Contribution to 9494---0101 MICHILOGIC LINE

Written, compiled and illustrated by

Midwest Mineralogical and Lapidary Society of Dearborn, Michigan

As a cooperative Environmental Education Initiative Project

Published by the Department of Environmental Quality Division — 1994 Made available on the web @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd — 2000

© COPYRIGHT 2000, by MI DEQ Geological Survey Division. All rights reserved. Department of Environmental Quality, Geological Survey Division..

This publication was written to acquaint the passage of time, it could not determine how reader with geologic time and the of much time any strata represented. ( record) as they are known in Michigan. With the discovery of radioactivity, near the close of the 19th century, were given GEOLOGIC TIME a tool to apply absolute to formations. Radioactive elements change into other A key idea that separates geology from other elements at a known rate called half-life. By is the concept of geologic time. carefully analyzing rocks and determining the Geologic time is used to describe events in the ratios of various elements and isotopes, an ’s history, especially those seen in the rock absolute range can be determined. record. Mountain building and the emergence Radioactivity is most useful for dating igneous of a new occur in a geologic time frame rocks. With the addition of absolute age dating -- not the -- -- days -- -- tools an even more complete interpretation of -- -- decades — references of the sequence of rocks around the has daily life. evolved. The basic unit of geologic time is 1 ,000,000 (one million) years. A million is an incredible number. To better understand how long one million years is, we can convert it to some more A fossil is any evidence of life. Fossils are familiar unit of measure. If we let one inch equal the remains, traces or imprints of or one thousand years, then one million years that have been preserved by natural would equal 83.3 feet. One hundred years processes. These plants and animals lived in (longer than the average life span) would be the geologic past. represented by just one tenth (1/10 or 0.1) of an The process of fossilization (becoming a fossil) inch. If one goes back to the beginning of the may be long and complex. After an or Period, some 570,000,000 years ago dies it must be buried by before - one would need almost 9 miles to represent it decays or is destroyed by other forces. After it this part of the Earth history. To map out all of is buried, conditions must be right for it to be geologic time, one would need more than 72 preserved. The rock forming processes often miles. erase much of what could have been in the The concept of geologic time came from work fossil record. If the encasing rock is eroded or done on the fossils and physical characteristics altered by other geologic forces the fossil will be of exposed sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary damaged or destroyed. destroys rocks are deposited in layers. The lowest layers many more fossils than are ever collected. formed first and are the oldest. As you progress Fossil remains are grouped or classified a up a column of rocks you progress through number of different ways. Some fossils can be younger and younger layers. Early geologists directly identified when they are found as a used fossils as markers to correlate and thereby whole or nearly complete animal or plant, or determine the relative ages of rocks. This led to indirectly when only a small part or only tracks or the ability to construct a geologic column made trails are found. Most commonly, only the “hard up of rocks of different ages from different parts” of plants or animals are preserved as locations. This orderly from oldest fossils. Some people tend to overemphasize at the bottom to youngest at the top is reflected the identification of fossils. Although in most time charts. Eventually a global time identification is necessary, it is a complicated scale was developed. Names were process, especially for newcomers. In order to standardized, commonly referring to an area accurately recognize and describe a fossil, one where early work was done or the exposures must be familiar with the classification of living were good. Even though this approach could plants and animals. The amount and complexity help show similarities and differences with the of the terminology can be staggering. Becoming

