Handout 3 - American Labor and Working-Class History, 1886-1944 - 1900s 1886: Industrial workers rally in ’s 1901: With a platform of representing workers, 1911: In New York City, The Triangle Shirtwaist Haymarket Square to protest dangerous the Socialist Party of America (SP) forms and Factory Fire kills 146 garment workers, mostly working conditions. During the rally, someone grows in popularity, reaching over three women. Afterwards, immigrant Clara Lemlich throws a bomb at police officers, who respond thousand local branches and 42 states. surprises union leaders by initiating a strike of by opening fire on the crowd. Known as the around 20,000 garment workers. The striker’s Haymarket Riot, the protest divided Americans: 1902: After having their demands ignored, demands for higher pay, shorter working hours, some saw the striking workers as oppressed, miners in Pennsylvania go on strike, initiating a and better working conditions were eventually others as agitators. national coal crisis. President met. intervenes, and 5 months later the strike is 1886: The American Federation of Labor (AFL) forms resolved, with miners receiving a better salary 1914: The Colorado National Guard fires upon from a loose organization of craft unions, with and a shorter workday. After the 1902 Coal a striking miner camp in Ludlow, killing eleven the goal of representing skilled laborers. Strike, the president develops his “Square Deal” children and two women. As news of the Ludlow policy, which emphasizes the government’s Massacre spread, miners took up arms against 1890: The United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) role in mediating between industry and labor so the mining companies, while many criticized forms. both are treated fairly. mine owner John D. Rockefeller, Jr. President sent in federal troops to end the 1894: Factory workers at the Pullman Palace 1904: The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) strike. The miner’s demands were not met. Car Company in Chicago go on strike after their is founded through the efforts ofEugene V. wages are cut and activists in the company are Debs. It’s members, known as “The Wobblies,” 1914: The Clayton Anti-Trust Act excludes labor fired. The American Railway Union, let byEugene fought for a union that represents all workers, unions from commercial regulation, making it V. Debs, supports the strike by announcing its regardless of race or gender. The formation easier to pursue peaceful strikes and boycotts. members would no longer work on trains that of the IWW upset company owners as well as had Pullman cars. The strikers get increasingly more conservative unions such as the AFL. 1914-1918: During , Th Woodrow Wilson violent, and the Railroad industry is crippled, administration plays a more hands-on role with driving President to send in 1905: In Lochmer V. New York, the Supreme Court industry to avoid strikes during the wartime troops, who fired upon rioting railway workers. overrules a New York law that set maximum economy, giving unions more political power. After the , a series of laws are work hours for bakers. enacted that privilege the rights of employers 1915-1918: The Great Migration begins as African over laborers. 1908: Seeing them as the “weaker” sex, Muller Americans in the South move to the North for v. Oregon allowed laws limiting the amount of better employment. hours women could work. 1919-1929: A booming post-war economy 1929-1933: Shantytowns called “Hoovervilles” 1941: As America enters World War II after the creates The Roaring Twenties, a period of relative for the poor and unemployed are erected Attack on Pearl Harbor, manufacturing surges, prosperity for employers and workers alike. throughout the country. effectively ending the great depression. Labor New consumer goods and a faith in persistent leaders gain political power by promising not to economic growth leads to a large credit 1932: A group of 22,000 World War I veterans initiate strikes during the war. economy, precipitating the stock market crash create a Hooverville within sight of the Capitol that would occur at the end of the . to demand the government pay them the 1941-1945: While men are at war, women enter bonuses promised for their service. The Hoover the workforce in record numbers. While women 1919: ’s automates the administration responds by sending US soldiers were asked to return to the home after the production of automobiles, making cars more and tanks to destroy the camp. Public support war, their experiences working and earning a affordable to average Americans, but also for President Herbert Hoover falls, and he loses wage, perhaps best expressed by the “Rosie the threatening the jobs of auto plant workers. the presidential election to Franklin D. Roosevelt. Riveter” image, helps form the modern feminist movement. 1919-1921: Union membership falls due to 1933: Roosevelt signs the National Industrial pro-business policies enacted under the Recovery Act (NIRA), creating a framework in 1942: In need of labor, the federal government presidencies of Warren G. Harding and Calvin which the government, businesses, and workers creates the Bracero Program, a guest worker Coolidge. While over 4 million workers strike in cooperate in a difficult economy. TheNational program that brought close to 5 million this period, few had their demands met. The Recovery Administration (NRA) is created to agricultural laborers from Mexico. policies of Harding and Coolidge lead the 1920s oversee the process. to became known as “The Business Decade.” 1944: The G.I. Bill is signed into law, providing a 1934: The Congress of Industrial Organizations variety of economic and educational benefits to 1926: The Railway Labor Act requires Railway (CIO) forms as a conglomeration of mining and veterans. An economic boom after the war led companies to enter into collective bargaining garment working unions. to higher wages, greater job security, and an agreements with unions, and outlaws hiring improved standard of living to many Americans. discrimination against union members. 1935: The National Labor Relations Act is passed, protecting worker’s rights to collective 1947: The Taft-Hartley Act, which weakened the 1929: On October 24, “Black Tuesday,” The New bargaining. The act was a cornerstone to power of unions, overcame a veto by President York Stock Exchange crashes, leading to the Roosevelt’s New Deal platform, which also Harry Truman to become law. failure of around 5 thousand banks from 1929- included the establishment of Social Security 1933. The Great Depression begins, effecting and relief to poor families. every social class.