Plasma membrane (a) Generalized

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Nuclear envelope Chromatin Nucleus Nucleolus

Nuclear pores

(b) Nucleus 2 Glycoprotein Glycolipid (watery environment) Cholesterol

Sugar group

Polar heads of phospholipid molecules

Bimolecular lipid layer containing proteins Channel

Nonpolar tails of Proteins Filaments of phospholipid molecules Cytoplasm (watery environment)

3 Microvilli Tight (impermeable) junction

Desmosome (anchoring junction)

Plasma membranes of adjacent cells


Underlying Extracellular Gap basement space between (communicating) membrane cells junction 4 Chromatin Nuclear envelope Nucleolus Nucleus

Plasma Smooth endoplasmic membrane reticulum



Mitochondrion Rough endoplasmic reticulum Centrioles Ribosomes

Golgi apparatus

Secretion being released from cell by exocytosis Peroxisome

Intermediate filaments 5 Ribosome mRNA

1 As the protein is synthesized on the ribosome, Rough ER it migrates into the rough ER tunnel system.

2 1 3 2 In the tunnel, the protein folds into its functional shape. Short sugar chains may be attached to the protein (forming a glycoprotein). Protein

3 The protein is packaged in a tiny membranous sac called a transport vesicle. Transport 4 vesicle buds off 4 The transport vesicle buds from the rough ER and travels to the Golgi apparatus for further processing.

Protein inside transport vesicle

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 Rough ER Tunnels Proteins in tunnels

Membrane Lysosome fuses with ingested substances. Transport vesicle

Golgi vesicle containing digestive enzymes becomes a lysosome. Pathway 3

Pathway 2 Golgi vesicle containing Golgi membrane components apparatus Secretory vesicles fuses with the plasma Pathway 1 membrane and is Proteins incorporated into it. Golgi vesicle containing proteins to be secreted Plasma membrane becomes a secretory by vesicle. exocytosis Extracellular fluid

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 7 (a) Microfilaments (b) Intermediate filaments (c)

Tubulin subunits Fibrous subunits subunit

7 nm 10 nm 25 nm

Microfilaments form the blue Intermediate filaments form Microtubules appear as gold batlike network. the purple network surrounding networks surrounding the cells’ the pink nucleus. pink nuclei.

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 Rough ER and Golgi apparatus No organelles Secreted fibers

Nucleus Erythrocytes (a) Cells that connect body parts

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 9 Epithelial Nucleus cells Intermediate filaments

(b) Cells that cover and line body organs

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 cell Nuclei Contractile filaments Smooth muscle cells

(c) Cells that move organs and body parts

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 Fat cell Lipid droplet


(d) Cell that stores nutrients

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 12 Lysosomes Macrophage


(e) Cell that fights disease

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 13 Processes Rough ER

Nerve cell


(f) Cell that gathers information and controls body functions

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 14 Nucleus

Sperm (g) Cell of reproduction

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 15 © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 Extracellular fluid Lipid- soluble solutes


(a) Simple diffusion of lipid-soluble solutes directly through the phospholipid bilayer © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 17 Water molecules

(b) Osmosis, diffusion of water through a specific channel protein () © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 (a) RBC in isotonic solution (b) RBC in hypertonic solution (c) RBC in hypotonic solution

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 19 Small lipid- Lipid- insoluble insoluble solutes solutes

Lipid bilayer

(c) Facilitated (d) Facilitated diffusion via diffusion through protein carrier specific for one a channel protein; chemical; binding of substrate mostly ions, causes shape change in selected on basis transport protein of size and charge

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 20 Slide 1

Extracellular fluid

Na+ + Na K+

Na+-K+ pump Na+


Na+ K+


P i Na+ K+ + ATP Na 1 2 3 K+ ADP

1 Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ 2 The shape change expels 3 Loss of phosphate restores to the pump protein stimulates Na+ to the outside. Extracellular the original shape of the pump phosphorylation by ATP, which K+ binds, causing release of the protein. K+ is released to the causes the pump protein to inorganic phosphate group. cytoplasm, and Na+ sites are change its shape. ready to bind Na+ again; the cycle repeats.


© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 21 22 Extracellular Plasma fluid membrane docking protein

1 The membrane- bound vesicle Vesicle migrates to the docking plasma membrane. protein Molecule to be secreted Secretory vesicle Cytoplasm

Fusion pore formed 2 There, docking proteins on the vesicle and plasma membrane bind, the vesicle and Fused membrane fuse, and docking a pore opens up. proteins

3 Vesicle contents are released to the cell exterior.

(a) The process of exocytosis © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 23 Extracellular fluid Cytoplasm Plasma membrane Vesicle Lysosome 1 Vesicle forms and fuses with lysosome Release of for . 2A contents to cytosol 2 Transport to plasma membrane and exocytosis of vesicle contents

Detached vesicle Ingested 2B substance

3 Membranes and receptors (if present) recycled to Pit plasma membrane

(a) (pinocytosis) © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 24 Cytoplasm Extracellular fluid Bacterium or other particle

Pseudopod (b) Phagocytosis

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 25 Membrane receptor

Target molecule

(c) Receptor-mediated endocytosis

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 26 KEY: Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine

New Old Newly strand Old (template) (template) synthesized forming strand strand strand DNA of one sister chromatid © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 27 Centrioles Chromatin Centrioles Spindle Centromere microtubules

Forming mitotic spindle Centromere

Plasma Nuclear Chromosome, Fragments of membrane envelope consisting of two nuclear envelope sister chromatids Nucleolus

Interphase Early prophase Late prophase

Metaphase Nucleolus plate forming

Cleavage furrow

Nuclear Mitotic Sister Daughter envelope spindle chromatids chromosomes forming

Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and cytokinesis © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 28 Slide 1

Nucleus DNA Cytoplasm (site of transcription) gene (site of translation)

1 mRNA specifying one polypeptide is made from a gene on the DNA template by an enzyme (not shown).

2 mRNA nucleus Amino and attaches to ribosome, mRNA acids and translation begins.

Nuclear pore

Nuclear membrane Correct amino acid attached to Synthetase each type of enzyme tRNA by an enzyme

IIe 3 Incoming tRNA recognizes a complementary Growing mRNA codon calling for its polypeptide Met amino acid by temporarily chain binding its anticodon to the Gly 4 As the ribosome moves codon. along the mRNA, a new amino Ser tRNA “head” acid is added to the growing Phe bearing anticodon protein chain. Ala Peptide bond

5 Released tRNA reenters the cytoplasmic pool, ready to be recharged Large ribosomal subunit with a new amino acid.

Codon Direction of ribosome Small ribosomal subunit reading; ribosome Portion of moves the mRNA strand mRNA already along sequentially translated as each codon is read.

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 29 Apical surface

Basal Simple surface

Apical surface

Basal surface Stratified (a) Classification based on number of cell layers © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 30 Squamous


Columnar (b) Classification based on cell shape © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 31 Number of layers Cell shape One layer: simple epithelial More than one layer: stratified tissues epithelial tissues Squamous Diffusion and filtration Secretion in Protection serous membranes

Cuboidal Secretion and absorption; ciliated types Protection; these types are rare propel or reproductive cells in humans Columnar Secretion and absorption; ciliated types propel mucus or reproductive cells

Transitional No simple transitional exists Protection; stretching to accommodate distension of urinary structures

(c) Function of epithelial tissue related to tissue type

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 32 Air sacs of

Nucleus of Nuclei of squamous squamous epithelial cell epithelial cells

Basement membrane Photomicrograph: Simple squamous epithelium forming part of the alveolar (a) Diagram: Simple squamous (air sac) walls (275×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 33 Nucleus of Simple simple cuboidal cuboidal epithelial epithelial cells cell Basement membrane

Photomicrograph: Simple cuboidal (b) Diagram: Simple cuboidal epithelium in kidney tubules (250×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 34 Nuclei of simple Mucus of a columnar epithelial cells tend to line up

