Popular & Teacher Candidates’ Attitudes & Perceptions of Cultural & Ethnic Stereotypes

Julie McGaha

Introduction to prepare teacher candidates understand these implications and the with a more global perspective. Like most manner in which they can impact their In order to prepare students with the universities (Knight, 2003), my university classroom. knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary is attempting to increase the opportunities Teaching about issues related to glo- to live and work in an interconnected and and activities related to global and interna- balization is also important from a social interdependent world, it is essential they tional initiatives. Since teacher education justice perspective (Parker, 2008). While have teachers who understand global pro- candidates study abroad in lesser numbers Western nations such as the United States cesses and can employ a global perspective than their peers in other fields (Open Doors, maintain a strong commitment to democ- in the classroom. While globalization can 2013) and the number of international stu- racy and equality, the reality is significant lead to expanded economic markets, in- dents in undergraduate teacher education inequalities exist along racial, ethnic, and creased mass communication, and reduced programs is limited, one way to increase class lines. border restrictions, globalization has also global awareness is through course related been associated with tensions between activities and assignments. Theoretical Perspective those who benefit from global processes and As such, I redesigned an Introduction those who are victims of the abuses associ- to Secondary Education course to focus I used both Critical Global Educa- ated with globalization (human trafficking, on global engagement. The goals of the tion (CGE) and Critical Media poverty, environmental issues, etc.). course are to expose teacher candidates to as theoretical frameworks for this study. Given the inequalities which exist a wide-range of issues in secondary educa- Efforts to include global perspectives or along racial, ethnic, and class lines, stress- tion. Topics include an introduction to the global education in teacher education have ing these concepts as part of larger social, teaching profession, issues of reform, and evolved over the last fifty years to reflect political, and economic forces is important current trends in public education. Two the political and economic influences at the for developing a human rights-based ap- additional goals include (1) the impact time. While there is no single agreed upon proach for education, which advocates that categories of diversity (racial, ethic, definition of global education (Kirkwood, inclusion, equal opportunities, and non-dis- cultural, linguistic, socioeconomic, ability, 2001), scholars have proposed global edu- crimination. In an effort to expose teacher and student development) have on teach- cation should include a number of concepts candidates to the manner in which global ing and learning and (2) the manner in such as: multiple perspectives, knowledge inequalities transcend national borders, I which schools shape and are shaped by of other , global challenges, in- use a series of international advertisements and . terconnectedness, concerns for peace and to highlight the manner in which concepts With a focus on global engagement, development, the legacies of , such as race, ethnicity, power, and privilege the scope of the course changed to explore and cross-cultural experiences (Kirkwood, are promoted and perpetuated through the these concepts more broadly including 2001; Lamy, 1987; Merryfield 1997). media in different areas of the world. the impact of global issues, interconnect- While some have criticized the global Drawing on historic ideologies of co- edness, and the legacy of imperialism on education movement as being associated lonialism and imperialism, as well as the children and education. with anti-capitalism and efforts to indoctri- disparities and xenophobia associated with Teaching about issues related to nate teachers (Schafly, 1986) and students, globalization, these examples depict how globalization should be an important others have criticized global education as contemporary globalization perpetuates component of teacher preparation. While only associating the “rest” of the world discourses of racial and ethnic inferiority. we have always lived in a diverse world, insofar as it affects the United States globalization has increased the demands (O’Conner & Zeichner, 2011; Sleeter, 2003). Motivation for Study and realities of diversity, presenting new As such, O’Conner and Zeichner (2011) ex- challenges related to infrastructure, pand upon “” global education The motivation for this study grew out to include CGE, which they define as “an of a college-wide effort at my institution resource allocation, and social stratifica- tion. At the same time they also create approach to global education that seeks new spaces and challenges, especially in to educate students about the causes and Julie McGaha is director, education, for issues related to bilingual consequences of global injustices that aims Education Programs education, , and aca- to support students to work in solidarity with the North Carolina Center demic achievement. As such, it is impor- within the worlds’ people toward transfor- for International Understanding, tant that teacher education candidates mative change” (p. 523). Essential to CGE Chapel Hill, North Carolina. is a discussion of not only the economic and


