attracted significant tutors. At 17 years of age, Alfred 1867 under the name dynamite. With attention when it was published. He spoke five languages: Swedish, Rus- the patenting of different forms of had allocated most of his fortune to sian, English, French and German. dynamite, together with the detonator rewarding outstanding efforts within At the time he was interested in that he had invented previously, Alfred physics, chemistry, physiology or poetry, and also wrote his own works. Nobel achieved his major technical medicine, literature and peace. The His father disliked Alfred’s interest and industrial breakthrough. will was challenged by relatives, by in literature and sent him abroad for authorities in several countries and by studies that focused more on the nat- ALFRED NOBEL quickly exploited his Swedish King Oscar II. ural sciences. He visited a number of inventions commercially and built countries and finally ended up in Paris, factories and laboratories around SUBSEQUENTLY, a long process to realize where he studied chemistry under the world – Vinterviken in Sweden, Alfred Nobel’s vision began. After a Professor T. J. Pelouze. It was there Krümmel in Germany and Ardeer in few years of complicated processes led that Alfred first came in contact with were some of the first. He by the executors of the will, Ragnar nitroglycerine, which was invented by eventually built just over 90 factories Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, the the Italian Ascanio Sobrero. It was a in 20 countries. At his death, Nobel Nobel Foundation was formed in highly explosive liquid that was con- held a total of 355 patents and left 1900 and the first Nobel Prizes were sidered too dangerous to use. Nobel behind an enormous fortune. awarded the following year. returned to Sweden and soon began Nobel was a man of his time, experimenting with nitroglycerine. embodying many of the Enlighten­


17 Isamu Akasaki adds his name to the legacy of the Nobel Prize.

18 For the Greatest Benefit to Mankind

Alfred Nobel’s will became something of a sensation after its reading, and was widely reported in international media and debated extensively. It stated that his fortune was to be used as an endowment, the interest on which would be awarded annually “… to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind – whether he be a Scandinavian or not”.

IN ACCORDANCE with Nobel’s wishes, versary. The first prize was awarded several reasons for this. One is that it five Nobel Prizes were established – in the following year. The Royal Swedish is considered to be the first ever inter- physics, chemistry, physiology or med- Academy of Sciences is responsible for national prize, in as much as Nobel’s icine, literature and peace. The Nobel selecting the Laureates in Economic will directs that no regard be paid to Prize’s five categories are a unique mix Sciences, Sveriges Riksbank (the Swed- nationality in the selection of Laure- of disciplines. They make the Nobel ish central bank) funds the prize. ates. Another is that the prize money Prize an interdisciplinary award that awarded has often been substantial. reflects both Alfred Nobel as a person THE REASON WHY Nobel stated that But most important is the independent and his interests during his lifetime. the Peace Prize should be awarded work of the prize-awarding institu- His will clearly stated that no in Norway and that the awarding tions in choosing the Laureates; a regard should be paid to the recipient’s committee should be elected by the task that has been conducted with the nationality, sparking great debate in is not specified in his will or greatest expertise and thoroughness Sweden, which was strongly charac- in any other document. Nobel may over the years. terized by nationalist movements at have taken into consideration the fact At most, three winners share a the time. The will also clearly specified that Norway was part of a union with Nobel Prize and each receives their the prize-awarding institutions: the Sweden at the time, and one of the share of prize money, a diploma and Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences prize-awarding institutions should a medal. The Nobel Prize Medals for would select the Laureates in Physics therefore be based in Norway. He may Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or and Chemistry; Karolinska Institutet also have believed that Norway was, Medicine and Literature were cre- would be responsible for the Prize in in fact, better positioned to nominate ated by the engraver Erik Lindberg. Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Peace Prize Laureates. Norway did not Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland Academy would handle the Literature have its own foreign policy, nor the designed the Peace Prize Medal, while Prize; and a committee selected by same military traditions and strong the Prize Medal was creat- the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) links to the Royal House as Sweden ed by Gunvor Svensson-Lundqvist. in Oslo would choose Peace Prize had. Moreover, in the late 1800s, the All recipients are invited to Stock- Laureates. Storting was strongly committed to holm and Oslo for the presentation of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and its a Nobel Lecture and to receive their THE SVERIGES RIKSBANK PRIZE in Eco- work with conflict resolution. awards. Since 1901, 889 Laureates nomic Sciences in Memory of Alfred have been selected, of which 864 are Nobel was established in 1968, on the OVER THE YEARS, the Nobel Prize has individuals and 25 are organisations. occasion of the Riksbank’s 300th anni- acquired a unique position. There are


