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Time Present The Newsletter of the T. S. Eliot Society Number 71 Summer 2010

“Prufrock” and the Ether Dome

Sarah Stanbury

College of the Holy Cross Contents One of the most famous objects in twentieth-century poetry is a table supporting an “Prufrock” and the Ether etherized patient: “Let us go then, you and I / When the evening is spread out against Dome by Sarah Stanbury ..... 1 the sky/ Like a patient etherized upon a table.” Eliot’s table is apposite for the sky,

the backdrop or support for a sunset: This simile comprises arguably one of the most News ...... 2 egregious pairings in . Categories cross as the immaterial evening Program: T. S. Eliot Society and sky are forced into a relationship with the material body and table; the scene Annual Meeting ...... 3 floats in space, yet in floating it comes to rest on the table that ends the sentence. The table is both essential and inert—a support, in fact, for the structure of the metaphor A Companion to T. S. Eliot, in its entirety: everything comes to rest on it. ed. David E. Chinitz— “Prufrock’s” table also places the poem geographically and makes regional Reviewed by Suzanne W. claims. Eliot’s wanderings around inspired many of his early poems, “Pru- Churchill ...... 4 frock” among them, and those urban walks may well have brought him past the Mas- sachusetts General Hospital’s famous Ether Dome, site of the first demonstration of Origins of Literary Modern- ether in 1846 (Fig. 1). This event, a foundational moment in the development of ism, ed. Gregory F. Tague— modern medicine, was widely commemorated in paintings and photographs showing Reviewed by Kinereth an etherized patient lying on a table, surrounded by doctors (Fig. 2). It was also Meyer...... 5 documented in 1868 through the Ether Monument, which still stands in Boston Gar- den near the Arlington St. entrance. In 1910 the domed auditorium of the Bulfinch T. S. Eliot’s The Cocktail building, designed as a surgical amphitheater and dubbed the “Ether Dome” shortly Party , Directed by Scott Alan after 1846, was used for rather than surgery; but its associations with the Evans—Reviewed by Patrick discovery of anesthesia had endured. Its annual Ether Day Address brought in Query ...... 6 prominent speakers, among them, in 1909—one year before Eliot began work on “Prufrock”—Charles William Eliot, Harvard president and distant cousin of the poet. Abstracts ...... 8 “Prufrock’s” opening image imaginatively occurs in a place that is tied, in unsettling ways, to a substance that takes action on the body or even takes it over—and to a 2009 Eliot Bibliography, by substance that was etched onto Boston’s cityscape through, architecture, images, and Jayme Stayer and Andrew public monuments. Powers...... 11

Visit us on the Web at www.luc.edu/eliot

Above: Print, based a painting byArthur Ignagius Keller of the 1846 ether demonstration. Semi-Centennial of Anaesthesia (Boston: General Hospital, 1897), after p. 15. Photos courtesy of Sarah Stanbury . Article: Sarah Stanbury, ‘The Man of Law ’s Tale and Rome’, Exemplaria , 22 .2 ( 2010 ), pp. 119 -137.

Published by the T. S. Eliot Society, a Missouri non-profit corporation and federally tax-exempt organization 4256 Magnolia Ave., St. Louis, Missouri 63110 News of the Season

Eliot Society Granted Tax-Exempt Status terms, the Board recently amended the Society’s by- laws to vary the terms of the elected Board Members for We are pleased to announce that on May 28, the In- this election only. The by-laws are available on the So- ternal Revenue Service approved the T. S. Eliot Soci- ciety’s website (see http://www.luc.edu/eliot/who.htm). ety’s application for tax-exempt status under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. The Society is    now classified as a public charity, and contributions (gifts, bequests, etc.) are now officially tax deductible. Public Sightings From its beginning, the Eliot Society has been in- corporated as a non-profit organization in the State of Compiled by David Chinitz Missouri. However, this is the first time we have gained the imprimatur of the Federal Government. Cruel months. Googling “X is the cruellest [or

cruelest] month,” for any month X, results in hundreds    or even thousands of Eliot-inspired hits. By doing this

for each of the twelve months, Time Present brings you Eliot Society Election herein a plebiscite on mensual cruelty.

Readers of Time Present will be delighted to learn Four seats on the Eliot Society’s Board of Directors that Eliot’s perception of April’s cruelty is widely ap- are up for election this year. All members in good stand- proved, with 567,000 hits, over 50 times as many as for ing—i.e., those whose dues are current, as well as hon- orary members—are eligible to vote. Ballots must be the next-most-cited month. Even with the words submitted by August 27 at the latest . “waste” and “Eliot” excluded from the search (plus the This year’s election will be conducted using an on- common misspellings “Elliot” and “Elliott”) in order to ballot rather than paper ballots. To vote, please fol- eliminate direct references to the poet and his poem, low these instructions: April gets an impressive 329,000 hits. There seems to be no dispute, then, as to which month is cruelest, al- 1. Click the “Eliot Society Election” link on our though April’s malice is often ascribed either to the U.S. website (www.luc.edu/eliot). income tax filing deadline or to early results, 2. In the login box that pops up, enter the user name neither of which is quite what Eliot had in mind. [All eliot and the password TSE1888 . data as of April 28, 2010.] 3. On the ballot screen, enter your first and last More unexpected, perhaps, is the consensus that names and your email address. Then click on August is the second-cruelest month, with 10,880 hits. the boxes next to the names of up to four can- Slate magazine describes August as “the dark space on didates. Clicking once will put a check in the the calendar when wars start, when sports disappear, box; clicking again on the same box will re- when the summer heat chokes, when Elvis died.” David move the check. Plotz has argued that August should be abolished be- 4. When you are ready, click the “Submit Your cause “nothing good ever happens in it.” Vote” button. September rates third-cruelest, with 7,380 hits, fol- lowed distantly by March (2,569), January (2,440), and Please note that the identifying information (name February (2,303). The cruelty of these winter months and email address) is required only for purposes of vali- will probably surprise no one. January, for instance, has, dation or in case of a problem with your ballot. Votes according to various websites, the most couple breakups will be seen only by the Supervisor of Elections and the President, and, as with our quondam paper ballots, they and the worst movie releases of the year. least will be held in strict confidence. And the cruel month? Definitively, that would be July, with a mere 261 hits. June is the next-kindest If you lack internet access or are otherwise unable to use the online ballot, please contact either the Super- month (810), followed by May (928). October ap- visor of Elections or the President, who will be happy to proaches the winter months, but November and Decem- enter your vote manually. ber are quite mediocre in their cruelty. Now we know. Four persons have been nominated: Chris Buttram, Tony Cuda, Melanie Fathman, and Nancy Gish. Terms for the elected candidates will be four years for the Name of the Sept. 24, 2009 program on the French Disturb the highest ranked (in terms of votes received in the elec- Symbolists at the Art Institute of Chicago: “ Universe : In Search of the Modern.” The program, tion), three years for the second and third highest, and two for the fourth highest. As explained in Time Present Continued on p. 7 70 (Spring 2010), in order to reestablish “staggered”

Time Present 2 Summer 2010 T. S. Eliot Society 31st Annual Meeting, 24–26 September 2010