power imbalances between and among na- from popular culture as an effective peda- dates interpret potentially negative tions, but also within nations to explore the gogical tool in classroom settings. images related to race, ethnicity, pow- link between these issues in both global For example Joanou and Griffin (2010) er, and privilege in popular culture? and local contexts. found using images from popular media 2. How do American teacher candi- In our media rich culture individuals an effective way to facilitate classroom dates conceptualize these concepts are inundated with visual images. Televi- discussions regarding race, class, gender, from a non-US context? sion serves as one of the major influences and sexuality among mainly White teacher on our . Since media has the candidates. Scanian and Feinberg (2000) 3. How do teacher candidates inter- potential to influence how we construct have used the show The Simp- pret these messages as a function images and understand the world (Kellner sons to engage undergraduate students of how perceives & Share, 2005), advocates of critical media in a number of sociological concepts such “others?” literacy argue that exploring the manner as race, ethnicity, gender, class, and socio- in which the media constructs images and economic status. Similarly, Melander and Methodology messages is also important. Deconstruct- Wortmann (2011) discuss their success in Introduction ing these images and messages is an es- using short clips of the television series Participants and Procedure In order to prepare students with the sential step in addressing inequity and Desperate Housewives to illustrate gender Participants viewed eight advertise- knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary oppression based on race, class, gender, etc. stereotypes in a large sociology course. ments from different parts of the world to live and work in an interconnected and (Kellner & Share, 2005; Morrell, 2002). They found this approach to be success- to explore messages of race, ethnicity, interdependent world, it is essential they ful in engaging students and improving power, and privilege (see Table 1). Given have teachers who understand global pro- Multi-Media and Popular Culture student scores on later assessments. the strong rational for using examples of While a number of concepts would American popular culture to explore is- cesses and can employ a global perspective There is a growing body of literature be included within these critical theories sues of race, ethnicity, class, and gender in the classroom. While globalization can that suggests aspects of popular culture, (gender, age, sexual orientation), the focus with college students, why use examples lead to expanded economic markets, in- specifically , have the potential on this classroom activity was limited to from other countries and cultures and not creased mass communication, and reduced to shape individuals’ attitudes regarding race, ethnicity, power, and privilege. That is add to the existing literature with differ- border restrictions, globalization has also issues such as race (Graves, 1999; Joanou not to underscore other concepts, however ent examples from American popular cul- been associated with tensions between & Griffin, 2010; Kellner & Share, 2005). focusing on this one concept allowed for a ture? On one hand using global examples those who benefit from global processes and Given the potential impact of popular richer discussion of the topic. The specific offers individuals, who might be otherwise those who are victims of the abuses associ- culture to affect and shape how individuals research questions were: resistant to acknowledging the presence ated with globalization (human trafficking, develop ethnic and cultural stereotypes, re- of negative stereotypes, a “safe” place as a poverty, environmental issues, etc.). searchers have suggested using examples Given the inequalities which exist 1. How do American teacher candi- cultural outsider to engage in meaningful along racial, ethnic, and class lines, stress- ing these concepts as part of larger social, Table 1 political, and economic forces is important Classroom Advertisements for developing a human rights-based ap- proach for education, which advocates Product Product Information Example used in class* inclusion, equal opportunities, and non-dis- Burger King Mexican Whopper 2009 Burger King ad that features a wrestler wearing a Mexican flag. The ad Deebootube, 2009 crimination. In an effort to expose teacher was run in Europe and drew criticism from European and Mexican officials candidates to the manner in which global (Associated Press, 2009). inequalities transcend national borders, I Dunkin’ Donuts charcoal donuts 2013 campaign featuring a woman in “blackface.” The ad was run in Thailand Gecker, 2013 use a series of international advertisements after protests from human rights groups (Gecker, 2013). to highlight the manner in which concepts such as race, ethnicity, power, and privilege Banania chocolate drink French chocolate / banana drink popular in France since the product inception Blume, 2006; Machin, 2013; Traub, 2006 in the early 20th century. The company packaging (which has evolved over are promoted and perpetuated through the the last 100 years) has been labeled as racist and portraying colonial media in different areas of the world. sentiments (referring to France’s colonial past in Senegal) (Blume, 2006; Drawing on historic ideologies of co- Traub, 2006). lonialism and imperialism, as well as the Black herbal toothpaste Herbal toothpaste popular in Thailand. Ming76, 2006 disparities and xenophobia associated with globalization, these examples depict how Negrita Rum A French wine and spirits company that dates to the mid-19th century. Negrita-Bardinet, 2012; Traub, 2006 contemporary globalization perpetuates Numerous ads feature colonial images of Black women. Historic images feature discourses of racial and ethnic inferiority. Black women as servants (Traub, 2006). KyoChon Fried Chicken advertisement 2009 campaign by Korean KyoChon chicken restaurant chain (Glover, 2010). Glover, 2010; Oneabjure, 2009 Motivation for Study European Union 2012 ad produced by the European Commission. The ad features a White Watt, 2012 The motivation for this study grew out woman in a seemingly threatening environment by men of various ethic of a college-wide effort at my institution backgrounds. The video was criticized by a number of entities and removed by the European Commission (Watt, 2012).