Michilogic CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 2 of 20 an adequate fossil identifier takes time; that is The Northern and Southern Peninsulas of one of the reasons why paleontologists (those Michigan are geologically distinct. Michigan’s who study fossils) spend years in specialized vast metallic resources are in the training. and Cambrian rocks of the western Only a small fraction of the plants and animals Northern Peninsula. The Cambrian through that ever lived are preserved as recognizable rocks of the rest of the State contain fossils. Estimates vary, but fewer than one important resources including: , percent of the previous life forms are though to , dolomite, , salt and . have been preserved as fossils. To have been Deposits of gravels, and clays have included in the rock history, and to have hidden much of Michigan’s geology. These survived millions of years, makes all fossils deposits were once part of the great variety of remarkable. rocks found in . The movement of the Fossils should be collected and preserved rather picked up and rocks, than letting them erode into oblivion. However, grinding them against one another. When the care must be taken to accurately and completely glaciers melted, meltwater carried the fragments document, identify, label and catalog specimens and deposited them as gravel, , and and localities. What is fresh in our mind today . Glacial ice movements and meltwaters may be forgotten . Some of the items have shaped Michigan’s entire land surface. that should be included in a catalog are: the While some are abundant, our geologic name of the fossil (as much as is known), where resources are non-renewable. Once removed, it was found, when it was collected, and by mineral resources do not grow back. The whom. You will not recognize all of the fossils processes that formed them however, do you find. Most earth hobby groups and continue; but ever so slowly in terms. To many museums can provide assistance or help use or not to use non-renewable geologic you find references. resources? This is a question that has trade- By studying geology, you can better understand offs in either case and one which we must the various areas in Michigan. Once you learn respond to with care. As good stewards of our to interpret the geologic story and see how it resources we must consider our economic affects our , the science of geology will take needs, our quality of life, and our environment. on new depth and meaning. THE MICHILOGIC TIME LINE was conceived, This publication was designed as an instructional aid. If it is printed on heavy paper it can be folded or cut and made into compiled and written by the Paleontological flashcards. Photocopies can be made so students can work with Study Group of the Midwest Mineralogical & the material but not consume the original. Lapidary Society of Dearborn, Michigan. We Hope you find this publication useful. Any comments that Members of this group who worked on this would improve this product, information about how it is used, project include: Cecilia Duluk (Chairperson), and/or suggestions for editions or products is appreciated. Anne Allen, Claire Boutain, Karen Goryl, Ruth Please direct comments and suggestions to: Gribble, Joyce Hanschu (Secretary), Norm MI DEQ GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Hanschu, Tom Morris, Jr., Frank Nadeau, Lillian & Ground Unit Nadeau, Pat Rutkowski, Doris Snyder and P O BOX 30256 Myrna Workman. Illustrators: Karen Goryl and Lansing, MI 48909-7258 Norm Hanschu. Special thanks to Professor Roger Pabian, Conservation and Survey

Division, IANR, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, for his help in clarifying terminology and his KEY TO SIZES OF KEY TO ILLUSTRATIONS: advice on nomenclature and interpretation of {1x) ...... Actual size, no enlargement or information from other authors. reduction {2x}, {5x} etc...... enlarged x number of times etc. specimen is smaller than illustration MICHIGAN AND ITS GEOLOGY {2r}, {5r} etc...... reduced r number of times specimen is larger than illustration

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 3 of 20 Illustrations of or Precambrian Fossils


GENERAL SETTING ILLUSTRATIONS The effects of heat and pressure from widespread mountain 1. Eucaryotic filaments {1x} building caused considerable alteration of rock layers during 2. Segmented worm ] {1.25x} the Proterozoic, or Precambrian, Era. This was followed by 3a. ] {1x} extensive , especially in Canada and the northeastern 3b. Sponge spicules ] {4x} United States. All life was in the sea. The first evidence of life 4. colony {1x} is of single celled, -like algae; the preserved forms of ] have not been reported from Michigan some colonies of these "algae" are known as . Algal life forms increased the amount of in the atmosphere, leading to early animal life forms. Although the majority of these animals were more highly developed, they were soft bodied and thus decayed before they could be preserved as fossils.

FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: Dickinson, Iron and Marquette counties


• Single celled bacteria-like prokaryotes • Colonial stromatolites • Blue KEY TO SIZES OF ILLUSTRATIONS: • Complex eucaryotes {1x} ...... actual size • Green algae {2x}, {5x}, etc...... enlarged x number of times • {2r}, {5r}, etc...... reduced r number of times •

• Segmented worms

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 4 of 20 Illustrations of Cambrian Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The beginning of the Cambrian is marked by a shallowing of • Massive stromatolites the and the spreading of seas over the continental • platforms. The land-masses were stable, while the shallow seas became warmer and more hospitable to life. Massive ILLUSTRATIONS: stromatolites were abundant. An explosion of complex 1a. Inarticulate {1.5x} (trilobites and their kin) led to their becoming the 1b. Inarticulate brachiopod Acrothele {2x} dominant animal during this period, yet they declined in both 2. Articulate brachiopod {1x} type and number toward the close of the Cambrian, due to 3. Gastropod (snail) {2x} shrinking seas. 4. worm {1.5x} 5. Trilobitoid ] {1x} FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: 6. {2r} FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: ] Dickinson County have not been reported from Michigan.

FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: • • Annelid worms • Trilobitoids • Trilobites • Eocrinoids • Cystoids • Gastropods (snails) • Primitive clams •

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 5 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: During the Ordovician Period, 70 percent of the North American • Brachiopods was under water; the warm uniform temperatures • Trilobites resulted in expansion and greater diversification of marine • Edrioasteroids . Nautiloid cephalopods were the largest life forms • Cystoids of the time, sometimes reaching a length of 15 feet. These, with • Gastropods (snails) other mollusks, bryozoans and articulate brachiopods were the • Bivalves (clams) most abundant animals of the period. Plant life consisted almost • Nautiloid cephalopods completely of seaweed and algae. • Graptolites FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: ILLUSTRATIONS: Alger, Chippewa, Delta and Menominee counties 1. Bryozoan colony {2r} 2. Cystoid (an ) {1x} FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 3a. crown (complete head with arms) ] {2r} • Bryozoans 3b. Sections of crinoid column {1x} • Rugose 4. Edrioasteroid, an echinoderm) {1x} 5. Nautiloid {3r} • Tabulate corals 6. a trilobite {1x} • • 7. Articulate brachiopod {1x} 8. Graptolites {3r} • "sea " ] have not been reported from Michigan • Primitive aquatic , including jawless

