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Public Disclosure Authorized report was prepared for use within the Baiik and its affiliated organizations. They do not accept responsibility for its ac:urac) or completeness. The report may not be published nor may it be quoted as representing their views.




(in five volumes)

VOLUM]E IV Public Disclosure Authorized

D-ecem..,ber ;21, 1Q970

WJ-s1tA 1A7 IVm Public Disclosure Authorized

We stern Africa Department CURRENCY DOQUIVAALENTS Currency Unit: CFA Franc (CFAF)

Before August 11. 1969: US$ 1.00 = CFAF'246.85 CFAF 1.000 = US$ L.05

After Aueust 11. 1969: US$ 1.00 = CFAF 277.71 GFAF 1;000 = Tl1.S=_.6o


1 Metric Ton (t) 2,205 lbs. 1 ~~~F;logr(b:)22ls 1 Kilomneter (km) = o.62 mile I Meter (r,) - ).°8 fee COPI.OSIT1ON t)F THE hI SION

This report is based on the findings of a mission wdhich visite(d Cameroon in March and April of 1970. The mission was composed of the following memtiers:

Cornelis J. Jansen ChLef of Mission Fredy R.G. Holin Economist Antoine Marot Economist Guenther Weinschenck Agricultural Economist (Consultant) Constant de Troyer Agronomist - Permanent Mission in West Africa J.L. Gilles Lessard Fo:-estry Economist (Consultant) Christopher Lethbridge Specialist - Development Finance Companies Department Hans 0. Schulte Transportation Economist - Permanent Mission in West Africa.

The report consists of the i'ollowing volumes:

I - Main Report. II - Agriculturo. III - Forestry. IV - nnsp,o,vrt. V - Manufacturing Industry and Investment Finance.

This ollumre was preparer! by Harns 0. Schulte TABLE OF COINIENTS





1) The transport infrastructure in Reneral 1 2) Cameroon as a transit country 2 3) Transport planningr and administration 2


1) Adninistration 5 2) The Highwcay Network 3) Hi!ghwav construction and mnintenance 6 4) Highway traffic; vehicle fleet 8 5) i!7rf.ay.- epYnPnritures. anrl roadrle charges 9 6) Road transport 10~ 7) Road investments under the second and thi+1v Th 1rnrlnvmen+ Plansc


1)Genrieral 1 2) Infrastructure and rolling stock 18 ,)T,fi 19 4) Tariffs 20 5) VF4^.a-cic' --- o,-mance oP ReV-rc., 21- 6) Investments under 2nd. an&c3rd Develop- mIenLt Plans 23

TT M7 Am TT1 T1'rTT1lTh IT A TrTr A mr^IIT 4 i v . rur I A\JJ r-i vn ±"Av ±LVA IL kill

±) Ex:isting ±ir±rastrucuur2 2 2) Ad3ninistration 27 3) Traffic and relative impcrtance of 27 the Cameroon ports 4) Financial performnmce of the port administration 29 5) Tne problems of the port of and possible short-term and long-term solutions 30 Page No.


2) Administration 34 3)\ vs-Xn 3)

lritUc. ID

C'UA n 0


(i) Cameroon's heavy reliance on international trade - exports and imports each represent somewhat over 20 percent of gross domestic product - and the large distances between the various centers of economic activity within the country acco-unt for the vital importance of an adequate transport system for the ec:orcmy. The governmment is awiare of this fact and has rightlv given priority in public investment to improvement of the transport infrastructure.

(ii) Reads and railways are the main transport modes. There are about 21 - cln km Of tyunk nrd main rnsrEg of which- hmTn..ver_ onlv about 1,270 km are paved. The railway system, presently consisting of about Mn km of rnilwnay rniout mainlyr serves -r.-rh_.qni-t.h t.rnn-n-rt. connection. It is being extended by another 335 km. Inland river transport is uinimportant. Air trnsport i.S a useful com..plement to transport by road and rail. The transport system is centered on Douala, the country's economic capital an,d ma,irJ port.

Vi;; T4Lfl,41- awrnnrmra+c -; 1 1 ,-P +hk, c,...enn+nr nP +h, +rnrn on+ \ .-L_ .LF.4J±-AX± V I~J _ - --.~ --- ~ systems are needed, two major problems carL be identified:

(1) Cameroon's port capacity is becoming increasingly inuiLcL1ientU Io iandULe La=h co.tUJ uis &LJo-ini international trade. The improvement of port faciltles has, e,therefore,to be given highest priority among all transport projects during the next five years.

(2) Tne forest area of South-East Cameroon contains huge and rich timber resources. Logging concess- ions have been issued recently but actual timber exploitation on a large scale cannot start before adequate transport links to connect the region to the coast have been created. Construction of such links is urgent if Cameroon is not to further forego important benefits in the form of additional national income and forelgn exchange earnings that would result from large-scaJe timber production in the area.

(iv) The mission's main conclusions writh respect to the various modes of transport can be summarized as follows:

1. Highways:

(a) The improvement of the standard of large parts of Cameroon's trunk road system is an urgent necessity. A list of well-justified road projects has been identified. (o) Current exiorts to irnprcve [lgnway uiainuenariuce sho-uid w, continued in view of the overall importance of road transport and rapidly growing tranLspoIt volumes.

(c) The proposed reorganization of road transport in East Cameroon should not lead to uneconomic regimentation of the private road transport Industry by the Government.

2. Railways:

(a) Improvement of the existing: railway line between Douala and Yaounde in order to increase its capacity and efficiency is required. Coristruction of new lines should only be considered after thorough technical, economic, and financial studlies.

3. Ports:

An increase in port capacityr is an urgent priority and a better organization of port operations is required. Particularly, soLutions to improve timber handling and thus to enhance Cameroon' s timber export capacity have to be j'ound.

(v) Preinvestment studies to prepare for the projects mentioned above are either urtder way or will be car-'ied out in the near future. Assurances for the implementation of the inission's operational recommeendations have been or are being! ob;ained from the Government under loan agreements on recent Bank highwJay, railway and port projects in Caneroor. As tc, the problem of timnber transnort from the South- East, the need for further preinvestment ,tudies will have to be decided in the ligh-t of theDiptdip ionn the BaRnk will have to conduct with thG Government on the proposed construction of a new railway line from.'aoinde to YokadounmA in Sonu-t-Ehst Gameroon. I. IIITMRODUC TICV'

1) The transport infrastructure in genera].

1.01 The transport system of Cameroon has to respond to three main reqrer.ents:

=to connec-l-t he 0econoML,c ana po;)',ju'aticn1- ce.nters o-f' th1e country among themselves;

- to provide access to the sea for the export products of

b.L1> VaLr.LoLUs reg.fLVIi ofJ With _oUIU.[-ty WUIU IA asUre -the supply of these regions iwith imiports of raw materials, capita-l andu coniwis guu der __ n Wand._ _J., _

_ to serve as a 'ransit country :'or land-locked , and, to a lesser extent, the .

1.02 As for trensport requirements in;,ide Cameroon, five main poles of economic activity and potential can be distinguished: tne coastal region with the ports of Douala and, i,h3ro most of the country's industrial activity is concentrated; the densely populated, rich agricuLtural region around the cities of and (Bamileke country); the region aroindctaounde, the capital of Cameroon; the North, which is also densely populated an.d has considerable agri- cultural potential; and finally the va;st tropical forest area of South- East Cameroon, which is only sparsely populated at present but which contains huge timber resources an.d may expzrience considerable develop- ment once large scale timber exploitat:ion 'vegins.

1.03 A large part of the transport infrastructure required to serve these regions exists or is being constructed or improved (see map 1). The backbone of the Cameroonian transport system is the Transcameroon route running from Douala through Yaounde to the Chadian border in the northern tip of the country. It consists of a railway up to Belabo (600 kl from Douala) wihich is being extended and wzill reach Ngaoundere by 197h. From there on, transport to the NIorth will be by :road, and the improvement of the various sections of this road link, generally to a paved standard, is at different stages of advancement.

1.0h Another main transport axis runs from the coastal area to Nkongsamba and Bafoussam, consisting of a railway line from Douala up to Nkongsamba (180 1,m) and a parallel paved road which continues to Bafoussam. From thereon, an earth road connects with the Transcameroon route at Ngaoundere. Douala and the -Victoria region are linked bv a naved road one section of which has teen. constructed only recently; the others, which were constructed 10-15 years ago, will be substantiall;y imnroved within the next years.

1-.05 A trrnisnortation gap still exists in.the South East except for the region closest to the coast between Douala-Yaounde-Samgmelima- - 2 -

Kribi. While there are a few low,-standard earth roads penetrating further into the area, these are comnletelv inadecuate to permit large scale exploitation, of its timber resources for wiThich concessions have been issued recently. Several possibilities for solving the transport problems of this area are under discussion at present. A recent transnort survey of Eouth-east Cameroon and westerm CAR has recommended the construction of a railway from Yaounde to Yokadouma near the CAR border,. The enonoTmic and financial justifica- tion of this railwuay will, however, have to be examined very carefully n nd, even i'f iustAifiedj it could probably not he bhilt bef'ore anminber of years in view of the time needed for further engineering studies -ned for asnuiincg iits financrincg fr-o.m e rnn sourcesn and in view of other urgent investment needs in the Canreroon railway system. The Government, Twhile, in principle a rtly decided to bild the Yokadouma railway one day, is si-riultanecusly planning the construction nf .- ,- f cn..nnll A n-,+-.,l.ln 1 fr-,-Pnrn+rr rnoAo +, hon k + nv+litr i-hr force account, partly by the logging con.panies themselves. Little progress has, ho'I,Bver, 1,ben ,nA in th; v respect soP, A systematic transport planning for the Scuth-East is urgently required. Volume ILII V~iAon ~JJUIl~ forestryi.'..J ±.L~ vn.lJlVJL.LJ dec-lUtd... ~J.L~1JXLextensiv_J1,,u V .4.) LV.JV.L.A L VI.L.Loi prblmJJL~AA

-I r>l A_- J. 4 au o __ 4------_, - -- _. _: J .U' ±UJL11it IU IIVII tAjULLI0IL UL1 IA ULAwIlZLL ±I 'JUIJd1 Lu±WL JIjJU± Ol ' ;y 0 Umli ±L the inadequacy of the present road link between Yaounde and the BaruU±A regiLUon. tL wUoU' dppeart, howe-ver, t"a' finaic ring UromU eth European Development Fund may be forthccming for a substantial improve- menU of urtis ii..nk.

1.07 Cameroo:n.;s ian.d transport system is Largely centered on Douala, the country's main port, which is handlling about 90% of total import and export traffic. Douala port is, however, approacning the limits of its capacity and there is the danger that it Till soon represent a major bottle-neck for Camercon's economic development. Short-term measures to improve the situe.tion are under active considera- tion, and studies are underway to find c.satisfactory long-termt solution. for increasing Cameroon's port capacity.

1.08 Apart from the three above items, the basic transport infrastru- ture of Cameroon, taxing into account tr.e projects presently underway or planned for the immediate future, is fairly wtell adapted to the needs of the countr-y. Road and rail are the nialin modes. Wnlile no statistics are available on. total tcnnages transported by road, it can be estimated that both modes have about an equal share in total transport volumes. There was some import-expcrt traffic on. the Benoue river through up to 1965/66 (about 60,000 tons per year), but since then this route has been closed in the wrake of the hostilities in Nigeria. Traffic is expected to pick ur again next year, but in the long run it is doubtful whether this: route can compete with the Transcameroon route once the lat-ter has been completed. Apart from the Benoue, there are no navigable rivers in the country. Passenger traffic by road and rail is complemented by air transport, mainly on the Dcuala-Yaounde link and between these two cities and North Cameroon. - 3- 2) Cameroon as a transit country

1.09 Cameroon is an important transit country for landlocked Chad and CAR. Douala is the nearest ocean port for large parts of Chad and for the CAR. However, the CAR at present relies more or less exclusively on the Transenuatorial Rcute for its international traffic, i.e. the Oubangui and Congo river system from Bangui to Brazzaville And thence the railwav to the sea nort of Pointe Moire. A route through Cameroon would be about 5C0 km shorter, but no ade- ouat+e trnn,gonrt link eiqtstst a- present. inoa connectitons between the CAR and Ca.meroon are very poor, andI tra-nsit traffic through Cameroon is estimnted to represe nnlyw abhout 5% of +he tr._n1fA-Rs iTmn-ort export traffic.

1.10 Chad has three main alternative outlets to the sea: the II t at- n-n 1"r- -r.,.A -P ^ 'rPv+ T ~~mNr + n U~A.- Avi rn,v'A rnv%V + . - e c#s 1'Tr railway to Port Harcourt or Lagos; the Transequatorial Route by r.-oad from Forvt+ Tnr ce -I- r+i- er n-d r^wy tor Pointe Noire; and the Transcameroon route. The Nigerian route was through Cameroon. The Transequatorial Route, particularly important Ifor .; - -e- lon - a- d on_rous-, ir-v-vi- t- tr-n- Swouthern,J.SJ4 5.41J..M1~.44 Czhad, J-0. VI;,Ly -LW1JGS CULI.A %J1JA'_J.SU0j 1 V'J.VA ~ SVVSJ Vi.O.LCJQ- shipments, and has been beset w,ith various political difficulties in recent time.. MTus, the Tr4ansca4eroon Rou;te, once the e-tension of the railway and the improvement of the roals from Ngaoundere to the noriL'± daLtr oUIAn-J.let etU, W±L-JA probUdUbly Uecomiiee£U* 1haus prLInJcipJa cUlJonn uion to the sea.

