Constellation The New Vision for

Dale Thomas NASA October 2008 The Constellation Program was born from the NASAConstellation’s Authorization Beginnings Act of 2005 which stated….

The Administrator shall establish a program to develop a sustained human presence on the , including a robust precursor program to promote exploration, science, commerce and U.S. preeminence in space, and as a stepping stone to future exploration of and other destinations. CONSTELLATION PROJECTS

Initial Capability Lunar Capability

Ares I Mission Operations


Ground Operations Lunar Surface EVA EXPLORATION ROADMAP

0506 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

LunarLunar OutpostOutpost BuildupBuildup

ExplorationExploration andand ScienceScience LunarLunar RoboticsRobotics MissionsMissions

CommercialCommercial OrbitalOrbital Transportation ServicesServices forfor ISSISS

AresAres II andand OrionOrion DevelopmentDevelopment

AltairAltair Lunar LanderLander Development

AresAres VV and EarthEarth DepartureDeparture Stage

SurfaceSurface SystemsSystems DevelopmentDevelopment ORION: NEXT GENERATION PILOTED SPACECRAFT

Human access to Low Earth

… to the Moon and Mars ORION PROJECT:  Orion will support both space station and moon missions Launch Abort System  Orion will support both space  stationDesigned and moonto operate missions for up to 210 days in Earth or lunar  Designedorbit to operate for up to 210 days in Earth or  Designed for lunar mission  Designed for lunar missions with with 4 crew members Crew Module 4 crew members  CanCan accommodate accommodate up toup 6 to crew 6 memberscrew members for space for station space and Marsstation missions and Mars missions Spacecraft Adapter  Potential to deliver pressurized  andPotential unpressurized to deliver cargo to the spacepressurized station and unpressurized cargo to the space station – ORION COMPARISON

 5 meter diameter capsule – Apollo shape  Significant increase in volume from Apollo (3.9 meter)  Reduced development time and risk

 Larger Crew Accommodations  Lunar missions: 4 crew  Space Station missions: 6 crew

 Expanded Mission Capabilities  Long Duration (6 months)  State-of-the-Art Materials, Systems


 Suit Element provides hypobaric and Launch/Entry/Abort & hypoxic protection to the crew Microgravity EVA Suit member while allowing the mobility to perform both intra- and extravehicular Lunar Surface EVA Suit activities

 To minimize EVA System mass and life cycle costs, the two suit configurations use common components as often as technically practical

 Vehicle Interface Element provides a means by which the Suit Element interfaces with Constellation vehicles

 Tools & Equipment Element includes tools and other equipment used during microgravity EVA and surface EVA GROUND OPERATIONS PROJECT

 Ground Processing and Testing of Integrated Launch Vehicles

 Launch and Logistics Services

 Post Landing and Recovery Services  Elements -Solid Processing Element -Rotation Processing and Surge Facility -Spacecraft Recovery and Retrieval Element -Spacecraft Processing Element -Multi-Load Processing Facility -Vehicle Assembly Building - Element -Mobile Launch Element MISSION OPERATIONS PROJECT: PLAN, TRAIN, FLY

 Operations infrastructure -Facilities, simulators, trainers, workstations, networks, software, documentation

 Operations products -Flight procedures, flight rules

 Operations teams

 Elements - -Constellation Reconfiguration -Constellation Training Facility -Neutral Buoyancy Lab -Space Vehicle Mockup Facility CONSTELLATION’SCONSTELLATION’S WORKFORCE WORKFORCE - CENTERS - CENTERS

Glenn Research Center -Lead Service Module and Spacecraft -Lead Launch Abort System integration Adapter integration -Lead landing system Advanced -Flight Test Article “Pathfinder” fabrication Development Program --X upper stage simulator lead -Ares I-X vehicle integration -Ares power thrust vector control and -Ares aerodynamics lead sensors lead -System Engineering & Integration -Lead thermal protection system development -J-2X engine altitude/in-space testing support -Aero-Aerothermal database -Systems Engineering and Integration -Ares abort simulators support Goddard Space Flight Cente -Software and Guidance, Navigation & Control -Communications support support

Michoud Assembly Facility Marshall Space Flight Center -Orion and Ares component mfging -Home for Ares Project -Rocket propulsion testing for Ares -Ares I and V development and integration lead Dryden Flight Research Center -LAS and SM Systems Engineering and -Lead abort test flight integration/operations Integration support -Abort test booster procurement -Flight Test Article development/integration -Home for Ground Operations Project -Home for Constellation Program -Ground processing JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) -Home for Projects: Orion, Mission Ops, -Vehicle integration -Thermal protection system support EVA, Altair and Lunar Surface Systems -Launch operations -Mission Operations support -Lead Crew Module integration -Recovery operations -Test and Verification support -Orion spacecraft integration -GFE projects management -Flight Test Program White Sands Test Facility -Rocket propulsion testing for Ares -Orion Launch Abort System test site CONSTELLATION’S WORKFORCE - CONTRACTORS

