Volume Set 4

Ernest Critical Assessments of Major Writers Edited and with a new introduction by Henry Claridge, University of Kent, UK

Few twentieth-century American writers have been as influential as (1899–1961). Whilst contemporaries such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and may be as widely taught and studied as Hemingway, neither had an influence on other writers—or indeed, the cognate arts—as great as that of Hemingway. For example, the ‘hard-boiled’ school of detective fiction extending from the novels of Raymond Chandler and Dashiell Hammett to those of James Ellroy and Robert Parker is more or inconceivable without Hemingway’s stylistic influence. Arguably, film noir is also Hemingwayesque in its laconic detachment. And quite independently of his creative writings, Hemingway’s life continues to exert a profound fascination for both student and the general reader.

Hemingway was the subject of extensive enquiry before his death and since then he has generated interpretative and critical commentary on a vast and bewildering scale, in part aided by the continuing publication of works left unpublished at his death (most notably The Garden of Eden in 1987). The dizzying quantity (and variable quality) of Hemingway criticism makes it difficult to discriminate the useful from the tendentious, superficial, and otiose. That is why this new title is so urgently needed. In four volumes, the collection meets the need for an authoritative reference work to allow researchers and students to make sense of a vast literature and the continuing explosion in research output. Users will now be able easily and rapidly to locate the best and most influential critical scholarship, work that is otherwise often inaccessible or scattered throughout a variety of specialist journals and books. With material gathered into one easy-to-use set, researchers and students can now spend more of their time with the key journal articles, book chapters, and other pieces, rather than on time-consuming (and sometimes fruitless) archival searches.

Fully indexed and with a comprehensive introduction newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and context, Ernest Hemingway is an essential reference work and is destined to be valued as a vital research resource.