3) Transport Administration and Plann:Lng

1.11 Until recently responsibilities .Lor the various modes of transport were distributed among a number of government agencies. No ministry was responsible for the sector as a whole. Railways, ports and civil aviation depended on the Federai Ministry of Transport, Post and Telecommunications; road matters were hlandled by the Public IfWorks Departments of the two states of East and West Cameroon. The Federal Ministry of Planning and Development was, -'-n principle, in charge of coordinating investmnents in the transport ,ector as those in. all other sectors but since it was at the same polit' cal level as the other ministries its role was practically limited to assembling project pro- posals worked out by the various other agelncies.

1.12 The Bank had indicated on severa2 occasions that a more appropriate organization of the government with respect to the transport sector wJas desirable. A major reorganizati.on of the government was carried out in. June 1970, i.e. after the return of the mission from Cameroon. Its most important features are the creation of an Interministerial Committee for Economic and Financial Affairs at the level of the Presidency and of a ne,, Federal Ministry of Transport. The Interministerial Committee will probably become the main government body for decision-making in the - LF -

field of development policy. The new r12inistry of Transport 1ill be responsible for all transport modes and for overall coordination of policies and investments in the transport sector.

1.13 The above reorganization is gEnerally in line with the Bank's recommendations, and it is to be exr)ected that the new set-up will provide a more appropriate framework for centraJ., coordinated planning in the transport sector. In the nast. investment have been based on the Dlans prepared more or less independently by the agencies and Government services resnonsible for the different transoort sub-sectors. Manv of the major projects wiere preceded by ecoromic feasibility studies but onsdertions have nls1o playVed a deciasiveo role. This is particularly true for the Transcanmeroon railway project - the extension of the rqilT y fnnm Yaounpde to -hhgaoun-dere fqr the 1argest single transport project in Cameroon.

1.14 Overall expenditures for transport reflect the high priority which the Government attaches to this sector. Out of a total planned public investment under the second development plan (1966/67-70/71) of OFAF 8.1.6 bll:.on, CFA 36. 7 billion. or )< have been devrot+ed to +he transport infrastructure, including all modes of transport. Although the prepaation.o: 4the Tn,4rA Pl1ar, is s:l at early-n stge4+ ap VIJt- kJJL C;JJd.LL .U.LU'IJ. V.L UIVil .Li".J U I .i. _L V~~)LLU.LL.U W ~CiJ.J~ Q . L L that investments for transport w.ill again total about CFAF 35-40

L..LL Problem/s of transport polic dealt wJith in the following chapters on the individual transport modes.. II. THE EGImRIAY SEECTOR

1) Administration

2.01 All road matters in Caxneroon,, i.e. the construction and maintenance of naticinal and main roads,, the organization of road transport, the colleCtion of traffic stati,tics, etc., have so far been handled on a state basis by the Departzient;3 of Public Works (DPW) of East and West Cameroon. Local and feeder roads are administered and main- tained by local authorities. It is no-t knoin at this state to what extent the status of the DPWs will be effeeted bar the recent creation of a Federal Pinistry of Transport. The following reflects the organiza- tion of the DPWis prior to the government reorganization of June 1970.

2.02 Both DPWs are organized along similar lines (see Charts 1 and 2). The DPWI of East Cameroon is part of 1thle Secretariat General of Public Work;, the DPW14 of West Cameroon parc of the Ministry of Works and Transport. The overall planning and supervision, of road construc- tion and maintenance is done at DPNW headquarters in Yaounde and Victoria,, respectively. Actual operations are carrie)d out through a nuwber of district ofiices anci their subdivisions in various centers of the two states. W4hile the I)PW of East Cameroon is heavily staffed with FAC- financed technical assistance personnel, e:patriate assistance is practically\ non-existent in West Cameroon. Both DPWs are presently well staffe(d by qualified engineers at the top, but there is a general lack of exnerience amd training at the intermediate and lower levels. During the recent negotiations of the ;.7irst Highway Project, the Government agreed to take measures to .trr-ngthen the staffing of the DPWs and to provide for improved train:Lng of Cameroonian engineers.

2.03 A step to atleast partly federa3Lzing road maintenance in Cameroon wa3 taken in 1963 Twith the establishment of a Centra-l Publ Wlorks Equipment Pool (CEP) (see para. 2.12) base in Yaounde and with maintenanJce and repa r shops in various centers of the count.y However, bu(dget allocations and the actual execution of maintenance urorks are still orguanized on a state brsi:s bDy the two D?WUflJsJ

2) The Highway Network

2.OL. The total length of the netw:ork Df national and main roads is about2dO CL1L, , of l;.ich IL8CaboutCmaA is.. ta- -a-eroo -n 3,20-k in West Cameroon. Out of this total, only just over 8,000 are maintained

U'y ie DPE'S 'Ui'e remalindI e rUL.L,Ubeing8 _ miaL .II U bLJyLoJ Jca'-L. atoie3AV II4. - 6 -

Tnhle 1 suimm;arizes the cofrfnosition and t,he eTvolution- of the netMwork during recent years. To this total of national and main roads have to hb nadde nhaout+ 27 tlit km of' loca] and ferder -rnnc +.hnt. hnavr been constructed and are maintained by the communities.

2.05 While the earth and gravel road network has increased regular- 4 liT fl recen+ year-, +hn +-+-'I ,.n 1 n- -A' p --edA ,-.,A abou+ 1 970 h. in 1969, has remained practically unchanged. This reflects the fact (see para. 2._, tha r,os ofP 4the big ---struc4io- ard- .rrve1 _'.J I 41-4VId. 1LU LI V.JL. LdIC;L - A.LJcLV l U~IiI L L'_Lv1Z d.LLU;.IA" ljJ I.. V II11L projects planned under the 1966/71 I)eve opment Plan have been delayed.

.ki-4S±I±.L. can, 1L~VVUbowe-v-er, .L , beUL U 4AetVAJ- kILCL1~,;c';ang UL4±11rir. IU± ±LJALI,-- .LL_~yO± 4h-etfveyasLA. view of the projects for which finanicing has now been secured or is urjder considera-4on.

2.06 llit Udensi]LUy 0.1 LILLf 1LLKgnWUF 1JnUe;work Va.r2ties QU116±Us.LdeCy Wi.141111 the country. It is highest in the coa;sal region, the Bamileke area, uleCameroon, the Nortn, and aroun-i Yaounde. Then there are the two main road axes from Douala to the North through Bafoussam-Foumban, on the one hand, and through Yfaounde and on the otner. Tne South East is practically without any adequate road communication.

2.07 While the road network as it exists is able to handle the transport volumes produced by the econov,) its general condition is still less than satisfactory. Cameroorn has reached a stage of economic development, and a level of traffic which requires that increasing priority be given to the improvement and upgrading of its main road links and to the adequate maintenance of its road network. Most of the exist,ing paved roads have been constructed ten or more years agco and for traffic volumes and acle loads that no longer exist today. (The maxi.mum axle load in Camer0on was recently increased from 9 tons to 13 tons). Thus, many of the old paved roads require heavy maintenance at present, and in some cases (e.g. the Douala-Nkongsamba road) total reconstruction in the near :.uture appears unavoidable. The maintenance of the earth and laterite roads has improved considerably in recent years but further efforts are required.

2.08 According to the information :received from the Government, feeder roads do not present a major pro])lem. Most agricultural centers are not too distant from the main trunk road system, and the DP1Ws and local authorities concentrate their maiLtenance efforts on feeder roads at the beginning of the harvest season so as to assure the evacuation of agricultural production.

3) Highway construction and maintenance

2.09 The Ministry of Planning and -Development and the DPWTs of East and WVest Carneroon share the responsibility for preparing and administering malor road construction projects. The Planning Ministrv handles most of the operational rnatters connected with the preparation and financing of - 7 - road projects, whereas the DP%qs are generally responsible for the technical aspects of the projects. 'iost new roads are designed by consultants, and construction works are normally carried out by contractors. There are a few local contracting firms. most of them subsidiaries of French firms. The DPFIs a:re not equipped for heavy construction worics and limit themselves to small projects, rehabili- tation of earth roads and maintenance.

2.10 RIoad construction is generaLly onerous and costly in Cameroon. Rainfall is heavy and practically continuous in the coastal zone and t.le southern part of Uest Cameroon, and there is a long rainy season in the north, hampering construction work3 and requiring careful design of drainage structures. The mountainous :errain in north-east and central Cmaeroon further accounts for hig ' construction costs.

2.11 Road maintenance is carried out separately by the DPWs of East and .7est Cameroon. Each Department ias -its own organization. its own budget and plans its operations indepe2ndently. The pattern of operations is however sinmilar in both states: each denartment sets up a yearly maintenance program, allocate3 funds to the regional divisions nnd .qqicrn5> thhp Pm!iiment npeed.Zi TEqnipii-mTnt is nprovirifrt1 hv the Central Public '.Uorks Equip nent Pool which deliver; it on the job-site and takes care of repairs and rene als.

2.12 'rho Central Poor,l Yi-h.,as set up, n 112d techinical and finanrciLa1 assistance from FAC. The Pool will nave about 7M0-80O equipment units by 1972/73 of a total value of about CF.^A 2.5 billion. FAG provided an initial grant of CFAF 310 million for -quipmenit and CFAF 250 million for warehouses and training facil-4- r r o f--4- has been and is going to be provided by Cameraon. A portion of fuel tax receiLptsreceipts has'nil beenUJV_-II *armal-edUC(LkA.LLA1.1U 4:£ULJor thlis purpv-se. Th_Zml_.~*± Poo'lU±Ii h.ires out the equipment to the DPW divisions who pay out oL the funds allocated to them.. TrarL-ffs 7aave been fixed so as to _over the 'oo' 's operational Li I .L . L -.L i LI Vt Leii L_. U~u L UV LI1 U.b up d L I~ expenditures, repairs, maintenance and spare parts, and depreciation. Fuell, lubriLcants and op,erators for tte qup,en -r p_ai for_by. the- nDI.7- * ~L , L~at*LtU aIIt L~jJ~ OLUS 0 L 6LLL ~ ' U~ FJUULLUL aLL _ p aJLa &S. 5 V 6LLU -- So far, experience with this organization has been satisfactory, and once the Pool has r.eached its f£ l. s.ze Lt s-iou1U be a very adeuateL instrument for assuring the smooth functioning of highway maintenance operations in GCa-ile0roon . 2.13 Trhe equipment or tne Pool is mainly for the maintenance of earth and laterite roads. There will be a few units for the patching of paveld roads, but seal coating and rehabilitarion or naved road will continue to be carried out by contractors.

2.14 Budget aLlocations in both East and West Cameroon are made on a per km basis differentiating between various types of roads and traffic volumes. Aillocations presently are as follows (CFAF per km): East Camereon '.est Cameroon

Paved roads. 25 J,000 90-150,'000 Earth roads: over 150 vpd 12J ,Oo 70,000 50 - 150 vpd '7J,000 50,000 10 - 50 vpd 4J,000 359000 Less thani 10 15,000 20,000

Uhile allocations in East Camercon can be considered as reasonable, W4est Cameroon's allocations are clearly insufficient particularly with regard to paved and major earth roads. It is to be expected, however, that 2llocations irll bo harmonized unrdor thnewT-niSt,J FrnrO a Of Transport. Overall budget allocations -.'or road maintenance fiuance will have to be increased in th',e future in view of the planned improvements to ithe network and rapidly growiing traffic volumes. Also, per km allocations should be revised from time to time to take into account the increase in costs for maintenance operations.

4) Hi,,hway traffic; vehicle fleet

2.15 Highway traffic statistics have been collected regularly hv tho DP'.I qin-e earlv 1968. .nn 2 th traffic flnwY.- for 1969 based on the official ':PW count.s. Absolute figures given by the DPWs h,wtrcv lirv^er to be intrpretecl with. rertanin reservat 1 ons-^o1t are taken manually by relatively inexperienced personnel, supervision isc~ ~nrla t a.d.- coun,ting stati-ns are .generally located too close to major cities or villages so that thd traffic volumes observed contain a certain proportion. of subqurba- or local traffic DPII -fiursae therefore, renerally on the high side. In order to have mTore reliable bas,s for the plannin, of rL.A con .sruction . and.mO aintenancel the present system. of traffic data collection should be ir:.proved by emnloying more qua 'i fieL personnUel locat`ng count-, stati ons m,ore .,eaLn4ngf4u ly or using automatic counters.

2.16 iYap 2 nevertheless correctly reflects the pattern of road

traffic fows- in *a-ieroon.1ra:Efqc vo.umes are highest on 0- Douala- .Nkongsanmba-Bafoussara stretch and in.the coastal zone, and on the roads emanatLng fro, Yaounde, dropingL s,hart.y ith increasin.g distances fror,. these centers. Past traffic growtL cart be estimated on thle basis of filures on the consumptiuo of gasol.ine and diesel oil in recent years (see table 2). It would appear thuat the growth rate for overall traffic in the 1 960-19069 period (i.e. includinl urban trafflc) has beeln a1D%UUL 7 for lig,ht vehicles (based on consumption of gasoline) , 12%, for heavy vehicies (based on consumption of diesc l oii) atid somewhat over 9%' for overall traffic. 2 1'7 A r.-a of.t' roaId t. gw L of4t_' 4.b- *.L I A ±d.LUq_ 0L r'Uau U±.±L'%L.U gruw l UL4 UVfZ-J. 71 WULLLU UU L-I] -J.±IJV, WIAJ.L[ the fast growth of the modern sector of the economy during recent years. TiLe rate of growth in annual registrations of new vehicies, in East Cameroon (see table 3), which has been about 13% in 1960-69, also points to rapidly increasing road transport. Tne trend in vehicle registrations in West CaTneroon is less obvious (see table 4).