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 6 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: Continental seas which covered during the early • Sponges and middle Silurian receded during the later part of this period. • Solitary or "horn" and colonial corals An isolated, shallow sea across , Pennsylvania, • Large inarticulate brachiopods Southern Ontario and Southern Michigan evaporated, leaving • Crinoids with systems massive salt deposits. The seas abounded with - building • Trilobites corals, crinoids with root systems attached to the sea floor, • Marine eurypterids mollusks and other , while on land the first plants • Gastropods (snails) emerged. • Bivalves (clams) FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: ILLUSTRATIONS: Chippewa, Delta, Luce, Mackinac and Schoolcraft counties 1a. Articulate brachiopod, view of pedicale valve {1x} 1b. Articulate brachiopod, view of both valves {1x} FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 2. Internal mold of large inarticulate brachiopod {2r} • Land plants 3. Gastropod (snail) {1x} • 4. Solitary or "horn" {range 1x to 2r} 5. a colonial coral ("chain coral") {2r} • () 6. Megalomus an internal mold of bivalve (clam) 2r} • • 7. Trilobite {2r} Jawed fish 8. Marine or "sea " {range 1x to 12r}

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 7 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The sediments from which the basins of the Lower Great Lakes • Stromatoporoids formed were laid down during this period of alternating raising • Brachiopods (inarticulate and articulate) and lowering of sea levels. These deposits are the most • Phyllocarid fossiliferous outcrops in Michigan. Fish underwent great • (blastoids, cystoids, crinoids) evolutionary development during the Devonian, with specialized • Bivalves (clams) forms such as the placoderms (fish with hard bony plates • Nautiloid cephalopods covering their skin) reaching lengths of 15 to 40 feet. Other sea • Placoderms or armored fish life included the corals, bryozoans, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms. ILLUSTRATIONS: 1a. an articulate brachiopod {1x} FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: 1b. an articulate brachiopod {1x} Alcona, Alpena, Antrim, Charlevoix, Emmet, Leelanau, Monroe, 2. Solitary or horn coral (range 1x to 3r} Presque Isle, St. Clair, Washtenaw and Wayne counties 3a. a colonial coral; as the "", has been designated Michigan's State Stone FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 3b. a colonial coral {range 1x to 3r} • Land plants (large, -like) 4. Phyllocarid {2r} • Horse-tail rushes 5a. a trilobite {range 1x to 2r} 5b. Dechenella a trilobite {1x} • 6. Crinoid calyx {1x} • Primitive hexapods • 7. Cystoid, an echinoderm {1x} Ammonoid cephalopods 8. Ammonoid cephalopod {2x} • 9. Placoderm or armored fish {30r} • 10. Internal mold of nautiloid cephalopod ("steinkern") {2r}

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 8 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: Warm Shallow continental seas covered most of the central • Reef-building corals portion of North America, providing the perfect habitat for the • Bryozoans proliferation of echinoderms, especially the crinoids and • Brachiopods bastoids. However, conditions in the Michigan area were more • Echinoderms (crinoids, blastoids, echinoids ansd starfish) arid, resulting in the of extensive gypsum beds. By • Gastropods (snails) the end of the Mississippian Period the retreat of the • Bivalves (clams) continential seas caused a restriction of the marine • Cephalopods environment, resulting in a reduced populations. In particular the trilobites were decimated both in numbers and ILLUSTRATIONS: species diversity. 1. Ammonoid cephalopod with sutures {2r} 2. Nautiloid cephalopod {range 1x to 3r} FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: 3. Beleminoid ] {2r} Branch, Calhoun, Eaton, Huron, Jackson and Ottawa counties 4a. Criniod crown ] {1x} 4b. Crinoid columnal and column section {range 2x to 2r} FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 5. Bivalve or clam {2r} • Belemnoids 6. Articulate brachiopod {1x} 7. , an echinoderm {range 3x to 2r} FURTHER OF: 8. Echinoid or {2r} • 9. Colonial coral {2r} • 10. Gastropod or snail {1x} ] • Bony fish and sharks have not been reported from Michigan. • Amphibians