Friday, Sept. 24 Elisabeth Däumer, Eastern Michigan U Sunday, Sept. 26 The Problem of Empathy in Eliot’s Washington Early Poetry First Unitarian Church (Room locations on campus TBA) Christopher McVey, U of Wisconsin, 5007 Waterman Boulevard Madison Board Meeting 9:00–12:00 Worlds of Speculation: T. S. Eliot, Session IV 11:00–12:00 F. H. Bradley, and Chair: Benjamin Lockerd, Grand Val- Peer Seminar 10:00–12:00 Megan Quigley, Villanova U ley State U “Eliot Among the Moderns” Eliot, and the Anne Stillman, Clare C, Cambridge Chair: Kevin J. H. Dettmar, Pomona C Vague T. S. Eliot’s Shakespeare No auditors, please James Matthew Wilson, Villanova U Session III 10:45–12:15 The Rock against Shakespeare Scholars Seminar 10:00–12:00 Chair: Michael Coyle, Colgate U Chair: Benjamin Lockerd, Grand Val- Srila Nayak, U of North Carolina, Eliot Aloud 12:15–12:45 ley State U Charlotte Chair: Chris Buttram, Winona State U No auditors, please T. S. Eliot and : Death by Water and Other Transnational Announcement of Awards Lunch ad lib. Echoes Thomas Brennan, St. Joseph’s U ______Session I 2:00–3:30 Everyday Prophecy: “Choruses from Chair: Anita Patterson, Boston U The Rock ” and The Changing A reduced rate of $124 per night is James Stephen Murphy, Harvard U Light at Sandover being offered by: TS vs. FS.: Eliot, Flint, and Maga- Emily Hall, U of North Carolina, zine Greensboro Parkway Hotel Matthew R. Vaughn, U of Tulsa Jeanette Winterson’s Object of Af- 4550 Forest Park Avenue “You Cannot Value Him Alone”: fection St. Louis, MO 63108 USA The Waste Land in its Magazine (314) 256-7777 Context Society Lunch 12:30 Beci Dobbin, Trinity C, Cambridge Please ask for the “T. S. Eliot Group Eliot’s Almost Modern Typist Special Presentation 1:30–2:15 Block” when you make your reserva- Nancy D. Hargrove and Guy Hargrove tion. Memorial 4:00–5:00 Eliot and Popular Music: Music Hall Michael Levenson, U of Virginia Songs, Bawdy Ballads, Ragtime, Deadline for reservations: August 23 “and what if she should die some af- and All that Jazz ternoon”: Eliot’s Stage of Vio- For fast and economical transportation lence Bus Tour: Eliot’s St. Louis 2:30–5:00 to the hotel, take the Metrolink train Melanie Fathman from Lambert Airport to the Central Reception 5:00–6:00 West End station at 410 S. Euclid Ave. 2 Home of Tony & Melanie Fathman The hotel is just /10 mi. from the sta- Dinner ad lib. 4967 Pershing Place tion.

Society Dinner 7:00 Saturday, Sept. 25 Roundtable 8:00–8:30 St. Louis Woman’s Club Update on the New Editions of Eliot’s 4600 Lindell Boulevard Works Ronald Schuchard, Emory U Session II 9:00–10:30 Tony Cuda, U of North Carolina, Chair: Cyrena Pondrom, U of Wiscon- Greensboro sin, Madison David Chinitz, Loyola U Chicago

Time Present 3 Summer 2010 Reviews

A Companion to T. S. Eliot . Ed. by David E. Chinitz. into three parts. “Part I: Influences” offers chapters on per- Malden, MA, and Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. sonal, literary, religious, intellectual, cultural, and political forces that shaped his life and thought. “Part II: Works” of- Reviewed by Suzanne W. Churchill fers guided tours through his poems, plays, and prose. “Part Davidson College III: Contexts” examines his work in light of current debates about race, gender, politics, and religion, as well as his role T. S. Eliot was an inveterate recycler, composing poems as a publisher and editor in relation to his enduring cultural out of bits culled from everything from Dante to Tin Pan authority and vacillating reputation. The pithy, readable Alley; reusing in later works scraps cut from his own poems chapters average 10-12 pages, and each includes a helpful and plays; and “constantly” republishing his essays (69, 217, bibliography of “References and Further Reading.” To- 246, 276). As an editor, he turned into a veri- gether, they provide a solid foundation in Eliot studies for table recycling station, a “public forum in which he could advanced undergraduates, graduate students, teachers, and experiment with the structural organization of his poems, scholars. After reading the volume, I felt like I’d completed assembling wholes from fragments that had previously been a comprehensive course on T. S. Eliot team-taught by the published separately” (288). Yet all these “decisions and best in North America and the U. K. revisions” result in an idiom that is distinctively Eliot’s own. The volume begins with a strong start. Anthony Cuda Indeed, the tension between recycling and originality ani- offers a biographical overview of the poet’s life, linking mates his entire career: it is, as Sanford Schwartz observes, Eliot’s personal experiences, intellectual growth, and poetic the opposition between “tradition” and “the individual tal- development without reductive conflations between art and ent,” between Classicism and innovation, and between the life. Barry Faulk puts a new spin on the French Symbolists inheritance of the past and the demands of the present (19- by linking them to the rise of the urban metropolis. Jewel 21). This tension also invigorates A Companion to T. S. Spears Brooker’s comprehensive overview of Western phi- Eliot, recently published by Blackwell and expertly edited losophy is framed by two exemplary chapters on less studied by David E. Chinitz. but no less formative influ- What makes A Com- ences on Eliot: panion so distinctive, com- and popular culture. These pelling, and instructive is “What makes A Companion so distinc- chapters, by Christina not so much its originality, tive, compelling, and instructive is not Hauck and Chinitz respec- but its ability to contextual- so much its originality, but its ability to tively, are model essays for ize, distill, and synthesize contextualize, distill, and synthesize...” students and scholars alike: Eliot in his time and in the written in a clear, supple century of criticism that prose, they present compel- followed in his wake. A ling arguments, integrate Companion is a magnum rich primary and secondary opus of scholarly recycling. source material, and open By “recycling,” I do not mean rehashing old arguments, nor the door to further discussion. Marc Manganaro traces the am I referring to the familiar position of “scholars who… influence of the emerging field of comparative evolutionary recycle conference papers with a bit of self-reproach—and on Eliot’s own evolving theories about myth the protection of a new title” (Ingram 116). Rather, by “re- and culture, and Vincent Sherry links Eliot’s poetics of cycling,” I mean a scholarly activity akin to Eliot’s own Decadence to the historical context of imperial decline. In creative practice: the gathering, reclaiming, and recombining addition to offering “a primer in the poetic of Decadence” of ideas, contexts, and interpretations in order to create a and a European history lesson, Sherry delivers actual literary new composite. Literary scholarship today tends to valorize criticism, distinguishing between the strained “pratfall triple- the individual talent who overturns traditional paradigms. In syllable rhyme of ‘strangled you’ and ‘mangled you’,” and A Companion , however, the emphasis is on tradition—not the more successful “sardonic comedy in the rhyming of only Eliot’s place in it and definition of it, but also “tradi- ‘crumpets’ and ‘trumpets’” (94, 98). tion” in the sense of a shared body of literature and a com- The chapters in Part II survey Eliot’s works in chrono- munity of interested readers. Instead of asserting startlingly logical order. Jayme Stayer launches the section with a dis- original claims in highfalutin professional jargon, scholars cussion of Eliot’s juvenilia, which he organizes around three here deliver sound arguments in clear, accessible language. ontological problems that preoccupy the young poet. Like The chapters offer fresh perspectives on well-mapped fields, Sherry, Stayer does not shy away from identifying weak- the best of them succeeding not only in surveying the terri- nesses in Eliot’s early verse and he likewise exhibits his own tory, but also forging new paths. They teach us something delight in language, as when he sums up Eliot’s accom- new about Eliot without laying waste to what has come be- plishments in a masterful list: “the telling , halluci- fore. natory squalor, transcendent intimations, muted suffering, The hefty Companion comprises thirty-seven chapters electric fear, and bilious ennui all of its spoken, sung, or that span Eliot’s life, works, and critical legacy. It is divided growled in virtuosic registers of irony, obliquity, deadpan,