For more information, visit: www.routledge.com/9780415491204

Routledge | May 2011: 234x156: 1,600pp: Set Hb: 978-0-415-49120-4

Routledge Major Works Ernest Hemingway


Biographical Studies, Memoirs, 1. People and Places 2. ‘In Our Time’ and the Short Stories Reminiscences, and Interviews Hemingway in Europe 32. F. Scott Fitzgerald, ‘Review of In Our Time’, 13. John W. Aldridge, ‘Hemingway and Europe’, The Bookman, 1926, 63, 264–5. 1. Michael Reynolds, ‘Ernest Hemingway: Shenandoah, 1961, 12, 11–24. 33. D. H. Lawrence, ‘Review of In Our Time’, 1899–1961’, in Linda Wagner-Martin (ed.), A Calendar of Modern Letters, 1927, 4, 72–3. Historical Guide to Ernest Hemingway (Oxford 14. Frederick J. Hoffman, The : American University Press, 2000), pp. 16–50. Writing in the Postwar Decade (Viking, 1962), 34. Sheldon Norman Grebstein, ‘The Reliable and pp. 87–97, 102–7. Unreliable Narrator in Hemingway’s Stories’, 2. , ‘Ernest Hemingway and the 15. Robert McAlmon, ‘1923–1924’, Being Hemingway’s Craft (Southern Illinois University Post-War Decade’, Atlantic Monthly, 1933, 152, Press, 1973), pp. 56–67. 197–208. Together, 1920–1930 (Hogarth Press, 1984), pp. 157–64. 35. E. R. Hagemann, ‘Only Let the Story End as 3. , ‘Miss Toklas’s America Cake’, 16. Hugh Ford, Published in : A Literary Soon as Possible: Time and History in Ernest Memoirs and Opinions (Swallow Press, 1975), Hemingway’s In Our Time’, Modern Fiction pp. 59–66. Chronicle of Paris in the 1920s and (Macmillan, 1975), pp. 104–8. Studies, 1980–1, 26, 255–62. 4. John Groth, ‘A Note on Ernest Hemingway’, 17. Mario Praz, ‘Hemingway in Italy’, in Roger 36. Elizabeth D. Vaughn, ‘In Our Time as Ernest Hemingway, Men Without Women (World Self-Begetting Fiction’, Modern Fiction Studies, Publishing, 1946), pp. 19–24. Asselineau (ed.), The Literary Reputation of Hemingway in Europe (Lettres Modernes, 1965), 1989, 35, 707–16. 5. , ‘A Portrait of Mister Papa’, pp. 93–123. 37. Keith Carabine, ‘“Big Two-Hearted River”: A Life, 10 January 1949, 86–101. 18. George Wickes, ‘Sketches of the Author’s Life in Reinterpretation’, The Hemingway Review, 1982, 6. William Forrest Dawson, ‘Ernest Hemingway: Paris in the Twenties’, in Jackson J. Benson and 1, 2, 39–44. Petoskey Interview’, Alumnus Richard Astro (eds.), Hemingway in Our Time 38. Cleanth Brooks and , Quarterly Review, 1958, LXIV, 114–23. (Oregon State University Press, 1974), ‘The Killers’, Understanding Fiction (Appleton- 7. , My Brother, Ernest pp. 25–38. Century Crofts, 1959), pp. 303–12. Hemingway (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1962), 19. Harold T. McCarthy, ‘Hemingway and Life as 39. Frank O’Connor, ‘A Clean Well-Lighted Place’, pp. 19–43, 76–104, 267–83. Play’, The Perspective (Associated The Lonely Voice: A Study of the 8. Philip Young. ‘Hemingway and Me: A Rather University Presses), pp. 136–55. (World Publishing, 1963), pp. 156–69. Long Story’, Kenyon Review, 1966, 28, 15–37. 20. Deming Brown, ‘Hemingway in Russia’, 40. David Lodge, ‘Hemingway’s Clean, Well- 9. , ‘Islands in the Stream: A American Quarterly, 1953, 5, 145–61. Lighted, Puzzling Place’, The at the Son Remembers’, in James Nagel (ed.), Ernest 21. Andrew Gibson, ‘Hemingway on the British’, Crossroads (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), Hemingway: The Writer in Context (University The Hemingway Review, 1982, 1, 2, 62–75. pp. 184–202. of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 13–18. 41. John V. Hagopian, ‘Symmetry in ”A Cat in Writers on the Writing 10. George Plimpton, ‘Interview with Ernest the Rain”’, College English, 1962, 24, 220–2. 22. Virginia Woolf, ‘An Essay in Criticism’, New Hemingway’, in George Plimpton (ed.), Writers 42. Virgil Hutton, ‘The Short Happy Life of York Herald Tribune, 9 October 1927, 8. at Work: Interviews (Penguin, Macomber’, The University Review, 1964, 30, 1972), pp. 175–96. 23. T. S. Eliot, ‘A Commentary’, The Criterion, 253–63. 1933, 12, 468–73. 11. Michael S. Reynolds, ‘Hemingway’s Home: 43. James J. Martine, ‘A Little Light on Depression and Suicide’, , 24. , ‘Bull in the Afternoon’, New Hemingway’s “The Light of the World”’, 1982, 57, 4, 600–10. Republic, 1933, 75, 94–7. Studies in Short Fiction, 1970, VII, 465–7. 12. Jackson J. Benson, ‘Ernest Hemingway: The Life 25. , ‘Ernest Hemingway: The 44. Charles J. Nolan, Jr., ‘Hemingway’s “Out of as Fiction and the Fiction as Life’, American Dumb Ox’, Men Without Art (Cassell & Co., Season”: The Importance of Close Reading’, Literature, 1989, 61, 345–58. 1934), pp. 17–41. Rocky Mountain Review of Language and 26. Delmore Schwartz, ‘Ernest Hemingway’s Literature, 1999, 53, 45–58. Literary Situation’, Southern Review, 1938, 3, 45. Martin Light, ‘Of Wasteful Deaths: 769–82. Hemingway’s Stories about the Spanish War’, 27. H. E. Bates, ‘Hemingway’s Short Stories’ The Western Humanities Review, 1969, XXIII, [1943], in (ed.), Hemingway and 29–42. His Critics: An International Anthology (Hill and 46. Howard L. Hannum, ‘Hemingway’s Tales of Wang, 1961), pp. 71–9. ”The Real Dark”’, in Susan F. Beegel (ed.), 28. Robert Penn Warren, ‘Hemingway’, The Kenyon Hemingway’s Neglected Short Fiction: New Review, 1947, 9, 1–28. Perspectives (University of Alabama Press, 29. , ‘Hemingway and the Image of 1989), pp. 339–50. Man’, Partisan Review, 1953, 20, 338–42. 30. Wright Morris, ‘The Function of Style: Ernest Hemingway’, The Territory Ahead (University of Nebraska Press, 1978), pp. 133–46. 31. Tom Stoppard, ‘Reflections on Ernest Hemingway’, Ernest Hemingway: The Writer in Context (University of Wisconsin Press, 1984), pp. 19–27. Critical Assessments of Major Writers