Candy wrapper images from Cloetta Fazer Nordic candy company in existence since mid-19th century. Images included Helsingin Sanomat, 2008; Waterfield, 2011 company several candy wrappers noting negative stereotypes (Helsingin Sanomat, 2008; Waterfield, 2011).

*All images were obtained from noted websites and articles. Full citations are noted in the reference section.

FALL 2015 33 Research discourse without feeling a sense shame advertisements was either removed by the Instead, I discuss participant responses as or “White-guilt.” company following customer complaints part of the overall theme. Global examples also highlight the or noted (most by a human rights or hu- Additionally, it is important to note manner in which these issues manifest manitarian groups) as portraying negative the purpose of this activity was to explore themselves in different parts of the world ethnic or cultural stereotypes. The choice the manner in which individuals were and provide teacher candidates the op- of advertisements was somewhat neces- situated in the sample ads and what portunity to problematize these issues sitated by language gaps. In order for the possible stereotypes these messages can leading to greater global awareness and English-speaking participants to have at perpetuate rather than classifying areas social action. Since they are short, com- least a basic level of understanding of the of the world as being more or less cultur- mercials and other advertisements can advertisement, the actual product being ally sensitive. be an efficient way to engage in multiple “marketed” needed to be obvious, therefore examples and representations in a single using advertisements where products were Identifying class. As their main purpose is to “sell” a easily recognized was important. While and its Cultural Context product, these messages allow participants the products themselves were obvious to While racism is culturally negotiated, to explore these concepts as a function of participants, as noted below, the messages the construct of racism in terms of discrim- our consumer based society as well as the and marketing strategies were not as eas- ination, marginalization, and related intol- discourses regarding dominant culture. ily understood. erance is not. As such, an essential goal in In the weeks prior to this activ- the course was to explore the construct of ity, classroom readings and discussions and Analysis racism (and ethnic discrimination) as be- focused on basic principles of multicul- All participant responses were tran- ing one that transcends national borders, tural education with a focus on critical scribed exactly as written by participants. not bound by unique national definitions multiculturalism. This material provided Once all responses were transcribed, I or interpretations. Based on participant participants with some framework for began a process of coding individual re- responses it was clear there was a great exploring the advertisements noted be- sponses. Responses were analyzed as a deal of variability in the extent to which low. Participants (n=44) were all teacher whole rather than analyzed based on each participants understood race, and there- education candidates pursing secondary individual advertisement. This allowed me fore racism as a concept. or K-12 (, Art, Dance, PE, Modern to look at the entire set of responses col- In some instances participants re- Language) certification and enrolled in lectively to gain a more complete picture of ported they felt there was some cultural the professional education sequence for participants’ perceptions and understand- context needed to determine the extent to those majors. Only two participants en- ings of the concept rather than as a func- which the advertisement depicted nega- rolled in the course identity as being not tion of their interpretations of individual tive stereotypes or suggested that these White (one participant of Indian-Ameri- advertisements. After reviewing the data concepts were culturally constructed. As can decent and the other identified as in an open and holistic manner, I began one participant noted, “their cultures are being Latina). using open coding to build concepts around different and are more or less offended by Participants were given a sheet noting recurrent themes, followed by axial coding different stereotypes.” Another participant each of the advertisements/images by title to reduce and re-classify thematic codes in offered, “This could be offensive, but their only and asked, after viewing to note their a manner that reflected the connections culture is different so it may be ok,” while initial thoughts regarding the (1) purpose between categories and subcategories. I another participant said, “The idea that of the advertisement, (2) intent of the then used selective coding to look at the jumped out to me from these is that the advertiser in selecting the specific image data as it directly related to the research ads were caricatures of Black people. But or theme, and (3) overall reaction to the questions. there are some problems with White people advertisement. I provided brief contextual The following four themes emerged too. It’s just what we get offended by.” information for each example, however, from the data analysis: (1) identifying Just as classroom interactions can be since the goal of the activity was to elicit racism and the cultural context in which contextually based, cultural context and as authentic responses from participants