DOCUMT 41151110

ED 178 421 SO 012 081

AUTHOR Turner, Thomas N. TITLE Using Popular in-the SocialStudies. How to Do It Series, Series 2, No. 9. INSTITUTION National Council for the SocialStudies, Washington, D.C. PUB DATE 79 NOTE 7p.; For related documents, see SO012 079-080 AVAILABLE FROM National Council for the SocialStudies, 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, N.V. ,Washington D.C.20016 ($1.00, quantit disocnOts available) -

EDRS PRICE aF01 li.us Postage. PC RotAvailable from IDES. DESCRIPTORS Career ; *ClassActivities; Clothing; ; *L.darning Activities; ;ausic; *Pppular Culture; Publications; secondaryEducaticin; *Social Studies; *Teaching Procedures;

ABSTRACT - The booklet offers a variety cfsuggestions for integrating a study of popular cultureinto the high school social studies classroom. Popular cultureis described as thcse elements im whiah have the primary functionof entertaining or selling and which axe becoming a familiar,recognizable, and identifiable entity for a large number of people. Somereasons far studying are that itis intimately connected vith the individual's personal and socialdevelopment; students possess an intimate and detailed knowledgeof popular culture; the resources are abundant and inexpensire: andpopular culture has lasting social importance and significance.leaching suggestiors include the areas cf popular , televisionand movies, social gatherings,printed materials, fads and , midcareeri. Music activities include listing qualities and rating stars,rewriting lyrics to tell of a local incident, and voting onvalues depicted in selectedstatements from songs. Televisionprovides a study of and of distortion of reality through videotechniques. An examination of -Social gatherings could lead tosimulations and creative writing exercises. Popalar magazines cambe investigated according to audience appeal and a historyof clothing show coulddepict fads and fashions. Finally,strategies for career education include exploratory mini7courses andclassifying jobs in terms cf glamour. (KC) a

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CO Social Studies

Thomas N..Turner Associate Professor of Education University of Tennessee, Knoxville What interests, students? What do they like anddislike? What do they wear? What is this year's slang?What do students talk about outside of class? What do theydo with their time? What do they see, as valuable Or important inthe world around them? The answers to such questions as these define the field of popular culture. That culture haspowerful impact on how students learn and on theirknowledge, habits, skills, and concept development. Popular culture as an area of concern for socialstudies programs isrelated to ihe growing importance of mass and mass media as ,social forces.Although a variety of definitions of popular culture exists,the descriptive framework provided by Herbert Gans in Popular Cultureand seems most useful to the social studies.Gans distinguishes popular culture from mass culture. Thelatter, he says, is a pejorative term indicating a mobchoice rather than an individeal choice, and even a negativejudgment that there is a lack of culture. Gans states that there are anumber of popular , all of which are cultureswhich function io entertain, inform, and beautify life. Tastecultures consist of values, the cultural fOrmswhich express these values, and the media through which they areexpressed. Taste cultuse Is not limited to leisure time or toaesthetic values. However, it is a partial culture, providingvalues for only a part of life. Further, Gans points outthat popular culture is a "vicarious" culture rather than a"lived" culture. For the purposes of the approaches consideredin this booklet, something may be defined as being partof the popular culture if it meets the followingconditions: It is a visible, continuing element in the currentlives of members of the culture. Its primary functicin is to entertain, bring enjoyment, orsell something to p.K)ple.