Time Present 4 Summer 2010

and directness” (118). As in Part I, the best of the chapters in ternational over the next four decades” this section cover familiar territory but introduce a fresh (409). This discrepancy regarding Eliot’s relation to high perspective, as when Jeffrey Perl uses Eliot’s pervasive am- modernism is not a weakness in A Companion , but a sign bivalence to complicate the traditional division of his career that its typologies, genealogies, and glosses do not box Eliot into two phases; when Sarah Bay-Cheng introduces games in, but provide stepping-stones for continued research. and play to a discussion of the poems; and when Leo- A Companion to T. S. Eliot is a necessity for any col- nard Diepeveen wittily deflects attention from Eliot’s ca- lege or university library and a worthwhile investment for nonical early essays to his eclectic range of journalism, your personal library. You will use it and reuse it, and you’ll counting “as least 24 essays which turn to [the topic of how encourage your students to do the same. If Eliot’s criticism to write criticism properly], or 23 more essays than use the influenced so much of what came after him, let’s hope this term ‘objective correlative’” (266). Yet though Diepeveen volume influences literary scholarship as it’s practiced to- widens the playing field, he manages to reach all the bases: day, inspiring us to teach instead of dazzle, to value quality not only the objective correlative, but also difficulty, tradi- over quantity, and to “reduce, reuse, and recycle” in order to tion, and impersonality. Section II provides instructive ty- produce a more sustaining and sustainable body of criticism. pologies and glosses to help readers organize and make sense of Eliot’s diverse writings: Francis Dickey groups the Works Cited poems in Prufrock and Other Observations around particular Ingram, Randall. “Historical Alternatives to Our Environ- signatures and motifs, Randy Malamud identifies common mental Crisis: Recycling and Robert Herrick’s Hes- features of the 1930s plays along with succinct summaries of perides .” ISLE 14:2 (Summer 2007). 107-20. each, and John Xiros Cooper defines key but often misun- derstood terms such as “culture” and “society” (287). Be-    cause these chapters provide objective overviews of Eliot’s writings, a few seem a bit bland or diffuse, but undergradu- Origins of 1870-1914. Ed. Gregory F. ates who struggle to comprehend Eliot may appreciate them Tague. Palo Alto, CA: Academia Press, 2009. most. My students certainly did, though they also wished for discussions of topics such as “irony” and “rhyme,” which, Reviewed by Kinereth Meyer though touched on, don’t merit a chapter of their own or Bar-Ilan University even entries in the index. (Despite these omissions, the index is actually very thorough and user-friendly.) As I never tire of telling my students, no one woke up For this reason, I found “Part III: Contexts” to offer one morning and announced the beginning of , more dynamic readings and persuasive analyses. Cyrena or the Victorian age, or modernism. At best, literary periodi- Pondrom, Bryan Cheyette, and Patrick Query confront the zation is a useful tool for readers, critics, and historians; it controversies of gender, race, and sexuality head on, identi- functions as “a rough way of locating our attention,” in Mi- fying various factions and presenting taxonomies of Eliot’s chael Levenson’s words. At worst, it may lead to artificial women, racial types, and sexual orientations. Cheyette does categories that freeze and essentialize what are highly indi- an especially fine job guiding readers through Eliot’s life vidual responses to historical, cultural, and literary change. and poems before introducing the critical arguments, thereby Literary modernism is particularly problematic in this con- training readers to participate as informed players in the un- text, not only because it wrote “Make It New” on its stan- folding debate. Kevin Dettmar takes on the even more sensi- dard, but because its dynamic re-evaluation of philosophical tive and taboo topic of Eliot’s religious faith, providing a issues, such as the relationship between subject and object, serious secular appreciation of what he calls “some of the or between conception and experience, generated a parallel most significant religious poetry in English of the era” (374). reformulation of aesthetic concepts—image, symbol, con- Ann Ardis draws attention to the historical and material con- vention, structure. The vocabulary through which we exam- texts of modernism in its various incarnations; weaving to- ine literary modernism demands a flexibility that can ac- gether an astonishing array of critical voices, her essay commodate the fluidity of these reformulations, one that represents the spirited colloquy of the “New Modernisms” refuses categorizations that will effectively stultify what was today. Part III also presents fine scholarship on Eliot’s edit- a volatile and dynamic literary movement. ing, publishing, and New Critical legacy, with excellent Gregory Tague, editor of Origins of Literary Modern- chapters by Jason Harding, John Timberman Newcomb, and ism, 1870-1914 , thus makes the wise decision to define the Gail McDonald that make potentially dry topics accessible field in general terms as “the creative nexus of London from and interesting. They provide clear narratives of complex the end of the nineteenth cent. to the beginning of the twen- territory, but also lead to some surprising wrinkles and con- tieth century (up to around 1914)” (ix). He provides a wide tradictions, as when Harding argues that “by the late , context in which to consider writers ranging from Thomas … the Criterion was undoubtedly in retreat from experimen- Hardy to Derek Wolcott and subjects that range from litera- tal modernism” (297), while, in the next chapter, Newcomb ture to architecture to postcolonialism. Tague describes this asserts that Eliot’s position at Faber & Faber, which he as- collection of twenty-one essays on early modernism as sumed in 1925, “allowed him to shape the formation of in- “edgeless clusters of essays” (ix); the primary component

Time Present 5 Summer 2010

linking them to each other is their combined interest in locat- ing how the history of the trope can be a useful tool for ing those cultural, literary, and philosophical transformations navigating the relationship between Romanticism and mod- that feed into the movement we call literary modernism. ernism. Instead of first reading Woolf’s fiction and then High modernism, particularly as represented by Pound and drawing conclusions about literary structures, Stables Eliot, is conspicuously (and, in my opinion, unfortunately) chooses the more provocative path of first discussing the absent from this collection, and instead the focus is on etiology of “symbol” itself and then suggesting how this can Hardy, Woolf, Forster, Conrad, Lawrence, Ford Madox illuminate ambiguities in To the Lighthouse and Mrs. Dallo- Ford, , T.E. Hulme, and Wyndham way. If Stables uses the history of a well-known literary Lewis. Later writers, such as and Derek Wol- structure in order read modernist texts, Tom Henthorne dis- cott, both born after 1930, are considered through their con- covers sources of a contemporary critical concept— nections to modernism. postcolonialism—in modernism. Although his use of recent The opening essay, Tyrus Miller’s “Wrong from the critical parlance may be a bit forced, Henthorne reminds us Start,” poses the question that defines the enterprise of the of the “sense of liminality [of] colonial subjects” experi- entire collection: how does one write about modernism? enced by writers such as Conrad and Joyce. Somewhat less Miller’s analysis of the historiography of modernism is both convincingly, Henthorne argues that this sense of liminality a critique and a corrective. While most accounts of modern- was “appropriated by later modernists to address other forms ism posit a clear connection between artistic innovation and of alienation, including those based on gender, social and “a fundamental shift in experience,” such views may be only economic class, sexual preference and race” (395). “apparently historical.” Miller is concerned that such “large More specifically historicist arguments are presented in scale historicity” may obscure less obvious, more “mi- Robert McParland’s interesting discussion of the collabora- crological” (4) forces that shape and transform cultural arti- tion between Conrad and , in Daniel facts. In taking into account both economic change and mass Moore’s examination of the connection between material culture, Miller provides a challenging re-evaluation of the history and modernist attitudes toward history, and in Allan historiography of early modernism. Johnson’s commentary on E.M. Forster and architectural Most of the other essays in the volume have a more spe- space. Moore’s sophisticated reflection on the archeological cific focus. Some, like Elizabeth Foley O’Connor’s “‘A histories of Italy in general and Rome in particular offers a Splendid Forlorn Hope’: Fin-de-Siécle Little Magazines, way of re-examining modernism through aesthetic history. Modernism and the Public Sphere,” attempt to expand the Moore rightly argues that modernist aesthetic criticism is “a borders of where we locate “modernism” by reading early genre ripe for significant historiographical re-evaluation” cultural artifacts as models for later, more well-known ex- (311). Looking back to Walter Benjamin, Moore claims that amples. O’Connor argues that relatively unknown little mag- an examination of art objects and architecture can provide a azines, often denigrated as decadent, symbolist, or Edward- provocative way of examining the epistemology of studying ian, provided models for later, more successful magazines, the past. such as The Little Review , Blast , and The Egoist . Similarly, Several of the essays in Origins of Literary Modernism Jason B. Jones’s essay on Arnold Bennett’s early criticism do manage to question and challenge standard views of claims that the work of more “canonical” modernists, such modernism, one of Tague’s stated goals. However, overall, as Pound, Woolf, and Eliot, was in fact anticipated by Ben- this is an uneven collection. Together with essays that suc- nett’s advocacy of cultural change. Jones takes a new look at ceed in incisively exploring the history and transformations the old opposition between Woolf, who considered Bennett a of early modernism, we find essays that are vague and in- representative of narrow Edwardian conventions, and Ben- conclusive, filled with non-sequiturs and imprecise lan- nett, and concludes, not entirely convincingly, that Bennett’s guage. Provocative ideas are often overwhelmed by redun- essays actually “helped set the stage for Woolf’s later inno- dancy or imprecision or are inundated by excessive quota- vations” (52). tion. More rigorous editing would have given shape and Lori M. Campbell’s essay on Hardy confronts the diffi- form to this “edgeless cluster” of essays. cult question of where to locate Hardy’s modernism. Camp- bell discusses male-female power struggles in Hardy within    a context defined by the conflict between the ideals of folk belief and industrial capitalism, concluding that Hardy’s T. S. Eliot’s women escape actualization by the male characters, and Dir. Scott Alan Evans even by Hardy himself. Although her argument is not fully realized, Campbell raises some interesting conjectures, and Patrick Query opens the door to a re-examination of some long-held per- U.S. Military , West Point ceptions of Hardy’s work. is the focus of several essays in this vol- During the March 7–April 10 run of The Cocktail Party ume (by Elizabeth Primamore, Wayne Stables, and Timothy at the Beckett Theatre in Manhattan, The Actors Company Vincent). Stables, for example, reads Woolf’s early fiction Theatre (TACT) organized three post-show “talkbacks”: by first discussing the history of the symbol and then show-

