Structures of Quick Review What are the two kinds of vascular and what are their jobs? What are the four groups of plants and the example for each? Why do provide a survival advantage? (2 things) Why are & advantageous? What is the structure on all plants that helps them avoid drying out? What lives in the ? Explain the life cycle of all plants. Systems

** Just like we have body systems to different jobs (circulatory, respiratory, etc.), so do plants

1. System - made up of only 2. System - stems and

** The vascular tissues of the two systems are connected so the / go through the whole plant Roots - Functions

Mostly underground Supply plants with water and dissolved minerals from the (move up ) Hold plants securely in the soil Store extra food () made during (moved down the ) Roots - Structure

Outer layer of cells - Center of root holds Water diffuses from epidermis to xylem Tip of root - Root Cap Root cap produces slime to help root push through the soil as it grows longer Roots - 2 Types

Taproot (found mostly in dicots) – one main root growing downward with tiny small roots that out – get water deep underground ()

Fibrous (found mostly in monocots) – several roots spread out from the base of the stem – they’re all about the same size – get water close to the surface (grass) Stems - Function

Usually located above ground Connects the roots to leaves and flowers Supports the plants body Leaves get better sunlight Flowers are off the ground to be closer to animals for / Some stems store materials () Stems - 2 Types

Herbaceous Stems – soft, thin and flexible – Ex: , wildflowers,

Woody Stems – rigid stems made of and – Ex: and Leaves - Function

Make food for the plant (sugar) Absorb Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

*Photosynthesis Equation*

Water + CO2 + energy --> sugar +O2 Leaves - Structure

Outer surface - covered in a cuticle to prevent water loss Epidermis - single layer of cells beneath the cuticle (light can pass through)

Stomata: openings in the epidermis that let CO2 into the Guard Cells: open and close the stomata Palisade Layer - one of the middle layers that has many (for photosynthesis!) Spongy Layer - where xylem & phloem are found Leaf Diagram Gas Exchange in Leaves

CO2 enters the plant’s leaves through the stomata Stomata: holes in the leaf’s epidermis; surrounded by guard cells which open and close the stomata Water can also escape through these stomata (BAD!). This loss of water from leaves is called . Flowers - Function

Adaptations for sexual Colorful flowers attract animals for pollination Flowers produce , which animals and thus pollinate the plant Flowers - Basic Parts

4 Basic Parts: - modified leaves that make up the outermost ring of to protect the - broad, flat, thin leaf-like parts of a flower; attract animals to pollinate - male reproductive structure; made up of a filament and an anther Pistil - female reproductive structure on a flower; made up of the , style and Flower Diagram Pollination & Fertilization

Pollination: the transfer of pollen from the male to female structure on a plant

Fertilization: when a sperm fuses with an inside an Pollination & Fertilization Flower to to Seed From Seed to Plant

Seeds can be dormant (inactive) for long periods of time if the environment is not suitable. Once they are planted in a good environment (water, air, warmth), the seeds germinate (sprout)