2.18 No recent statistics are available on the total size of the vehicle fleet in East Cameroon nor, consequently, on its growth, since vehic:les are only registered when they are put into circulation whereas retirement from service is not officially recorded. A study carried out in 1965 in connection with the Transcameroon railway project estimated the vehicLe fleet of East Cameroon at 32,500 vehicles at the begimning of 1964. As a total of over 31,000 new vehicles was registered since 1964, it can be estimated that the total fleet at present is around 45,000 vehicles, of which about 50% passenger cars, 20% delivery vans and about 17% -trucks. The vehicle fleet of West Cameroon is estimated by the DPW at over 10,000 vehicles at present.

5) Highway expenditures and rc,ad user charges

2.19 Expenditures for highway constru.tion and maintenance in Cameroon appear in the budgets of the states of East and West Cameroon as well as in the federal budget. Total budget appropriations for roads out of domestic resources are shorin in Table 5. These appropriations, which do not necessarily correspond to actual expenditures, averaged about PAP. 1_7 billion per year during the last four years. To this amount, which represents the Cameroonian contributio:n to highway financing, have to be added the contributions by external financial sources (mainly FAC, FED, USAID and Germany) to road projects i.i Cameroon. Annual figures are not ava.ilable, but total ext.ernal finanicing duringthe 1966/67 - 69/70 period amoinits to nlFAF J,8tAl billion or racihly OFAF 1-2 hiJllon ner year.

2.20 Road users contribute to Governm.nt revenue through import duties on fuiel and vehicles, taxes on fuel. and licensing and registration fees. There are no precise statistics on z~ither of these items but the amount. nf taxes nnid on aanl ine and di loq 1 nan hb roughly ePstimated on the basis of the information available on fuel consumption and fuel t__e_- Tt TTollld anpear that loTvernmnt re-eipts f'rnm this source alone amounted to about CEAF 2.3 billion in :L969. Receipts from registration fees, etc. i.n East Cam.eroon amounted toC FAnw 120 million in the same year. Only an order-of-magnitude estimate can be made of Government revenue fromm custom du1t-s- o,n lnord nah -ices re+ceipts probbly wr at least about CFAF 1 billion in 1969.

2.21 Total contributions by road user; thus clearly exceed Governmeilt eAjJeiJu± UU.J. ;) on roads, ±I1.~lUU±11~ UU 4ncludlntgru,ain-tena.iceIih and cons uL±uctlion. IJ may be questioned whether this fairly high fiscal burden on road trans- port is app-p-i'± and-3 we`- tim± ±vit:o :UrU-oa userchares an, cUIisequen1 y lowe-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ tr-naporw dro eec;o;cymr--- dsrbe r h

ffJW~.A A.L u0y jJ. Li ~ O Uo VWiJU..LU LIAJ U IJ.~.i1.i4tz IL' J A0.L.LJUQ. 0 . .i.JJi VJIA Al.0 one hand, it is true that import duties in general and taxes and duties

o _ - S1 t _ __ _4-.._ _ _ _ ._-4.4 -- .A -- _1 --- _ -11 _- f__ lxJ ;'IILJU1 1D;> I '. 111 yCdL ULI D. 1- L J.t ( U d.l l-cAi JVZ l- t '.IJU .Oj0.0Ld La. y I t .L' LLdU. and convenient source of government revenue. These charges can there- fore be considered m,airnly as a 8ee-X f a levy rather uuan as a specific price to be paid by road users for the use of the public trans- port in-frastrucu-ure. However, on the cnther hand, the heavy i.-axaulun of road transport obviously discriminates against this mode in favour of the railways which compete with the road system on some important iinks. This may lead to an uneconomic distributior of traffic between the two modes in certain cases. Also, it should nct be overlooked that this form of taxation has certain repressive eff'ects which are undesirable. A reduction in road user charges would therefore be desirable on economic grounds. A first step would tie tc study the incidence of taxation on public road freight and passeng:er transport.

6) Road Transport

2.22 Up to now, road has been completely free from any Government regulations or interference. Anybody willing to start a transport business could do so, no licences had to be obtained, and there were no restrictions as far as routes or the nature of transported goods are concerned, except for the general prohibition of heavy trucking on the Edea-Yaounde road. In East Cameroon, trucking companies organized themselves in the Syndicat des Transporteurs Routiers with the consent of the DPW. The Syndicat is dominated by three big European-owned transport companies but also most of the medium-sized or small Cameroonian truckers belong to it. Its objective is to organize long distance road transport on the routes from Douala to the North, to harmonize rates and to discuss interprofessional problems. The Svndicat does not handle local or short distance traffic. There is no similar organization in West Cameroon. Mem'bership of the Syndicat is not obligatory, and there are quite a number of small truckers operating as "outsiders".

2.23 Ra-tes chargJes bv Syndicat tru3kers appear reasonable. Thev vary between CFAF 5.6 and 11 per ton/km e.g. on the northern route from Belabo to . The freight hauiled bv the Svndicat totalled about 150,00() tons in 1966/67, corresponding to 135 million ton/km as compared to 181 million ton/km on the Pnoiferam railwavy qV.tomT during the same year.

2.24 Earlier this year, the East Cameroon Governmlent passed a law which wTill substantially change +he organization of road transport. Details will still have to be worked out but, in principle, road transport TwIldnin the futurebe subjectn+ to li cen:!;ingr A o Tomm1s;itTnh re- presentatives of the Government and the trucking industry will be set uip to Adis,- p,rob.len:s rearding th nnr.tr1, + profession.4 ANod + 'A'.V - .L~U.JJ- - 11 jJ ~ itJ ..-6i 3J -i J.i, UU. U r) 'J16 .JJ....f A. il t A A. 0.4. U 5 of the new legislation was available at the time of the mission. Also,

.it .i4s notL fow whethlLer Ai will arpply tio UJEaL sJ.0UiOt W7s under the new Federal. Ministry of Transport. However, the Government's 111itU1enL'Ull OMtL:11 LUV Ut: UV Ut UtI,e-rIu.LL 14± liljdLJLjUlt .LtUdU uapdUJLby dULIi'LULLiU",teU to each company as well as the itinerar:ies or zones for which transport is authorized. vWnhile some entr-y conditions, w]hich would ensure tha' trucking - 11 - companies have a mininimum of technical, professional and financial expertise and responsibility before being admitted to the profession would be appropriate, the proposed system of route licensing etc. is clearly un- desirable. It would reduce the competition between transporters and modes of transport and would thus lead to higher transport prices and probably a lower quality of service. The Government should therefore be advised to reconsrdpr its policy in this matter.

7) PRoad Invest+moents in,der the Second and IThirr DeTre1tnment P%nns

2 w-2r ~ - /lv-21|nv ~rrvy'+ * -- ,9, nrvp-uiC -t r~ ! mo h_ )nn ty,rlrswr'vorl, h!r +1.Tr n¶. ,^rs priorities:

- the improvement of the Iranscameroon route;

- the creation of additional and the improvement of -_ A-4. _ _ 14-_1_.- - 4'-1 - 1 T.T-S | U;.&J. UjIL..LALXVl.Lllr UUUU tWi t LLe s tate of U arLU WU U Cameroon.

While both objectives are undoubtedly in line with the economic develop- rmentu needs of the country, they may be even more ±unportant politically. Political unity was a serious problem ir the first years of independence, and it still ranks high in the preoccupations of the Government.

2.26 The main road investments planned by ths Government in pursuance of the two above objectives are the improvement of the existing roads north of Ngaoundere, the future terminal of tr,e Transcameroon railway, up to Fort Foureau on the Chadian border, and the creation of improved road links between East and '-s,t Canr,oon. Ihe northernmost section of the Ngaoundere-Fort Foureau connection, the road from Waza to Maltam, is being paved with financing provided by Cermany. Financing of the up- grading of the Mora-Waza road is expected from the same source. The Bank and IDA are financing the reconstruction of the Ngaoundere-Garoua road under the First Highway Project in Cameroon, as well as a study of the improvement of the Garoua-Mora road. AZ; for road links between East and W'est Cameroon, the Government has attached particular importance to the construction of the Bamada-Bafoussanm ancl Douala-Victoria road. FED is expected to finance the paving of the -Bafoussam road in the near future; FAC provided financing for the construction of the Douala-Tiko road, which was completed three years agfo, and the Bank assists in financing the reconstruction of the Tiko-Victoria road under the First Highway Froject. Compared to these operations, all other road projects have so f'ar ranked second in tile Goveznliient's priotity 1st.

2.27 Table 6 summarizes the main highway projects envisaged under the 2nd lievelopment Plan 1966/67-1970/7:.. It showls that the investment program f'or the main road links ("grands axes") totalled CFAF 11.2 billion. In addition, the Plan provided for investments of CFAF 2.2 billion in roads of regional interest, and of another CFAF 2.2 billion for other roads, including feeder roads. Total p:Lanned investments in roads under the second Plan thus amounted to CFAF ].5.6 billion. - 12 *

2.28 According to the inforiation r eceived from the Government, out of this planned total of CFAF 15.6 billion only projects totalling CFAF 7.5 billion. or slightlv less than 50% of nlanned investment. have been actually carried out up to 19659/70. i.e. during the first four years of the Plan, of which CFAF 2.7 hillion finanpre on rarmnronnian funds and h.8 billion on external lending. The projects completed during this npriod tif th -rt.rnql are 1is bel ow:

-. ou.eo Arnnm.ont f fn-t-a- cn finance financing


Paving of Douala-Tiko road FAC 993 Benoue-I.Lver b-i'Ldge X 395U Paving oi Waza-Maltamn road Germany 1,543 4_.rU4 _ur_.L -J'u± L-'Iu-IA- d .Al Construction of Iignere-Kontcha road FED about 650 UorLsJ ,u;a.on1o1 iuabai-Dafeang road 7)9 Akonolinga bridge Canada 200 Construction equi.pment for -PIamfe road USAID 665

TOTAL 4,841

The Camreroonian financing of CFAF 2.7 billion covered the local contributions to the above projects and a number of sialler projects completely finamced on. domestic funds.

2.29 Work on the following major projects has started or will start before the end of the current Developrne:it Plan period:

Source of Approximate amount Status of Project finance of foreign finance Project (, FAF million) Reconstnuction of Bolifamba-Banga Road F 700 Wlork started end 1969 Reconstruction of Tiko-V:Lctoria Road IBRD/IIDA 850 Loan/credit agreements silpned5 pre-qualification of contractora underway Reconstruction of Ngaoundere- Garoua Road IBRD/II)A 3,6600 -ditto -

Total 5,150 2If30 ITIngt iVr+ accot the eendi vures on the -4uove p ect up to mid-1971, it can be expected that about 6056 of the total road invest-

___+3VJ4s jJJ.C.fl,Upl:-a .tfl'4Snde vhe** 2nd%A4j .5 J. -LJ 'JLtL..L-P1JillI hfLaw v SJW~flJ - ca-o+-.-been4 U ~A tJW U bg-LJ the Ult. endlI of the Plan period.. Delays in plan fulfillment have been due to a number or reasonso: L.Lr-0 tj, thereL- hlvte beenj t'he ima" dluy;swz ir Ull,e preparatLion of studies., financing negotiations, selection of contractors, etc. Second,

4.L. L ______1_ __o1__n ULe: iup priority gi.ven to the constru;udo;i o0 tne iranscameroun 1-d..L_LVy and the higher than expected cost of this project (see Chapter I10 heavily colzriuiea the resources OI tne tlO main Lenders for Lnira91IrucUvre projects in Cameroon, FED and FAC. Under these circumstances the two agenc-ies wjere not in a position to provid s financing ior as many road projects, and as quickly, as they had ori,inally planned to do. 2.31 i'Io definite decisions have as y3t been made w%ith regard to the road projects that will be included in the third Development Plan (l971/72-1975/76). However, on the basis of discussions with Government off-icials, a preliminary list of major projects that will probably be included, can be drawn up. The folloi;.'ing, table describes these projects their total cost, probable source of finaicing, present status, and the priority rating- given to them by the nission (see pages 13 and 1h). 2.32 Priority I had been attributed to projects that have been considered by different Bank road missions to Cameroon and for which preliminar,r analysis showed that they are a priori economically wlell justified. The Bank' s appraisal n.ssion in 1969 for the first highway project fouind that the Geroua-iIora road warranted a feasibility study to identify the sections that should 'be :ipproved and to establish the optimum tendency of construction. The Banga-Kumba,Douala-Pont du Mkam and Pont dch MZoun-Foumban identified by a mission from the Bank's Per- manent Mission in W1estern Afri^a (P-,TA); estimated rates of retu?l' for these projects are between 12'iO and 15J. The PFITHA mission also recommended the Bamenda-Bafoussam and Yaounde-Bafouss-am roads as hav:in, high priority on the bas:is of the information prese:ntly available. The total cost of the projects in the priority I categorvr would be about CFAF 10 billion.