THE NOBEL PRIZE is surrounded by several INFORMATIONAL ACTIVITIES These companies are all externally funded organisations and institutions with dif- RELATED TO THE NOBEL PRIZE through contributions from national ferent tasks related to the prize. Over the The Nobel sphere also includes a number or local authorities, educational orga- past decade, the organisational structure of externally financed entities with the nisations and philanthropic entities, or has grown, particularly in areas tasked primary task of disseminating informa- through collaborations with companies. with spreading information and knowl- tion about the Nobel Prize and engaging The companies within the Nobel sphere edge about the Nobel Prize. and inspiring people around the world have no influence over or access to the through the stories of the Nobel Laure- nomination or selection procedures of WHO FINANCES THE NOBEL ates. the Nobel Prizes. Only after the public PRIZE? The Nobel Foundation Rights Associ- announcement of the Nobel Laureates The Nobel Prize is financed byTHE ation is a non-profit organisation serving can these organisations begin spreading NOBEL FOUNDATION, a private institution as an umbrella organisation for the information about each year’s Laureates. established in 1900 based on the will following entities; “The on-going development of our of Alfred Nobel. The main tasks of the NOBEL GROUP INTERESTS AB, Stockholm international information campaign is Nobel Foundation is to manage the assets NOBEL MEDIA AB, Stockholm important for safeguarding the Nobel made available through the will, and the NOBEL MUSEUM AB, Stockholm Prize’s position and spreading its message intellectual property related to the Nobel NOBELHUSET AB, Stockholm to a global audience. There are also good Prize that has developed over the years. NOBEL PEACE PRIZE RESEARCH AND reasons for promoting efforts that are in The Foundation finances both the work of INFORMATION AS, Oslo harmony with the spirit of the Nobel Prize selecting the Nobel Prize recipients by the NOBEL PEACE CENTER FOUNDATION, Oslo and that encourage creativity and innova- prize-awarding institutions and the prize NOBEL CENTER FOUNDATION, Stockholm tion, thereby contributing to solutions to money. (formed 2014) major current and future challenges. The support these companies receive through WHO SELECTS THE NOBEL their respective sponsors is essential for LAUREATES? conducting and expanding these efforts,” The process of independently and says Lars Heikensten, Executive Director expertly selecting Nobel Laureates, in of the Nobel Foundation. accordance with Alfred Nobel’s intentions, is handled by the Nobel Prize-awarding institutions named in his will: THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES – the ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE, MARCH 2015 Nobel prizes in Physics and Chemistry and the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Econo- NOBEL­ FOUNDATION mic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel The Nobel Foundation approves the boards of the THE NOBEL ASSEMBLY AT KAROLINSKA Nobel Foundation Rights Association and the Nobel INSTITUTET – the Nobel Prize in Physiolo- Peace Center Foundation. Together with its trustees, it gy or Medicine also approves the board of Nobel Center Foundation. THE SWEDISH ACADEMY – the Nobel Prize NOBEL­ FOUNDATION NOBEL RIGHTS ASSOCIATION in Literature NOBEL CENTER PEACE CENTER FOUNDATION THE NORWEGIAN NOBEL COMMITTEE, a FOUNDATION NOBEL ­GROUP INTERESTS AB committee of five persons appointed by the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) – the Nobel Peace Prize NOBEL PEACE Read more about the prize-awarding NOBEL­ NOBEL NOBEL- PRIZE RESEARCH MUSEUM AB MEDIA AB HUSET AB & institutions and how they select Nobel INFO. AS Laureates on page 22.

20 Nobel Week begins with a visit to the Nobel Museum. Media and the public awaiting this year’s Laureates at Stortorget. PHOTO: NIKLAS ELMEHED


IN HIS WILL, Alfred Nobel stipulated Physics and Chemistry. The Royal Swedish Nobel Committees evaluate nominations which institutions should select Nobel Academy of Sciences also selects the for the respective Nobel Prizes and con- Laureates in each prize category. Presum- recipients of the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in duct extensive investigations concerning ably, he chose the academic institutions Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred a selection of these nominees. The Nobel that he considered to be best suited to Nobel, established in 1968 on the occa- Committees subsequently present their the task. Nobel was less specific regard- sion of the Riksbank’s (Sweden’s central proposals for Nobel Laureates to the ing the organisation that was to manage bank) 300th anniversary. The Academy respective prize-awarding institution. his assets. What would later become the has around 450 Swedish members and The actual decision as to who will be Nobel Foundation was only mentioned in around 175 foreign members. awarded Nobel Prizes is made not by the his will as a fund. The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska respective Nobel Committees, but by all The Nobel Prize’s international unique Institutet selects the Nobel Laureates in members of the prize-awarding institu- position is largely due to the century-long Physiology or Medicine. The Assembly tion. independence of the prize-awarding insti- has 50 members. Concerning the Peace Prize, Alfred tutions in selecting Nobel Laureates. The The Swedish Academy selects the Nobel referred to the Storting (national fact that these organisations have engaged Nobel Laureates in Literature. The Acade- parliament) in Norway in his will. The exceptionally knowledgeable individuals my has 18 members. Storting appoints the five members of the within their own organisations as well as All of these institutions appoint Norwegian Nobel Committee. extensive international expertise has played special Nobel Committees of three to five The Norwegian Nobel Committee a vital role in achieving this standing. members, a secretary and, in some cases, differs from the other prize-awarding also deputies. Members are elected for a institutions in the that it is responsi- THE ROYAL SWEDISH ACADEMY OF term of three years and may serve for a ble both for evaluating the nominees and ­SCIENCES selects the Nobel Laureates in maximum of three consecutive terms. The selecting the recipient.

22 The 2014 Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in the Stockholm Concert Hall.




IN SEPTEMBER OF EACH YEAR the respec- confirm that the nominations were sub- the members of the prize-awarding institu- tive Nobel Committees send out individual mitted by individuals who have the right to tion in September. invitations to thousands of members of nominate. Since a nomination is only valid The final selection of Nobel Laureates academies, university professors and other for the current year, it is common for some is conducted by means of a vote. The scientists in numerous countries, previous candidates to be nominated several times. decisions are announced by the respective Laureates, members of parliamentary Some candidates may also be nominat- prize-awarding institutions immediately assemblies and others. Invitation recipients ed by more than one nominator in the after the vote, usually during the first half of are chosen so as to ensure that as many same year. Nominations are recorded and October. According to the Nobel Founda- countries and universities as possible compiled in a list. This list is processed in a tion’s statutes, prizes can be equally shared are represented over time. Those who series of phases during the spring. Initially, between two works, though by not more have been invited have the opportunity it consists of a large selection of names, than three individuals. All documents relat- to nominate Nobel Prize candidates for which is then narrowed down to a smaller ed to the nomination process and evalua- the upcoming year. Nominations, which number of candidates. These candidates tions remain confidential for 50 years. are confidential, must be received by the are then evaluated in depth with the Committees no later than 31 January of the assistance of domestic and foreign experts. MORE INFORMATION about the prize-awar- year in which the prize will be awarded. During the summer the Nobel Committee ding institutions is available on their respective websites: The procedures may vary somewhat members produce a comprehensive report www.kva.se between the Nobel Committees, but the detailing the candidate or candidates www.nobelprizemedicine.org selection process is largely the same across proposed as the recipient(s) of the year’s www.svenskaakademien.se all prize categories. The Committees first Nobel Prize. The proposal is presented to www.nobelpeaceprize.org THE NOBEL PRIZE AWARD CEREMONY AT THE STOCKHOLM CONCERT HALL, PHOTO: NIKLAS ELMEHED


