International Journal of Engineering Research & (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

Overview Of Interplanetary System

Priyanka Jaiswal, Prof. Pragati Patil, Prof.Parul Bhanarkar

Student (M-tech-CSE) AGPCE, HOD (M-tech-CSE) AGPCE, Professor (M-tech CSE) AGPCE,Nagpur

Abstract future explorations, which would mean increased expectations on these systems for Space has always been a matter of awe setting up even faster and reliable for humans during all ages. For some it communications. has always been something to be afraid of So this interplanetary internet system and for some it has been like a vast ocean is basically an answer to these problems. As a of knowledge to take a plunge and check lot of work has already been undertaken, so for themselves what is in store up there. here there is no looking back. Thus, here I And then again there has always been have tried my best to put forward the speculations of life outside this planet of knowledge I have acquired on this ours we call . inexhaustible field. Always sent various Man has always tried to gather more rovers and robots and even human. knowledge in this field. In order to gather Interplanetary internet system is just another more knowledge in this field man has at milestone in this quest of knowledge. some particular intervals of time, so that Interplanetary internet (IPN) System, as the they send some information before they name suggests, it deals with the die out. Thus, a fast and reliable mode ofIJERT interconnection of the two different worlds information transfer is a prerequisite so IJERTseparated by large, void space. Just the name that the collected information does not go of the topic is sufficient to bring a sparkle in in vain. the eyes of even the most ignorant person on There is even a very high chance of this earth. Albeit however abstract the idea humans going to Mars before the end of this might seem it is not in its infant hood any century. And that there is a clear chance of more even humans setting up a base in Mars for

1. Introduction These robots need to send their findings to . A lot of work has been undertaken in this Earth via some path field since 2003, the first time probably when the concept was taken up seriously by the 1.1 Need of IPN science community. Even before this concept scientists have been A lot of exploratory missions have already able to communicate with the robots and been undertaken on distant planets, which space vehicles using radio frequencies. But require setting up lot of robotic rovers and those systems were directed and specific, such other information gathering robots. meant for only the system they directed the 1 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

commands to. However, now the basic stress on a space mission, because the payload is on the data transfer in and out. The rovers must be light and efficiently used. or the robots, or even humans for that matter, There are many more major should be able to send their readings and problems associated to network recordings. And even they need to be connectivity to be discussed later. informed of any latest proceedings going on back home here on Earth, such as any new 1. Literature Survey system to be deployed for the help of the This study is actually funded by people already there, new instructions etc. For DARPA (Defense Advanced Research all these and many more reasons IPN is the Projects Association) as it is expected that one and only solution so far. the protocols and architecture discovered in this research would help even our very 1.2 Required parameters of IPN own terrestrial networks. Space is not so friendly, neither much Another main organization behind this is known about it. There are a lot of huge research is the Consultative problems we need to consider before Committee for Space Data Systems taking a plunge at this concept of setting (CCSDS). This organization carries out all up network of network in this vast void the main administrative tasks in this field space. It would never be feasible nor and also decides the amount of fund would it ever make sense to cite out all the distribution. This organization has even problems that could surface in the outer defined different protocols for data space. But still some basic problems can transfers. always be stated out as standardized problems that we need to take care of 3. Methodology before we get to use this system. IJERTIJERT3.1 The architecture Some of the problems are stated as under The current state-of-the-art  Distance - On Earth, we are only a infrastructure for the interplanetary fraction of a light second apart, internet systems consists of many different making Earth communication nearly communication techniques and elements. instantaneous over the Internet. As you The various elements used in these move farther out into space, however, networks are stated as in the as follows there is a delay of minutes or hours and shown in the following figure. because light has to travel millions of miles, instead of thousands of miles, between transmitter and receiver.  Line of sight obstruction - Anything that blocks the space between the signal transmitter and receiver can interrupt communication.  Weight - High-powered antennas that would improve communication with deep space probes are often too heavy to send 2 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

existing here on the terrestrial surface to the ones that we intend to connect.

 Inter-spacecraft Network The networks of spacecrafts flying in a constellation, formation or cluster are also need to be considered to be able to communicate among them.  Proximity Network Space vehicles (rovers, air planes, aerobots), landers and sensors spread out and in an ad hoc network.