Critical Assessments of Individual Novels 67. Dwight MacDonald, ‘Hemingway’s Unpolitical General Critical Perspectives On Political Novel’, Partisan Review, January– (1926) Hemingway—A Chronological February 1941, 24–8. 47. James T. Farrell, ‘The Sun Also Rises’, The League Overview of Frightened Philistines (, 1945), 68. W. H. Mellers, ‘The Ox in ’, Scrutiny, 1941, X, 93–9. pp. 20–4. Hemingway: Critical Opinion 69. , ‘Not Spain but Hemingway’, 48. Mark Spilka, ‘The Death of Love in The Sun Also Between the Wars Rises’, in Charles Shapiro (ed.), Twelve Original trans. Ilsa Barea, Horizon, 1941, III, 350–61. 87. Lincoln Kirstein, ‘The Canon of Death’, Hound Essays on Great American Novels (Wayne State 70. William T. Moynihan, ‘The Martyrdom of Robert and Horn, 1933, VI, 336–41. University Press, 1958), pp. 80–92. Jordan’, College English, 1959, XXI, 127–32. 88. J. Kashkeen, ‘Ernest Hemingway: A Tragedy of 49. Andrew Hook, ‘Art and Life in The Sun Also Rises’, 71. John Graham, ‘Ernest Hemingway: The Craftsmanship’, International Literature, 1935, in A. Robert Lee (ed.), Ernest Hemingway: New Meaning of Style’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1960, 5, 76–108. Critical Essays (Vision Press, 1983), pp. 49–63. VI, 298–313. 89. Edgar Johnson, ‘Farewell the Separate Peace: 50. Ira Elliott, ‘Performance Art: Jake Barnes and 72. A. Robert Lee, ‘“Everything Completely Knit The Rejections of Ernest Hemingway’, Sewanee “Masculine” Signification inThe Sun Also Rises’, Up”: Seeing Whole’, Review, 1940, XLVIII, 289–300. American Literature, 1995, 67, 1, 77–94. Ernest Hemingway: New Critical Essays (Vision 51. Donald Pizer, ‘The Moment Imagined and Press, 1983), pp. 79–102. Hemingway: Critical Opinion Remembered: Fiction: Ernest Hemingway, The Across the River and Into the Trees (1950) in the and 1950s Sun Also Rises’, American Expatriate Writing and the 73. Evelyn Waugh, ‘: Review 90. , ‘Hemingway: Gauge of Paris Moment: and Place (Louisiana of Across the River and into the Trees’, Tablet, 30 Morale’, The Wound and the Bow (Houghton State University Press, 1996), pp. 73–86. November 1950, 290–1. Mifflin, 1941), pp. 214–22. (1929) 74. Joseph Warren Beach, ‘How Do You Like It 91. David Daiches, ‘Ernest Hemingway’, College English, 1941, 2, 8, 725–36. 52. Malcolm Cowley, ‘Review of A Farewell to Now, Gentlemen?’, Sewanee Review, 1951, LIX, Arms’, New York Herald Tribune, 6 October 311–28. 92. , On Native Grounds: An Interpretation 1929, 1, 6. 75. Horst Oppel, ‘Hemingway’s Across the River and of Modern American Literature (Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1942), pp. 327–41. 53. T. S. Matthews, ‘Nothing Ever Happens to the Into the Trees’, trans. Joseph M. Bernstein, in Brave’, The New Republic, 9 October 1926, Carlos Baker (ed.), Hemingway and His Critics: 93. D. S. Savage, ‘Ernest Hemingway’, The Withered 208–10. An International Anthology (Hill and Wang, Branch: Six Studies in the Modern Novel (Eyre & Spottiswode, 1950), pp. 23–43. 54. Henry Seidel Canby, ‘Review of A Farewell to 1961), pp. 213–26. Arms’, The Saturday Review of Literature, 12 76. Jackson J. Benson, ‘Dark Laughter’, Hemingway: 94. Harry Levin, ‘Observations on the Style of Ernest October 1929, pp. 231–2. The Writer’s Art of Self-Defense (University of Hemingway’, Kenyon Review, 1951, XIII, 581–609. 55. , Introduction to A Farewell to Minnesota Press, 1969), pp. 47–69. 95. E. M. Halliday, ‘Hemingway’s Narrative Arms (Random House, 1932), pp. ix–xx. (1952) Perspective’, Sewanee Review, 1952, LX, 115–24. 56. Otto Friedrich, ‘Ernest Hemingway: Joy 77. Mark Schorer, ‘With Grace Under Pressure’, 96. Frederick J. Hoffman, ‘No Beginning and No Through Strength’, The American Scholar, New Republic, 1952, CXXVII, 19–20. End: Hemingway and Death’, Essays in Criticism, 1953, III , 73–84. Autumn 1957, 519–24. 78. Leo Gurko, ‘The Old Man and the Sea’, College 57. Charles R. Anderson, ‘Hemingway’s Other English, 1955, XVII, 11–15. 