2.33 Priority IT has been attributed to those road proiects which esither do not appear just-ified at this stage or whose justification can only be assessed a:fter fiurIther studi es have heen andertaken. As for the Bamenda- iianfe road, the 1969 PiMiUA mission found that the local improvements presently being, carried out by the TIPW of W.-,est rA .:ernnn are smiffiritent for present and foreseeable future traffic volumes. This mission also felt that only local improvements,; but not totz-l re-onstruc-tion, wjere inctifimd On the Nelon-Dschiang road. The justification of the two roads in North Cameroon. ~Tr%?-,-n f%v~,~.iTir hn iiA * fWSt'o +.hc. f' n-A ili +:tr I_ ra WXaza, ar,d M'ap.-arda _L-no.,r I< owl, be_dSdonc h vaiil studies presently underway or to be carried out have shown more clearly .ha+at thie future pattern, of trff fo n +his area is likely to be. The econoric studies to be undertaken on the Douala-Yaounde railwjay realignment will analyse the prcblerm of transport capacity in this link as a whole (see paras. 3.04 and 3.16) and should shed more light on the feasibility of inmproving the Douala--Edea and Edea-Yaounde roads. The need for improving the Edea-, 'Yaounde-Kribi, M'lbalmayo-Sangmelima and Bertoua- roads can only be assessed after it has been decided which solution w:ill be adonted for thie avacuation of timber from Sofith- East Caineroon (see Volurie III on forestry). The above ccrrnients thus imply that some of the Priority II -pro-jects could be shifted into Priority I during the next five years once more inEormation on their feasibility has become available, i..i st of hic-hway iDrcjec t,s prcbabl-.r t-o be included in 3rd Develo-ment Plan1 9T ` - 1(7 °/)

F x ject road '\Nature of Estimal-lted Present Works total cost status (million OFAF)

Garoua-]'lora Implrovement; 2,u00 Feasibility and engineering possibly paving studies inc:luded in Bank' s First Highway Project

Mora-Waza Improvement; possibly paving 900 Engineering studies completed 90-i

Magada-Yagoua-Bongor Improvement 1,200 Feasibility studies underway, financed by- IJSAIDT

Bafoussam-Mbouda- Revisions of detailed Bamenda Paving 1,200 engineering being completed by 'DPW

Bamenda- Improvement 800 DPW of West Cameroon is carrying out local improvements

Banga-Kumba Reconstruction 600 Studies to be initiated -

onliia-Nkongsamba- Reconst:ruction 1,800 Feasibility and engineering Pc-nt dui Nkam studies included in Bank's First Highway Project - 1 -

Dro4ect road iNature of' Estimated Present Work total cos,t status (million CFAF)

Pont du Noun- Improvement; 700 Stud:ies to be initiated Fou-.ban probably paving

.Douala-Edea Strengthening of' 700 Studies to be initiated Pavement

Edea-Kribi Improvement 700 Studies to be initiated

Melong-Dschang Improvement 4oG Italian contracter financing of studies and construction under discussion

*Bertoua-Batouri Improvemrent 1,6o0 Studies to be initiated

.-Sangmelima Strengthening of pavement 1,200 Stud:ies to be initiated

Yaounde-Bafoussam Improvement; 3-4 ,000 Studies to be initiated pos sibly paving

Yaound6-Edea II flI 1,800 it ft ti it

Yaounjde-Kibi :; ;i ?Italian contractor financing Df studies and construction -under discussion - .L


1 ) Genera n 01 Tl (hCamerou nuin ra;lT iwaI nNr+.Twrk presently.17r orrnsist of' R8Q l-rn ofe railway route. There are two main lines originating at Douala: (i) the norte .. ±Ii toUNkongsmbaT%ln (170I ) w t4,i a branch fr LOr.. r 1e' ViL4rFaNI (29 Iam) in lWest Cameroon; and (ii) t;he central line to Yaounde (308 km), -wI44 Cw--as recent-l.y, e:-tendced to Be'^.L;o (293i ha)) -wih44r<.h rr, tee at km 240, to "balmayo (37 km).

3.02 The construction of this railway system was started before the Frs',± L dVUL±uVVUr dIUand ILeo,le±(Uted -up toU[ua ad Eska. TIhi continua- tion of the central 'line to Yaounde and. the construction of the branch from Otele to i1balmayo were carried out in the 1920s. The branch line from M4banga to Kumba as well as the extension. from Yaounde to Belabo, the first section of the Transcameroon railway from Yaounde to Mgaoundere, were built during 196)4-1969 and opened to traffic in April 1969.

3.03 The railway system is Government-owned and is operated by the Regie des Chemins de fer du Cameroun (Regifercam), a semi-autonomous public agency. The Regie is administered Iy a Board of fourteen members, with the Minister of Transport as Chairman. Day-to-day management of the Regie is the responsibility of a General Manager appointed by presidential decree. Regifercam is still largely run by expatriates. In 1969, there were 11 French technical asEistants employed by the Regie, including the General Manager and his Deputy and all Department heads.

3.04 W4hile the Regifercam is responsible for the operation of the existing railway system, including the mairntenance of and investments in its infrastructure and rolling stock, the extension of the railway from Yaounde to Ngaoundere (Transcaneroon railway) has been the responsibility of the Office du Che:min de fer du Transcamerounais (OCFT). The OCFT was set up in 1961 as a public agency charp:ed trith the execution of the engineering and the supervision of -the construction of the Transcameroon railway as well as with administering the iinancing of this project. The Office is headed by a Board chaired by the Minister of Public liorks of East Camerocn and consisting of four ot;her Government representatives and. the General PManager of Regifercam. OCFT haLs 17 European staff, including its director. all paid on French technical assistance funds.

3.05 The decision to build the Transcimeroon railway was taken in 1961 when agreement with FAC, FED and the IISAID on the financing of the first section from Yaounde to Belabo WaLrs reached. The same solirces, together with a Cameroonian participation, also assure the financing of the sRennd sec-tion friom Blnhn to ?Tgaonrider-e; inst.riintion started recently, and the line is expected to be completed by early 1974. Table 7 gives details ofe +the +t +.nlnd the .:inancing ofr the Trannscaeroon railway.

3.06 The justification of the Transcaieroon railway had been studied by opportunAitycons 'tan; tobrif..L prior to rLeviUthe L fiac:gng-itons.theZI eLonoLI mi J stU oLn. tIIThe BeLLabm-ssizon g aUla' ndereh opportunity to brief'ly review the economic study on the Belabo-INgaounderE! - 18 -

sert.inn; nrPnqrPA in I96COE which seeks t7) demonstrate that the railwav solution is preferable to road construct:ion. However, the analysis is based orn cost estimates for the railw7ay "hichhave been exceeded by over 65 percent under the actual constru tion project now under way; road cost estimates are still in lirn. h present prices If the actual coSt of the railway construct:ion is substituted in the consul- 4 1 t-n -eaI no ine .,+4 7hCYi. fingw --- ,VJlfl+,^- on - -lf. +1 nfl csts J7 a ELvEu.L o J7,>Xuna1Pv - - v4 - -v and future traffic unchanged, it can be shown that the decision to construct thle second -eto-th:--. of .,e Tran;c3cameroon raila a o been '~U±~ ulU.UUU1~ ;i~l,u 01__ :ULWU UJ. UlL~ iL .LUd.LLwI.L~1 1±d.O IL%Ju & L the most economic choice.

2. Infrastructure

3.07 All lines of the Cameroon raiLTay system are meter-gauge and single trackc except for a 3.5) Km - scctLJfnl outside ocuala wrichi iS double. flhile the recent additions to tie network, i.e. the Ilbanga- Kumba branch and the Transcameroon iine, have been built to modern standards,, with maximum grades of 1.;25%, 500 m minimum radius curves and 600 m long crossing stations, most of thl old parts of the system present very difficult operating conditions. This reflects the fact that the old system was designed over 50 years ago as a means of penetrating into the i.nterior of the country, and constructed with the limited technical equipment available at that time. In addition, the terrain is very diffJcult on large sections of -the ;iorthern and central lines. Between Loum and NIkongsamba (54 km) on t'he northern line curves have minimum radii of 120 m and maximum grades are as high as 2.1,J; on the central line the situation is similarly -ritical on the section between Eseka and Yaounde (curves ranging from 15,0-300 m radius and 1.65' maxirnum grades).

3.08 The poor alignment of the trackc, apart from accounting for high operating costs, has led to excessiJe wear of the track which is still partly laid in old German rails of 26 kg/m and 27.8 kg/m and which is now dangerously worm in the curves. Renewal of large parts of the track particularly on the centraL line is an urgent necessity to avoid a fuLrther de!terioration of operating conditions, and. ultimately., the complete breakdown of the line. The railway project that was recentlv nezotiated between the Bank and Regifercam provides for the relaying of 52.5 km of track with 36 kg/rn rail on the sections where the situation is most critical. A further 90 kn will have to be relayed within the next five years. Conditions are somewhat less critical on the northern line which carries substantlally lower traffic volumes (see table 9).

3.09 While track renewal will solve sane of the most urgent problEms of the line, Regifercam and -the -overmet feel that a long-tear. solution has to be sought. Their objective is to provide the central 4 l J I, -i +,cn f--n), niI1 , ,n-A V., ,- ,vAr - r - 4- , - on 1-4 44,. - ~, - 4 -,.nIv, 1b nV, C~+ r14 q,n tics as the Transcameroon line, and ';he UCFT, upon the request of the i-ove Fin4, 'as soarftese stiudies ispr fiedora real govment ment.t Ihile line. Firiancing of these studies is pro-rided by the Governument. 14hi1cz - 19 -

suchi a realignLnuent.woIuaLId doUbLUUU IJtLLly be~. dsirbleLc,.al lts economic justification will have to be stu.died very carefully. Recon- struction of the line wLLJ, be very costly in view of t1he U±±±±-LU±Lt terrain, and preliminary investigations shiow that a complete realignment would probably be only marginally justified, whereas selected improve- ments of the track together with certain technical improvements of traffic operations, more appropriate rolling stock etc. may be feasiDie. The Bank will provide financing for economic studies of the proposed realignment under the above raillway project.

3.10 The Regifercam's motive power arLd rolling stock as of June 30, 1969, are shown in Table 8 which aLlso gives the age of the equipment. The locomotive fleet has been fully dieselized since 1955, but above two thirds of locomotives are under-powered anLd will have to be replaced. IfJhile the passenger car fleet is adequate, additional and more appro- priate freight cars, particularly for timber transport, are required. The Regie uill substantially modernizez its; rolling stock during the next. 3 years with financial assistance mainly irom FED and the Caisse Centrale, and from the Bank which will finance the purchase of 185 freight cars under its railway loan (see para 3.08).

3, Traffic

3.11 The Cameroon railways preserntly carry about 1 million tons of freight and about 1.5 million passengebrs per year. Table 9 summarizes traffic volumes during the last five years up to 1968/69. It shows that., expressed in ton-km and passenger-km, respectively, total freight traffic has growin at a rate of about 4.5% and total passenger traffic at about 6%, per annum during that period. These average figures hide the fact, however, that growth patterns on the central and northern lines differ considerably. In fact, freight traffic orn the northern line has decreased by about 18W-. during the peri.od considered partlv feii to the slump in banana production and partly due to a loss of traffic to roads. Passenger traffic has grown only q% in five years. Overall traffic in 1969/70 has risen sharply, obviously due 1to the opening of the first section of the Transcameroon line. St.atistics for the first. seven months of 1.969/70 show an increase of 19%, for passenger traffic compared to. t.h sameTnprid f 1968/69; the inrrease in frigh+. t.rnaffies aqqhonit. 12%.f

3.12 Timber transport represents more than one quarter of total tonnages halrlIed bhy th.e Regie (979,0nor)+n, _r. ioAR/Ao). Total t.-raf'f'icr of the aluminium plant at Edea (Alucam) Was 171,000 tons in 1968/69. Othermporarltprodcts re fel, oc:o, costruction .aer Is and general consumer goods. Table 10 shows the main commodities transported b- thle kCameroons raLlways.Y0

3-.13 Freight traffic prospects for egifercalml in the niext several years are very good.. According to Regifer'cam's forecast, which is largely based on projections prepared by consultants presently working for the Port Authority, traffic is expected to increase from 982,000 - 20 -

uons i1n ±J1968 7 Uo 2,03V,0VU 00ULI tLs ±11 1fU/ I , or a an average rate of over 9% per annum. Table 11, taken frc,m the appraisal report on the Danklts raJ way proJect (XtBepor0r Nio. n- , gi-ves deta 0±of ue fore- cast for each commodity. The bulk of the increase will occur in timber traffic (about 70%J oI the total system increase) wnicn is expected to grow from a present level of about 270,000 tons per year to nearly 1 million tons. Tne rates of traffic grcwth in other commodities corres- pond more or less to the expected growth ir GDP. WXhile the forecast increase in timber traffic is in line with the objectives of the Forestry Department of East Cameroon and with the production plans of the logging companies, its actual evolution wixLl necesEarily depend on the solution of the timber handling problem in the pcort of Douala. As described else- where (see chapter IV and volume III on forestry) this problem is under active consideration.

3.14 Traffic increase in terms of ton-km would be even more impressive than the expected increase in tcnnages since the new sources of production (mainly timber from East CamEroon) involve very large hauls. Ton-km are expected to increase from 257 million in 1969/70 to about 795 million by 1976/77, a threefold increase due to a more than doubling of the network length and a near doubling of the average length of haul to about 400 km. Passenger-km are conServatively estimated to almost double during the 1968/69 - 67/77 period.

4. Tariffs

3.15 RLegifercam's rates and fares have to be approved by the Mirnister of Transport. Present tariffs vary considerably between commodities and appear to have been based on a variety of considerations, such as operating costs, the value of the commoditv. :Loading characteristics, competition from other modes of transport etc. The baEic rate is generally calculated on a km basis un to 308 kim. the distsnce b1etween Douala and Yaounde; and a taper is applied beyond this distance to encourage the use of the new line to Belabo. There is a multitude of snecial tariffs Lor certain products and for given distances (e.g. Yaotnde-Douala; Belabo-Douala).