as advertisement was used, (2) post-colonial cultural difference were important aspects possible, there was no discussion during the and ethnocentric interpretation, (3) impli- of this activity. In follow-up classes we activity so as to not influence reactions. cations for classroom interactions, and (4) discussed the assertion by the Thai CEO Participants viewed the advertise- privileging American policies toward dis- of Dunkin’ Donuts that objection to their ments, completed the information sheet, crimination and social justice. A discussion campaign was an American interpretation and turned it in anonymously. Following of each thematic category with supporting of racism (Gecker, 2013). This provided par- the classroom activity, participants were textual evidence from participants is pro- ticipants a different interpretation of the asked to complete a reflection based on vided below. manner in which audiences might perceive their thoughts on the advertisements as images (this article also provides context a whole, how these advertisements would Results for the Thai toothpaste ad also used in be perceived in the United States, and how the class activity). While it’s important to images like these in popular culture could Across each theme participants noted acknowledge a line between cultural dif- potentially impact children in schools. The varying levels of sophistication when dis- ference and racism, the proverbial “line” following two class meetings were devoted cussing issues of race, ethnicity, privilege, became a key point in the debrief sessions. to class debriefs regarding the activity. and power. It is difficult to categorize par- Participants struggled with the extent to For purposes of clarity, all commercials, ticipants’ responses as “negative” or “posi- which some of the images were simply images, and advertisements are referred to tive” so I have intentionally stayed away a product of cultural differences or if in as “advertisements.” Each of the selected from those distinct, -laden categories. fact the perceived manner of inferiority,

MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION 34 Research servitude, or exaggeration made them (including those from and Africa) are Implications for Classroom Interactions potentially offensive. depicted as “irrational, degenerate, primi- Following the classroom activity, Many students noted they simply did tive, mystical, and suspicious” (p. 49). The participants were asked to reflect on the not understand why or how advertise- construction of these cultural stereotypes, potential impact messages such as those ments were problematic. For some adver- Said claims, ultimately has created an “us” conveyed in the advertisements may have tisements students simply noted: “I don’t and “them” binary. on classroom interactions. Understanding get it,” or (referring to Black people being In some instances participants noted the role that ethnic and cultural stereo- used to represent chocolate), “I just don’t images perpetuated negative stereotypes, types may play in world events or human get why a dark person is associated with but contextualized this information as interactions, especially for children, is im- chocolate,” or “I wouldn’t have noticed it a function of the origin of the company. portant to understand these issues beyond (racist connotations) if the racism wasn’t For example when viewing images for a national context. pointed out.” Negrita Rum or Banania, one participant While some participants noted they In other cases participants noted they noted, “The images aren’t good, but they did not find individual advertisements didn’t find particular images to promote began at a time when that is how people offensive or perpetuating negative ste- negative images. This was particularly thought Africans looked so it makes sense reotypes, overwhelmingly they noted disturbing when participants specifically [that they are still used].” This justification that when messages did reflect negative noted the add promoted negative stereo- was particularly disturbing as it is largely ethnic and cultural stereotypes, those types, but still said, “I didn’t initially find consistent with the assumptions of racial advertisements could have a detrimental anything wrong with the commercial” or inferiority that were historically used to effect in a classroom setting. Participants another participant who noted (referring to justify imperialism and discrimination. In noted negative messages were of particular the Negrita Rum ad), “I don’t understand this case the participant did not make the concern for children as their “brains soak this (being racist) other than the Black connection that the advertisements, even up everything they see and hear…if they woman being like a servant.” from a historical perspective, perpetuated continually see the same social norms, An overall observation was the fact these assumptions. stereotypes and prejudice things, it will that many participants did not seem to In some cases the manner in which eventually become engrained in their way understand the social and cultural conno- the participants discussed the individu- of thinking for a long time, if not the rest tations of Blackface. This gap in cultural als depicted in the ads represented an of their lives.” knowledge prompted a lengthy discussion ethnocentric notion of race and class. For A large majority of comments from in the following days regarding this histori- example, one participant noted, “[this