its continued and existence are mattersof many In choosing content for the sttidy of popular culture,the people choosing them over things. teacher should keep in mind that "popularity" is partially It is, or is becoming, a familiar, recognizable, andidentifi- function of age, raci4 and ethnic group, sex-role expetta- able entity for a large number of people. tions, and culturai backgrocind. A crucial question is "Whose popular culture are we talking aboati" Tohave meaningful popularity for a particular student, the culture Why Study Popular Culture in Social Studies? that is studied giust he part of his or her own experiences and tasks. Social studies curricula have given increasing attention to 4. the modern world and to factors deemed relevant to everyday Teaching Thmugh the Popular Culture life. The study of popular culture seems particularly appro- priate and important, not just because "it'sthere" but for a Study of the popular culture may serve manyuseful number of vital curricular reasons, including the following: educational purposes. These may fit into one or more of the following categories: 1. The popular culture is intimately_connected tothe indi- vidual's personal and social development. It is related to Gaining information about popular culture anddeveloping personal habits, individual self-concept and ideals, awareness of that culture. psychological needs, aspirations, and . The popular Developing research Skills through inquiry into the popular culture is the student's own culture, his or her "turf," culture. which surrounds and influences the student andwhich the Strengthening skills in finding what others think about student most desperately needs to understand. elementsin the popular culture. 2. Popular culture provides an ever-presentworkshop where 'Examining values and tastes. instances of social manipulatiokand controlof people are Using understanding of popular culture as a basisfor ready.made for students to study and analyze.Every extending one's ability to comprehend other cultures and known form of social communicationand media is used other peoples. upon the public and awaitsstudent discovery and scrutiny. the broad living con- In order to enable teachers to see sorpething of 3. The poPular culture is the arena in which field of popular culture, the remainder of this booklet at- troversy and dissent have meaningand reality. Here that culture and to conflicts in tempts to ideritify selected elements"within sensitivity, awareness of personal values, and illustrate types of techniques that might be used. Itshould be measiingfully values can he most realistically and recognized that the sampling of activities offered for any one explored. element could often be adapted to other facets of thatculture. 4. Students at all levels possess, an intimateand detailed knowledge of the popular culture. They are themselves excellent resource people and are oxsually familiar with the resources through which they mayobtain still more infor- culture is the complicated A major purpose in the study of popular mation. Therefore, the often frustrating and understanding of human motivation, especially of one's own task of becoming familiar with resources is unnecessary. and motivation. Students can focus upon the processes of inquiry Perhaps, no other element of the popular culture is so learning. universally a part of as popular music.What- 5. The resources and materialsfor studying the popular ever the type ofcommercia4zed music, it is still reflective of culture are abundant, easily accessible, often inexpensive and personally involved wilth human motivation.Students or free,an-d often already part of students' kveryday lives. advantage of existing identify with singers and musicians, hold thefts as folk heroes b. Study of the popular culture takes and heroines, and admire and often internalize thevalues student interest and curiosity. Therefore, the teacherdoes expressed in their songs and life styles. not need to create student interest, concern, orinvolve- that level of One of the strategies useful for studying popular music ment, hut can concentrate on maintaining involves student rating. Students can produce their own excited involvement which already exists. These and rating sheet to evaluate individual stars and groups. 7. The popular culture has lasting social importance individual notebooks of significance. The elements within the popularculture of_ can then be copied for class or comparative ratings. In preparing the rating form,students any time nr groupcontribute to the total pattern of any those values or will need to decide on the qualities important in culture. Popular culture reflects the society's musical groups which they like and which arecrucial to those of the particular group. popular culture can success. To produce such alist of qualitik, students might 8. Study of the elements in a child's own select two or three commonly held fayorites andlist their be a key to the identification and understandingof princi- specific physical and musical qualities. Then the list could be pies of social history, , and put in order of priority according towhat Is held to, be in other cultures. important for all such stars. (See Chart I on page3.) Poputar music provides an interesting realm for developing student interviews and opinion-polling skills. Peers,adults, Some Principles of Using Popular Culture and older young people (for example, brothers or sisters) can as Social Studies Content serve as subjects and be questionedabout their tastes and The most logical beginning point for the study ofpopular preferences. Questions such as the following might be used performer. "What culture is with those things which are currently exciting to in an interview about a particular musical do you like best about the star?","How longhave you liked students. The teacher needs to take the time and effort to assessthe this starr' "Whom is this star most like?" nat6re of the present popular world, not simply to find out Before a teacher assigns inteiviews, a cfass discassion what it consists of but to examine what it means. 'should introduce and explore the purpose of the interview, . The teacher should be aware of the constantchange in the the form of typical questions, and how to report responses. and total make-up of the popular culture.Itis, by nature, The interviews can be a way of having students contrast oriented te fads and to a constant search for "newness." compare viewpoints and thinkingstyles. I.


&came . Chart 1. Why was Elvis Presley. so 1. Sexual magnetism and popular in the late 1950s a personal imagewith and 19600 which the era could iden- tify combined to make him an idol for youth.

2. Why did Presley's popu- 2. a. Presley's stardom was SEXAPSPEAC larity decline in the early based onqualities 1970s? . which demanded a VOICE . young image. b. The kind of image with SONG which American youth SELECTION could identify changed KNOWS WI ERE radically. with the Viet- IT'S AT nam War.