Additional Companies with > $10M Contracts: University Contracts:  American Synthetic Rubber Co. (KY)  Brigham Young University (UT)  Ensign Bickford (CT)  University of Illinois (IL)  Kirkhill-TA Company (CA)  University of Texas – El Paso (TX)  Ladish Company (WI)  Moog, Inc. (NY)  Andrews Space, Inc. (WA) Cytec Engineering Hamilton Sundstrand Materials Air-Lock Inc. David Clark Co. ATK – L3 Communications (Ares I First Stage) LOCKHEED-MARTIN (Orion Prime) BWX Technologies American Pacific Corp. PRATT & Orbital Science Corp. WHITNEY ROCKETDYNEVotaw (Ares Upper Honeywell Jacobs Sverdrop (J2-X Engine)Precision Stage Prime) Technologies Paragon Space Development

United Space Alliance Harris Corp. Cimmaron

Selected Subcontracts < $10M (currently more than 200 across 33 states & Puerto Rico):  Systems (AL)  Rudell Carbide, Inc. (CA)  The Caldwell Group (IL)  Software House International (NJ)  Teledyne-Brown Engineering (AL)  Advanced Products Co. (CT)  Major Tool & Machine Inc. (IN)  Welding Corp. (NV)  Aerospace Turbine (AZ)  E.I. Dupont De Nemours & Co. (DE)  Dynamic Flowform Corp. (MA)  UFC Aerospace Corporation (NY)  Curbell Plastics (AZ)  Parker Hannifin Corp. (FL)  Standex International (MA)  PCB Piezotronics, Inc. (NY)  Aero Spring & Manufacturing (AZ)  Productivity APEX (FL)  Remmele Engineering, Inc. (MI)  Special Metals Corporation (NY)  Pilot Engineering (AZ)  Global Equipment Co. (GA)  Hitchcock Industries, Inc. (MN)  Metalflex Manufacturing, Inc. (OH)  Shultz Steel Company (CA)  Snap-On Industrial (IL)  AV Chem, Inc. (MO)  PCC Structurals, Inc. (OR)  Laurel Sheet Metal Prod., Inc. (CA)  Varian Associates Inc. (IL)  JPM of Mississippi, Inc. (MS)  Stein Seal Company (PA)  Standard Tool & Die Co. (CA)  Smalley Steel Ring Co. (IL)  Turbocam, Inc. (NH)  Electrolizing, Inc. (RI) CONSTELLATION FLIGHT TEST CAMPAIGN

FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15

Initial Operational Transonic Max q Nom Capability (IOC) Abort Abort AA-2 Commitment AA-1 Proto Devt. LAS LAS PA-2 PA-1

First Crew Development / Qual Flight to ISS LAS Flight Testing (IOC)

Orion 1 O-2 O-3 Orbit Flight

Ares 1-Y Ares I-X Hi Alt FT Abort (1 st stage test)

Flight Article Production


Early 2009 Launch Pad Abort -1 The first flight of the Constellation Program flight test campaign demonstrates:

 Safety - critical crew abort from the launch pad

 First in-flight of the Launch Abort System solid rocket motors, coordinated operation

 Parachute landing system

 Successful pathfinder for Orion system integration and ground operations procedures ORION: CREW MODULE TEST ARTICLE WEIGHT CHECK AND CENTER OF GRAVITY TESTING AT DRYDEN FLIGHT RESEARCH CENTER ARES I-X: CREW TEST

 Ares I-X is a development test flight to support Ares I

 Ares I-X is the first integrated stack flight demonstration in the Constellation Flight Test Campaign

 Ares I-X is an uncrewed, sub- orbital development flight test

 Ares I-X will provide to test ground facilities and operations at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center


• Ares V liftoff; separation • performs Earth orbit insertion • Payload shroud separates to expose Altair • Ares I liftoff; first stage and upper stage separate • Upper Stage performs Earth orbit insertion; Orion separates • Orion docks with Altair and Earth Departure Stage • Earth Departure Stage fires for lunar destination • Orion and Altair separate from Earth Departure Stage • Lunar orbit insertion

• Altair separates from Orion and lands on the moon • 4 conduct lunar activities • Altair ascent stage lifts off from the surface • Ascent stage and Orion dock for crew transfer • Orion performs trans-Earth injection burn • Orion and Service Module separate and re-enter Earth’s atmosphere • Orion decelerates through Earth’s atmosphere • Parachutes open; capsule descends for landing and recovery LUNAR SURFACE SYSTEMS PROJECT

 Assess the feasibility of using the proposed transportation architecture to build a

 Surface mobility systems – explore the local area given the requirements of the mission

 Adapt outpost elements to different locations on the lunar surface

 Outpost configuration and capability used to evaluate Mars surface scenarios

 Capabilities of LSS – - pervasive mobility - mission flexibility - global connectivity - long duration WHY THE MOON?

 Regaining and extending operational experience in a hostile planetary environment

 Developing capabilities needed for opening the space frontier

 Preparing for human

 Discovering science END