3.16 Generally, tariffs are fairly hig;h on the Douala-Yaounde stretch. .Some rt.p un to.n MFPAR 1h.50n npr +.on-_.kT r for imnnrtedA drinks, or CFAF 14 for petroleum products in tank wagons. On this section, the Regie obviously profits from the protection from road com.petition - no trucks over 5 tons are permitted on the Tdea-Yaour!de road, which in addition, is -inpr shaV pe ar.d ha e4l r Ynnin+.n,iArl - and are generally"ar 1 h+ orV -.Twell above the average full cost per ton.-km which is estimated at about CFAF 9 n on thi s sec^+i o-n TJuAng fro., .t, -rates -- e tly charged by t--ruke on .j_ U±LL- Sit -JAJUU v UUL5 LI-6 L. SI U VSUU~ L.a.vrz.,. P.A L&~L tf.a 'L -J. a- -,L, -i the Belabo-Garoua route, road transport could probably successfully compete wit4th 4 ,e -partic1 'arl -where VVLUJ. U 11±L~4 ra4l-aC4.±w..U yY. on'J11 theUE±±' ijJUDoua'la-'Taounde L ±ci0 UL -LU route,.0UA--j IJCL.L U k".. L...dLY...).L1~in %.CD-Qcae V one or even two road/rail transshipments could be avoided in the case of transportlu by, trluck. TheiiU t0ULU1WILLU LsUUUi.e to be LcarriedoLu i11 orncion with Douala-Yaounde realignment project. (see para 3.09) will look into the relative eCUoIUmic merits of roadI and rill transpor on tli-s link. ) ±(Ia- .JA.)± tuU1L le 1 L)eJ_cJUV .... Ldc_ 11±cZ.4L dLJ. U GU1VZ:,±d L..1- .LJYLVJ j.O.-.L UJLU LhLJ for timber for which tariffs between CFA 3.83 and 5.00 per ton Im are

.- - _ .1 I ,- - , n ,- _ _- _ _ . T - ..__,_____n__sD_~>_.__ chrEarged, which1Q;l WuAld IoIre' or less ces;U.I_djJUU to maI-V,"1L ostu. *reUgife.rc argue that, these rates have been set in order to encourage logging operations in East Cameroon.

3 .i8 A critical analysis of these tariffs is difficult at this stage since the Regie has no cost accounting s;stem which would allow to determine the costs of railway transport by commodity and line. The overall level of rates can be considerecl adequate since railway revenue is sufficient to assure Regifercam's financial viability (see fol-lowing chapter). This does not mean, however, -;hat all the various rates are justified individually nor that rail tranlsport of each single zommodity is profitable or economically justif:ied. Regifercam has committed itself in the loar. agreement for the recent Bank railway project to study this problemt and to introduc3 a salmisfactory cost accounting system by mid-197'1.

5. Financial performance of Begifercam

3.19 The Regie has financial autonony, with powers to amend tariffs, to raise loans and borrow by bank overdrcft, to approve budgets and incur expenditure on revenue and capital accournt. It is held by its statutes to maintain financial viability, primarily by effecting economies and only thereafter by increasing tariffs.

3.20 Table 12 shows the income accoLnt of the Regie for the past six years. Revenue from freight traf'fic has increased at an average rate of 4 3/4 percsnt per annum during this period. Passenger revenues have risen faster. at about 9 nercent ner annum repfMcting the in passenger-km and an overall increase in fares of 10 percent in 1968. Therefhass hbeen no increase in freight rates. The operating ratio dlring the six-year period up to 1968/69 averaged &4 percent and the return on the net value of tlhe fixed assets was about 5 nercent. Tn sulmnarvy revenues and expenses have evolved as follows:

Operating JDpera _tin Opeat;-tet rai - pr+> Intelrest- et revenue expenses (in c) revenue charges Income

(in mi.lioa CFAF)

1963/64 1.674 1.447 86.h 227 - 227 1964S.15 1.891r)l 1. r96 79. 1.1395 O20 v7 r 1965/66 1.946 1.639 84.2 307 27 28(

±7Uu/ kI O .C .L. .f±IrU U).1.) ))U CO _)1A 1967/68 2.193 1.755 80.0 438 22 416 1968I'69 2.313 2.104 91.0 209 29 180; - 22 -

summarized as follows:

CFAiF g of funds m,illion applied

Sour_ce ofna1- ,s

Cash generation from-n operations 3,465 40.t4

Cash balances `77 7.9

Development grants 2,244 26.2

Long-term borrowing 2,134 24.9

Cash deficit of end of period, met b;r BaLk overdraft 49 .6

Total funds available 8,569 100.0

Application of funds

Working capital 71 .8

Investment: 622 7.3

Existing lines 4,039 47.1 Transcameroon extension 2,835 33.1 llbanga-Kumba extension 1,002 11.7

Total funds applied 8,569 100.0

3.22 'rhe above figures show a vigorous cash generation from the operations of the Regie which has been sufficient to meet debt service and working capital requirements and provide a substantial contribution to investment. The liquidity position of Regifercam has, however, deteriorated critically during the last years due to a lack of financial planning and the excessive commitment of the Reegie's omwn resources to ancillary works connected with line extersions and to the purchase of wagons and equipment which could well. have been financed by external borrowzing had time:ly action been taken tc this end. vl1hile this fault has now been corrected. financial nroiections indicate that the present bank overdraft of CFAF 49 million may evEn increase to about CFAF 180 million in 1970/71 and that a satisfactonr liquiid positinon may not hb regained until 1971/72.

3.23 In the long run, however, Regifercam's financial situation can

December 1969 appraisal mission for the railway project shows that, as - 23 from 1972/72 onward, the Regie's cash flow will be satisfactory - sufficient to cover debt service, working capital requirements and to contribute substantially to investments on the existing lines (the Transcameroon extension being financed on external lending). The financial return on the Regie's assets which will be increased by about 13CF5 once the Transcameroon line -s completed and its cost is incorporated in the balance sheet of the Regie, will drop to an average of about 4,J assuning that rates are maintained at their present level.

3.24 WThile the above statements are valid for Regifercam as a wihole. they do not necessarily mean that the various lines of the system are also financially viable in themselves. 'L.egifercam does not have a cist aeeounting system which would nprmit a separate analysis; e.g. of the financial results of the central and northern lines, or of' the XKmba. or Mhnalmayo branh lines. Pr-ma fnnip it would appear rinoht- ful, for example, whether the northern line to Nkongsamba, which has experienced a steadyr decrease intraffic9 in --re-nt. years (15,000 ten-. in 1968/69) is financially and economicaLlly profitable and whether it woTmlrll no*beprf'ral to~sitch-r trlmff. or. +hisz linkto the- in parallel paved road whose improvement is under consideration (see table pages 13 nA 111) nrnm w.- + ho1ldA +truie %vi+f-Io th.V%orlca- Kumba branch line which was constructed without any prior economic or financial studies. The cost acco,1;ing, sn. +o be introduced by Regifercam (see para. 3.18) will permit to analyze this problem in

-_r4 6. Inveauirtenus ur-ing 2r,d and 3>rd I)eve. P.-O1Jlans

3 .25 UlvestRents for the Cameroon railways foreseen in the Govern- ment's second Development Plan totalled CF4F 18.4 billion, including CFAF i3.3 billion for works on the firs1; and second sections of the Transcameroon line, CFAF 4.5 billion for investments in Regifercam's existing system, and the completion of i;he 1Mboanga-Kumba branch. According to Regifercam, this amount will be exceeded by about CFAF 2.4 billion, taking into account the invrestments completed up to iWiovenber 1969 and those for which financing has been or is being assured up to June 30, 1971. The overrun is mainly due to the cost of the first section of Transcameroon line which was higher 1;han anticipated, and to higher expenditures for rolling stock of the Eogie.

3.26. Regifercam has also prepared a draft investment plan for inclusion in the country's Third Development Plan, 1971/72 - 1975/76. This plan, which is reproduced in Table 13, contains three main items:

- completion of the Transcameroon extension;

- investments in rolling stoc]c, equipment, and track renewal;

- realignment of the Douala-Yaounde line and construc- tion of new lines. .; 24 -

Total pllaned -nve3Sr.ent 4 CF'-AF 1.1 I i4-,- o,sf ,,1c- +1hthe i .iil A finance CFAF 5.1 billion whereas CFAF 36 'illion would have to be provided br external sources.

3 .27f 'VALL±e th-L. pJla as preIJpd.-ed by thI se stL'. has to be approved by the Government and it is rnot yet certain whether it will b)e 1- retainedU_ _ - -1 1i1Z Lts_ present- _ _- 1ni,Mt - __ thIe1 LLo.LLLWLign_n _ _ cwRnrien1U_ 1_ _ WUUlU, appearU to be in order:

(a) Financing for the Transcamneroon extension has been arranged and construction is under way. Though one may question the economic merits of this investment its execution has to be accepted as a fact.

(b) The investment program. prcposed in order to improve the Regie's existing n.etwcrk, rolling stock, equip- ment and installations haE been found justified by the recent Bank appraisal mission. Part of this program will be financed tnder the proposed $5.2 million Bank loan to Regifercam. It appears probably that external. firtancing required for the remainder of this program can be obtained from Regifercam's traditional lenders, i.e. FAC, CCCE, FED and, more recently, the Bank;

(c) The situation is diffferent with regard to the three items comprised under Chapter III of Regifercam's proposed investment program:

(i) while it may be wise loo make provision for the financing of some improvement works on the Douala-Yaounde section, the amount of investments reouired and financially and economically just-ified, as well as the appropriate timing of these investments, can only be decided upon once the studies on this prolect (see iara. 3.09) have been completed. It appear;s doubtful at this stage that a large scale realienment of this section within the ne:ct five years could be iustified. but that v-robabl the most economical approach would consist of selected impnnrvmpnt spred o:rer a fairly longr nprioo of time.

(ii) The Yaounde-Yokcadouma line has been recommended byr the regionarl t.ransoTir ,uf'oqfiSothern. Cameroon and CAR (see para. 1.05). The revised condis pns' reponlben revier.wred ineBanl. and is presently 'being-reviewed within the Bank. Preliminary conclusicns reached so far indicate that the construction of this line cannot be lustified for the ti.e being.

(iii) No studies, ne]ther techniral nor economic; have so far been undertaken on the Douala-Victoria rail link Th it.f-irnt;cn, fr,r th rnnt.rirr.t.icn of this line put forward by the R.egie is that, in the short rn, it would represent nn additional trans- port link between Wlest Cameroon and the port of Douala, that, ln t1he lone. "IV) +.Icnsruto of a deep sea port in the Victoria region is

*.Ja voiabe ct±. vaj , and+at +heuUSL prser.tU railwayJ system has to be liniked to the new port site.

Both ar n 1UCL dUareLUI harLLy LconI VJcingLLU uiat stage. As described elsewhere (see para. 2 .29 .-nd 9o3) imroe01et of th-e roal link- between ,~LU 'L.)- ,±IjJ .I~L ~ U U±i LU U .L.L L±A Li u ;Zu ll~J Douala and Victoria are about to start or are -aIIJ-r s tudUy. The JJIir±UVeU road ±-lirA Wo'LLU Ube able to carry the traffic volumes foreseeable in theuDureM ld oe.e -,,ou-ld- seem, to he no justification for doubling the road by a rail-way line at the present time * As for the long-term argument, the studies on the Douala- victoria port problem will not be compieted before 1971 (see para 4.19), but it appears improbablc at this s-tage that the consultants will recommend the construction of a new port at Victoria in the near future. Provisions for financing of this link cannot, therefore, be justified in the third Development Plan. - .26 -


1. Existina Tnfraqtrnctirre

)Irl There- aren at npresent, fourr s+-t peaedprts in G'qn-qronnn as well as two small private ports. The port of Douala is by far the rcz -iYnnnwtn+. *mnnc - ;rni+i+. h rlln rlo R7 rsc-'or)+. r-f' nnr.+. +v'af-f'ic in the period 1966-68. The ports of Tiko and Victoria in West Cameroon haVe a shalre of aabout 7 percent, and Kri)i about 4 e r port, of Garoua on the river Benoue in North Cameroon had some seasonal export/4mport1 JjJL11JpJu: U 4ra"'fvICI-LL u "ntiUI.LU 4U 'L 'L 9567*J)[f/ *J* 1Iyt JLJ U ];a1ia sincesLi1L. not beninoerto~4-J~1 -- _ U±4I4 due to the closure of the Benoue route. There is a private port in the r,ou0uh Uo U ie iLLUii.1 rlVerI _iu,ron,En UIUue orated bythe L.uMol Company, and anothker at Campo in Eas-t Cauneroon, close to the border with Eq-uatoiaLLL GLUinea; at is operaUted 1,y the ICafJpo Forest ComUp-Uany.

)4.02 Foliowing is a brief descr:Lption of the Cameroon ports

(i) The port of Douala is located in the estuary of the Wcuri river at Doualai, about 28 km from the open sea. It,is accessible through the Nourl river channel for ships with a maximum draught of 6.5 m at high tide. The length of qua:s at present is 1.668 m at Douala and 169 m at l3onaberi on the right bank of the Wouri river opposite Douala. There are 11 berths at Douala, one of whLch cannot be used, however, because of siltation, andl there is one berth at Bonaberi.

(ii) Tiko and Victoria in Wes-; Camercon are both relatively small ports. Tiko has a wharf of 150 m length; total quay length at Victoria, a lighterage port, is 60 m. There are only very f'ew ,,torage and handling facilities.

(iii) Kribi is a lighterage pov,t as well, with ships anchoring in the opern sea at about 2.5 km. Total quay length is 190 m..

(iv) The river port of GarouaL has one quay of 100 m and storage and handling fac:lities sufficient for the small seasonal traffic volumes it experienced up to 1965/66.