STYLE Any number of techniques can help students tounderstand better the message of song lyric4 and to explore their own SOUND feelings and abilities to express the values implied inly,rics.' Among these activities are: EXPRESSION 1. Students may identify a singlesirong emotion (such as SONG WRITING heartbreak, unrequited love, etc.) that is a common therrie of popular songs and discover examples of how it istreated Using the (hart above, rate the performer or group of your choice. by different lyric writers in different musical forms. Based on your rating. indicate below how you feel about the 2. Students may find references to specificplacakin song performens): lyrics and, by using pins attached to streamers with the song titles written on them, locate,these on aworld map. Super Star o New Face 0 This can be easily turned into a with competing teams trying to identify and find locations. Coming Up O Around for a Long Time 0 3. Students may 5elect opinionated statements from song lyrics. Then there can be values vo1ing,2 having students Fading Star O A Has-Been indicate their agreement or disagreement. (Siudents raise their hands if they agree; put thumbs down it they disa- A particularly useful device to deal with popular musicis gree: and fold their armsif they are uncommitted.) the "What-lf?" Chart. This is a projective techniquewhich 4. Students may identify their own ideals about aparticular involves a two-column chart. On one side, a condition which topic by listing three to five of these independently.They has not occurred or could not possibly occur is listed. The then may identify several popular songs which contain other side of the chart gives one or more possible conse- these ideals and try to determine which of the songs comes quences for each condition listed. closest to expressing their own ideals. (storytelling) songs For examples: 5. Students may rewrite lyrics of narrative that are currently "hits" so that the songs now tell about a .what if? Possible Consequence local incident. 1. Stevie Wonder were not1. a. He might not have de- 6. Students may paraphrase or explainlyrics of pop songs so blind. veloped his musical ta- that the older generations or people of another culture can lent so completely. understand them. This might he done em a trade-off basis b. He might not have de- with representatives of Iwo generations or two typesof veloped the great joy of musice.g.. Soul and Countryeach selecting a song living reflected inhis from each of several categories to explore, Examples of music. categories: a. Humor Song b. Protest Song c. Love Song, and d. Serious Song About the . 2. The Mills Brothers and2. The fans of neither 7. Students may write a set of lyrics imitative of the styleof "Kiss",gave a concert to- group would under- one or more particular lyric writers, orwrite a set of lyrics gether. ) stand the other. approprime for different recording artists. 3. Neil Diamond and Willie It would show a pow Popular music and its perfiumers. provide a wealth of Nelson wrote a song to- ful insight into life. materials for reports and discussions. Lyrics of songshave presented images of life goals, racial and ethnic groups, gether. conditions of poverty and wealth, authority figuresisUch as 4. Ray Charles were a young 4. His music would be.re- iudges, police officers, and teachersi, and manyother im- new star today. volutionary. ages. Since these images areboth formative of and represen- tative of the views of youth culture, they-deserve careful The charts should he a basis of student discussion. No predktion is really questionable, since in most cases they are 'Further discussion and ideas areofferi:xl in B. Lee Cooper, "Images hypotheses only. of the FirtUre in 'Popular Music," Sociatiducation, Vol. 40 (May, This is even more true for a corollary technique, the 1975), pp. 277-28A. "Why?-Because" Chart, which emphasizes hypothesizing. 25idney E. Simon: Leland W. Howe; acid Howard Kirschenbaum, For example, the following questions and hypothesesmight Values Clarification: A Handbook of Practical Strategies for Teachers be the beginning of one such chart: and Students (New York: Hart Publishing Co.), 1972. .=, # STUDIES 4' USING POPULAR CULTURE IN THe SOCIAL attention in sinCiimprehensive and =meaningful. social eJmple the' feather copld have -stUdentsreview a day in their own lives as though it werea. to be studies program. taped and then edited. The students wouldneeckto consider the events they would like to "Shoot" over'again and those Television and Movies that they think should be "cut." Students spend a great deai of time and money passively viewing television and motion pictures. The targetaudience Parties and Social Gatherings of a majority of television and moviejirogramming and of both What people do and enjoy doing whenthey gather is advertising is under thirty years old, and a large part of important social entertainment forms is aimed at the under-fifteen group. integral to the popular culture. A numbe issues related to social get-togethers .maybe brought into A nuMber of opjnion-seeking devices canbe created and student discussions. For example: Howdo pet** of different used by students.themselves.3 For example, aclass list of ten drawn up through ages and/or cultural groupsdiffer, and how are they alike, in favorite movies or television series can be do people determine class discussion. A circle or rectangledivided into ten what they do at social gatherings? How "gathering places"? Why Are certain typesof social gather- sections, each section representingone favorite, can then be movie ings ritualized? Why is huffier so