Time Present 6 Summer 2010

opportunities for interested audience members to engage in have as a student of literature, outside of the classroom and new ways with the play, with Eliot, and with the company. the conference panel, in the world where poetry, as Eliot I participated in the second of these, entitled “The T.S. would have it, becomes a part of everyday life. I am most Eliot Poetry Jam,” on March 19 th as the respondent for a grateful that I was tapped for the assignment. question-and-answer session following a reading by TACT players of some selections from Eliot’s poetry. Prior to the Public Sightings performance, Assistant Director Andrew Block and I had collaborated to arrange a series of excerpts that might echo (Continued from p. 2) and enhance some of the language and ideas in the play: memory and desire, the circularity of time, elusive identity. sponsored by the Poetry Foundation and the Art Institute, Our selection resulted in a sequence in which snippets from featured Goodman Theatre actors reading passages “while The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock framed and interweaved dancers from Hubbard Street Chicago improvise in between longish passages from I, response.” V, and Dry Salvages III and V . Excerpts from “A Game of Chess” which resonated with certain exchanges between “Best Books, chosen by Ian Rankin” ( The Week 20 Nov. Edward and Lavinia did not make the final cut. The sections 2009) lists, alongside five novels, Four Quartets by T. S. from Four Quartets provided the audience with the best re- Eliot (Harvest, $9). “I studied these poems in high statement and extension of the play’s abiding concerns, and come back to them every decade or so. As I grow older, while the Prufrock lines reminded the audience of the Eliot they become ever more meaningful as a meditation on the sound they may have first loved and perhaps suggested some passing of time and the span of human life. They are opaque, continuity between those moving early notes and the mature humane, moving, and I look forward to reading them again orchestration of Eliot’s later work. The combined effect of … in time.” the two threads was, it seems to me, positive, and many in the audience seemed taken with what they heard. A Hollow Man. “You came here to be a martyr and to die in The readers, for their part, were all excellent. Simon a big bang of glory. But to paraphrase the poet T. S. Eliot, Jones, Nora Chester, Delphi Harrington, Greg Salata, Todd you will die with a whimper.” (Federal Judge Leonie Brin- Gearhart, Richard Ferrone, and James Prendergast delivered kema, sentencing Zacarias Moussaoui to life in prison, 4 their parts with great care and purpose. (The Assistant Di- May 2006.) rector had even consulted me beforehand to ensure the cor- rect pronunciation of a couple of words: I do hope I got Ar- juna right). The readers remained on the stage with me dur- Call for Papers ing my own remarks and provided a wonderfully supportive and inquisitive extension of the main audience, perhaps half The Eliot Society will again offer two 90-minute sessions at of which had remained for the talkback. The questions the annual Louisville Conference on Literature & Culture posed ranged from Eliot’s process of revision to his dramatic since 1900, to be held at the University of Louisville, Febru- versification to the influence of Buddhism on his later writ- ary 24-26, 2011. Those interested should send a 300-word ing. I did my best to answer well but also happily deferred abstract to William Harmon ([email protected]) to the cast in matters of character and acting craft. by September 1, 2010. Please include the following informa- The Director, Scott Alan Evans, was thoroughly gra- tion: cious and welcoming, as was everyone else with whom I interacted. In the Spring issue of Time Present Marianne Name Huntington offered a review of the full production, but I will Home Address say that it seemed to me as good a performance of this play E-mail address as could be wished. I was particularly struck by the intelli- Telephone number gence of the lighting and set design. (One complaint, minor Academic affiliation (if applicable) but grating, is that one of my favorite terms in Act I, “harm- Title of paper/work less,” somehow became “hopeless.”) It was a thrill to sit Personal biographical note (100-150 words) amongst—indeed, on—the furniture used in the play and shoulder-to-shoulder with Simon Jones (The Unidentified For further information, please visit the conference website: Guest) and other company members: the kind of experience, http://www.thelouisvilleconference.com I reflected both before and after, that one feels truly lucky to

Time Present 7 Summer 2010 Abstracts

American Literature Association narrative. When absence and loss are conflated,” according San Francisco, May 27–30, 2010 to LaCapra, “melancholic paralysis or manic agitation may set in, and the significance or force of particular historical The Poetics of Political Failure: T. S. Eliot’s Rejection of losses (for example, those of apartheid or the Shoah) may be American Liberalism obfuscated or rashly generalized.” I use this model to demonstrate how The Waste Land While Eliot’s engagement with poetic traditions outside conflates loss and absence, and I tie the melancholic paraly- of the often drive discussions of his work, I sis that seems such a dominant feature of the poem’s speak- argue that the American poetic tradition is that which fun- ing voices to this conflation. In key moments, the poem damentally structures it, and which, through the mechanisms specifies a particular loss (the death of an actual character, of rejection and revision, leads to its pronounced anti- for example) and then converts that loss into absence by liberalism. I assert that we must view Eliot, if we are truly to generalizing the historical circumstances; this conversion is understand the ideological content of his work, as develop- also complicated by the manner in which the poem impli- ing out of a particular American poetic tradition, specifically cates the reader in this project. My discussion concludes by one that replayed and reinforced important tenets of Ameri- tying this melancholic paralysis to the poem’s preoccupation can liberalism and nationalism. If we do so, we find that with elegy. Less a covert elegy (Jahan Ramazani’s argu- Eliot’s most characteristic poetic landscape (the urban city- ment), the poem is, in my view, more directly and intention- scape) develops within a tradition dominated by Whitman, ally concerned with disrupted mourning and its expression. the most significant American urban poet prior to Eliot. The post-Whitmanian, American streets are the terrain on which Richard Badenhausen the early Eliot’s modernism plays out, and which serve as Westminster College the catalyst for his anti-liberalism. Rejecting the notion that Eliot was a disconnected and    detached cultural observer so immersed in elite European intellectual traditions that he was blind to the realities of “Backward half-looks”: The Role of Memory in Four Quar- American culture, I argue that Eliot was drawn to his anti- tets liberal position because of very concrete and practical con- cerns about poetic craft. Quite simply, the city that Eliot The paper is a close reading of Eliot’s Four Quartets as wanted to write about, the American city in which his poetic a meta-poem in which a poet’s own life, his poetics and the imagination wandered and developed, was the city Whitman literary theories that preceded him come together to create had bequeathed to him; and as Eliot would demonstrate, that the exact existence he desires: timelessness within linear city was based on impossibilities. By closely reading “The time. Being his most famous late work, Four Quartets pro- Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and comparing it to “Song vides a unique opportunity for the scholar to study Eliot’s of Myself,” I will demonstrate how Eliot presents a dysto- poetry through three different lenses of memory: theoretical, pian inversion of Whitman’s ideal public and urban city. poetic, and personal. In its most overarching lens, the theo- retical, the paper analyzes the vestiges of Romanticism evi- William Q. Malcuit dent in Eliot’s poem, specifically its resonance with Emer- Loyola University Chicago son’s Nature. The poem is a Romantic journey for Eliot, one in which he considers forms of spirituality and religion as    they function as humanity’s route to eternity. The second type of memory is the echo of Eliot’s mod- Traumatic Loss and Absence in The Waste Land ernist poetics in Four Quartets . This critical memory of po- ems like The is worth studying as it appears in This essay explores the way in which The Waste Land is Four Quartets in order to identify Eliot’s simultaneous preoccupied with the some of the problems inherent in con- growth from and return to those poetics. (“In my beginning fusing loss and absence, in the manner discussed by trauma is my end.”) Indeed, the poetic goal of the work is an inher- theorist Dominick LaCapra. In LaCapra’s work, because loss ent paradox reminiscent of Eliot’s modernism: it is the task involves specific historical events, such events can be nar- of discovering the threshold where timelessness intersects rated and eventually overcome; absence, on the other hand, with time and discerning how humanity can access this por- is transhistorical and non-specific. Because it is not an event tal to escape from horizontal, linear time to the vertical, and therefore has no standing in relation to the past, present, mystical eternal. or future, absence cannot be situated in any kind of recovery

Time Present 8 Summer 2010

Finally, there is Eliot’s personal memory, the specific the essay itself, yet remaining steadfast in his belief in the details of his own life. By including many autobiographical value of his goal and the efficacy of his process. I disagree references in Four Quartets, Eliot shares his own most that the essay is ironic in tone or Romantic in basis; I read it meaningful experiences. Four Quartets artfully melds these instead as a desperate search for clarity that will align Eliot’s three versions of memory: theoretical, critical and personal, belief in artistic surrender with the rigorous demands of a and the paper evaluates Eliot’s attempt to find man’s place literary critique. The success of the essay lies, however, in within the dichotomy of time and timelessness, which is Eliot’s ability to locate in Keats’s nightingale the germ of his where memory itself exists. notion of the objective correlative, a materially useful term for literary criticism. Kate S. Flynn Badiou describes just such a procedure of testing a situ- ation from its interiority based on a belief founded external    to the situation. Such a procedure as performed by Eliot sug- gests we may be able to anchor future critique in an ethical Eliot and Badiou: Sacrifice and Belief in “Tradition and the aesthetic separate from the whims of current fashion or the Individual Talent” appeal to Romantic genius.