is] participants regarding classroom implica- cal context of minstrel portrayal of African- racism toward African Americans” while tions related to bullying or student conflict American stereotypes in the mid/ late 19th another participant said, “African Ameri- issues. In some cases participants felt century. Conversely, many students noted cans appear [to be] stereotyped.” In the students may feel justified to pick on other examples of negative stereotypes, which debrief sessions a few days later in class, students because they “might start to think could perpetuate and promote racist feel- I summarized some of the responses and this is an appropriate way to act.” As such ings. As one participant wrote, (referring asked participants to think for a moment many participants noted they felt a sense to the Thai herbal toothpaste ad), “This is if a Black man in Thailand was African of responsibility with regard to negating the most offensive thing I have ever seen!” American? For a few participants this was these messages. To that end, one partici- Other participants specifically pointed to a defining moment in both the activity and pant said, “it would then be my job to try the attempts of advertisers to construct their understanding of race. and open their mind and teach them that ethnic images through mockery or the ex- In the final reflection paper, a partici- stereotypes were not realistic portrayals of aggeration of physical features made the pant wrote, “I had never thought about the individuals.” Another added, “It is my job images offensive on their own, regardless fact that not everyone who is Black is Afri- not to let stereotypes take over [classroom] of how they were situated in the advertise- can American. The reality is I don’t know interactions.” ment. where this man is from, maybe Thailand, While participants did acknowledge maybe somewhere else, but in any case my these messages could adversely affect Post-Colonial response was most certainly from the point students, and many felt as teachers it was and Ethnocentric Interpretation of view of an American.” Throughout this there job to provide different messages and The manner in which many partici- class activity and follow-up discussions make sure their students felt safe and in a pants discussed the individuals and prod- it became clear that there was an overall “welcoming environment,” only one partici- ucts in the advertisements often reflected lack of knowledge related to post-colonial pant made specific reference to the existing a post-colonial or ethnocentric perspective. legacies throughout the world. power structure in place with regard to Post-colonial theory brings into question Similarly, there was a lack of under- popular culture. The participant noted: standing regarding the manner in which the manner in which cultural perceptions From what I know of advertisements, have been shaped and exploited by the way mainstream media reinforces existing power structures regarding who belongs they have researchers (presumably with in which the “colonizers” have portrayed sociological backgrounds) who get paid the colonized.” In his work, Orientalism and who doesn’t in a given culture as well to discover the most effective method of (1979), Edward Said conceptualizes this as the socially acceptable manner in which selling a product to a target audience. representation as one in which the West each group should be depicted. Later con- Their expertise examines the values and is characterized as “rational, peaceful, versations focused on the various push-pull assumptions that we ALREADY have and liberal, logical …[and] without natural factors affecting immigration and asylum in turn create commercials to convince us to buy things. I believe it is safe to assume suspicion” (pp. 3-5) whereas Easterners seeking that transcend simply the move- ment of people from one location to other. that the creation of these advertisements

FALL 2015 35 Research

accurately reflect the majority view of the participants. At the same time, it left a analysis or an attempt to “make too much population. few participants searching for answers out of nothing.” As one particiapant noted, With this one exception it appears partici- regarding how to “fix” what they perceived “It’s just a commercial. It’s not that big of pants may still not understand the role of to be problems in the world. This desire a deal.” Again, these dismissive attitudes social institutions in promoting and per- to “fix” a problem led to a conversation in and responses are inline with Warren and petuating existing . class in which a participant asked, “So, I Hytten’s (2004) work related to “faces of think some of these ads could be seen as Whiteness.” Privileging American Policies racist, but I mean, where does it end? So, if someone of color is eating a [chocolate] Conclusion An important part of the research cookie, I mean is that always racist?” process was to ask participants how they This was an important moment in For many of the participants in this thought the advertisements would be the class activity as participants wrestled study, this was the beginning of their interpreted in the United States. Almost with the manner in which products were exploration into these discussions. While overwhelmingly participants responded positioned, the intent of the advertiser, the purpose of this exercise was to allow that the advertisements used in the class and the ultimate message conveyed to con- participants the opportunity to engage