importantin the personal duplicated. A symbol for-each television show or and political beliefs selected can be determined by the class, atechnique which relationships? What roles do religious symboli- play in social gatherings? provides an opportunitY to teach graphing and map various cultures zation skills. Each class member can thenshade in corm his Students can simulate or act out parties in points for discussion. Other discus- or her own favorite person or program.These charts can then as experiential departure sion might be initiated by smallgn&ups; for example, students be compared visually by stiff:lents, and theycan discuss the for similarities. mighebrainstorm reasons for going to parties, reasons reasons for their differences and and activities most A similar chart might categorizetelevision series or spe- liktitg parties, types of parties most liked, cials examining or portraying special groups,surh as the liked or disliked at parties. might have students Social gatherings serve as inspirationfor creative thinking. aged, blacks, women, etc. StIll'another with social gather- identify persisting social messages, persisting political mes- Numerous and writings dealing fngs are-appropriate for examination, discussion,writing of gages, and persisting economic messagesof various series. impor..: captions and titles, and rVumerous otheractivities. "Television's powerful influence on lives makes it an role-play exPloring social tant median for the study of propagandatechniques. Com- Creative writing as well as and relationships and behavior can beeasily stimulated. A mercials need to be given a great deal of attention, starters are given commercial mesages can be re-enacted usingrole-playing number of titles which might serve as techniques. They are also ideal for developingskills at asking below: questions and at placing ideas in categories. Never another party The day the invitation didn't The in the visual reality oftelevision should be The best party come carefully examined. TeleviSion viewers need toquestion The person who spoiled the'The funeral party what they see as well as what they hear.Powerful illustra- party The end-of the-war party tions of the illusions created by.televisionneed to be de- ihe party for people whoThe send-off veloped. One technique requires availabilityof videotape hate parties The 10 most interesting con- equipment. It involves students in playing outfor videotaping The no- party versationalists,living or any events similar tothose seen on televi4ion, especially on The tea party dead; invited to a dinner television . The teacher should intentionally tapein a The cancelled party party manner that will distort what actuallyhappened. (For exam- A party The horrible party ple, the teacher can stop actual taping for aconsiderable A game no one wants to pfa Finding the right guests period of time; tape interviews showing only one sideof an When old friends meet The food was great issue while pretending to tape the dissentingviews; or focus The arrangements The wedding feud on a single individualthroughout and%ut out others.) In the When the opponents meet inThe liar's party playback session stuq.ents would be quick to seethe in- society Exhibitionists and wanflow- adequacy of the videotaped version. Theapplication to the The pie-throwing contest ers' validity of news-gathering techniques andthe degree of Breaking .up a Party accuracy and completenessof the picture given in what is viewed should be easy to discern. Using Printed Materials, ,and Maps help students con- Additional activities can be devised to their eyes are structively question their own gullibility andsusceptibility to Wherever people go in modern culture, make visual sales appeals to television programming. Students should be giventhe oppor- caught by signs and sights which feelings toward favorite taste. Billboards, posters, andlighted and unlighted signs are tunity to analyze and compare thek activity involving these shows and performers. Again student chartingexercises, such all useful resources. One interesting basis for discussion. The is to have students plan an effectivebillboard campaign to as Chart 1, may be used as a idea. Discussions traditional social studies resource person has unlimitedvalue sell a person for a job, a product, or an teacher might bring in a about how to produce beautifying signs isalso a productive in this activity. For example, the signs, write essays, or police officer or another person in a joboften depicted in strategy. Students may make their own of whatisa television programs. Students can be guided Inpreparing take photographs to support a "personal concept the reality of beautiful or an effective sign. questions to probe how the individual reacts to popular particular programs in which his or her job is shown. The variety of printed materials in contemporary and movies culture seems endless. Periodicalliterature, paperback The process, of producing for television and many other can help the child in importantintrospective processes. For , packages and labels, "junk" mail, types are abundant in our society.For studying and exploring these, the following are but a few of thepossible activities. nearhers -can obtain -information on additional opinion-seeking devices from Claude Fuller and Thomas N. Turner,"informal and where maga- Tenneisee 1. Have students do surveys of various places Effective Attitude Probes: A Social Studies Necessity," and Education, Vol. 4 tSpring, 1974), pp. 37-43. zines are sold, categorize the types of magazines, 5. USING POPULAR CULTURE IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES 5