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 9 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The retreating seas of the Mississippian Period left extensive • Scale deltas. increased temperatures and rainfall, combined with poor • Giant horsetails drainage, turned the deltas into swamplands. Plants became • Tree ferns so abundant in these swampy areas that their decayed remains • Large formed thick deposits of peat. Over geologic time these peat • Brachiopods (inarticulate and articulate) beds were converted to by heat and pressure, while • Gastropods (snails) individual , stems and were preserved in the mud • Bivalves (clams) which turned to shale. In the seas, shallow water forms such • as trilobites and crinoids declined, while deeper-water animals Cephalopods • such as sharks and cephalopods continued to flourish. Sharks • Amphibians FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: ILLUSTRATIONS: Calhoun, Clinton, Eaton, Ingham, Jackson, Saginaw, 1a. Reconstruction of Scale tree {ranges up to 95r} Shiawassee and Tuscola counties 1b. Scale tree trunk cast {ranges up to 50r} 2a. a pith cast of giant scouring rush {range 1x to FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 6r} • Ancestral 2b. Leaves of scouring rush {range 1x to 2r} • 3. Leaves of tree {range 1x to 2r} • 4. Nautiloid cephalopod showing suture markings {range 1x • Spiders to 3r} 5. Articulate brachiopod {1x} • Shrimp 6. Inarticulate brachiopod {1x} • 7. Bivalve (clam) {1x}

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 10 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The continental seas shrank even further. Giant scale trees, • Conifers conifers and insects dominated the land. Climatic and • Large foraminifera geographic changes at the end of the Permian, combined • Spiny brachiopods with extensive mountain building, resulted in the of • Insects over 90 percent of all animal species, including ALL trilobites, • Cockroaches blastoids and rugose corals. Reptiles then developed, as well • Amphibians as the first with -like features, . • Reptiles FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: ILLUSTRATIONS: NO KNOWN OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN 1. ] {2r} 2. cone ] from a {1x} FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 3. Spiny brachiopod ] {1x} ] • 4. Dimetrodon a reptile with mammal-like features {40r} 5. ] {24r} • Ginkgoes ] have not been reported from Michigan. • Reptiles with mammal-like features

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 11 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: During the Triassic, there was considerable volcanic activity • Cycads in eastern North America and shallow seas in the west. • Ginkgoes Ammonites, gastropods and pelecypods flourished in these • Conifers , while brachiopods, crinoids and nautiloid • Gastropods (snails) cephalopods declined. Reptiles established their dominance • Bivalves (clams) on the land, giving rise to the "Age of ". • Ammonoid cephalopods • Lung-fish FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: • Reptiles NO KNOWN OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN ILLUSTRATIONS: FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 1. plant reconstruction] {80r} ] • Hexacorals ( corals) 2. Ammonoid cephalopod {range 1x to 3r} ] • Oysters 3. Primitive saurischian {19r} 4. ] {72r} • 5. Primitive mammal] {2r} • ] have not been reported from Michigan. • Marine reptiles • Dinosaurs • Primitive KEY TO SIZES OF ILLUSTRATIONS: {1x} ...... actual size {2x}, {5x}, etc...... enlarged x number of times {2r}, {5r}, etc...... reduced r number of times

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 12 of 20 Illustrations of Jurassic Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The seas in Jurassic times covered only limited portions of • Cycads North America and the was mild and humid. On land, • Ginkgoes the dinosaurs continued to dominate while conifers, cycads, • Ammonoid cephalopods ferns and ginkgoes thrived. The first mammals and • Belemnoid cephalopod appeared. In the seas, reef-building corals, mollusks, • ammonites and sea urchins flourished. At the close of the • Shrimp Jurassic the extensive uplifting and volcanic activity in western • North America created the range. • Dinosaurs • FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: Flying reptiles • Reptilian "" with feathers NO KNOWN OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN, drill cores show Jurassic strata with fossil and ILLUSTRATIONS: 1. Shrimp ] {1x} FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 2. Belemnoid cephalopod ] (related to ) {range 1x to • 2.5r} ] • 3. a primitive bird {9r} ] • 4. Plesiosaur a marine reptile {range 30r to 60r} ] • 5. a dinosaur {range 67r to 93r} 6. Pterodactylus ] a or flying reptile {3.5r} • Small mammals ] have not been reported from Michigan.