THE NOBEL FOUNDATION is a private insti- Lectures and for administering Nobel tions (SEK 66.0 million); the Nobel Week tution established in 1900 based on the will Symposia held in the respective prize in Stockholm and Oslo (SEK 16.7 million); of Alfred Nobel. The statutes of the foun- categories. Two Nobel Symposia were held and administration etc. (SEK 15.9 million). dation were established after the will was during 2014: Does the rise and fall of great Additional information about the Nobel opened. A central task of the Nobel Foun- powers lead to conflict and war?, NS 157, Foundation’s financial management dation is to manage Alfred Nobel’s fortune. organized by Professor ; and is available in the Foundation’s 2014 The Foundation is to manage Nobel’s assets New Forms of Matter – Topological Insulators Annual Report, which is available at in a manner that ensures a secure financial and Superconductors, NS 156, organized by Nobelprize.org. standing for the Nobel Prize over the long Professor Thors Hans Hansson. term and that the prize-awarding institu- THE NOBEL PRIZE-AWARDING INSTITUTIONS, tions are guaranteed independence in their THE NORWEGIAN NOBEL INSTITUTE was (the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, work of selecting Nobel Laureates. founded in 1904 and acts as the Norwe- the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institu- The Foundation is also tasked with gian Nobel Committee’s secretariat and tet, the Swedish Academy and the Norwe- strengthening the Nobel Prize’s position by the Nobel Foundation’s branch office gian Nobel Committee) elect, for two cal- administering and carefully developing the in Oslo. The Institute administers the endar years, fifteen trustees for the Nobel brands and intangible assets that have been activities connected with the awarding of Foundation. Six representatives are chosen built up during the century-long history the Nobel Peace Prize, such as the Award by the Academy of Sciences and the other of the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Foundation Ceremony and Banquet. three by each of the other prize-awarding also strives to safeguard the prize-award- institutions. The Academy of Sciences ing institutions’ common interests and to IN RECENT YEARS, the Nobel Foundation also appoints four deputies and the other represent the Nobel sphere. has implemented extensive cost-cutting institutions appoint two deputies each. The In the past two decades a number of measures. Together with a good return trustees elect a chairman from their own public operations have also been devel- on capital, this has helped balance the number. The most important task of the oped with the aim of inspiring and dissemi- Foundation’s finances. However, ensuring trustees is to appoint the Nobel Founda- nating knowledge about the Nobel Prize. the importance of the Nobel Prize in the tion’s Board and to audit the Nobel Foun- The Nobel Foundation’s work intensifies long term continues to pose a significant dation’s accounts. At its annual meeting, during the autumn, as it is responsible for challenge. usually in late April, the trustees approve the Nobel Week that takes place in Stock- The market value of the Nobel the previous year’s accounts and discharge holm in December. This week has a busy Foundation’s invested capital amounted the Nobel Foundation’s schedule for Nobel Laureates, culminating to SEK 3.869 billion at the end of 2014. from personal liability. in the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony and capital is distributed as 55 per the held on 10 Decem- cent equities, 12 per cent fixed-income THE NOBEL FOUNDATION’S BOARD, which ber. Both of these events are planned and assets and 33 per cent alternative assets. is based in Stockholm, consists of seven implemented by the Foundation. The 2014 The return on investment capital for the members and two deputy members Nobel Week concluded with a reception for year was 16.5 per cent. appointed by the Foundation’s trus- the Nobel Laureates at the Nobel Foun- The total cost for all Nobel Prizes and tees. Board members and deputies are dation, which was also attended by Peace operating expenses in 2014 was SEK 98.6 appointed for a term of two years each. Prize Laureate Kailash Satyarthi. million. This was divided among three From among its own members, the Board The Nobel Foundation is also respon- main categories: the Prizes and compen- chooses a chairperson, a vice-chairperson sible for publishing the Laureates’ Nobel sation paid to the prize-awarding institu- and an executive director.

Students meeting Economics Laureate Daniel McFadden during a reception at Nordiska museet.

24 “Together we can spread the light of knowledge,” was the message Kailash Satyarthi shared when he gathered the 2014 Laureates around at the Nobel Foundation.