-iibserve the age, sex, and other -featurescd the people printed.materials qt. popUlar _ariturtt_wamit_bt kftiLftic who buy them. such itutiy. . 2. Have students exatiiine magazines to determine the types 7. Students mby prepare a list of fads thatmight develop in of target audiences, the types of articles, and the typesof the future, including some that,,,they think are inthe the present. Then the class advertisers for 'Particular periodicals: process of becoming popular at 3. Have students brainstorm a list of reasonsfor which may put on a History ofClothing fashion show, in which people buy and/or read various kinds ofperiodical the students invite parents and/or other classes andshow how styles change. Any period of time may be chosen. Old . 4. Analyze with students the advantages,disadvantages, clothing can be obtained from various. sources, including and differences between periodic literature andbooks. relatives and friends, or even can 'be' macre for the occa- Example: Give students the title of an article. Have them sio'h. Slides made from still photographs mafsupigement use the'yes - no" questioningtechnique to guess which the modeling ,aspects of careers, jobs, and hobbies in magazine published it. popular culture. 5. Have students seek to identify the intendedaudience gf a periodical by examining its advertising: . Career Education 6. Have students attempt to analyze and explainthe selec- popular tion of subjects *for the covers of various periodicals. The. world of work has many relationships to 7. Have students design a cover for a new periodical and culture. Popular culture itself creates a multitude of jobs and then simulate tile process of deciding on a format and on careers. Hobbies which are oftenrelated to work and fi- typical articles. nances are manifestations of the tasteculture. 8. Have students locate on a map the locales of articles or Effective strategies (or involving students in this area have stories in various magazines. significance for lifelong activities. A few are suggested here: 9. Collect various labels and packages. Havestudents test them for Attractiveness or selling power by determining 1. Students may compile a list ofhobbies by surveying first which ones stand put visually in* a group- ofsimilar their own class and then their friends andacquaintances. products. This might be supplemented by "activitiesdays" or by 10. Use a large wall map and a bulletin board toanalyze the exploratory mini-courses about hObbies of specialinterest. location of the manufactu;e of products inadvertise- 2. Students may make bubble gum tradingcards for jobs that board and from each ments. Place labels on the bulletin are available in communitieswithin a hundred miles. After connect a piece of yarn to the place of origin onthe map. individual collections have become sizable,students May Note clustering and discuss. trade, categorize, and organize them invarious ways. K.Students mayclassity arid rate jobs in terms atthe glamour associated with them. Then they may listandexamine the Teaching About Fads and Fashions jobs that satisfy and the job activities actuallyinvolved. hobby, relating theit own It 4. Student may discuss travel as a Style is a keysissue for the study of popular culture. they know. Ques- relates to queqions of social change and to socialforces experiences and those of others whom tions relating to the benefits and expensesof travel causing change. Fads and fashions reflect morality and other fan- for teaching about should be discussed. Real and imaginary travel (even area4i. Following are a nuniber of ideas planned in groups ur individually. fads and fashions: tasy types) can then be This may include making hypotheticalbu,:gets, planning itineraries, writing fictionalizeddiaries, mapping travel, 1. Each student or group may develop magazine cutout-type inquiring into actual costs through transportationand collages presenting a personal concept of words like travel agencies, role playing such actions asobtaining "stylish," "chic," "with-it," and "the now generation." passports, and meeting anticipatednormal and unusual 2. A class timeline of the toys that have been "in" maybe problems and adventures. used to show changes in this area. 5 Students, in groups, may determine a causefor leaving a 3. Students may interview parents and grandparentsabout job or changing jobs. They may try tofind unusual reasons. fads and styles that they may remember and then try to Thew should be dramatized, andother groups should develop a chronology of these. discuss which are the most justifiable. 4. Students catalogues and examples sliowing 6. Students may discuss why travel seemsexciting and why unusual ho d gimmicks and tools. They should not many people who havetravelect-to-exotic places seem identify the gimmicks' purposes to the class. Students may more. interesting. Students maydescribe the places well- play inquiry'question to identify functions, ways of traveled persons should have visited. char..jng or improving, and alternative uses of the objects. 5. Students may do a visual history of automobilestyles in board, collage, mural, dramas or This booklet ha;focused on creating a hankof catalytic any form; e.g., bulletin teachers can explore models, and scrap . ideas and strategies through which popOlar culture in ways_ that are meaningful tothe social 6:Students may find various ways of showing and analyzing will seek addi- ideal types of herpes and heroines for both menand studios. It is hoped that interested teachers those which appear on the women in different ethnic andcultural groups. The picto- tional ideas from such sources as rial representation of these types as they appearin the next page. air