As the legitimacy of post-modern critique wanes it is in- Cameron MacKenzie structive to return to the example of Eliot, whose critical Temple University work provides a strong model for overcoming the questions of we still face. I read Eliot’s landmark essay    “Tradition and the Individual Talent” through the critical lens of Alain Badiou in an effort to demonstrate a successful engagement with the twin horns of a modern critical di- Note from Julia Daniel: lemma characterized by the authoritarian urge of the high modernist and the entropic relativity of the post-modernist. In the previous issue of Time Present , book reviewer Sarah In this essay Eliot executes a successful enquiry into the Kennedy was incorrectly associated with Oxford University; principles of critical response by risking the parameters of she is actually at Cambridge.

The Bulfinch Building, with dome over the amphitheater, before 1845

Time Present 9 Summer 2010 T. S. Eliot Bibliography 2009

Jayme Stayer Badenhausen, Richard. “He Do the Brooks, Richard. “Letters Debunk John Carroll University Critic in Different Voices: The Liter- Myth of T. S. Eliot’s Cruelty.” Rev. of ary Essays after 1927.” Chinitz, Com- The Letters of T. S. Eliot. Vol. 2. The Andrew Powers panion . 275-86. Sunday Times [London] 1 Nov. 2009. Eastern Michigan University Baker, Jonathan. “Seeking Holiness: —. “T. S. Eliot’s Snort of Rejection June 13, 2010 Eliot, Auden, Betjeman.” Literature & for Animal Farm .” The Sunday Times Aesthetics 18.1 (2008): 98-111. [London] 29 Mar. 2009: 3. If you are aware of any 2009 citations that do not appear here, please con- Bay-Cheng, Sarah. “‘Away we go’: Brunner, Edward. “‘’: The tact Jayme Stayer at Poetry and Play in Old Possum’s Book Mind of Postwar Europe and the [email protected] Omissions of Practical Cats and Andrew Lloyd Mind(s) of Eliot.” Chinitz, Compan- will be rectified in the 2010 listing. Webber’s Cats .” Chinitz, Companion . ion . 145-56. 228-38. Ackland, Michael. “‘A cold coming Bush, Ronald. “‘Unknown terror and we had of it’: The Reception of T. S. Bergsten, Staffan. “The Later Quar- mystery’: The Waste Land .” Rpt. from Eliot, Literary Modernism and Tradi- tets.” Rebirth and Renewal. Bloom’s T. S. Eliot: A Study in Character and tion in the Work of James McAuley Literary Criticism. Ed. Style , by Ronald Bush (1984). Ri- and the Sydney Modernists.” Litera- and Blake Hobby. New York: Chelsea quelme, Critical Insights . 184-223. ture & Aesthetics 18.1 (2008): 112-21. House, 2009. 153-67. Buttram, Christine. “Sweeney Ago- Adams, Stephen. “T. S. Eliot’s Sea- Bernheimer, Martin. “Four Quartets.” nistes: A Sensational Snarl.” Chinitz, side Shelter is Listed.” Telegraph Rev. of Donmar Warehouse reading Companion . 179-90. [London] 15 Oct. 2009. by Stephen Dillane. Financial Times [London] 8 Dec. 2009: 13. Campbell, Ian. “The Editor, His Col- Arciero, Angelo. “‘Politics has be- laborators and Contributors: Eliot’s come too serious a matter to be left to Blackstock, Alan. Rev. of The Return Editorship of The Criterion. ” Litera- the politicians’: T. S. Eliot and George of Christian Humanism: Chesterton, ture & Aesthetics 18.1 (2008): 69-83. Orwell.” Trans. Gianna Fusco. Eliot, Tolkien, and the Romance of Morality and the Literary History , by Lee Oser. Rocky Mountain Carey, John. Rev. of The Letters of Imagination . Ed. Gabriel R. Ricci. Review 63.2 (2009): 266-72. T. S. Eliot . Vol. 2. The Sunday Times New Brunswick: Transaction, 2009. [London] 8 Nov. 2009. 85-108. Bolton, Matthew J. “‘Each in his prison’: Damnation and Alienation in Cavanagh, Michael. “In the Shadow of Ardis, Ann. “T. S. Eliot and Some- The Waste Land. ” Alienation. Bloom’s Possum: T. S. Eliot and Seamus thing Called Modernism.” Chinitz, Literary Criticism. Ed. Harold Bloom Heaney.” Professing Poetry: Seamus Companion . 311-22. and Blake Hobby. New York: Chelsea Heaney’s Poetics . Washington, D.C.: House, 2009. 193-202. Catholic University of America, 2009. Armstrong, Charles. Rev. of Modern- 74-108. ism, Memory, and Desire: T. S. Eliot —. “T. S. Eliot and Robert Brown- and Virginia Woolf , by Gabrielle ing’s Dramatic Monologues.” Ri- Cenni, Rajendra. Traditions of McIntire. English Studies 90.3 (2009): quelme, Critical Insights . 55-73. Modernity: A Comparative Study of 373-74. T. S. Eliot and Gopalakrishna Adiga . Brooker, Jewel Spears. “The Fire and Bengaluru [Karnataka, India]: Ruvari, Atkins, G. Douglas. “Journey toward the Rose: Theodicy in T. S. Eliot and 2009. Understanding: T. S. Eliot and the Julian of Norwich.” Julian of Nor- Progress of the ‘Intelligent Believer.’” wich’s Legacy: Medieval Mysticism Charlish, Rosamund. Rev. of Old Pos- Literary Paths to Religious and Post-Medieval Reception. Ed. sum’s Book of Practical Cats , by T. S. Understanding: Essays on Dryden, Sarah Salih and Denise N. Baker. New Eliot and Axel Scheffler (illustrator). Pope, Keats, George Eliot, Joyce, T. York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 69- School Librarian 57.4 (2009): 236. S. Eliot, and E. B. White . New York: 86. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 109-24. Cheyette. Bryan. “Eliot and ‘Race’: —. “Yes and No: T. S. Eliot and Jews, Irish, and Blacks.” Chinitz, Western Philosophy.” Chinitz, Com- Companion . 335-49. panion. 53-65.