No. of Employees: 11 Executive Director: Lars Heikensten, Dr Established: 1900 Corporate ID No.: 802002-4462 Address: Sturegatan 14, Stockholm, Sweden Contact: [email protected], +46 (0)8-663 09 20 Website: www.nobelprize.org/ nobel_organizations/nobelfoundation/

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2014 Carl-Henrik Heldin, Professor, Chairman Göran K. Hansson, Professor, Vice Chairman, Secretary of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Director of the Nobel Foundation Peter Englund, Professor, Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy Tomas Nicolin, MSc , Adviser, Deputy Chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Staffan Normark, Professor, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Lars Bergström, Professor, Secretary of the Nobel Committee for Physics, Deputy Member Astrid Gräslund, Professor, Secretary of the Hiroshi Amano signs a confirmation that he Nobel Committee for Chemistry, Deputy has received his Nobel Medal and Diploma. Member



NOBEL MEDIA’S TASK is to disseminate Laureates’ efforts and life stories through with an audience of close to 1,000 people knowledge about Nobel Prize-winning Nobel Lectures, biographies, interviews, from various countries. The purpose of efforts and to stimulate interest in science, photographs, articles, podcasts and video the free full-day seminar is to give the literature and peace in keeping with content. Nobelprize.org also showed general public the opportunity to listen to Alfred Nobel’s vision. With the aim of pre- live broadcasts from both the prize researchers and to participate in discus- serving the Nobel Prize’s position in the announcements in October and the sions about global issues that affect us all. long term, the company develops many Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies held in The 2014 theme was The Age to Come media-related rights and productions. Stockholm and Oslo on 10 December. On and participants comprised a unique These are: Nobelprize.org, Nobel Prize both these occasions, a number of new group consisting of six Nobel Laureates, Concert, international lecture series and tools were used to increase viewers’ sense world-leading researchers, political deci- interdisciplinary meetings. The company of being present and to enable a higher sion-makers and influencers, which met also administers a portfolio of distribution degree of interactivity with visitors, which with an interested audience to discuss the rights for audio and video material as attracted the attention of the outside theme. New features introduced in 2014 well as for live broadcasts from the Nobel world. Internal and external Nobel-related included the item “science meets art”, in Prize Award Ceremonies. news was published online and in social which Nobel Laureate and media. The Educational section, which artist Jeff Koons held a unique discussion NOBELPRIZE.ORG CONTINUED to experi- contains around 40 web-based know­ about immortality. The event was broad- ence high visitor volume during 2014, and ledge games for lower secondary school cast live on www.nobelweekdialogue.org. the number of followers in social media students, was used by many. Among nearly doubled. During 2013 this trend of them, The Blood Typing Game again NOBEL PRIZE INSPIRATION INITIATIVE is increasing numbers of visitors primarily ranked as number one in popularity, with a recurring event at which students through social media had already begun. more than two million users in 2014. and researchers gain insight into Nobel In the autumn of 2014 more visitors Laureates’ experiences and inspiring were reached through social media than THE TASK OF PRODUCING the annual live stories through lectures and round table the web and the total numbers reached broadcasts from the Award Ceremony discussions. In 2014, these events were increased. Social media engagement and the Banquet held in Stockholm is held in Brazil, Denmark, China, UK and increased the most, multiplying sever- handled by Sveriges Television (SVT), Sweden. Events were also organized in al times during the year. Among other while Norwegian Broadcasting Corpo- several cities in India. In Delhi, a seminar features, Nobelprize.org has a relational ration (NRK) manages the production of was also held and the Nobel Museum’s database containing the public Nobel the annual Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony. travelling exhibition, The Nobel Prize: Ideas Prize nominations, open to all visitors. The copyright and the international Changing the World, made another stop During the year it was updated in close broadcasting rights are administered by on its journey. cooperation with the prize-awarding insti- Nobel Media and are distributed around tutions. The platform for linked data was the world via international news agencies NOBEL MEDIA collaborates with various expanded with references to external data Reuters, APTN, AFP and the European businesses and organisations in connec- sources, such as DBpedia, which opened Broadcasting Union. Nobel Media also tion with activities held in Sweden and up new opportunities for users to link organized the Nobel Prize Concert for the around the world. These are: Akademiska data on the Nobel Laureates. tenth year running. hus, Akamai, AstraZeneca, Carl Bennet AB, As previously, all Nobel Laureates the City of Gothenburg, DNB, Ericsson, JP from 1901 onward were presented on ON 9 DECEMBER 2014, the third Nobel Morgan, Microsoft, Region Västra Göta- Nobelprize.org. Visitors can explore the Week Dialogue was held in Stockholm, land, Saab, Sandvik, Scania and Volvo.

A participant at a seminar held at IUCAA in Pune, India, poses a question to Economics Laureate Finn Kydland.

26 BBC’s Zeinab Badawi moderates a conversation about immortality with artist Jeff Koons and Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel.

Conductor Andris Nelsons and Half of the participtants at the soprano Kristine Opolais at the Nobel Week Dialogue are students. Nobel Prize Concert.


MARCH 9 DECEMBER No. of Employees: 13 in Stockholm and 2 in London Nobel Prize Dialogue is Nobel Week Dialogue, free full Turnover: SEK 43,810K organized in Tokyo, Japan day seminar on science and Executive Director: Mattias Fyrenius society, Swedish Exhibition & Established: 2004 OCTOBER Congress Centre, Gothenburg Corporate ID No.: 556667-5194 Live broadcast of the 2015 Address: Sturegatan 14, Stockholm, Sweden Nobel Prize announcements 10 DECEMBER on Nobelprize.org Live broadcast of the Nobel Contact: [email protected], +46 (0)8-663 17 22 Prize Ceremonies in Oslo and Website: www.nobelprize.org/nobel_organizations/ NOVEMBER Stockholm nobelmedia International program together BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2014 with the Nobel Museum 11 DECEMBER Recording of debate Nobel Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Director of the Nobel Foundation DECEMBER Minds on Nobelprize.org, Patrik Hadenius, Editor-in-Chief and Managing Director of Interviews with the year’s Nobel produced by the BBC. Forskning & Framsteg Laureates on Nobelprize.org Ove Joanson, CEO of Media Conglomerate As part of the Nobel Prize Geir Lundestad, Professor, Director of the Norwegian Nobel Live broadcast of the Nobel ­ Inspiration Initiative, Nobel Institute Lectures on Nobelprize.org Laureates will participate Marie Nilsson, CEO of Mediavision in an international seminar 8 DECEMBER programme held at various Gunnar von Heijne, Professor, former Chairman of the Nobel Nobel Prize Concert at universities and at AstraZeneca’s Committee for Chemistry Stockholm Concert Hall research centres around the Juleen Zierath, Professor, Chairman of the Nobel Committee for world. A number of lecture Physiology or Medicine series will be held during 2015. Erika Lanner, LLM, Nobel Foundation, Deputy Member