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 13 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The Cretaceous Period saw an advancement of the continental • Bivalves (clams and oysters) seas causing the last major submergence of North America. • Nautiloid and ammonoid cephalopods The climate was still mild, favoring the development of the first • Echinoids (sea urchins) flowering plants and insects that pollinate them. The evolution • Dinosaurs of dinosaurs and other reptiles peaked during the Early • Cretaceous but declined swiftly toward the end of the period. • Turtles This last period of the Era ended with major uplifts • Small mammals and volcanic activity through most of North America. The resulting catastrophic changes in the climate contributed to the ILLUSTRATIONS: extinction of dinosaurs, marine and flying reptiles, ammonoid 1. Oyster ] {1x} and belemnoid cephalopods, and a decimation of two-thirds of 2. Ammonoid cephalopod with ammonite sutures ] the other . {range 1x to 6r} 3. ] a dinosaur {164r} FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: 4. Echinoid ] or sea urchin {range 1x to 2r} NO KNOWN OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN 5. ] a marine reptile {81r} ] have not been reported from Michigan. FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: • Angiosperms (flowering plants) • • Ancestral bird-like forms •

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 14 of 20 Illustrations of Early Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The Early Tertiary Period (called in European • Gastropods (snails) references) consists of the , and • Bivalves (clams and oysters) epochs. Land plants and animals became the • Bony fish primary forms of life and remain so today. Mammals • Sharks increased dramatically in both number and type with the • Oreodonts widespread prairies supporting a variety of horses, • Early horses and other larger animals. Carnivores such as saber-toothed • Insects cats and -like birds reached an unusually large size. Marine invertebrates such as snails, clams and oysters were ILLUSTRATIONS: much like modern forms. 1. Bony fish ] {range 2r to 8r} 2. ] {29r} FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: 3a. Oreodont ] {28r} NO KNOWN OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN 3b. Oreodont with teeth ] {26r} 4. ] an early horse {20r} FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 5. Primitive ] {13.5r} ] • Prairie grasses have not been reported from Michigan. • Birds • • Horses KEY TO SIZES OF ILLUSTRATIONS: • Saber-toothed cats {1x} ...... actual size • • Whales {2x}, {5x}, etc...... enlarged x number of times • {2r}, {5r}, etc...... reduced r number of times • Pigs and • Camels

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 15 of 20 Illustrations of Late Tertiary Fossils


GENERAL SETTING SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: The Late Tertiary Period (called in European refer- • Bivalves (clams oysters) ences) consists of the and epochs. Con- • Gastropods tinued gradual continental uplifting produced a drier climate and • Barnacles vast grasslands. During this time many mammals and birds • Sharks evolved into their modern forms: horses and developed • Frogs hooves; dogs, cats and related families developed canine teeth. • Insects Amphibians and land reptiles increased in numbers. The first • Rats & mice man-related hominids appeared. • FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: ILLUSTRATIONS: NO KNOWN OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN 1. ] a bivalve{2r} 2. Gastropod ] {1x} FIRST DEVELOPMENT OF: 3. ] {1x} • 4. Shark ] {range 2.5x to 4.5r} ] • 5. {15r} Camels ] • 6. Mouse {5r} Dogs ] • 7. Rhinoceras {range 23r to 72r} Wolves ] have not been reported from Michigan. • Bears • Modern cats • • Pedapods (seals and walruses) • • Modern horses • Man-related hominids

Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 16 of 20 Illustrations of Fossils


GENERAL SETTING FIRST DEVELOPMENT DURING The Quaternary Period consists of the Pleistocene and • Cultivated grasses (wheat, barley etc.) Holocene epochs. During the Pleistocene great • Domestic animals continental ice sheets several thousands of feet thick spread • beings over most of the at least four different times. As the ice advanced, some animals were driven to SIGNIFICANT FOSSIL FORMS: warmer while others adapted to the cold by developing • Leaves, & cones of trees thick, furry hides. The Holocene is used to denote the last • Mollusks 11,000 years when human beings became the dominate life • Insects form by domesticating animals and cultivating the land. • Whales • Saber-tooth cats FOSSILIFEROUS OUTCROPS IN MICHIGAN: • & Numerous locations throughout Michigan • Peccaries • Giant beavers FIRST DEVELOPMENT DURING PLEISTOCENE • Bones of early humans • Giant ground sloths and ILLUSTRATIONS: • other giant land mammals 1. ] a saber-tooth cat{40r} • • 2. Giant beaver {68r} Skunks 3a. Mastodon molars {9r} • Foxes 3b. Mastodon {31r} • Hominids (ancestral humans) 4. Mammoth molars {10r} 5. (relative of pig) {26r} 6. Early human skull ] {3r}. ] have not been reported from Michigan.


Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 17 of 20 The following are available from the - Michigan Department Press, Cambridge, England. of Environmental Quality, Geological Survey Division, P. 0. • Box 30256, Lansing MI 48909-7756. A complete listing of Evolution of the Vertebrates, Fourth Edition, 1992; publications and maps is available on line at Colbert & Morales, Wiley-Liss, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd New York, New York. • • Bulletin 4 - Glacial Lakes Around Michigan, 1988 W. R. Late Cyclic in Southeastern Farrand; A general introduction ad description of • Nebraska: A Field Guide, Educational Circular Number Michigan’s glacial geology. Available on line 9, 1991; Pabian & Diffendal, Conservation & Survey www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd Division, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, • Chart 1 - Stratigraphic Succession in Michigan; Nebraska. Generalized representation of the rocks found in • , 1980; Bates & Jackson, Editors, Michigan, black and white. Available on line American Geological Institute, Falls Church, . www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd • Pamphlet 6 - Collecting Rocks Minerals and Fossils in GLOSSARY Michigan: 1976; S. E. Wilson; An illustrated GLOSSARY introduction to the hobby. AMMONOID — An extinct, usually coiled, shelled • Poster - Michigan Fossils: Black and white photographs cephalopod whose chamber divisions had saddles and lobes of 16 common Michigan invertebrate fossils. (GONIATITE and CERATITE sutures), or were crinkled and ornate, resembling leaves (AMMONITE sutures). The following are recommended for additional information about evolution as well as identification of fossil genera. — Rocks of the Archeozoic, the earlier part of the Precambrian representing the from 3,800 • The Audibon Society Field Guide to North American MYBP. known in Michigan from outcrops in the western Fossils. 1988; Thompson, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New northern peninsula. See also Proterozoic. York, New York. ARTHROPODS — A group of invertebrate animals with • Contributions to the Museum of , segmented bodies, jointed legs and, in most cases, a University of chitinous (outer shell) which is molted for growth. Extinct arthropods include TRILOBITES and • Michigan; various titles and dates, Museum of PHYLLOCARIDS. Modern arthropods include SPIDERS, Paleontology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, INSECTS, CRUSTACEANS and horseshoe . Michigan 48104. AZOIC — The first part of the geologic record that • Fossils: A Guide to Prehistoric Life, 1990; Rhodes, Zim constitutes the longest interval of time yet does not have any & Shaffer, Golden Press, New York, New York. significant fossil record, representing the geologic record • Fossils and the , 1983; Simpson, from 3,800 MYBP to the beginning of time. No known Scientific American Books, Inc., New York, New York. Michigan outcrops. See also Proterozoic. • Geology of Michigan, 1991; Dorr & Eschman, University BELEMNOID — A cephalopod with a tapered, unsutured of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. shell that is internal except for an elongated external shield which helps protect the head. Its modern relative is the • Invertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, 1986; SQUID. Clarkson, Allen & Unwin, London, England and Boston, Massachusetts. BIVALVES — A group of marine mollusks whose soft, unsegmented bodies are protected by two calcified valves, or • Prehistoric Worid, 1980; Moody, Chartwell Books, shells. They include CLAMS, OYSTERS and mussels. lnc.,Seacaucus, New Jersey. BLASTOID — An extinct, short-stalked echinoderm with five • Record in Rock, 1970; Pabian, University of Nebraska deep food grooves folded over a bud-shaped body. Simple, Conservation & Survey Division, Lincoln, Nebraska. fine brachioles (armlets) extend from the edges of the grooves and help with food-gathering. The following are references used in this publication. BRACHIOPODS — A group of soft-bodied marine animals • Geologic Time Table Calibrated in Absolute Ages that secrete a shell consisting of two unlike and unequal Decade of North American Geology 7983: Geology, valves. The body has muscles, a digestive tract, nerves, Volume 71, Palmer: in Principles of glands and a fleshy stalk, or pedicle, by which it can attach and 1 987; Boggs, Merril Publishing itself to objects on the sea floor. INARTICULATE Company, Columbus, , pages 667 to 670. BRACHIOPODS have shells held together by muscles alone, • A 1989, 1990; Harland, Armstrong, while ARTICULATE BRACHIOPOD shells have hinges and et al Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. teeth as well, to hold the valves together. • Fossil Invertebrates, 1987; Boardman, Cheetham & CAMBRIAN — The earliest period of the Paleozoic named Powell, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Palo Alto, after Cambria, the Roman name for , where the rocks California. were first studied. Known in Michigan from outcrops in the central northern peninsula. • and the Evolution of Plants, Edition, 1993;Stewart & Rothwell, Cambridge University — A term for the both the Mississippian Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 18 of 20 and Pennsylvanian periods. Michigan outcrops. — The era of geologic time from the end of the EDRIQASTEROID — A small, extinct, stalkless echinoderm Mesozoic up to and including the