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Chinitz, David E., ed. A Companion to Cuda, Anthony. “The Poet and the Eliot, T. S. “Cows” [poem]. In “Un- T. S. Eliot . Malden, MA: Wiley- Pressure Chamber: Eliot’s Life.” published Poem by T. S. Eliot Reveals Blackwell, 2009. Chinitz, Companion . 3-14. his Dislike for Cows” by Jack Mal- vern. The Times (London) 5 June —. “A Vast Wasteland? Eliot and Däumer, Elisabeth. “The Enigma of 2009. Popular Culture.” Chinitz, Compan- ‘.’” Chinitz, Com- ion. 66-78. panion . 168-78. —. Let Us Go Then, You and I: Selected Poems . London: Faber, 2009. Christensen, Timothy. “Modernism Day, Thomas. “‘Between the concep- singular plural.” Rev. of Modernism, tion / And the creation’: T. S. Eliot’s —. The Letters of T. S. Eliot . Vol. 1: Memory, and Desire: T. S. Eliot and The Hollow Men .” English: The Jour- 1898-1922. Rev. ed. Ed. Virginia Woolf , by Gabrielle McIntire. nal of the English Association 57 and Hugh Haughton. London: Faber, Studies in the Novel 41.2 (2009): 241- [219] (2008): 235-44. 2009. 52. Dettmar, Kevin J. H. “‘An occupation —. The Letters of T. S. Eliot. Vol. 2: Cole, Sarah. “Enchantment, Disen- for the saint’: Eliot as a Religious 1923-1925. Ed. Valerie Eliot and chantment, War, Literature” [treats Thinker.” Chinitz, Companion . 363- Hugh Haughton. London: Faber, 2009. The Waste Land ]. PMLA 124 75. (2009):1632-47. Eliot, T. S., and Axel Scheffler (illus- D’Haen, Theo. “Mapping Modernism: trator). Old Possum’s Book of Practi- Collett, Anne. “Sex and the City: Gaining in Translation—Martinus cal Cats . Boston: Harcourt Children’s Eliot’s and Woolf’s Vision of Post- Nijhoff and T. S. Eliot.” Comparative Books, 2009. WWI London.” Virginia Woolf Mis- Critical Studies 6.1 (2009): 21-41. cellany 75 (2009):10-13. Ellis, Steve. T. S. Eliot: A Guide for Dickey, Frances. “Prufrock and Other the Perplexed . London: Continuum, Cooper, John Xiros. “In Times of Observations: A Walking Tour.” 2009. Emergency: Eliot’s Social Criticism.” Chinitz, Companion. 120-32. Chinitz, Companion . 287-98. Faltejskova, Monika. , Diepeveen, Leonard. “Taking Litera- T. S. Eliot and the Gender Dynamics Coyle, Michael. “‘Fishing, with the ture Seriously: Essays to 1927.” of Modernism: Tracing Nightwood. arid plain behind me’: Difficulty, De- Chinitz, Companion . 263-74. London: Routledge, 2009. ferral, and Form in The Waste Land .” Chinitz, Companion . 157-67. Doherty, Donna. “Cats , Everyone’s Farahbakhish, Alireza. “Eliot and Favorite Meow Mix of Song, Dance Postmodern Selfhood.” AUMLA: —. “‘We Speak to India’: T. S. Eliot’s and T. S. Eliot, Comes to the Shubert Journal of the Australasian Universi- Wartime Broadcasts and the Frontiers Theater.” New Haven Register 11 Jan. ties Language and Literature Associa- of Culture.” Broadcasting Modernism. 2009. tion 111 (2009): 69-86. Ed. Debra Rae Cohen, Michael Coyle, and Jane Lewty. Gainesville: UP of Downum, Dennell M. “Apeneck Faulk, Barry J. “T. S. Eliot and the Florida, 2009. 176-95. Sweeney’s Penitential Path.” Yeats Symbolist City.” Chinitz, Companion . Eliot Review 26.1 (2009): 2-16. 27-39. Crangle, Sara. Rev. of Modernism, Memory, and Desire: T. S. Eliot and Duncan, Roger. “Drinks and Dinner Feinstein, Elaine. “Eliot: Man of An- Virginia Woolf , by Gabrielle McIntire. with Kierkegaard” [on The Cocktail guished Letters.” Rev. of The Letters The Review of English Studies 60.246 Party ]. Logos: A Journal of Catholic of T. S. Eliot , Vols. 1 and 2. The Times (2009): 672-74. Thought and Culture. 12.2 (2009): [London] 14 Nov. 2009: 9. 125-43. Crawford, Robert. Rev. of T. S. Eliot , Fidecaro, Agnese. “‘But who is that by Craig Raine. The Yearbook of Dustin, Lheisa. “Theravada Buddhist on the other side of you?’: Translation, English Studies 39.1/2 (2009): 205-06. Influence in The Waste Land ?” Notes Materiality, and the Question of the and Queries 56/254.3 (2009): 410-20. Other in Anita Desai’s Clear Light of Crick, Brian. “D. H. Lawrence, ‘An Day. ” Translation of Cultures . Ed. Opportunity and a Test’: The Leavis- Edwards, A. S. G. “T. S. Eliot and Petra Rüdiger, Konrad Gross. Amster- Eliot Controversy Revis- Friends: Noctes Binanianae (1939).” dam: Rodopi, 2009. 183-98. ited.” Cambridge Quarterly The Book Collector 58.4 (2009): 503- 38.2 (2009): 130-46. 10.

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Flanzbaum, Hilene. Rev. of The Inter- Graham, T. Austin. “T. S. Eliot and Heims, Neil. “Cultural Contexts.” national Reception of T. S. Eliot , by Ubiquitous Music, 1909-1922.” Music Riquelme, Critical Insights . 23-39. Elisabeth Däumer and Shyamal Bag- and Literary Modernism: Critical Es- chee, eds. in Tran- says and Comparative Studies . Ed. Holbrook, Peter. “Vulgar, Sentimen- sition, 1880-1920 52.4 (2009): 494-97. Robert McParland. Newcastle upon tal, and Liberal Criticism: F. J. Furni- Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2009. 194- vall and T. S. Eliot on Shakespeare “Four Quartets : Recitation of Poems 209. and Chaucer.” Modern Philology by T. S. Eliot—Donmar Warehouse— 107.1 (2009): 96-125. 14 Jan-17 Jan. Read by Stephen Grant, Michael. T. S. Eliot . Vols. 1 Dillane.” Theatre Record 29.1 (2009): and 2. [Rpt. of T. S. Eliot: The Critical Hussey, Mark. Rev. of Modernism, 23. Heritage. Vols. 1 and 2, 1982.] Memory, and Desire: T. S. Eliot and London: Routledge, 2009. Virginia Woolf , by Gabrielle McIntire. Gharabegian, Alina. “The Reappear- Woolf Studies Annual 15 (2009): 221- ance of God: Matthew Arnold and Greig, Geordie. “T. S. Eliot Widow 25. T. S. Eliot in Dialogue.” Diss. City U Exults in his Poetry Reading.” Eve- of New York, 2008. DAI-A 69.5 ning Standard [London] 1 July 2009. Ilton, Phil. “‘To murder and create’: (2008): item AAT 3310665. The Quotable Eliot.” Literature & Grove, Robin. “Ash-Wednesday: Get- Aesthetics 18.1 (2008): 162-71. Gish, Nancy K. “Eliot’s Critical Re- ting Nowhere.” Literature & Aesthet- ception: ‘The quintessence of twenty- ics 18.1 (2008): 59-68. Irwin, William. “Prufrock’s Question first-century poetry.’” Chinitz, Com- and Roquentin’s Answer.” Philosophy panion . 436-48. Harack, Katrina. “Temporal, Mne- and Literature 33.1 (2009): 184-92. monic, and Aesthetic ‘Eruptions’: —. Rev. of The International Recep- Recontextualizing Eliot and the Mod- Izzo, David Garrett. The Influence of tion of T. S. Eliot , by Elisabeth ern Literary Artwork.” Yeats Eliot Mysticism on 20th Century British and Däumer and Shyamal Bagchee, eds. Review 26.2 (2009): 2-15. American Literature . Jefferson: Modernism/Modernity 16.4 (2009): McFarland, 2009. 827-29. Harding, Jason. “Keeping Critical Thought Alive: Eliot’s Editorship of —. Rev. of The Making of T. S. Eliot: —. “‘The Word within the World’: the Criterion .” Chinitz, Companion . A Study of the Literary Influences , by Ash-Wednesday and the ‘Ariel Po- 388-98. Joseph Maddrey. CHOICE: Current ems.’” Rpt. from Time in the Poetry of Reviews for Academic Libraries 47.2 T. S. Eliot: A Study in Structure and —. Rev. of Guardians of the Human- (2009): 304-05. Theme , by Nancy K. Gish (1981). ist Legacy: The Classicism of T. S. Riquelme, Critical Insights . 224-66. Eliot’s ‘Criterion’ Network and its Jacobson, Jean Alice. “How Should Relevance to Our Postmodern World , Poetry Look? The Printer’s Measure Goldfarb, Lisa. Rev. of Aristotle and by Jeroen Vanheste, and The Interna- and Poet’s Line.” Diss. U of Minne- Modernism: Aesthetic Affinities of T. tional Reception of T. S. Eliot , by sota, 2008. DAI-A 69.9 (2009): item S. Eliot, , and Virginia Elisabeth Däumer and Shyamal Bag- AAT 3324409. Woolf , by Edna Rosenthal. Wallace chee, eds. Modernism/Modernity 16.4 Stevens Journal 33.1 (2009): 135-38. (2009): 824-27. Jaffe, Aaron. “‘T. S. Eliot rates socko!’ Modernism, Obituary, and Goldman, Michael. “Fear in the Way: Hargrove, Nancy Duvall. T. S. Eliot’s Celebrity.” Chinitz, Companion . 423- The Design of Eliot’s Drama.” Rpt. Parisian Year . Gainesville: UP of 35. from Eliot in His Time: Essays on the Florida, 2009. Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary Jain, Manju. “Eliot’s Legacy to Cin- of The Waste Land, ed. A. Walton Hart, Josephine. “The Wasteland That ema.” Literature & Aesthetics 18.1 Litz (1973). Riquelme, Critical In- Was T. S. Eliot’s First Marriage.” (2008): 122-34. sights . 294-316. Rev. of The Letters of T. S. Eliot , Vols. 1 and 2. Evening Standard Jasper, David. Rev. of Redeeming Goodspeed-Chadwick, Julie. “Sexual [London] 5 Nov. 2009: 13. Time: T. S. Eliot’s Four Quartets, by Politics in The Waste Land : Treatment Kenneth Paul Kramer. Theology of Women and Their Bodies in ‘A Hauck, Christina. “Not One, Not Two: 112.868 (2009): 314-15. Game of Chess’ and ‘The Fire Ser- Eliot and Buddhism.” Chinitz, Com- mon.’” CLA Journal 52.4 (2009): 382- panion . 40-52. Jessup, Frances. Christopher Fry: A 92. Dramatic Reassessment of the