NOBEL MUSEUM’S mission is to safeguard experiment apparatus, complete with also been held during the year in cooper- the Nobel Prize’s standing in the long computers, monitor and the electrodes ation with various collaborators. term through museum, educational and that were inserted into rats’ brains, to the A number of Nobel Laureates lec- research efforts related to the Nobel scarf that Malala Yousafzai wore when she tured at the museum in 2014, including Prize. The museum aims to disseminate addressed the UN concerning girls’ right (Peace, 2011), Rigob- knowledge about the fields that Alfred to an education on her 16th birthday. erta Menchú Tum (Peace, 1992) and Kurt Nobel mentions in his will. The museum Around this central story are interpre- Wüthrich (Chemistry, 2002). also aims to be a cultural centre and a tations of the year’s prizes, created by Internationally, the Nobel Museum multifaceted meeting place where visitors students at the Royal College of Music has displayed its Sketches of Science can take part in discussions, lectures, and Beckmans College of Design. The travelling exhibition in two cities in family programmes and many other result is a fantastic mix of facts and artistic Japan and Korea. The Nobel Prize: Ideas activities. Presently, the Nobel Museum interpretations. Changing the World has been exhibited in operates in a temporary venue in the old On 9 May, the exhibition The Nobel Brazil and India. In conjunction with the Stock Exchange building in the Old Town Prize: Ideas Changing the World was exhibition’s opening in New Delhi, former in Stockholm. officially opened. This was a reworked Indian president Abdul Kalam spoke in and expanded version of the exhibition the presence of 2014 Peace Prize Laureate 2014 KICKED OFF with an exhibition of displayed in Brazil during the autumn of Kailash Satyarthi. all the proposals entered in the archi- 2013 and spring of 2014. The Stockholm The museum’s school-oriented activ- tecture competition to design the Nobel version included a newly produced film ities reach a growing number of students Center. At the same time, the third edition about the discovery of graphene and the each year. In Stockholm, 570 classes of the museum’s collaborative project Nobel Prize in Physics awarded to Geim participated in one of the museum’s with Beckmans College of Design and and Novoselov in 2010. This also became programmes and, throughout Sweden, Sweden’s Royal College of Music was also the museum’s summer exhibition, which instruction was arranged for more than under way. This exhibition attracted atten- was replaced in December by the afore- 700 classes under the auspices of the tion from international media, and was mentioned Nobel Creations. The number museum’s travelling schools’ programme reworked to become a travelling exhibi- of visitors to the museum has continued Akka. In total, more than 30,000 school tion to be displayed in Minneapolis, USA, to increase since its opening in 2001. In students took part in the museum’s school in early 2015. The museum’s collaboration 2014, 198,000 people visited the museum. activities during the year. with the arts schools was broadened and deepened during the year and resulted THE NOBEL MUSEUM’S PROGRAMME THE MUSEUM’S RESTAURANT AND SHOP in an exhibition entitled Nobel Creations, includes activities to suit a range of differ- also support the museum’s other activities which opened on 2 December 2014. The ent types of visitors. Together with maga- in a tangible way. The Nobel Museum is a exhibition represents the largest initiative zine Forskning & Framsteg, the museum meeting place for discussion and knowl- the museum has ever undertaken to presents topical scientific themes under edge dissemination concerning the fields present the current year’s Nobel Prizes. the heading Research in Focus. Science recognized by the Nobel Prize, combined At the heart of the exhibition were all Café is a format which allows audiences with good food and the opportunity to the artefacts the museum received from to play an expanded role in dialogues buy books and products that provide the 2014 Nobel Laureates; everything about current scientific issues. Regular additional information and added value from May-Britt and Edvard I. Moser’s first literary discussions and theme days have to visitors.

The Nobel Prize in Literature as The Mosers donated their interpreted by Disa Gadd and first experiment apparatus Vivianne Kontros. to the Nobel Museum.

28 Rigoberta Menchú Tum, recipient of the 1992 Nobel Peace Prize, contributes an artefact to the Nobel Museum’s growing collection.


24 FEBRUARY 5 MAY Afternoon tea: – Literature Talk: Tomas Tranströmer No. of Emloyees: 45 a mouldy Nobel Prize and Stockholm Turnover: SEK 59,719K Executive Director: Olov Amelin, Ph.D. 8 MARCH 5 OCTOBER–12 OCTOBER Established: 2004. Prior to this, activities were Open workshop for children, Sundays Announcement week. Schools, conducted within the Nobel Foundation Rights throughout the year visitors, journalists and researchers Association are welcome to the Nobel Museum Corporate ID No.: 556667-5210 13 MARCH–15 NOVEMBER to receive more detailed information Address: Stortorget 2, Stockholm, Sweden Exhibition Legacy, 16 Nobel Laureates about Nobel Prize and Nobel Contact: [email protected]e, +46 (0)8-534 818 00 talks about inspiration, role models Laureates Website: www.nobelmuseum.se and the importance of bringing something forward 16 OCTOBER BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2014 Presentation of the 2015 Nobel Prize Lars Heikensten, Dr, Executive Director of the 7 APRIL Nobel Foundation 4 DECEMBER–13 MARCH Discussion: The Nobel Prize – The Ulf Danielsson, Professor, Legacy of Nobel 2016 Peje Emilsson, Chairman, Kreab Gavin Anderson Exhibition: Nobel Creations. 14 APRIL Interpretation of the 2015 Nobel Prize Bente Erichsen, Director Nobel Peace Center Science Café: DNA as proof by students from Beckmans College Marika Hedin, PhD, D hc, Director of Museum of Design and Sweden’s Royal College Gustavianum 17 APRIL–27 SEPTEMBER of Music Exhibition & Klas Kärre, Professor, Associate Member of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine – a Book Binding Exhibition 10 DECEMBER Celebration of the Nobel Day at the Nina Wormbs, Associate Professor, Royal Institute 28 APRIL Nobel Museum of Technology (KTH) Literature Talk: To tell everything – Sara Öhrvall, Senior Adviser and Co-Founder of about the authorship of Mo Yan MindMill Network This list represents a selection of events. For a complete list, please visit Erika Lanner, LLM, Nobel Foundation, Deputy Member www.nobelmuseum.se