activity would not be accepted in America sumers. It was also an important moment in these issues from a non-U.S. perspec- and would cause outrage among Ameri- for participants to explore the extent to tive, the discussion led to a much richer cans. When asked why, students com- which they had previously ignored subtle and critical discussion of similar adver- mented, “[The ads] would probably be more messages they now thought could be po- tisements in American popular culture controversial in the U.S.” and “I feel that tentially offensive. than in previous semesters. A number [other countries] are more racist than the As the class discussed these issues in of students noted later that the discus- U.S. [The ads] wouldn’t last long [here].” greater detail another participant offered, sion regarding global ads helped them A few participants commented they “I don’t think someone of color eating a to see subtle messages they would have didn’t understand the habit of using people chocolate cookie is bad, but you have to look not previously noted when viewing the to advertise food and maintained that at the whole picture.” The class discussion American advertisements. This also led to “those commercials would fly in the U.S.” then turned to a mini-framework for ana- participants offering new examples they because we use things like cartoons-like lyzing advertisements (and other aspects encountered (television, commercials, characters to advertise things like cereal.” of popular culture) for aspects of bias and music, etc.) which may reinforce negative As I explained the need to use many food potential marginalizing messages. Aspects stereotypes. advertisements in the activity due to lan- of their framework included exaggerated The relatively small, homogenous guage issues, I asked participants again to physical features, mockery, “Othering,” and participant sample size limits the ability think about the manner in which they saw perpetuating negative stereotypes (ethnic, to generalize the findings to all teacher products advertised on packages, televi- cultural, gender). candidates. Similarly, few participants had sion, or in print media. This highlights a challenge with this experiences outside the United States or A student quickly countered the ear- type of activity and discussion: the poten- with large numbers of individuals from lier participant’s comment that American tial for students to develop a classification countries or cultures different than their products were not offensive and pointed or “list” of actions that would be deemed own. Their ability then to see beyond a U.S. out campaign ads such as Aunt Jemima acceptable and those that would be unac- perspective was therefore quite limited. syrup and Uncle Ben’s rice. The fact that ceptable. It is also important to note the aspect of many participants needed to be reminded For example, a few students noted they cultural difference when attempting to of these American examples highlight the felt “guilty” for eating at particular res- interpret images or messages as a cultural manner in which these images can become turants or buying product that were used as outsider. One still makes assumptions such a part of our culture we don’t think examples in class. In other words, because based on one’s own culture and making about them and the potential messages Dunkin’ Donuts used an ad with Blackface, assumptions of understanding intent of they send. boycotting the company constitutes “good another culture can result in just similar behavior” while supporting the company negative stereotypes. Discussion would be deemed “bad” behavior.” References Discussion of race and issues of This framework itself, while showing diversity are not easy conversations for an aspect of critical thinking and perhaps Blume, M. (2006, February 16). A French most people. Having these conversations social action among participants, was still tempest in a breakfast cup. The New with young people, particularly when they somewhat frustrating. Concepts such as York Times. Retrieved from http://www. these are complex and narrowing them to nytimes.com/2006/02/16/arts/16iht-blume. have limited experience with individuals html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 of diverse backgrounds, is especially dif- a framework or list of what is “good” and what is “bad” is much too simplistic. Controversial racial image to be dropped from ficult. Confronting concepts such as race, liquorice wrapper. (2008, March, 3). Helsin- However I feel the urgency on the part ethnicity, class, power, and privilege with gin Sanomat. Retrieved from https://www. individuals who, by virtue of being from of participants to classify things as good hs.fi/english/article/Controversial+racial+i predominately White, middle to upper and bad or right and wrong is in line with mage+to+be+dropped+from+liquorice+wra middle class, suburban backgrounds. have previous research on aspects of White- pper/1135234514052 largely benefited from these constructs, guilt and White-privilege (McIntosh, 1990; Deebootube. (2009, April, 13). Burger King—sur- prising combination—Texican whopper from compounds this challenge. Sleeter, 1993; Solomon, Portelli, Daniel, & Campbell, 2005). Conversely, other partici- Burger King [Video file]. Retrieved from http:// This activity then in some ways www..com/watch?v=7-aXkKRAe84. was enlightening, yet frustrating, for pants dismissed the discussion as an over-


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