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Fry/Eliot Era of British Verse Drama. Levenson, Michael. “Eliot’s Politics.” Evil in . Bethesda: Academica Press, 2009. Chinitz, Companion . 376-87. Firenze: Olschki, 2009.

Johnson, Allan. “Voices and Lan- Longabucco, Matthew. “Degrees of Marlowe, Sam. “Enduring Intensity at guage in T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Difficulty: Modern American Poetry Heart of Eliot’s Poetry.” Rev. of Land .” Riquelme, Critical Insights . Explained and Unexplained.” Diss. Stephen Dillane’s Reading of Four 74-89. New York U, 2009. DAI-A 70.1 Quartets at Donmar Warehouse. The (2009): item AAT 3342395. Times [London] 16 Jan. 2009: 34. Jones, Susan. “‘At the still point’: T. S. Eliot, Dance, and Modernism.” Longenbach, James. “Radical Innova- Marsh, Alec, and Elisabeth Däumer. Dance Research Journal 41.2 (2009): tion and Pervasive Influence: The “Pound and Eliot.” American Literary 31-51. Waste Land .” Chinitz, Companion . Scholarship 2007 . Ed. David J. Nord- 449-59. loh and Gary Scharnhorst. Durham, Julius, Anthony. Rev. of The Letters of NC: Duke UP 2009. T. S. Eliot. Vol. 2. Sunday Telegraph Low, Valentine. “Cats Help Take [London] 13 Dec. 2009: 31. T. S. Eliot from the Waste Land to Marucci, Franco. “T. S. Eliot, the Top of the Mainstream.” The Times Melodramatic and Armadale .” Ar- Kay, Richard. “Cat Is Out of the Bag [London] 9 Oct. 2009: 27. madale: Wilkie Collins and the Dark for Eliot.” Daily Mail [London] 15 Threads of Life. Ed. Mariacon- Jan. 2009: 39. Lowe, Peter. “Musing on the King’s cetta Costantini. Rome, Italy: Aracne, Wreck: T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land 2009. 287-313. Kennedy, Sarah. “The ‘unknown, re- in Vladimir Nabokov’s Pale Fire .” membered gate’: Four Quartets as Nabokov Online Journal 2 (2008). Mathias, Susan. “Translator’s Intro- Spiritual Biography.” Literature & duction to ‘Introduction to T. S. Eliot,’ Aesthetics 18.1 (2008): 84-97. —. “Shelleyan Identity in T. S. Eliot’s by George Seferis.” Modern- ‘The Love Song of J. Alfred Pru- ism/Modernity 16.1 (2009): 143-45. Kim Becker, Christina. “Mystical frock.’” Romanticism: The Journal of Modernisms: Trauma and the Poetics Romantic Culture and Criticism 15.1 Matthews, Steven. “Provincialism and of Ineffability in T. S. Eliot, Rainer (2009): 65-74. the Modern Diaspora: T. S. Eliot and Maria Rilke, and W. B. Yeats.” Diss. David Jones.” English: The Journal of Harvard U, 2008. DAI 69.10 (2009): MacDermott, Patrick. A Convergence the English Association item AAT 3334753. of the Creative and the Critical: A 28.220 (2009): 57-72. Reading of the Novels of Henry Green Kim, Dal-Yong. “T. S. Eliot’s ‘still through the Literary Criticism of T. S. Mayer, John T. “Playing at Relation- point’ and New England Puritanism.” Eliot and F. R. Leavis . Oxford: Lang, ship.” Rpt. from T. S. Eliot’s Silent Mystical Themes and Occult 2009. Voices , by John T. Mayer (1989). Ri- in Modern Poetry: quelme, Critical Insights . 123-64. Wordsworth, Whitman, Hopkins, Maddrey, Joseph. The Making of T. S. Yeats, Pound, Eliot, and Plath . Eliot: A Study of Literary Influences . McDonald, Gail. “Eliot and the New Lewiston: Edwin Mellen, 2009. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2009. Critics.” Chinitz, Companion . 411-22.

LeCarner, Thomas Michael. “T. S. Malamud, Randy. “Eliot’s 1930s McInerney, Stephen. “‘The great ca- Eliot, Dharma Bum: Buddhist Lessons Plays: The Rock, Murder in the Ca- tastrophe to our letters’?—Eliot, His in The Waste Land .” Philosophy and thedral, and .” Influence and its American Critique.” Literature 33.2 (2009): 402-16. Chinitz, Companion . 239-50. Literature & Aesthetics 18.1 (2008): 152-61. Lehman, Robert S. “Eliot’s Last Malvern, Jack. “Unpublished Poem by Laugh: The Dissolution of Satire in T. S. Eliot Reveals his Dislike for Menand, Louis. “Poetry as Poetry.” The Waste Land. ” Journal of Modern Cows.” The Times [London] 5 June Rpt. from Discovering Modernism: Literature 32.2 (2009): 65-79. 2009. T. S. Eliot and His Context , by Louis Menand (1987). Riquelme, Critical Lemon, Rebecca. “Eliot, T. S.” The Manganaro, Marc. “Mind, Myth, and Insights . 93-122. Blackwell Companion to the Bible in Culture: Eliot and Anthropology.” Literature . Ed. Rebecca Lemon, Chinitz, Companion . 79-90. Meyers, Jeffrey. “Shelley and The Emma Mason, et al. Oxford: Wiley- Waste Land .” Notes on Contemporary Blackwell, 2009. Marchesi, Maria Serena. Eliot’s Literature 39.4 (2009): 7. Perpetual Struggle: The Language of