(v) The ports of Gannno and Ndlian have been created by private companies; iL--tallations are limited to handling timber and agrirrllturnl produce respentivelv - 2? -

2. Admini-stration

0 TMP.hefour niibli -o-rned ports ozf 'n meroon are admini stered and operated by the Directorate of Ports and Navigable Waterways which is part of the Minist.r of Transport, Po. tnrl TtIo-mmninietnirsi The Directoi- of the port administration is ap?ointed by presidential

Consultatiif) composed of representati-ves Df other Government agencies an-dL221 4prlvate J.vai~ cargoa1 I 11LIJ0A441,handling o,pnisJIl.0tJL6

4.04 L.LI Fport adUrI strJaUioLn.LLJ. is ,-esp,nsibLLe Lfor- UpteratUio, maintenance and development of the ports and their equipment and installatio;ns, for the m,aintenaunce, drcedging aind signalling of the access channels and for the cooperation with the various private cargo hand:ling co-nm-anies. While the direc tor OI the port is fairly- independenl; in his handling of day-to-day operations, he is under close administrative and financial control of t'ie Ministries of Transport and Finance in Yaounde on all major questions such as port tariffs and fees., the drafting of the budget, investment projects, etc. 'Transit sheds in the ports are owned by the administration and leased to the private stevedoring and trEmsit companies who carry out actual port operations. The timber yard is managed by a private company under a special agreement with the port administration.

4.05 'The port administration has its own budget, a so-called "budget annexe", which means mainly that bhe income of the port is not part of general government revenue but earmarked to cover current expenditures and debt service and to feed depreciation and reserve funds. Any surplus from port operations œill be credited to reserves; losses are covered by drawings on reserves or the general budget. The execution of the "budget annexe" does not differ from the budgetary procedures followed by all other aovernme:nt services. The port administration, therefore, has separate a.-counts but no financial autonomy. It cannot contract loans or make bank overdrafts.

3. Traffic and relative impoortance of the Cameroon Dorts

4.o6 Total traffic handled by then Caneroon ports during the last years was as follows:

Total port traffic ( nnEost

I9Q6 196I 1 QA7 1 Q96 19Q6Q

TD-ou~Ila 1,183 1 1I , 1 ,R38 1 53 1 52 Victoria-Tiko 180 134 96 105 ? tr-ib- 52) 60 60 75 80P Garoua 62 62 nil nil nil uampo ? 10U 15 _) ? 10 10 10 ?

TotaL 1,449 1,566 1,751 407 rFhke t+able ^learl -diate4s -'',at Doui'a is the- -J or of the country and that all others are of secondary importance only.

X.sAs slhoT".ou.W.jru Jn4sz J41,. +-afflv±~J ¼ a+.v JJ1JLL0.LT%-upla aLabcut LV %Adoubled .U.UW U between'A J VMKU12 '1904/-&7JW 0Land 1969, and traffic growth was particularly high during the last four of-L thLat perivod (13 percent pe.r duig 96-99) 'Dewerol1eum, yearsJ 1OL JJU .,) -J fP± .. ,± U Jjq:; OIJIJJUII UUJ.L J.J.Ls~ ~JS ~~j. 1 'VL L' products, cement, alumina, and fertilizerE are the main import proeuus, t;1mberJ., c off eUeUda coa te11 IdJUl- 524J±UUU kUUU.LUl details see table 15). Traffic projectior.s prepared in 1969 by the consultants carryinig out the Carneroon port studies (see para. 1h.19) indicate that traffic growth will continuE at a rapid pace (see table 16) anld that the limits of the port's uapacitwl DebW1 reachied Wi. L,.I n tieA very near future. Chapter 5 will deal. in more details with the problems of tne Douala port. 4.o8 Traffic at Tliko-Victoria has substantially decreased in tne last years. During 1963-65 traffic averaged about 170-180,000 tons per year, but it has now declined to an anmual level of about 100,000 tons. This decline would appear to be mainly due to the opening of the road between Douala and Tiko in 19166/67 which has attracted a large part of West Cameroon' s import/export traffic to Douala.

4.09 I'he growth of traffic at Kribi- Ls mainly due to timber exports which constitute about 60-70 percent of total traffic. Apart from timber, some cocoa (17,500 tons on average in recent years) and palm oil is exported through Kribi . Impo:-ts consist of cement and miscellaneous consumer goods. While it does not appear feasible to develop Kribi as a general cargo port, it may become more important for timber exports in the future. This possibility is related to the general problem of timber transport from ,outh East Camneroon which is dealt with in other parts of this report 'see volume III on forestry). 4.1o The port of Garoua is a special case insofar as its operation is limited to the three-montIh period of navigability of the Benoue river from mid-July to mid-October. TrafFic grew rapidly from 1960 (36,000 toIns) to a level of 61,500 tons d-aring the years 1964-66 (see table 17). Exports consisted of cotton from Chad and North Cameroon, imports mainly of fuel and cement. Shipping on the Benous-Niger route, which is in the hands of Nigerian based companies, is expected to pick up again next year. In the long run, however, it is doubtful whether this route will regain lthe importance it had prior to 1967. The Transcameroon route shou:Ld be cornpleted in 1974, and cotton exporters will probably find it more econornic to use this route, which will be open all year, to the Benoue route (cotton is harvested in November through March and thus has to be stored for un to seven months to use the Benoue river). Besides. a cement factory is beinc set up at Fizuil in North Cameroon. which will make imports of cement into the area redundant. Without apnropriate un-stream freight. however, rates on the Benoue would tend to go up. All these elements seem to imply a decreasing importance of river transport tn nnd from Carouai ir the future. 4.11 Of the two private ports, Camro may gain in importance if the f Ul4i..yU oIIi lncreasIJn, it.; UJAUUL IIUiJU±rLIJ;b Fnapa.i.y-car be- shown and appropriate inland transpcrt connections are created (see volume III on forestry). 4. Financial performance of the pcrt a.dministration 4.12 The financial results of the cperations of the four Cameroon r during 1965-68 are sb VaridU nIJ taUbl 1U. I UoLIUWs thait prUIu revenue, consisting of various port changes and fees, of income from the rental of bui:ldings and equipmen.t etc., has been suLficient to cover all current expenditure, debt service, investment and major repaLr3, anu wo leave a sizeable Suiplut eacri year. Surpluses ihave been credited to the reserve fund which totalled more than CFAF 500 million at the end of 1968. Operations at Douala and Tiko-Victoria have produced :most of the surplus whereas Kribi and Garoua have, on balance, been in deficit during this period.

4.13 On the face of the figures prEsented in table 18 port fees appear excessive. On the other hand, it- is very difficult to say what their proper leve:l should be. The port administration's costing and accounting system is inadequate so that it is impossible to determine the cost of the various port services fcr which fees are levied. Also, the value of the ports' fixed assets is not known precisely;, the appropriate level of depreciation allowances can, therefore, not -be assessed :nor can a financial return on port operations be calculated. The Bank's port appraisal mission recommends the financing of technical services to the port administration undEr the forthcoming first port project to establish an appropriate costing system and to review the question of port charges and fees.

4.14 Debt service results from French loans contracted by the port administration prior to indepen.dence; since then, there has been no foreign lending. Except for a major FED grant for a dredge and quay construction, all investments have been financed from the port administration's own resources. Total investments since 1966/67 have been of the order of CFAF 600 miLlion up to 1969 compared to a total of CFAP 1.6 billion planned under the second Develonment Plan. The decision about the projects to be financed under the third Plan. will largelyv depend on the rco.mmte-nridatiAonr of' the port qtndies nresentlv under way. - 30 - 5. The nroblems of the nort of Diuala and nossible short-term and long-term solutions

4.15 As mentioned earlier (see para. L.07), potential total traffic at Dlouala w:Lll contin-me to innrpase at a verv raniri rate. For 1971, a traffic volume of 2.2 million tons is forecast, and a leve_l _of 'A3_ …i_ rn +ons-n, .i I -Fyrlrled 19-TQ74i/75 nn- 5-6 mll…ion in 1985. Already in 1969, however, the Fort showed signs of congestion, and it is generally estimated that, in +t present conditlon, it will reach its capacity limit at a level of abcut 2 million tons, i.e. in

-s-,I1970)/71. f 'J I -* It-L is,4- ~thrfoe L~, lndispensable-,I-1U- pulIc U-LU UA findurgentLJ.IJALLI1U .J solutlon for the port's capacity problem.

4.16 The port of Douala is beset witl. a number of serious problems. Uirt,teUre is UIUh long and rela-i-%ve±-y bl±V-W access cllel through11 the estuary of the Wouri river which limits the size of the ships that can call aL Do-uu-'a to vesseis U.5 in draft at high tide. Second, present quay length is barely sufficient as is the space for handling and storage facilities since the port terrain is limited to a narrow stretch between the riverside and the city of Douala. Third, the organizaticn of port operations is unsati;factory. Customs procedures are slow, and there is excessive storage of goods in transit sheds. Finally, particular problems exist with respect to timber handling. Timber handling equipment and the methods presently used are inadequate for handling large tonnage of logs. Even though some improvements were introduced in 1969, such as a small :"loating timber yard to permit loading of ships from the waterside, and purchase of some modern timber handling equipment, timber handling capacity is still limited to about 360,000 tons per year compared to a planned export volume of ]. million tons by 1974/75.

4.17 WJhile the problems of the port of Douala have been foreseeable for a number of years, considerable time was lost before serious steps to find appropriate solutions were taken. It is convenient to distinguish between the long-term and the short-term aspects of the port problem. In the long run, there is no doubt that Cameroon will need an adequate international port capable of handling several million tons of traffic and of receiving large and specialized carriers that are being used increasingly by the international shipping companies. This means that either the port of Douala will have to be substantially imnproved, e.g. by intensive dredging of the Wouri channel and extension of quais, construction of additional handling and storage facilities etc., or that a new, more appropriate port site will have to be found.

-1 8 A stundyr on th;is nrn'hlm iq nrP!r.eetlyv uneder way h-ry n rench- German consulting group financed by the Covernment. The terms of reference for these studies, which started in 1969, were agreed upon between the Government and the Rank, and they provide for an - 31 - analysis by the consultants of all the techmical, organizational, financial and economic questions involved, as far as a new deep water port Esite is concerned, the stud-,es concentrated on the Victoria region in WAest Cameroon.

4.19 The port study will be completed by the end of 1971. Preliminary conclusions reached so far ind:Lcate that the most economic solution wi]l probably be to continue deve:Loping Douala as Cameroon's main general cargo port. It appears thlat :Douala port can be sufficiently improved by intensive dredging, construction of additional quais at Doua]a and/or Bonaberi. anel other imnroveTnmnts;. t' serve the countrv's needs for a long time to come. Port constructioa near or at Victoria would be verv cos5tly; spa-e for port. fa'ijit e is scarce berause of the mountainous terrain, and costly new transpDrt links would have to be created. TMe construmction of a new deep wAzter port +here counld prohah1v only be envid9aged in case, e.g. Cameroon's bauxite deposits in the North (near Ngaoun.dere) were elie on a large scle or fo +e bulk commod:ities.

4.20 Once the consultants' studies are completed, and assuming +V-++a theyk w- ll reco-,minaend acniig,fe-Jlblesouinfrte '.I~a. V VLL~j LV.L.L.LJ 1. ILIiU 0. '..LJQiV±UU±II , ~ AJ.LL time will be needed for additional studies (detailed engineering), fJ.1idIJnn.LJn, nitiatL U. U±jijo ad.lU ctUUIjructULon. J. IILO is 1iC tL.,dedU at Lh,least another four to five years will elapse before considerable additional porU D capaci y W Uf .U Vdl±dUlt 4 41 .I1.A UJWI-U1JLLL1 jJo s iU, country will have to rely on its present infrastructure, and short- term measures, thereiore, have to oe taKer to increase the Uapauity- of the existing ports so as to be able to accommodate the country's growing international trade.

4.21 A number of such short-term meaE ures are being actively considered. An appraisal mission visited Douala in May 1970 and recommends the following items for financing by the Association:

(a) construction of a new quay at Bonaberi which will mainly serve the new industrial plants being set up there;

(b) improvement and expansion oi' timber handling facilities

(c) a study on a possible aJlterlnative site for timber handling close to Douala; -;his alternative solution would consist of unloadiLng ;imber from the railway at Japoma (25 km from Douala), floating timber or shipping it by barge on the Dibamba river to the bay cf Manoka where it could be loaded on ships.

Another project, financed by the port administration itself and which started in mid 1970, is the construction of a mooring dolphin for petroleum tankers in the harbor basin witl a sea line to connect with the port. 4.22 These measures, together with certain administrative and organizational improvements, should substantially alleviate the present situation until a long-term solut:Lon can be implemented. V. CIVIL AVI'ATICIN

1. General

5.ol In the Government's overall transport planning the role o.L ci-VVL-a-ViLation L is ±li.LJ L'ed tA) 3rapid cor..ections 'Vor long-distance inland passenger traffic and for a small volume of high Va.lue goods. IThe bulk of the tran-spvort of goods ar.d people is, however, assured by road and rail.

5.02 Cameroon has one international ai.rport at Douala capable cof recoiving planes of the DC-8 type. Caravrelles can land on the airports oi aounde and Garoua which are eqLuipped with paved runways and the necessary technical installations. Small airports exist at , Yagcua, Foumrban, Tiko, Kribi and Butouri. Table 19 shows total traffic volumes at the Cameroon airports during 1967-69.

5.03 Dcuala, which beside Lagos is the most important airport on the West African coast, has regular flight connections with Europe and other Af'rican countries. Internal air transport is assured by Air Afrique, the international company, has regular jet and DC-4 flight between Douala and Yaounde., andl on the Douala-Fort Lamy (Chad) route, and Air Cameroon, which competes with Air Afrique on these connections and also serves the o'iher airports inside Cameroon. Another small company, Cameroon Air Transport, operated in West Cameroon until recently but is now in liquidation.