3.2 IPN Network Architecture Suitable network architecture for IPN is based on the bundle concept introducing a new, so called bundle layer. This convergence layer comprises transport and application layer functionalities. The transport of data Figure 1: Elements used in IPN Network packets between IPN nodes is handled by a bundle protocol, while the provision of  The Interplanetary Internet end-to-end connectivity between source and destination is handled by  The backbone network consists of theIJERT IJERTapplication layer functionalities. Since in ground network what we use here back interplanetary network environments on Earth. This network includes the continuous end-to-end connectivity cannot major NASA intranets and virtual be assumed, the bundle layer must have private networks. These networks the capability of storing data bundles as carry the major data connection for all well as their address and route to their the terrestrial networks, including all final destination until they can be commercial or foreign communication forwarded to the next hop and so on. The system that may be employed. protocol stack of IPN architecture consists of four layers: physical layer, data link  Access Network layer, network layer, and bundle layer. The communication interfaces between the backbones and the mission space crafts For the proposed architecture, five key and vehicles, and the local area networks research areas have been defined by : onboard the space craft or the vehicles. • Inter-internet dialogs Thus here we are actually talking about • Function of the unique nodes of IPN the interconnectivity between the ones we • Security architecture have already established here, i.e. the one • Backbone network for IPN 3 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

• Issues in deploying on remote 1) Bundle Agents (hosts): Bundle Agents targets are comparable to hosts in common internet terminology. They build and 3.2.1 Inter-Internet Dialogs consume bundles and represent the Inter-internet dialogs describe the endpoints of an end-to-end bundle interconnection of regional internets transmission. resident on different planets, or of such internets with the Earth. A major 2) IPN Relays (routers): IPN Relays are challenge in this context is the definition comparable to routers. They receive and of an adequate naming strategy. The forward bundles toward their destination, common DNS mechanism is not within or between IPN regions, applicable due to the distributed performing forwarding of bundles without mechanism of the DNS database, in which altering their contents. the portion of the database capable of resolving a name to its address can be very 3) IPN Gateways: IPN Gateways represent distant from the requesting host. While the interface between IPN regions, for solving this problem, for IPN a new which inter-internet dialogs are provided. naming concept has been elaborated. Each They must provide reliable backbone IPN node is given a naming tuple connectivity for long-haul communication consisting of an administrative and a links. part. The administrative part contains an IPN name resolvable to an 3.2.3 Security Architecture useful address within a certain IPN region Although no detailed security (locally deployed internet). The routing requirements are known at the moment, part defines the corresponding IPN region.IJERT various security mechanisms must be DNS requests will be forwarded around IJERTprovided to ensure protection of the IPN the network to the IPN region defined in infrastructure itself and the bundles the routing part, where the IPN name will traversing it. Possible mechanisms include be resolved to its address by a local DNS- authorisation, authentication, and server. The IPN name will be given in the encryption. following manner: {administrative part, routing part}. The routing part serves as a 3.2.4 IPN Backbone new top level domain, denoting a fictive In order to provide reliable domain name used for routing purposes. connections over IPN, a stable backbone network must be available. The main 3.2.2 The Function of the Unique IPN challenge for this backbone is represented Nodes by intermittent instead of continuous IPN nodes are members of store- connectivity. Unlike terrestrial Internet, and-forward chains and must perform where packets are dropped if connection resource allocation to support bundle to the destination does not exist, in IPN transfers. They are responsible for routing every gateway has to keep incoming bundles between IPN domains. IPN nodes packets in memory until they can be can be classified into three types: forwarded to the next hop and the correct 4 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