---t.eans Herbert I. Popular Culture and High. COLA!. Mgr.! Nr_prii, Yorkt Basic Books, Inc. Publishers, 1974. 1. Career World. Curriculum Innovations Inc., Highwood, A careful, theoretical study of the nature oi popular Culture and (monthly). of the ways in which soPhistication in this culture differ from the A magazine-style periodical for lunior and senior high school traditional concest of being "cultured" arid "civilized." students. It contains articles, stories, and activities of a highly 9. Knapp, Mary and Herbert. One Potato, rwci PotatoArNew York, instructional nature. New York: W.W. NIrton & Company, Inc., 1976. if 2. Cani;-y, Steven. Kids America. New York, New York: Workman One of the few mources on the folk culture of children and their Publishing Company, 1978. games, chants, and . 41 A book of ideas of things to do in the current popular culture. 10. Kurfman, Dana G., ed. Developing Decision-Making Skills. Older children can use it as a resource independently. Arlington, Virginia: National Council for the Social Studies, 47th 3. Cardozo, Peter. The Whole Kids Catalogue. New York, New Yearbook, 1977.' York: Bantam, 1975. A scholarly treatment of the teacher's role in building a cur- A popular-culture, encyclopedic,resointe book of things to do riculum and activities to develop decision-making skills. and make. U. Potter, Rosemary Lee. New Season: The Positive Use of Cdm- 4. Castillo, Gloria A. Left-Handed Teaching, 2nd Ed.,1Iew York, mercial Tele.iision With Children. Columbus, -Ohio: Charles E. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1978. . Merrill Publishing Company, 1976. ; An activity source for teachers, particularly for those working at- A boOk of ideas on building school activities around teachers. ilt early elementary level. 12. Simon, Sidney E.; Leland W. Howe; Howard Kirschenbaum. S. Cooper, B. Lee. "Images of the Future in Popular Music."Social Values Clarification. A Handbook of Practical Strategiesfor Education. May, 1975, 39: 277-285. Teachers and Students. New York, New York: Hart Publishing An examination of how dreams of the future can bevisualized Co., Inc., 1972. and studied in popular music. Primarily for secondary teachers, a book that presenis 78 diffe- 6. DeBono, Edward. Lateral Thinking. New York, NewYork: rent techniques for helping students understand better why they Harper & Row, 1970. do what they do. A problem-solving book with an orientation that childrencan 13. Turner, Thomas N. Creative Activities lk.-source Hook for use to solve problems. Elementary School Teachers. Reston, Virginia: Reston Publishing 7 Fiarotta, Phyllis and Noel Flarotta. Be What You Want To He. Co., 1978. Nesv York, New York: Workman Publishing Company, 1977. An activity "catalyst" book which eevelops hundreds of ideas to Contains ideas for helping children to choose and prepare for the involve students in creative interact;on with their environments. world Of work.

destgned for a loose-leaf binder, provides apractical and useful sourZ.v of NOTE: This How To Do lt Notebook Series 2, titles now available in Series 2 are: cclassrooM methods arid techniques for elementaryand secondary social studies teachers. The Effective Use of Films in Social Studies Classrooms,Reach for a Picture, Using Improving Reading Skills in Social,Studies, Perspectives on Aging. Price per copy, Questions in Social Studies. Architecture as aPrimary Source for Social Studies and, 50- 99 copies, 15%; 100 or more copies,20%. Payment must accompany all $1.00. QuaMity diseounts: 10- 49 copies, 10%; COUNCIL FOR THE SOCIAL orders except those on official institutionalpurchase order forms. Order from the NATIONAL STUDIES, 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W.,Washington, D.C. 20016. 7