FOR TEN YEARS the Nobel Peace Center at the Nobel Peace Center. Later in the nations were displayed for the first time, in Oslo has been an internationally evening, before a full house of 1400 peo- as the 50-year secrecy clause made these renowned museum, and an important ple heard them in the Oslo Concert Hall documents public. On December 10th a tourist attraction in Norway. The Center is talking with Geir Lippestad about their larger version of the exhibition opened a dynamic and active house, and provides new book Forgiveness. at Martin Luther King Jr National Historic a unique setting for a wide range of activi- Site in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. ties for an international audience. THE POPULAR PHOTO EXHIBITION What the Changing exhibitions, guided tours, World Eats was replaced by a photo exhi- THE 2014 NOBEL PEACE PRIZE EXHIBITION – events and activities for the entire family bition about the new Europe, EPEA02 – ­Malala and Kailash tells the story of Malala make the Nobel Peace Center a vibrant Eyes on Europe, in March where 12 young Yousafzai and Kailash Satyarthi’s unstoppa- arena for learning, reflection and debate photographers interpreted a changing ble fight for children’s rights. The interna- about war, peace and conflict resolution. continent. In May, Be Democracy opened. tionally renowned photojournalist Lynsey The permanent exhibitions tell the story It was an extensive exhibition about Addario and BBC World’s Chief Interna- of Alfred Nobel and present the Nobel social media and democracy that was the tional Correspondent Lyse Doucet were Peace Prize Laureates and their ground- Nobel Peace Center’s main contribution commissioned to collaborate in making breaking work. The temporary exhibitions to the 200 anniversary for the Norwegian the exhibition. Both Nobel Peace Prize showcase aspects of the Peace Prize Lau- Constitution. The audience was challenged laureates took an active role in shaping the reates’ lives and highlight topical issues. In to participate in exploring and making exhibition. In India, Kailash Satyarthi took 2014 the Nobel Peace Center presented statements on how the Internet and social Lynsey Addario along on his raids to liber- 10 exhibitions, 43 events and an extensive media change society and challenge ate child labourers, and to several centers educational program, resulting in a record power. where the children are offered a new of 227 322 people visiting. and better life. In an in-depth interview A NEW SERIES of small exhibitions to put with Lyse Doucet he talks about activism, SINCE 2009, the Nobel Peace Center has spotlight on Peace Prize Laureates started setbacks and the importance of a secure been fully booked with school groups. A in 2014. These exhibitions focus on a childhood. grand total of 944 school groups partici- current event or are staged to recognize To kick-start the 10th anniversary of pated in educational programs linked to an anniversary. The first to open was the the Nobel Peace Center in 2015, the tour- the various exhibitions during the year. exhibition 1971 to commem- ing exhibition Peace at Work opened on When HH The Dalai Lama visited orate his 100th birthday. On the 25th December 11th featuring the highlights of the Nobel Peace Center on 9 May, he anniversary of the massacre on Tianan- the previous Nobel Peace Prize exhibi- did a sit-down discussion with a school men Square, June 4th, the exhibition 2010 tions. Stories, films, interviews, object and group, answering their questions about opened. It honored Liu Xiaobo, striking photographs from the first ten the role of the individual and how we all the only Peace Prize Laureate currently years make up the exhibition. can impact society. On 22–23 September imprisoned, and included the empty chair The Nobel Peace Center’s main and his daughter Mpho from the Nobel Ceremony he was unable sponsors and partners are Hydro, Telenor visited Oslo on invitation from the Nobel to attend. The autumn of 2014 was the Group, ABB and the Football Association Peace Center and Mentor Medier/the 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King of Norway. newspaper Vårt Land. The Tutus also did Jr. being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. a sit-down session with a school class In the exhibition 1964 Martin Luther King about conflict resolution and forgiveness Jr., the Committee’s shortlist and nomi-

The Peace Prize Laureates inaugurate the exhibition Malala and Kailash together with Bente Erichsen, Director of the Nobel Peace Center.

30 Desmond Tutu discussed conflict solving with a school class.

Interactive elements Dalai Lama spoke to students about the individuals are common at the role and how everybody can infuelce society. Nobel Peace Center.