reception of these data bundles is be connected or at least the disconnection acknowledged. Appropriate store-and should be known to the base station. forward strategies can be achieved with Here, also we sub divide the the functionalities provided at the bundle network into manageable components so layer of the IPN architecture. However, as to make the maintenance a lot easier. these functionalities require huge amounts These network components can be stated of memory in the IPN backbone nodes. as Interplanetary Backbone Network, Interplanetary External Network, and 3.2.5 Deployed Internets Planetary Network. The current A deployed internet describes an space/ground protocol stack was proposed IPN region which is connected to the by the Consultative Committee for Space backbone or other deployed internets Data Systems (CCSDS). This organization through a gateway [1]. Within a deployed is associated with considering the major internet, similar scenarios to Earth protocols for all space networks. The environment will occur. The current space/ground protocol stack is communication sessions will be proposed by the CCSDS for space established over short-haul links. A communications. The protocol stack deployed internet must be capable of using consists of five layers which performs the domain name space for referencing eight functionality of networking: Space objects and systems across deployed Applications, Space , Space internets. End-to-End Reliability, Space End-to-End Security, Space Networking, Space Link, 4. The Design Space Channel Coding, and Space 4.1 The suite Wireless Frequency and Modulation. As the IPN Internet consists ofIJERT IJERT heterogeneous network architectures as 4. The Communication protocols shown in Fig. Of IPN internet architecture each of these components may have to run 4.2.1 Space Wireless Frequency and a different set of protocols that best fits the Modulation environment. In this section we explore Providing efficient modulation the current and proposed protocol suites with specified frequencies to create to realize communication in the IPN channels between spacecrafts. The Internet. frequency and modulation techniques are The main communication factors different for different parts of the to be taken under consideration are as Interplanetary Internet. For example, Earth different types of networks are being may use local terrestrial wired while the deployed throughout the InterPlaNetary deep space backbone uses CCSDS S, X, Internet, the ability to communicate with or Ka Band as shown in Fig. For Mars each other is vital. There has to be orbit and Mars surface, the physical links connection at all points of time, so that the are also different. The radio frequency connection never goes out of connection (RF) and modulation standards for space for a long time without even getting the communications are recommended by the attention. So in short all the nodes should CCSDS. 5 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

4.2.2 Space Channel Coding 4.2.6 Space File Transfer Detecting/correcting errors in a Transferring independent files that noisy channel for reliable data transfer. can be assigned priority in downloading, The channel coding used for Mars orbit two current CCSDS file transferring and surface is different than at Earth protocols are FTP and SCPS extensions to because of the noise level differences. FTP for short delay connection and CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) 4.2.3 Space Link [29] for long delay link. Providing retransmission capability in deep space environment, Often times, and 5. The transport layer issues data are transmitted through a very long In terms of , the distance. Because of this, different current Internet capabilities work well on protocols other than the ones at Earth are Earth where the propagation delay of needed to address this issue. For instance, light-speed signals is short. The packets the CCSDS long-haul link and coding exchanged according to the TCP protocol protocol is used as illustrated in Fig4.. reach their destination in fractions of a second, for the most part. However, the 4.2.4 Space Networking Interplanetary Internet System has to face Providing connection oriented a lot of problems, the major ones related path for CCSDS Packet used by the to the transport layers. The major Packet Telemetry and Telecommand. problems to be considered in the transport . layer are, 4.2.5 Space End-to-end Security  Propagation delays Providing protection againstIJERT IJERTThe most obvious difference between attacks on the flow of user data, two of communicating between points on Earth such security protocols are Internet and communicating between planets is the Protocol Security (IPSec) and SCPS delay. The deep void space with no Security Protocol (SP). The IPSec is used medium practically makes it impossible in the Earth side, while other deep space for any proper communication to be end-to-end security protocols are required continuously maintained for a long as shown in Fig.4. duration. This is because of the large distance between the two points of 4.2.5 Space End-to-end Reliability communication. Ensuring packets in a session are  The error rates arrived at the destination. For short delay The difficulties of generating power on communications, the CCSDS recommends and around other planets will also result in TCP and TCP Tranquillity, which is an relatively high bit error rates. Current extension of TCP. For non-connection deep-space missions operate with very oriented services, the UDP may be used. high bit error rates (on the order of one The TCP is used in Earth while TCP error in ten bits) that are then improved Tranquillity is used in Mars orbit and using heavy coding. The tradeoffs surface. between coding, bit error rate and 6 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

reliability requirements will need to be re- delays than the window-based examined in the context of the IPN. mechanisms. Hence, in order to address  Black outs the adverse effects of extremely high Interplanetary communications will, at least in the near future, be characterized 6. Conclusion by intermittent connectivity between nodes. As satellites or pass behind The inadequacy of the current planets, and as planets pass behind the sun TCP protocols in the IPN backbone as seen from Earth, we lose the ability to network has already been known and the communicate with them. This effect adds need for new transport protocol has been to the delays experienced by and could known. In order to address this need, a push queuing delays to several weeks or a new reliable transport protocol (TP- month if the source and destination are in Planet) has been developed. The objective opposition (on opposite sides of the sun). of TP-Planet is to address the challenges posed by the IPN backbone network for  Lack of fixed infrastructure reliable data delivery and achieve high There is no fixed infrastructure built-in to throughput performance. TP-Planet take care of the networking in the outer deploys a rate-based AIMD congestion space. So we do not have anything as such control scheme. It runs on top of the IP to call reliable network in terms of layer and does not require any specific connectivity. We cannot assure 100% modification to the lower layers in the reliability here in Earth even, where we current TCP/IP suite. Performance have so much better chances of evaluation via simulation experiments connectivity, the interplanetary internet revealed that TP-Planet significantly system is in much worse condition. improves the throughput performance and state in terms of their size and IJERTIJERTaddresses the challenges posed by deep- functionality. Unlike NIL, NIX segments space communication networks. are much smaller compared with data TP-Planet replaces the inefficient segments, i.e., 40 bytes. They do not carry slow start algorithms with a novel initial any information and, thus, cannot be used state algorithm, which takes the link for error recovery purposes. resources in a too fast and controlled

