Hardware Components Computing Infrastructure Components Servers Clients LAN & WLAN Internet Connectivity Storage Backup Integration is the Key ! Security

Data Network Management Today’s Computer Computer Model: Computer Model

Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards Processing: CPU executes the Output: monitor, printer, fax machine Storage: hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape

Von Neumann architecture - Wiki Article (15 min YouTube Video) Components Computer Components Components Computer Components

CPU Memory Hard Disk Mother Board CD/DVD Drives Adaptors Power Supply Display Keyboard Mouse Network Interface I/O ports CPU CPU

CPU – () consists of three parts: • Execute programs/instructions: the machine language • Move from one memory location to another • Communicate between other parts of a PC • Arithmetic operations: add, subtract, multiply, divide • Logic operations: and, or, xor • Floating point operations: real number manipulation Registers CPU Architecture

See How the CPU Works In One Lesson (20 min YouTube Video) CPU CPU CPU speed is influenced by several factors: Chip Manufacturing Technology: nm (2002: 130 nm, 2004: 90nm, 2006: 65 nm, 2008: 45nm, 2010:32nm, Latest is 22nm) Clock speed: Gigahertz (Typical : 2 – 3 GHz, Maximum 5.5 GHz) Front Side : MHz (Typical: 1333MHz , 1666MHz) Word size : 32-bit or 64-bit word sizes : Level 1 (64 KB per core), Level 2 (256 KB per core) caches on die. Now Level 3 (2 MB to 8 MB shared) cache also on die Instruction set size: (CISC), RISC : CPU Internal Architecture (Ivy Bridge, Haswell) Single Core/Multi Core

Multi Threading Hyper Threading vs. Multicore Processor Multi Socket

Heat Dissipation: Typically W for Desktop and Server CPUs is 80-140W Multi-Core CPU Multi-Core Processor Architecture

Single dual and multi core processor (4 min YouTube Video) CPU Cache L1, L2 & L3 Cache

DRAM used for main memory has latency, up to 120 ns. The cache is constructed from more expensive, but significantly faster, SRAM, which has latencies around 10 ns. (Disk seek 10,000,000 ns) CPU Cache L1, L2 & L3 Cache

Internal (On Die) and External Cache Level 1 (L1) – Built into CPU Core – 64 KB or 128KB – Instruction and Data Cache Level 2 (L2) – Built into CPU Core – 256KB or 512 KB Level 3 (L3) – Shared by all CPU Cores – 2MB to 8MB CPU FSB Front Side Bus CPU CPU Instruction Set

CISC Technology (, AMD ..) – Complex Instruction Set Computing – Conventional /servers – Many of the instructions are not used

RISC Technology (Power PC ..) – Reduced Instruction Set Computing – Small subset of instructions – Increases speed – Programs with few complex instructions § Graphics § Engineering Computation CPU Popular Processors

Desktop Processor: Intel i3, i5, i7 Laptop Processor: Intel i3, i5, i7 Mobile Server Processor: Intel Ivy Bridge 8 Core , IBM Power PC Smartphone Processor: Based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) architecture, , A5 and A6 in iPhone and iPad, Cortex A-9 quad-core processor in Galaxy Note 2 Processor : Intel’s processor for Mobile Internet Devices QUESTIONS? References References

Intel Desktop Processors: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_Core

Intel Server Processors: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xeon Assignment 2 Assignment 2

1. Tabulate the differences between i3, i5 and i7 processors. Which processor is being used in your lab machines? Do you feel, it is a good decision? 2. Which CPU are you using in your laptop and mobile phone? What is the TFLOP and power rating of these CPUs? 3. Login to Linux partition of your laptop and find out the CPU utilization for various cores, memory utilization, load average, power consumption and CPU temperature. Note down the date and time you have taken the data. 4. What are the key differences between haswell and ivy bridge ? 5. Using the standard power consumption of a processor, can you compute how much would be spent in the recurring cost of running a data centre with 1000 dual cpu servers per year (Take electricity cost to be Rs. 9/- per KW-Hr unit). Compare it to the cost of the servers (about Rs 3 lakh per server).