Simple columnar epithelial cell

Basement Basement membrane membrane

Photomicrograph: Simple columnar (c) Diagram: Simple columnar epithelium of the small intestine (575×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 35 Pseudo- stratified Cilia epithelial layer Pseudostratified Basement epithelial layer membrane

Basement Nuclei of membrane pseudostratified cells do not line up Connective tissue

Photomicrograph: Pseudostratified (d) Diagram: Pseudostratified (ciliated) ciliated columnar epithelium lining columnar the human (560×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 36 Nuclei

Stratified squamous epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium

Basement Basement membrane membrane Connective Photomicrograph: Stratified tissue squamous epithelium lining of (e) Diagram: Stratified squamous the (140×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 37 Basement membrane Transi- tional epithelium

Transitional Basement epithelium membrane Connective tissue

Photomicrograph: lining of the bladder, relaxed state (270×); surface rounded cells (f) Diagram: Transitional flatten and elongate when the bladder fills with .

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 38 Osteocytes (bone cells) in lacunae


(a) Diagram: Bone Photomicrograph: Cross-sectional view of bone (165×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 39 Chondrocyte (cartilage cell)

Chondrocyte in lacuna

Lacunae Matrix

(b) Diagram: Hyaline cartilage Photomicrograph: Hyaline cartilage from the trachea (400×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 40 Chondrocytes in lacunae

Chondro- cytes in lacunae Collagen fiber Collagen fibers

(c) Diagram: Fibrocartilage Photomicrograph: Fibrocartilage of an intervertebral disc (150×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 41 Ligament


Collagen fibers

Collagen fibers Nuclei of Nuclei of fibroblasts fibroblasts

(d) Diagram: Dense fibrous Photomicrograph: Dense fibrous connective tissue from a tendon (475×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 42 Mucosal epithelium Lamina Elastic propria fibers

Collagen fibers

Elastic fibers of nuclei matrix Nuclei of fibroblasts

Collagen fibers (e) Diagram: Areolar Photomicrograph: Areolar connective tissue, a soft packaging tissue of the body (270×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 43 Nuclei of fat cells

Vacuole containing fat droplet Nuclei of fat cells

Vacuole containing fat droplet

(f) Diagram: Adipose Photomicrograph: Adipose tissue from the subcutaneous layer beneath the (570×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 44 Spleen

White cell (lymphocyte) Reticular cell Reticular fibers Blood cell Reticular fibers

(g) Diagram: Reticular Photomicrograph: Dark-staining network of reticular connective tissue (400×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 45 Blood cells in capillary Plasma (fluid matrix)

Neutrophil (white blood cell)

White Red blood blood cell cells

Monocyte Red (white blood blood cells cell) (h) Diagram: Blood Photomicrograph: Smear of human blood (1290×)

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 46 Striations Multiple nuclei per fiber

Part of muscle fiber

(a) Diagram: Skeletal muscle Photomicrograph: Skeletal muscle (195×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 47 Intercalated discs


(b) Diagram: Cardiac muscle Photomicrograph: Cardiac muscle (475×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 48 Nuclei

Smooth muscle cell

(c) Diagram: Smooth muscle Photomicrograph: Sheet of smooth muscle (360×).

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 49 Brain

Nuclei of Spinal neuroglia cord (supporting cells)

Nuclei of Cell body neuroglia of neuron (supporting cells) Cell body Neuron of neuron processes

Neuron processes Diagram: Photomicrograph: Neurons (320×)

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 50 Nervous tissue: Internal communication and control Hallmarks: irritable, conductive • Brain, , and

Muscle tissue: Contracts to cause movement Hallmarks: irritable, contractile • Muscles attached to bones (skeletal) • Muscles of wall (cardiac) • Muscles of walls of hollow organs (smooth)

Epithelial tissue: Forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secretes, absorbs, filters Hallmarks: one free (apical) surface, avascular • Lining of GI tract and other hollow organs • Skin surface ()

Connective tissue: Supports, protects, binds other tissues together Hallmarks: , varying vascularity • Cartilage • Bones • Tendons • Fat and other soft padding tissue

© 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. 51