present. Includes the which has five food grooves which resemble the arms of a Quaternary and Tertiary periods. See also Paleozoic, tiny starfish, attached to a button-shaped calyx, or body. Mesozoic, Proterozoic. EOCRINOID — A very ancient, extinct “dawn crinoid” with an CEPHALOPODS — Marine mollusks with a well-developed elongate stalk (column), a vase-shaped body and a few head, eyes and strong tentacles, which may have either an simple arms. external or internal shell. The pearly is a modern ERA — A major division of geologic time made up of more shelled cephalopod; the is a cephalopod which has lost all trace of a shell. than one period. CONIFERS — A group of cone-bearing trees and shrubs EUCARYOTIC (or eukaryotic) — single-celled with leaves that are generally needles or scales. The pine organisms whose cells have one or more nuclei surrounded tree is one example. by a well-defined nuclear membrane with DNA arranged in long strands along chromosomes. Eucaryotic protists include CRETACEOUS — The last period of the Mesozoic, named , FORAMINIFERA, brown, red, yellow-green and from the latin word for chalk because of the chalk beds of this grass green algae; and the unique fungi. Many algal age in , represent the geologic record from 144 eucaryotic protists have attributes of both plant and animal in to 65 MYBP. No known Michigan outcrops. symbiotic association. CRINOID — An echinoderm with a crown consisting of a EURYPTERID — An extinct aquatic arthrapod which cup-like body (sometimes covered on top by a leathery breathed through gills and had seven pairs of jointed tegmen) and well-developed, movable arms. The crown is appendages, one pair of which served as paddles for held upright on a plated, somewhat flexible stalk or column in swimming. Also called a sea scorpion, its modern relative is most cases; however, some crinoids became stalkless as the horseshoe . adults. FORAMINIFERA -Eucayotic protists which secrete a test CYCADS — A group of palm-like trees and shrubs with (“shell”) composed of . The most common large, elongate or squat, fleshy trunks and singly-growing, fossil foraminifera resemble grains of rice. unbranched leaves. The modern Sago Palm is a cycad. GRAPTOLITES — Shallow-water marine organisms CYSTOID — An extinct, short-stalked echinoderm with an consisting of tube-like branches or interlaced mats which egg-shaped or spherical, plated calyx (body) which has a few have an a floating mode of life; tentatively Considered armlike brachioles. . DEVONIAN — Period in the Paleozoic that is after the HEXAPOD — A group of arthropods with a head composed Silurian and before the Mississippian. Named after of six fused segments, a pair of antennae and unjointed, Devonshire County, England where rocks of this age were whole-limbed mandibles. Each of the three segments of a first studied, representing the geologic record from 408 ±5 to hexapod’s thorax, or mid-section, has a pair of jointed 360 ±5 MYBP. Known in Michigan from outcrops in the walking legs. INSECTS form the largest group of living northern & southeastern southern peninsula. hexapods. IN MILLIONS OF YEARS — How long a IGNEOUS — Any rock that has solidified from molten or geologic interval lasted.. partially molten material. See also sedimentary, metamorphic. EARLY PROTEROZOIC — Representing the geologic record from 2,800 to 800 MYBP. Known in Michigan from JURASSIC — Period in the Mesozoic that is after the outcrops in the western northern peninsula. Triassic and before the Cretaceous. Named after the Jura Mountains between and Switzerland where rocks of EARLY TERTIARY — The first three epochs of the Tertiary this age were first studied, representing the geologic record period, called Paleogene in European references. It includes from 208 to 144 MYBP. Known in Michigan from subsurface Oligocene, Eocene and Paleocene epochs. No known well drilling samples only. Michigan outcrops. LATE TERTIARY — Period in the Cenozoic that is after the ECHINODERMS — A group of plated, spine-bearing marine early Tertiary and before the Quaternary, called the Neogene animals with bulbous bodies and a water-vascular in . No known Michigan outcrops. that helps with feeding and locomotion. Echinoderms may grow on a flexible stalk, or column, of doughnut-shaped MACROSCOPIC — Able to be seen without the aid of plates CRINOIDS, CYSTOIDS, BLASTOIDS, EOCRINOIDS) magnification. or be stalkless (EDRIOASTEROIDS, starfish, .SEA MESOZOIC — The era of geologic time from the end of the URCHINS and sand dollars) Paleozoic to the begining of the Cenozoic. Includes the ECHINOID — a stalkless echinoderm with a modified spherical shape, and,short to long, movable spines. Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic periods. See also Examples are SEA URCHINS and sand dollars. Cenozoic, Paleozoic, Proterozoic. — A term for part of the upper Precambrian named for the Edicaran fossils from Austrailia, representing METAMORPHIC — Any rock derived from pre-existing rocks the geologic record from 600 to 570 MYBP. No known undergoing change in essentially a solid state. Change is caused by changes in heat, pressure and/or chemically Michilogic Timeline CMG 94-01 @ www.deq.state.mi.us/gsd - Page 19 of 20 active fluids, usually at depths below the weathering zone on Tribe called the , representing the geologic record the earth~s surface. See also sedimentary, igneous. from 435 ±5 to 408 MYBP. Known in Michigan from outcrops in the eastern northern peninsula. MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC — Representing the geologic record from 2,000 to 1,100. Known in Michigan in the STROMATOPOROID — Extinct, marine colonial organisms western northern peninsula. that formed calcareous skeletons of closely spaced, concentric layers (thus the name meaning “layer-pored”), MISSISSIPPIAN — period in the Paleozoic that is after the joined by radial pillars. Its massive or sheet-like colonies Devonian and before the Pennsylvanian, about the same as sometimes spread out upon the sea floor, or formed large the Lower Carboniferous of European usage. Named after lumps of fossilized cells. In Michigan they helped form great the Mississippi River Valley where rocks of this age are marine reefs. Stromatoporoids have been classified as exposed and studied, representing the geologic record from sponges or algae, but they are presently considered to be a 360 ±5 to 320 ±5 MYBP. Known in Michigan from outcrops in sub class of coelenterates (corals). the central southern peninsula. TERTIARY — The first period of the Cenozoic. No known MYBP — Millions of Years Before Present. How far back in Michigan outcrops. time a geologic interval started. See also duration in millions of years. TRIASSIC — The first period in the Mesozoic before the Jurassic. Named because of its threefold division of the NAUTILOID — An externally-shelled straight, curved or rocks in Germany, representing the geologic record from 245 loosely coiled cephalopod which has straight or gently curved ±5 to 208 MYBP. No known Michigan outcrops. membranes (sutures) separating the inner chambers. The only living nautiloid is the pearly Nautilus. TRILOBITE — An extinct marine with a three- lobed, oval or elliptical outer skeleton consisting of a head, ORDOVICIAN — Period in the Paleozoic that is after the thorax and (posterior part or tail piece). Some fossil Cambrian and before the Silurian. Named after a Celtic Tribe arthropods which resemble trilobites but have not been called the Ordovices, representing the geologic record from assigned to the class trilobita have also been placed in the 505 ±5 to 435 ±5 MYBP. Known in Michigan from outcrops in superclass or subphyllum TRILOBITOMORPHA. the central northern peninsula. PLEISTOCENE — An epoch of the Quaternary period PALEOZOIC — The era of geologic time from the end of the before the recent (or Holocene), representing the geologic Precambrian to the begining of the Mesozoic. Includes the record from 2.0 0.4 to .011 MYBP. Pleistocene glacial Permian, Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, (Carboniferous), deposits are found statewide. Devonian, Silurian, Ordovician and Cambrian periods, see PRECAMBRIAN — All of the geologic record before the also Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Proterozoic. beginning of the Paleozoic. The Precambrian represents PENNSYLVANIAN — Period in the Paleozoic that is after close to 90 percent of geologic time. The Precambrian has the Mississippian and before the Permian, about the same as been divided into many diffent groupings. the Upper Carboniferous of European usage. Named after PROCARYOTE (or prokaryote) — A primitive unicellular the State of Pennsylvania where rocks of this age are organism whose cell does not have a nuclear membrane, so exposed and studied, representing the geologic record from that the DNA is scattered throughout the protoplasm. 320 ±5 to 285 ±5 MYBP. Known in Michigan from outcrops in Bacteria and BLUE-GREEN ALGAE are procaryotic the central southern peninsula. monerists (neither fully plant nor animal). A separate PERIOD — A subdivision of an era, sometime called the KINGDOM, the Monera, established for organisms which fundamental unit of geologic time. See also era, epoch. include bacteria and cyanophytes (blue-green algae), because the show very little relationship to other organisms, PERMIAN — The last period in the Paleozoic after the plant or animal. Pennsylvanian. Named after the province of Perm, Russia, where rocks of this age were first studied, representing the PROTEROZOIC — “Late Precambrian”, the more recent geologic record from 285 ±5 to 245 ±5 MYBP. No known subdivision of the Precambrian, representing the geologic Michigan outcrops. record from 2,800 to 570 MYBP. Known in Michigan from outcrops in the western northern peninsula. See also PHYLLOCARID — The oldest, most primitive form of Cenozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic. malacostracan arthropod characterized by a large, bivalve carapace (exoskeleton) that encloses the head and thorax of the animal. Malacostracans includes crabs and shrimp. Some of the biological terms used are from Pabian & QUATERNARY — Second period of the Cenozoic which is Diffendalls “Late Paleozoic Cyclic Sedimentation in further divided into the Holocene and Pleistocene. This is a Southeastern Nebraska: A Field Guide”, Educational Circular more general term often used for the glacial deposits that are No. 9, Conservation & Survey Division, University of found statewide. Nebraska-Lincoln, 1991. Used with author’s permission. SEDIMENTARY — Any rock resulting from the consolidation of loose , typically forming layers or from the precipitation from solution or from organic processes. See also igneous, metamorphic. SILURIAN — Period in the Paleozoic that is after the Ordovician and before the Devonian. Named after a Celtic

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