5.o4 Air Cameroon is a private corapanvr. Most of its shares are owned by French private interests, and a small minority are being held by Cameroonian nationals. The company was reluctant to give informa- tion on its financial situation but indica_ed that present revenue was sufficient to cover current expenditurl3s, excluding major renewals, and that profits are negligible. Air Came-:oon are not planning any investments in new aircraft at the present time. 5.05 The Government appears to be decided to increase Governmentis interest in Air Cameroon. No details of the Government's plan are knoown so far.

2. Administration

5.o6 ALl administrative and policy matters concerning air transport are handled by the Department of Civil Aviation in the Ministry of Transport, Post and Teleco=muLications. The management and maintenance of the airports and their technical installations is the responsibility of the ASECNA (Agence pour la Securite de la Navigation Aeriermne en Afrique et 8 Madagascar), and internationl public agency created in 1959 under the sponsorship of by the former F?rench-African colonies (except Guinea) and Madagascar.

5.07 A'SENCA, whose headquarters are ili Paris, is a non-profit organization. Its original task was to assure the security of internationaL flight;s to and from the capitals of the former French colonial countries. Besides, it has agreed to manage national airport installations in these countries as we:Ll. ASECNA's two functions are clearly separated in the accounts of their agency. Its "international" operations. i.e. the! managements of the international airnorts. are financed through a Joint fund (Fonds Commui) fed by French budgetary t subventions (Nf3 percent) - the agnrv s nwno receipts (overflight. chnrges and part of the landing fees, amounting to about 40 percent of the fund), :nd by the epmber countries- The tota! AS);r.T\TA budget uinder +he "Fpnds Commun" is of the order of CFAF 5 billion at present. The management of national airports in the different member countries is financed on a national basis. I'he ASECNA budget in Camieroon amounts to about 350 million at present, financed partly by Frelch grants, o.. receipts of ASECNA (landing fees and airport taxes') anid a Cameroonian budget con+tri bu+ti; o r.-

3. Ir;v4strPe.n s

5J.08U InJvestm4~I1ent% for ciVJ4 a-v-atio1n e.L-UiLLUCU U±ll second,he Development Plan totalled CFAF 2.2 billion of which about CFAF 1 billion h1as b:een im,ip±ennentedUeJ uy edIIU 19U. * Lite 11LIr,1 jJcUjtsU UCL.L-UU UUt r the Lil construction of paved airstrips at Yaoumde and Garoua and the construction of a rnew airport b-uilding at 'Yao-unde. ThUough none of these projects4-as preceeded by economic feasibility studies -;hey can generally be con- "zuereuas s;ounu. 5.09 P major project is about to start at Douala where a new terminal building as well as new sto:rage and repair facilities .and teP>rnicGa1 instnllationns Till 'h set -ti Pt a tn1l cost of CFI,F 2.2 billion. Financing is provided by FgC (grant of CFAF 1-1 billion)- the Cnnmteron hivlop. (PFPF 2Db millinn) qnri a Innn of CF/ F 900 million raised by AS-CMA from Cameroon banks and to be rem..burse out of -the agency's v'egrna rev'nu frori,m ai rpor+. taxes= The project, which will start this year, appears justified in groving traffic at Douala (see table 19). Other projects to be -;,r.n A-A ;4-., + e 4--4,-.A nnA ,rn,A f Al +vf + hArA i 4-a a?-r; ,,+v f LU'. Mi M1J U..i UUL4I .± '.. nl_ V V MILS S ..LCA A Lb UU4.&I 4 . VW.V CA..4.J.. V at Ngaoundere and T:Aaroua and the improveirent of technical installations at- these andA othe ar, rt.The,-total' am-,ont- of n1-es+v,ents Ad VJI "S.L ULIV.1 0.4.. . .LJ4.AK VU' U0.4 CLI. LUA 'JA. JLVDV~ A planned for the 1971-1975 period was not yet known at the time of 4.1- missin. I/ § > \ -, - \~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~LAKECHAD



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January 1970




_ __ I______





I J>

Jantiary 19;70 1B1RD-446'7 (}R) STATISTICAL ILPPElIDIX

Table of Contents

. , CevI.1.rtr KT=+it 'l-r MT nivn+en r 1vr Thor tm+1rnaint of' Puihli t- Whi--. -nnir Local Authorities. 2. Consumption of gasoline and diese. oil.

3. Annual Registration of Motor vehicles in East Cameroon.

1X. Annual Registration of Motor rehicles in West Cameroon.

5. Budget allocations for road consti uction and maintenance. 6. LiEst of major highway projectS in the Second Development Plan.

7. Financing c,f the Transcameroon Ra:ilway Project.

8. Compositiorn of Motive Power and RoWlling Stock as of June 30, 1969.

9. Traffic of Regifercam.

10. Main products transported by Regif:ercam. 11. Future Freight Traffic.

12. Income Account of Cameroon Raillwirs.

13. Investment plan proposed by Regiflrcam for 1971/72 - 1975/76. 14. Evolution cf traffic in the port of Douala, 1959-69.

15. Main commocities hanclled at the port of Douala.

16. Estimated future traffic of the Port of Douala.

17. Traffic of the Port of Garoua 1959-69.

18. Financial results of port operations, 1965/66 - 1968/69. 19. Evolution of traffic at Cameroon airports 1967-o9. TABLE 1

Highway Network Maintained by Departments oi Public Works and Local Authorities fin lcm)

I. EAST CMA2:,,RON A. Maintainred oy Department of Public Work.s 1969 Standard Traffic 196,6 1967 1968 (Vp_) 953 Eitumicou.s Over 150 91.6 916 953 Gravel or Laterite A Over 150 1,041 1,041 1,334 2,355 2113 2 50 - 150 2,4.2 2,869 3,008 1,401 C 10 - 50 843 1,455 1,258 Sub-total 5 2 6,281 6,553 6,822

P,. MIaintaiued Dy Local Authorities Gravel or Laterite 4,059 C 10 - 50 3,524 3,748 3,913 6,154 7f`E Earthl Less than 10 4,732 11,563 Sub-total L _ 8,480 10,328 18,385 Total lenath of network 13,424 14,761 16,881

1968 1969 I1. WEST CAMEROON 1967 313 Bituminous 285 293 31 Laterite or Gravel 777 830 1x123 144 Tntal by PWD 1,0612

Sources: Public Works Departments of East Cameroon and West Cameroon TABLE 2

Consumption of gasoline and diesel oil /.in cubi-c meters'

gasoline diesel total

1958 54,950 30,026 84,975

1960 59,326. 27,718 87,044

1965 87,091 60,581 147,672

1966 88,670 65,450 154,120

1967 93,691 75,075 168,7665

1968 100,572 85,500 186,072

1969 107,894 85,500 193,394

Average annual 1960-69 6.8% 12% 9.3% g-so h Pe r

source: Petroleum comnpanies, Doua].a TABLE 3

AnnuaL Registration of Motor vehicles in East Cameroon (private and public)

1960 19611 1962 1963 1964 1.965 1.966 1967 1968 1969

Private cars 865 1362 1986 2265 2205 2426 2563 3263 3227 3772

Commercial cars 65 54 41 12 9 5 7 - 6 14

Buses 230 302 280 240 286 285 219 214 3)6 .334

Delivery v,ans 5n5 780 886 863 859 999 868 1000 11132 1J164

Trucks 456 879 926 585 675 553 565 1170 10.56 969

SppeciEtl vehiciLes 14 8 8 4 1 14 10 4 1 -

Tractors 18 32 28 34 31 24 53 20) 59 63

Trailers 23 23 62 33 49 69 41 121 88 68

Heavy equipment 1 4 15 7 23 14 73 31 49 119

TOTAL: 2167 3444 4232 4043 4138 4389 4409 582:3 5974 6503

Source: PD of East Cameroon TABLE 4

AnualUd iReg istration of Motor Vehicles in West Cameroon (private and public)

1965 1966 1967 1968

Passenger cars 415 329 341 454

Land rovers 122 65 53 98

Trucks 217 174 107 96

Motorcycles 335 321 382 688

Total: 1,092 889 883 1,336

Source: PWD of West Cameroon TABLE 5

Budget allocations for roact construction and maintenance (in million CFAF)

1966/67 1967/68 1968/69 1969/70

East C.7meroon

constructioni 478 203 195 141

maintenance 834 910 968 997

14p.qt Cq~mprnnn

construction 27 2984Q 1/ ma4-n-nanLe lVX- 147 147 11n Federa-l budhet-Af

constructiot; 270 164I 455 4.A7

sub-total construction 775 396 734 756

sub-total maintenance 954 1,057 1,115 1,107

Grand Total 1,729 1,453 1,849 1,863

1/ Estimated

Sources: PWDL s of East and West Camerocin Ministry of Planning and DevelopmEnt TABLE O

T-i,qt. of major highway projects in the Second Development Plan

Total cost To be financed during 2nd Plan Brought forward from 1st Plan: (million CFAF) (million CFAF)j

- Bridge on the River Benoue 400 400 - Mora-Waza 620 6w0

- Waza-Maltam 1790 1310 - Bridge on the River Sanaga 960 570

- Douala-Tiko 920 620

11. ..- A..£- ~ I f 1c,I1 '~, - NumbIaU-MLamf'Ie 2LUV0 L130

- Kumba-Bolifamba 870 870 Total 7720 5520 New projects - Ngaound6r6-Garoua 2930 1800 - Garoua-Maroua 990 230 - Maroua-Mora 580 580 - Yde-Evodoula (studies) 30 30 - Kikot-Ndikindmeki (studies) 115 115 - Ndikinimeki-Bafoussam (studies) 30 30 - Bangangte-Bafoussam 285 285

- Bafoussam-Mbouda 390 390 - Mbouda-BaPmenda 810 810 - Yaounde-Edea 700 700

- Edda-Douala 180 180 - Tiko-Victoria- 500 500 Total 7540 5650


Source: Ministry of Planning and Development .flA , n

Financing of the 'Cranscameroon RailwayP-_ject

I. First Section Yaounde-Belabo (293 kia) Project item Source and te:rms Amount Amount of financing (million CFAF) (million US$) Study of alignment up FAC; grant 567,5 2.0 to Ngaoundere Station buildings; FAC; granit 500,0 1.8 Access roads FAC; grant 476,0 1.7 Rolling stoclc FAC; loan by 'laisse Centrale (3Z interest; 10 years maturity) 300.0 1.1 Total FAC: 1,842.5 6.6 Track construction FED; grant 4,258,2 17.3 If It USAID: loan (0.75% interest; 10 years of grace; 30 years maturity) 2,271.1 9.2 Total construction 6,529.3 23.6

Grand total: 81371.8/ 30.2

II. Second Section Belabo-Ngaoundere (335 kn) Source end terms Amount Amount of financin2 (million CFAF) (million USS'i Track construction FED; US$ 23.2 million grant; US$ 5 millioni special loan by EIB (2Z interest; 10 years 7,811 28.2 grace; 30 years matutity) It if FAC; grant 1,053 3.8

rt . i USAID; loan (2% interest; 10 years grace; 30 years 3,324 12.0 maturity) Cameroon; budget contri- bution 1,108 4.0 Telecommunication FAC; grant 582 2.1 Timber sleepers Cameroon budget 332 1.2 Rolling stock FAC; loan by Caisse Centrale (3.5% interest; 10 years maturity) 831 3.0

OC.~r a. C@4JI~L'Jameroon budget 7I .LU Total 15.318 55.3

1 A cotaco' claim of: tFAF'I.'I4 1. 4ilio has to be aAAeA to this am.ount:. It has been covered by a FED grant. Source: Office du chemin de fer du Tra.nscamerounais TAPLE[ 8

Cameroon Ra ilways Composition of Motive Powar and Rolling Stock as of June 30, 1969

A. Di-esel Locomoitives No. Weight HP Age

Main-l ine 6 52t 610 1952

i-12 54t 730 1955

:3 54t 730 1960

2 54t /30 1 964

4 ,6t 1,100 1969

_S 84t 2,200 1965 32 Shuntir, 10 22t 138 1955

1C) 30t 400 1965

9I 3ot 400 1968/69 ) cI

B. Railcars 7 43t 550 1964/65

C. Passenger Cars 68 - - 1949 to 1969 Capacity

D. baggage and Mail Vans 12 20t - i952-1964f L. Frei,-ht Cars Flats 299 20-40t - 1948 to 1964

Gondola 149 30-40t - 1948 to 1967

Box cars 400 20-30t - 1928 to 1965

Tank cars 4 300hl - 1952

Special cars 6 17t - 1964 358

F. Privately Ov-ned Freight cars 87 - - 1948 to 1966

C Sourvice: Vehicles 121 - - 1930 to 1960

Source: Regirercam TA L 9

CGAkMRnON RATT.WAYS Traffic of Regifercam

I. Passenger traffic 1964/65 1965/66 1966/67 1967/68 1L968/69

a) Northern line:

number of nassen2ers L450n OQ ILdL4 fQ5R 58n0n52n 6,22 687 6r million passenger km 34.2 24.2 29.5 32.0 35.8

b) Central Line:

number of passengers 831,174 841,197 891,197 876,865 934,180 million passenger km 90.2 95.1 106.4 110.6 121.0

c) Total Regifercam:

No. of passengers 1,281,213 1,290, 95 1,399,237 1,403,616 1,502,936 million passenger km 124.4 119.3 135.9 142.6 156.8

II. Freight traffic

a) Northern line:

Tons 195,305 155,330 162,167 168,872 155,592 million ton km 22.8 L8.3 19.4 19.7 18.8 b) CentraL line:

tons 761.695 769(3)00 768-465 826,895 826,028 million ton km 150.1 157.4 161.2 183.5 186.6

c) Total Regifercam:

tons 957,000 925,230 930,652 995,767 981,620

milliori ton km 172.9 1;75.7 180.6 203.2 205.3

Source: Regifercam TABLE 11)


Main products transported by Regifercam

Tonnages Torn-Kilometers Products (in 1'000) (in l'000) 66/67 67/68 68/69 66/67 67/68 68/69)

Timber 225,6 263,5 272,0 36.897 46.595 55.507

Alucam raw L,aterdaL 1j32,0 124,0 130,0 11.000u U1.60V 10.5()

Petroleum Products 81,3 103,7 100,7 21.950 29.003 27.865

Cocoa 52,9 54,1 56,6 15.554 15.902 16.467

Drinks 36,1 32,7 41,7 10.699 9.798 10.360

Aluminium 43,0 44,0 40,6 4.100 3.800 3.700

Construction material 40,6 31,3 32,6 11.163 8,726 8,88].