97. Delmore Schwartz, ‘The Fiction of Ernest Hemingway’, Perspectives, 1955, 13, 70–88. Style’, Modern Language Notes, 1961, LXXVI, 79. Clinton S. Burhans, Jr., ‘The Old Man and the 434–42. Sea: Hemingway’s Tragic Vision of Man’, 98. Robert C. Hart, ‘Hemingway ’, 58. Blanche Gelfant, ‘Language as Moral Code in A American Literature, 1960, XXXI, 446–55. College English, 1957, 18, 314–20. Farewell to Arms’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1963, 80. Robert P. Weeks, ‘Fakery in The Old Man and 99. Nemi D’Agostino, ‘The Later Hemingway’ IX, 173–6. the Sea’, College English, 1962, XXIV, 188–92. [1956], Sewanee Review, 1960, LXVIII, 482–93. 59. Bernard Oldsey, ‘The Sense of an Ending in A 81. David Timms, ‘Contrasts in Form: Hemingway: Critical Opinion Since His Death Farewell to Arms’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1977, Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea and 100. Cleanth Brooks, ‘Ernest Hemingway: Man on 23, 491–508. Faulkner’s “The Bear”’, in A. Robert Lee (ed.), His Moral Uppers’, The Hidden God: Studies in 60. Judith Fetterley, ‘A Farewell to Arms: The Modern American (Vision Press, Hemingway, Faulkner, Yeats, Eliot, and Warren Hemingway’s “Resentful Cryptogram”’, The 1989), pp. 97–113. (Yale University Press, 1963), pp. 6–21. Resisting Reader: A Feminist Approach to Islands in the Stream (1970) 101. Wesley A. Kort, ‘Human Time in Hemingway’s American Fiction (Indiana University Press, Fiction’, Modern Fiction Studies, 1980–1, 26, 1978), pp. 46–71. 82. John W. Aldridge, ‘Islands in the Stream’, The Devil in the Fire: Retrospective Essays on American 579–96. (1937) Literature and Culture, 1951–1971 (Harper’s 102. Jeffrey Walsh, ‘Emblematical of War: The 61. Malcolm Cowley, ‘Hemingway: Work in Magazine Press, 1972), pp. 91–100. Representation of Combat in Hemingway’s Progress’, The New Republic, 20 , 83. Joseph M. DeFalco, ‘Hemingway’s Islands and Fiction’, The Hemingway Review, 1982, 1, 45–57. 310–14. Streams: Minor Tactics for Heavy Pressure’, in 103. Herbie Butterfield, ‘Ernest Hemingway’, in 62. Gerry Brenner, ‘To Have and Have Not as Classical Richard Astro and Jackson J. Benson (eds.), Richard Gray (ed.), American Fiction: New Tragedy: Reconsidering Hemingway’s Neglected Hemingway in Our Time (Oregon State Readings (Vision Press, 1983), pp. 184–99. Novel’, in Richard Astro and Jackson J. Benson University Press, 1974), pp. 39–51. 104. Kenneth J. Johnston, ‘Hemingway and (eds.), Hemingway in Our Time (Oregon State 84. Gregory S. Sojka, ‘Art and Order in Islands in Cezanne: Doing the Country’, American University Press, 1974), pp. 67–86. the Stream’, in Donald R. Noble (ed.), Literature, 1984, 56, 1, 28–37. 63. Wirt Williams, ‘To Have and Have Not: The Hemingway: A Revaluation (Whiston Publishing 105. Robert Merrill, ‘Demoting Hemingway: Hero of the Bold Choice’, The Tragic Art of Company, 1983), pp. 263–80. Feminist Criticism and the Canon’, American Ernest Hemingway (Louisiana State University The Garden of Eden (1986) Literature, 1988, 60, 2, 255–68. Press, 1981), pp. 107–22. 85. Mark Spilka, ‘Hemingway’s Barbershop 106. James C. McKelly, ‘From Whom the Bull Flows: For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) : “The Garden of Eden” Manuscript’, Hemingway in Parody’, American Literature, 64. Alvah C. Bessie, ‘Review of For Whom the Bell Novel: A Forum on Fiction, 1987, 21, 1, 29–55. 1989, 61, 4, 547–62. Tolls’, , 1940, XXXVII, 25–9. 86. J. Gerald Kennedy, ‘Hemingway’s Gender 107. Robert Paul Lamb, ‘Hemingway and the 65. Edmund Wilson, ‘Ernest Hemingway’s For Trouble’, American Literature, 1991, 63, 2, Creation of Twentieth-Century Dialogue’, Whom the Bell Tolls’, New Republic, 1940, CIII, 187–207. Twentieth-Century Literature, 1996, 42, 453–80. 591–2. 66. Malcolm Cowley, ‘Hemingway’s “Nevertheless”’, New Republic, 1941, CIV, 89–90.