PROGRAMME & EXHIBITIONS 2015 JANUARY–AUGUST 28 MAY 6 OCTOBER Exhibitions The Nobel Peace Prize exhibition Exhibition: Dalai Lama Exhibition: 1965 Unicef – Malala and Kailash and Peace at Work JUNE 10 OCTOBER JANUARY–SEPTEMBER Nobel Peace Center’s 10-year Celebration. Celebrating the announcement of the Exhibition: 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. Various events throughout the month 2015 Peace Prize Laureate(s) FROM APRIL 14–16 AUGUST 28 OCTOBER “Dynamite of the day ” – events on Thursdays Mela – World Performing Art Festival Seminar with Oslo World Music Festival throughout the year in café Alfred. Lectures, talks, discussions and panels focusing on hot 11 SEPTEMBER 11 DECEMBER topics Oslo Culture Night, free entry Opening of the exhibition 12 APRIL 24 SEPTEMBER Tourist in our own City, free entry Exhibition: Targets – Images of the enemy from around the world

Programme selection. For the calender in full and for possible changed dates, please visit www.nobelpeacecenter.org

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2014 Geir Lundestad, Professor, Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, Chairman Kaci Kullmann Five, Deputy Chair of the Norwegian Nobel Committee No. of Employees: 35 Address: Brynjulf Bulls Plass 1, Turnover: NOK 52,700K Rådhusplassen, Oslo, Norge Siri Hatlen, Civil Engineer and MBA, self-employed CEO: Bente Erichsen Contact: [email protected], Olav Aaraas, Historian, Museum Director, The Norwegian Established: 2005 +47 48 30 10 00 Museum of Cultural History Corporate ID No.: 985226237 Website: www.nobelpeacecenter.org Olov Amelin, PhD, Museum Director, The Nobel Museum



2014 WAS AN EVENTFUL YEAR for the THE GUEST RESEARCHER PROGRAMME, in a series of popular seminars held at the company Nobel Peace Prize Research & which began in the early 1990’s, is an Institute from April to June. These were Information AS, a research division of the extension of the Nobel Institute’s original open to the public and were very well Norwegian Nobel Institute. The company’s ambition to be a meeting place in direct attended compared with previous years. activities during the year were financed contact with the latest developments using accrued funds and income from a within international relations. The 2014 THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE CONCERT held on licence agreement with the Mint of Nor- guest researcher programme was held 11 December 2014 was a musical tribute way. The activities focused on research into under the vignette China and coexistence to the year’s Peace Prize Laureates, Kailash peace and conflicts; work that comple- and was linked to the summer symposi- Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai. The con- ments the work of the Nobel Committee. um. Its focus was on modern geo-politics cert was hosted by American actress and An annual guest researcher programme, and the Cold War legacy. Which aspects performer Queen Latifah. Artists from all lectures and seminars are also arranged of international society have proven to be around the world took part in celebrating each year. This year the division held a enduring and which thoughts and struc- the occasion, with music ranging from Nobel Symposium (NS 157) during 18–22 tures have proven more transient? To dis- pop and rock to folk music and Bolly- June under the title Does the rise and fall of cuss these questions, eight of the world’s wood rhythms. The unique mixture of great powers lead to conflict and war? The leading economists, political scientists, celebrities, celebration and ceremony event was a success and planning is well historians, decision-makers and journal- made this event an evening to remember. under way for next year’s guest researcher ists from , Europe and America were programme, jointly financed by the Free- invited to carry out research at the Nobel dom of Expression Foundation. Institute in Oslo. Their work culminated

Singer Queen Latifah together with Peace Prize Laureates Malala xxxYousafzai and Kailash Satyarthi.

32 New scenography was developed for the Nobel Peace Prize Concert 2014.


24 APRIL 29 MAY Asle Toje, Europe and the Age of Liberal Samuel Moyn, Professor of History, Harvard Internationalism University, The Last Utopia – Human Rights Amjad Ali Khan with sons. in History 1 MAY Hilde Eliassen Restad, American 5 JUNE Exceptionalism and the Presidencies of David Ekbladh, Assistant Professor Tufts and George W. Bush University, Look at the World: The Birth of an American Globalism in the 1930s 8 MAY No. of Employees: 1 Anne Marie Le Gloannec, Senior Research 12 JUNE Turnover: NOK 2,031K Fellow, Sciences Po Paris, Liberalism at bay? Michael C. Doyle, Professor of Political Founded: 2010 Economic interdependence in wider Europe Science, Columbia University, The Question Corporate ID No.: 996179397 of Intervention: John Stuart Mill and the Address: Henrik Ibsens gate 51, Oslo 15 MAY Responsibility to Protect Contact: +47 22 12 93 00, [email protected] Adrian Pop, Professor of Political Science, Website: www.nppri.org University of Bucharest, EU, Russia and the 19 JUNE Competition over the Shared Neighbourhood Nicholas Cull, Professor of Public BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2014 Diplomacy and director of the Master of Geir Lundestad, Professor, Director, 22 MAY Public Diplomacy program at University of Norwegian Nobel Institute, Chairman David Snyder, Senior Instructor, Southern California: American Propaganda Kaci Kullmann Five, Deputy Chair of the Department of History, University of South and Public Diplomacy after the Cold War Norwegian Nobel Committee Carolina, A European Encounter with the American 11 DECEMBER Odd Arvid Strømstad, Managing Director of Century: Modernization, Clientelism, and Nobel Peace Prize Concert Eyeworks Dinamo the Uses of Sovereignty during the Early Asle Toje, political scientist, Research Director Cold War For more info visit: www.nppri.org and Annika Pontikis, Public Relations Manager, www.nobelpeaceprizeconcert.org Nobel Foundation