manner. Simulation experiments showed 7.2.2 New Rate-Based AIMD Scheme that TP-Planet can reach high initial data As mentioned before, current TCP rates very quickly. In order to address the protocols achieve very poor performance challenges due to extremely high on the links with extremely high propagation delay, TP-Planet deploys a propagation delay mostly due to their rate-based AIMD congestion control, window-based operation. The throughput whose AIMD parameters are tuned to help of the window-based TCP protocols and avoid throughput degradation. A new rate-based schemes are inversely congestion control mechanism, which proportional to the RTT and the square- decouples congestion decision from single root of RTT, respectively. Thus, the rate- packet loss events, is developed to based congestion control schemes are minimize the erroneous congestion more robust to excessive propagation decisions due to high link errors. 7 International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT) ISSN: 2278-0181 Vol. 2 Issue 3, March - 2013

Consequently, TP-Planet improves file delivery protocol over Delay Tolerant throughput with a factor more than 10 Networks," Satellite and Space compared with the current TCP protocols. Communications, 2009. IWSSC2009. vol., In order to reduce the effects of blackout no., pp.381-384, 9-11Sept.2009 conditions on the throughput performance, doi: 10.1109/IWSSC.2009.5286338 TP-Planet incorporates blackout state [2] Akan, O.B.; Jian Fang; Akyildiz, I.F.; , behaviour into the protocol operation. By "TP-planet: a reliable transport protocol this way, it achieves up to 14% for interplanetary Internet," Selected Areas performance improvement in blackout in Communications, vol.22, no.2, pp. 348- conditions. The bandwidth asymmetry 361, Feb. 2004 doi: problem is addressed by the adoption of 10.1109/JSAC.2003.819985 delayed SACK options. As a result, TP- [3] "InterPlaNetary Internet: state-of-the- Planet is a reliable transport protocol art and research challenges", "Computer equipped with diverse set of algorithms Networks",volume = "43", "Ian F. and features, which can address the Akyildiz and Özgür B. Akan and Chao requirements of the IPN backbone Chen and Jian Fang and Weilian Su" network. Note that TP-Planet is mainly DOI: 10.1016/S1389-1286(03)00345- implemented at the IPN backbone network 1 nodes, i.e., the TP-Planet source and sink [4] “Interplanetary Internet (IPN): are the ground station gateway at the Earth Architectural Definition”, V. Cerf, S. and the planetary gateway connected to Burleigh, A. Hooke, L. Torgerson, R. the relay satellites orbiting around the Durst, K. Scott, E. Travis, H. Weiss outer-space planets. The end-to-end [5] “Developments Towards an transport control can be achieved by using Interplanetary Internet” Patrick Romano, the existing transport protocols developedIJERT Peter Schrotter, Otto Koudelka, and for terrestrial wireless networks on the IJERTManfred Wittig Institute of PlaNetary surface networks in conjunction Communication Networks and Satellite with TP-Planet on the IPN backbone Communications Graz University of network. However, the detailed Technology, Graz, Austria†ESA-ESTEC, description of such cooperation and its Noordwijk, The Netherlands performance evaluation are beyond the [6] InterPlaNetary Internet: state-of-the-art scope of this paper and left for future and research challenges study. Ian F. Akyildiz, €OOzg€ur B. Akan *, Chao Chen, Jian Fang, Weilian Su. 7. Future Scope [7] • Help in covering up the vast inter- [8] planetary distances. /burleigh.pdf • Also can be applied to the existing [9] ground technology.

8. References [1] Koutsogiannis, E.; Papastergiou, G.; Tsaoussidis, V.; , "Evaluation of CCSDS 8