Bananas 60,8 36,2 32,4 5.966 3.410 3.027

Coffee 20,6 16,8 10,7 4.344 3.656 2.16'i

Source: Reg:Lfercam TAB T,: -


(1) Pature Freight Traffic ('0) Tons)

A) Direction of Export) Oleaginous Timber: logs and and Palm ALun (6) Animals Bananas Prodccta Cocoa Coffee Cotton Groundsuta Lnr Alualmm 0ld Railwgt TranacaM. A&Food Varioss Total ,---72) 73~~T) - -4 -T 5) - 7)

196.8/1969 32.4 12.3 56.6 10.,r 31.9 5.8 4.C 40.6 269.6 2.4 20.6 44-. 531.8 1969/1970 35.0 13.0 60.0 12.0 35.0 6.0 4.5 42.0 283.0 20.0 22.0 47 .5 580.0 1970/1971 35.0 13.0 60.0 12.0 38.0 6.0 5.0 42.0 310.0 103.0 25.0 54 .o 700.0 1971/1972 x0.0 13.5 62.0 15.0 142.0 6.0 5.5 45.0 330.0 200.0 25.0 56.o 840.0 1972/1973 40.0 14.0 62.0 15.0 46.0 6.5 6.0 45.0 340.0 30D.0 28.0 67.5 970.0 1973/1974 45.0 14.0 65.0 18.0 50.0 6.5 6.0 48.0 360.0 400.0 28.0 69.5 1,110.0 197L1975 45.0 14.5 65.0 18.) *55-0 6.5 6.5 48.0 100.0 450.0 32.0 69.5 1,210.0 1975/1976 50.0 14.5 613.0 20.03 70.0 7.0 6.5 52.0 440.0 500.0 35.0 77.0 1,34l0.0 1976/1977 50.0 15.0 70.0 20.0 80.0 7.0 7.0 52.0 480.0 500.0 40.0 89.0 1,410.0 Pwerage raLt. .. 9 30 of incrras 5.5% 2.5% 2.6% P.1I% 12.1% 2.4% 7.2% 3.1% 7.06 8.0 8.9% t3.0S

B) Direction of INP- C) Total Construction Food and kLUCAI metal Regifercas lyrocarbon, Vebicles Matertkls Be,erl,g9! Materiala 7.5) __7 ci2 _10 Products Various Total

19680/1969 100.7 8.5 77.2 90.2 128.9 141.3 30.3 449.8 981.6 1969/1970 105.0 9.0 80. 0 90.7 129.0 32.035.0 4460.0 1 ,di0.0 1971/1972 120.0 10.0 90. 0 80.0D 135.0 16.8 35.2 487.0 1,327.0 1972/1973 127.0 10.5 90.0 85.01 135.0C 18.0 38.5 50h4.0 1,474.0 1973/1974 135.0 11.0 90.0 90.0 144-'1. 19.5 41.5 531.0 1 ,6k1.0 1974/11975 1115.0 12.0 90.0 95.0 14! 4.CI 22.0 43.0 551.0 1,761.0 1975/1976 165.0 13.0 95.0 95.D 23.5 44.0 591.5 1,931.5 1976/1977 180.0 1110 100.0 100.0 156.C 25.0 45.0 620.0 2,030.0

Average riLte (13) of Increase 7.5% 6.5% 3.3% 1.3% 2.4S% 7.2% 5.1% 4.1% 9.1J:

(1) Soorne:!Regi-freas - Trafic forecat iLn euboLtted to the Niniutry of Plamning. (2) Exceeds *a wwhat the export forecast. However, quality control at the port reecuits in local consumption of bananas transported on the railway. (3) Aesume that part af the traffic lost to truciting vill be regained through rate action. (4) Baed on 5(1 of lower Chad production or 40,01D tons by 1976 being shipped via Trancanceroon irote. (5) Asswees that the source cf euergf being regulkted by the construction of a new daa will permite an ervn plant prodction throughout the year. (6) In accord wlth plans of the Ministry o;r Forest and wvth projections mde by logging cornpmtea. (7) High portion of increase due to opening of ner railway line. (81 Assmwes 20,D00 tons transiting to Chad from 19771; the rest being increased general con-numption and additional requirement of ths timber induatry. (9) Pro)escted increase mainlr dUe to additlonal equipment for the timber industry. (10() Aaswues that tonnage for the Trzosc&ceroon Railvay will be replaced by general construction -.terial. (11) The total Lncrease is mininal cde to a rew Caoeroon Brevery opening in faounde. (1 2) The ineisson Inflated the forecasit by 20,000 tons in order to retain the ratio between Leports of raw material and aluminum exports. (1 3) Compares to 9.7% for the forecagst of the same period mde for Douala Port be the Consultants r.C.C.R.iS.O.0.R.E.A.H./D.S B.I. CAMEROON RAILWAYS TABLE 12 Income Account

Year ended June 30:- 1964 196'5 196$ 1967 1965 1969 uperating revenue: Passengers 308 319 347 391 412 476 Luggage and parcels 32 38 60 69 72 81 Mail 11 10 9 10 9 9 Freight L 277 1,447 1,470 1,495 1,628 1 617 Sundries 46 7 60 91 72 13C_ Total Operatinig revenue 1,64 1 83]. _ 1946 2 056 2,193 2.313 Olperating expe!nditure: Staff and labor costs 763 80 5 917 958 1,006 1,122' Pensions 34 39 58 56 64 67 Fuel and lubr icants 100 108 80 89 99 100 Other materials and general charges 31.2 298 346 357 441 559 Taxes _ 53 57 60 62 __ 68 70 1,262 1,3071 1,461 1,522 1,678 L,918 Less: Recoverable cost of- work done for third parties and for railway stock 47 59 72 58 71 5:3 Hire charges for locommotives ancl rollinv stock loanisdto consitruction * - - - 1.21 59 Sub-total, neit cash outgoings on operating account 1,2]L5 1,248 1,389 1,464 1,486 1,806 Provisions for depreciation and withdrawal of fixed assets 2:32 247 250 254 263 298 Write-off of obsolete stores - - - 6 Bad and doubtful debts - I - - - Total oplerating !xpeLditure 1.447 1.496 1.639 1 718 1,755 2,104 Net operating revenue 227 395 307 338 438 20'3 ][nterest charges - 2) 27 28 22 29 Net surplus 227 375 280 310 416 184) 1Transfer from reserves - - - - _ - 195 Available for appropriation 227 375 280 310 416 375 ALppropriations: Transfer to r eserves - - 12 22 6 Supplementary provision for depreciation 288 353 138 151 271 254 Exchange losses on devaluation - - 1 1 Amortization of debt 10 22 130 137_ _43- Total anDrooriations 298 375 280 310 420 453

Net surplus or (deficit) as shown in the books of the Regie (71) - - - (4) (78) Operating ratio (percent) 86.4 79.1 84.2 83.6 80.0 91.0 Net value of fixebd assets (CFAF million) 5,254 5,425 6,142 15,564 6,575 6,842 RettLrn of investment (percent) 4. 3 7.3 5.0 5.1 6.7 3 1 TAELE 13

Cameroon Railwavs Invest;n.ent plan prop:sed by Regifercam for 1971/72 - 1975/76 (in mill1ion TFAF) To be fii1anc3d by Projects Cost Regifercam Loans Grants

I. Transcmneroona line

Completion of the 2nd section Belabo-Ngaoundere 5,000 100 400 4,500

Infrastructure 715 715

Rolling stock 4,150 400 3,750

Stations, training center 1,230 416 500 320

Reniewals and miscellaneous investments L,81j 3 1,813

Su.-total 7,908 2,623 4,965 320

III. Modernization and extension of e-istina network

Realignment nf TDoIal -Yioundt1S and track renewal 8,600 1,000 7,600

Yaound( -Yo!adourma 16,600 600 16,000

I)ouala-Victoria _2,240 240 2,000 Sub-total 27,440 1,840 25,600

jiV. Studie, 800 600 200

Grand-total 41,148 5.142 30,965 5.020 TABLE 14

Evolution of traffic in the port of

Douala, 1959-. ]969 ('0t:n lln4

exports ------rts total

'V4t 01,

60 357 416 773

6i. 441 517 958

62 438 526 964

6 3 490 549 1,039

64 510 607 1,117

63 JID 668 1,183

6t 521 648 1,169

67 553 832 1,385

68 627 909 1,536

69) 728 924 1,652

Source: Port Administration TABLE 15

Main ccommodities handled at the port of Douala

('000 t-OTIn )

1966 1967 1968


Petroleum products 155 177 231

Ciment 80 113 139

Alumina 94 93 86

Steel, corrigated irorL 54 63 47

Fertilizers 14 35 53

All other products 251 450 353

Total 648 932 909


Timber 206 226 251

Sawn timber 26 29 40

Coffee 67 57 67

Cocoa 44 46 49

Bananas 53 36 32

Aluminium 51 47 33

Cotton 15 30 31

All other products 59 82 124

Total 521 553 627

Source: Port Administration TABLE 16

Estimated future traffic o:f' the Port of Douala

(in I 0)0 tons)

Basic estimatE Low estimate High estimate

1970 1,973

1971 2,192

1972 2,455

1973 2,685

1974 2,943

1975 3,222

1976 3,215 3,691 1977 3,391 3,977 1978 3,575 4,299 1979 3,770 4,634

1980 3,977 4,999 1985 5,151 6,665

Source: Report by consultants OCCR/S03REAH/DSBI, September 1969 TABLE 17

Traffic of the Port of Garoua

1959166 (in tons)

Exports Imports Total

1959 18,000 18,900 36)900 1960 12,600 23,000 35,600

1961 26,000 25,000 51,000

1962 17,500 14,000 31,500

1963 32,300 19,800 52,100

1964 30,400 31,100 61,50o 1965 24,700 36,800 61,50D 1966 34,800 36,600 61,4oo

Source: Port Administration . 1V Financial results of port operations, 1965/66-1968/69

(in =111ioam CFAF)

Douala [ribi Garoua victoria/Tji Total

Revenue 808.6 26.8 24.6 59.7 919.7

Current Expenditures 451.6 12.3 9,.7 241..5 498.1

Debt service 24.0 3.3 0.5 - 27.8

Capital expenditures and major repairs 259.3 2.8 10.6 1.3 274.0

Surplus (deficit) 73.7 8.,4 3.8 33.9 119.0

A2gi 6

Revenue 893.3 22.8 19.4 45.0 980.5

Current expenditures 488.6 12.2 9.1 26.7 536.6

Debt service 24.0 3.3 0.5 - 27.8

Capital expeniditures and malor rena1rs 2)tL0 56-3 1.9 L-5 303.7

Sulrplus (defic±t) 139=7 (h9=Q0) f-9 13.8 112.4


Revenue 909.3 12.:L 1.2 46.o 968.6

Current expenditures 538.5 13.0 6.8 16.0 574.3

Debt service 38.o 3.0 0.6 41.6

Capital expenditures ar4%A MaJor repairs 77. 1. ,.9 0. 8. Sua-p (dei.. t 25 0 . (n01 05<' 269%.e


Revenue 1,157.0 28.5 3.1 40.5 1229.1

Ciaren tv expen; tres (fig-ues nol,, ett ava-7alabuVLte) w I ~ A1 -L U~ k I-&U U Debt service 38.0 3.6 _ 41.6 CaDital expendLitures and major repairs 197.0 24.4 o.6 3.4 225.4

Surplus (deficit) - - - TATLS 1 9

Evolution of traffic at Cameroon airports- 's9-6''-i969

Number of landings 'rota:. goods Total passenger and take-offs traffic traffic (in tons) 1967 1968 1969!' 1967 1968 1969d' 1967 1968 1969k'

Douala 22.683 29.974 14.322 12.979 L4.820 12.488 174.946 194.534 160.984

Yaounde 5.927 5.979 4.985 1.907 1.787 1.424 75.816 89.419 7.637

(Garoua 2.433 2.222 2.060 1.071 1.228 907 21.578 24.385 20.784

Ngaoundere 2.276 2.079 i.88 1i.2c23 i.373 i.29i 15.432 i4.333 i3.952

Maroua 1.451 1.529 1.406 84D 1.019 987 12.768 15.D28 1i.863

'rio 7.49248 5 C. 1107 1].1 71Vi 2 tVt' in n 7 I 7 6 jiS. I .MK7r- J L+70_ Vo L J.J I C l eIam .~L a L7.UC7 I .i.IO

Fourn, b an 870 7887125 55 I 01 12n .5.

Batouri _ 2"1 312 260n 15 18 10 1.701 2.266 2.519

1/ Figures include commercial and private transport

2/ Januarv throuah September

Source: Department of Civil Aviation