IN DECEMBER 2011 an agreement was learning in the future and exciting cultural been engaged to contribute to planning reached between the City of Stockholm events will run throughout the year. the Nobel Center’s content and activities. and the Nobel Foundation to construct The commission to design the first per- a Nobel Center on a plot owned by the THE BUILDING’S DESIGN has been chosen manent exhibition has been assigned to City on the north side of Blasieholmsud- through an architectural competition. In Atelier Brückner in Stuttgart, Germany. den peninsula. The construction project April 2014 it was announced that David After the election held in the autumn is being carried out by Nobelhuset AB, Chipperfield and Christoph Felger had of 2014, the City of Stockholm received a company formed on the initiative of submitted the winning entry; their shim- a new majority party, which meant that the Nobel Foundation. Nobelhuset AB’s mering brass creation entitled ”Nobel- the planning process was deferred by six mission is to plan, construct, own and huset”. Read more about the proposed months. Construction work is now set to administer as well as develop the Nobel design on page 14. Since the announce- begin during 2016, to allow the Nobel Center, a building designed for cultural ment was made, Nobelhuset AB has Center to be opened in 2019. and scientific activities. Susanne Lindh conducted general studies of the building The ambition is to finance the new has serves as the company’s CEO since and held on-going discussions with the Nobel Center building through donations. February 2014. City of Stockholm aimed at producing The cost is estimated to total SEK 1.2 The notion that good ideas can create the data needed to create a new detailed billion at 2014 prices. The majority of the a better world is just as relevant today as development plan. building’s financing will come from the it was when Alfred Nobel wrote his will A collaboration with construction man- Erling-Persson Family Foundation and the more than 100 years ago. By creating a agement company Projektbyrån has been Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, place for the unifying idea surrounding initiated concerning the brief work for the which will contribute SEK 800 million the Nobel Prize, new opportunities are Nobel Center. In addition to collaboration combined. As of the beginning of 2015 created. The Nobel Center will develop with the responsible design architect, David a total of almost one billion kronor has its activities around the Nobel Prize’s Chipperfield Architects Berlin, Stock- been made available via various dona- unique combination of fields – the natural holm-based office AIX Arkitekter has been tions; an amazing sum for a country such sciences, literature and peace. An open tasked with assisting with planning and as Sweden. venue accessible to the public with room implementation through its knowledge of for exhibitions, meetings, activities and a Swedish law and other local circumstances. FUTURE ACTIVITIES will be conducted café and restaurant. Hundreds of thou- using long-term private and public fund- sands of visitors from around the world THE NOBEL CENTER FOUNDATION was ing. The latter has already been promised are expected to visit the centre to view also founded during the year. When the by the Swedish government and the City inspiring exhibitions about Alfred Nobel centre opens, this foundation will assume of Stockholm. External financing is a pre- and the Nobel Prize, or to listen to public responsibility for, among other things, condition for the centre’s operation, given discussions with the world’s greatest the public activities currently run by the that the capital willed by Alfred Nobel is thinkers. International conferences, a Nobel Museum. Marika Hedin, Director used to fund the Nobel Prize. major school programme with a focus on of Museum Gustavianum in Uppsala, has

“The centre will be very exciting because it will bring together people of many different backgrounds and also, hopefully, people from the public that are interested in science and literature and the things that the Nobel Prize represents. A very useful thing is to be able to engage directly with the public. Having lecture series on a variety of topics would be really exciting!” CAROL GREIDER

Carol Greider was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine together with Elizabeth H. Blackburn and Jack W. Szostak. From the top left she is surrounded by Laureates Jack W. Szostak, Thomas A. Steitz, Herta Müller and .

34 Susanne Lindh, CEO Nobelhuset AB

BOARD OF DIRECTORS 2014 Lars Heikensten, Dr., Executive Director of the Nobel Foundation, Chairman NOBELHUSET AB Lars Anell, Chair of the Swedish Research Council No. of Employees: 2 Birgitta Ed, Senior Adviser and partner at Six Year Plan Turnover: SEK 600K CEO: Susanne Lindh Staffan Normark, Professor, Permanent Secretary of Established: 2012 the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Corporate ID No.: Eva Nygren, former CEO of Rejlers Group 556884-6421 Anders Nylander, former Managing Director of Address: Sturegatan 14, Atrium-Ljungberg Stockholm, Sweden Contact: Hans Dalborg, Dr., former Managing Director and [email protected] Chairman of Nordea Website: www.nobelcenter.se


35 “I think the idea of organizing the dessert in that wonderful pattern of six little desserts in the form of a symmetrical hexagonal array, so reminiscent of the grid cells discovered by the Mosers, is nothing short of culinary .” JOHN O’KEEFE, LAUREATE IN MEDICINE, COMMENTS THE DESSERT IN HIS BANQUET SPEECH


37 AFTER THE NOBEL PRIZE AWARD CEREMONY AT THE STOCKHOLM CONCERT HALL, the Nobel Banquet begins at the City Hall. It opens with the procession of royalty and other guests of honour into the Blue Hall. From the original 113 guests at the first Banquet, held in the Hall of Mirrors at the Grand Hôtel in 1901, the 2014 Nobel Banquet hosted about 1,250 guests at Stockholm’s City Hall. The Nobel Menu was designed by chef Klas Lindberg and confectioner Daniel Roos in close cooperation with the Nobel Foundation’s gastronomy advisers Fredrik Eriksson and Gert Klötzke as well as the Chef de Cuisine of the City Hall’s restaurants, Gunnar Eriksson. The evening’s entertainment was provided by the Royal Swed- ish Ballet under the direction of Head of Ballet and Artistic Director Johannes Öhman. Some of Sweden’s absolute finest dancers and choreographers contributed to the three acts. Helén Magnusson, Chief Florist at Hässelby Blommor, created the floral decorations for both the Concert Hall and City Hall. The theme for the Nobel Banquet’s decorations was Stockholm’s bridges. During the latter half of the dinner a Laureate from each prize category gave a banquet speech while students held aloft their student banners. After dinner, dancing was held in the Golden Hall, where the Laureates’ Nobel Prize Medals and Nobel Prize Diplomas were displayed for the evening.


38 39 40 The 2014 Nobel Banquet in the Blue Hall of the .


3 P.O. Box 5232, se-102 45 Stockholm, Sweden Tel: +46 8 663 09 20, Fax: +46 8 660 38 47 E-mail: [email protected], Web: Nobelprize.org