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Monk, Craig. Rev. of Theorists of Nichol, John T. Reader’s Guide to Query, Patrick. “‘The pleasures of : T. S. Eliot, T. E. Thomas Stearns Eliot . New Delhi: higher vices’: Sexuality in Eliot’s Hulme, , by Rebecca Centrum Press, 2009. Work.” Chinitz, Companion . 350-62. Beasley. Rocky Mountain Review 63.2 (2009): 272-73. Noel-Tod, Jeremy. Rev. of The Letters Raine, Craig. “Was He Anti-Semitic?” of T. S. Eliot. Vols. 1 and 2. Daily Rev. of The Letters of T. S. Eliot, Montgomery, Marion. With Walker Telegraph [London] 7 Nov. 2009: 21. Vols. 1 and 2. Spectator Book Club 11 Percy at the Tupperware Party: In Nov. 2009. Company with Flannery O’Connor, O’Dwyer, Kathleen. “T. S. Eliot.” The T. S. Eliot, and Others. South Bend, Possibility of Love: An Interdiscipli- Rainey, Lawrence. “Eliot’s Poetics: IN: St. Augustine’s, 2009. nary Analysis . Newcastle upon Tyne: Classicism and Histrionics.” Chinitz, Cambridge Scholars, 2009. 174-95. Companion . 301-10. Morgenstern, John D. “A Figure be- hind T. S. Eliot: W. H. Schofield.” Oser, Lee. “Coming to Terms with Reeves, Gareth. “‘The inexplicable Notes and Queries 56/254.3 (2009): Four Quartets .” Chinitz, Companion . mystery of sound’: Coriolan , Minor 420-24. 216-27. Poems, Occasional Verses.” Chinitz, Companion . 204-15. Morton, John. “T. S. Eliot and Tenny- —. “The Soul’s Mysterious Errand.” son.” Tennyson Among the Poets: Rpt. from T. S. Eliot and American Riquelme, John Paul, ed. Critical Bicentenary Essays . Ed. Robert Poetry , by Lee Oser (1998). Ri- Insights: T. S. Eliot. Pasadena: Salem Douglas-Fairhurst and Seamus Perry. quelme, Critical Insights . 267-93. Press, 2009. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2009. 375-89. Painter, Kirsten Blythe. “The ‘Prose —. “Critical Reception and Influ- Murphet, Julian. “Eliot’s Mechanism Tradition’ in Poetry: The Self in ence.” Riquelme, Critical Insights . 40- of Sensibility: Poetic Form and Media Achmatova, Eliot, and Tol- 54. Change.” Literature & Aesthetics 18.1 stoj.” Russian, Croatian and Serbian, (2008): 31-42. Czech and Slovak, Polish Literature —. “On T. S. Eliot.” Riquelme, Criti- 66.1 (2009): 51-64. cal Insights . 3-7. Murphy, James Stephen. “Revision and the Making of Modernism.” Diss. Perl, Jeffrey M. “Disambivalent Quat- —. “‘Prufrock,’ ‘Gerontion,’ and U of California, Berkeley, 2008. DAI- rains.” Chinitz, Companion . 133-44. Fragmented Monologues.” Rpt. from A 69.9 (2009): item AAT 3331706. Harmony of Dissonances, by John Polka, Brayton. Rev. of Aristotle and Paul Riquelme (1991). Riquelme, Musgrave, David. “Eliot’s Menippean Modernism: Aesthetic Affinities of T. Critical Insights . 166-83. Waste Land: Enthymemic Irony and S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, and Virginia the Nekyia.” Literature & Aesthetics Woolf , by Edna Rosenthal. The Rollyson, Carl. “Rebecca West as 18.1 (2008): 43-58. European Legacy 14.4 (2009): 490- Artist and Intellectual: Roaming Out- 92. side the Herd.” [compares Eliot’s pub- Mutter, Matthew. Rev. of The Modern lic sphere]. Studies in the Humanities Dilemma: Wallace Stevens, T. S. Eliot, Pollard, Jacqueline Anne. “The Gen- 35.2 (2008): 167-79. and Humanism , by Leon Surette. Wal- der of Belief: Women and Christianity lace Stevens Journal 33.1 (2009): 133- in T. S. Eliot and Djuna Barnes.” Diss. Rosenthal, Edna. Aristotle and Mod- 35. U of Oregon, 2009. DAI-A 70.11 ernism: Aesthetic Affinities of T. S. (2009): item AAT 3384675. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, and Virginia Neumayr, Celia Clay. “Negation and Woolf . Eastbourne, UK: Sussex Aca- Affirmation in the Plays of T. S. Pondrom, Cyrena. “Conflict and Con- demic, 2008. Eliot.” Diss. U of Dallas, 2009. DAI-A cealment: Eliot’s Approach to Women 70.5 (2009): item AAT 3358453. and Gender.” Chinitz, Companion . Rudman, Mark. “Reading T. S. Eliot 323-34. on My Cousin’s Farm in the Gati- Newcomb, John Timberman. “Making neau.” Rpt. from American Poetry Modernism: Eliot as Publisher.” Pritchard, William H. On Poetry and Review (2004). The Book of Samuel: Chinitz, Companion . 399-410. Poets . [Includes reprints of “Eliot’s Essays on Poetry and Imagination . Mischievous Prose,” 2008; rev. of Evanston: Northwestern UP, 2009. Varieties of Metaphysical Poetry , ed. Ronald Schuchard, 1994.] Athens, OH: Swallow, 2009.

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Schwartz, Sanford. “Eliot’s Ghosts: Smith, Carol H. “Eliot’s ‘Divine’ Tommasini, Anthony. “Eliot’s and Tradition and its Transformations.” Comedies: The Cocktail Party, The Beethoven’s Voices Yoked.” New Chinitz, Companion . 15-26. Confidential Clerk, and The Elder York Times 4 Dec. 2009: C21(L). Statesman .” Chinitz, Companion . 251- Scutts, Joanna. “Battlefield Cemeter- 62. “T. S. Eliot Rejected Orwell’s ‘Trot- ies, Pilgrimage, and Literature After skyite’ Animal Farm .” Daily News the First World War: The Burial of the Souter, Andrew. “Another Possible Egypt 31 Mar. 2009. Dead.” English Literature in Transi- Source for T. S. Eliot’s ‘Handful of tion, 1880-1920 52.4 (2009): 387-416. Dust.’” Notes and Queries “T. S. Eliot’s Seafront Shelter Wins 56/254.3 (2009): 420. Listed Status.” Kent News [London] Seferis, George. “Introduction to T. S. 15 Oct. 2009. Eliot by George Seferis.” Trans. Susan Spurr, Barry. “The Legacy of Eliot’s Matthias. Modernism/Modernity 16.1 Poetry.” Literature & Aesthetics 18.1 “T. S. Eliot’s Waste Land Shelter (2009): 146-60. (2008): 19-30. Wins Listed Status.” The Times [Lon- don] 16 Oct. 2009: 29. Seiff, Gemma. “The Review Sri, P. S. “Upanishadic Perceptions in Perspective.” Riquelme, Critical In- T. S. Eliot’s Poetry and Drama.” Vermeulen, Pieter. Rev. of Between sights . 15-19. Rocky Mountain Review 62.2 (2008): Positivism and T. S. Eliot: 34-49. and T. E. Hulme , by Flemming Olsen. Sexton, David. “Long-Lost Letters of Orbis Litterarum 64.1 (2009): 75. a Great Poet.” Rev. of The Letters of Stayer, Jayme, Andrew Powers, and T. S. Eliot, Vols. 1 and 2. Evening Rhiannon Lathy. “T. S. Eliot Bibliog- Videnov, Valentin A. “Human Voices Standard [London] 5 Nov. 2009: 35. raphy 2008.” Time Present 68 (2009): in Silent Seas: A Reading of Eliot’s 11-16. ‘Love Song.’” Explicator 67.2 (2009): Sharpe, Tony. “‘Having to construct’: 126-30. Dissembly Lines in the ‘Ariel’ Poems Stayer, Jayme. “Searching for the and Ash-Wednesday .” Chinitz, Com- Early Eliot: Inventions of the March Vos, Nelvin. “T. S. Eliot, The Cocktail panion . 191-203 Hare. ” Chinitz, Companion. 107-19. Party .” Inter-Actions: Relationships of Religion and Drama . Lanham: UP of Sherry, Beverley. “The Legacy of T. Stillman, Anne. “Sweeney among the America, 2009. S. Eliot to Milton Studies.” Literature Marionettes.” Essays in Criticism 59.2 & Aesthetics 18.1 (2008): 135-51. (2009): 116-41. Whistler, Daniel. Rev. of Redeeming Time: T. S. Eliot’s Four Quartets, by Sherry, Vincent. “‘Where are the ea- Taniguchi, Marilyn. Rev. of Old Pos- Kenneth Paul Kramer. Literature & gles and the trumpets?’: Imperial De- sum’s Book of Practical Cats , by T. S. Theology 22.2 (2008): 237-52. cline and Eliot’s Development.” Eliot . School Library Journal Chinitz, Companion . 91-104 55.11(2009): 130. Womack, James. “Sully Prudhomme’s ‘Juin’ in T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Shuman, R. Baird. “Biography of T. S. Taylor, Daniel. “Rest for the Weary.” Land .” Notes and Queries 56/254.3 Eliot.” Rpt. from Dictionary of World Rev. of Dove Descending: A Journey (2009): 416-17. Biography: The 20 th Century (1999). into T. S. Eliot’s Four Quartets, by Riquelme, Critical Insights . 8-14. Thomas Howard. Books & Culture Wood, Michael. “A Lot of Travail.” 15.1 (2009): 41-3. Rev. of The Letters of T. S. Eliot. Vol Silva, Reinaldo. “T. S. Eliot and the 2. London Review of Books 31.23 Premio Camoes: A Brief Honeymoon Thibodeaux, Annette B. Rev. of A (2009): 5-8. and Anointment of Portuguese Fascist Student’s Guide to T. S. Eliot , by Politics.” Yeats Eliot Review 26.2 Naomi Pasachoff. Catholic Library (2009): 16-23. World 79.3 (2009): 243.

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President David Chinitz Department of English / Loyola University Chicago / 6525 N. Sheridan Rd. / Chicago, IL 60626 (773) 508–2789 / [email protected]

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Time Present 16 Summer 2010