Dictionary of cultivated and their regions of diversity Second edition revised of: A.. Zeven and .. Zhukovsky, 1975, Dictionary of cultivated plants and their centres of diversity ' -'\: 1~ Li

Dictionary of cultivated plants and their regions of diversity

Excluding most ornamentals, and lower plants

A.C. Zeven andJ.M., de Wet

K pudoc

Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation

Wageningen - 1982 ~—^/-/- /+<>?- •/ CIP-GEGEVENS

Zeven, A.C.

Dictionary ofcultivate plants andthei rregion so diversity: excludingmos tornamentals ,fores t treesan d lowerplant / A.C .Zeve n andJ.M.J ,d eWet .- Wageninge n : Pudoc. -11 1 Herz,uitg . van:Dictionar of cultivatedplant s andthei centreso fdiversit y /A.C .Zeve n andP.M . Zhukovsky, 1975.- Me t index,lit .opg . ISBN 90-220-0785-5 SISO63 2UD C63 3 Trefw.:plantenteelt .

ISBN 90-220-0785-5

©Centre forAgricultura Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen,1982 .

Nopar t of thisboo k mayb reproduced andpublishe d in any , y print, photoprint,microfil m or any othermean swithou t written permission from thepublisher . Contents

Preface 7 History of thewor k 8 Origins of anddomesticatio n ofplant s Cradles of agriculture and regions of diversity 21 1 Chinese-Japanese Region 32 2 Indochinese-IndonesianRegio n 48 3 Australian Region 65 4 Hindustani Region 70 5 Central AsianRegio n 81 6 NearEaster n Region 87 7 Mediterranean Region 103 8 African Region 121 9 European-Siberian Region 148 10 South American Region 164 11 CentralAmerica n andMexica n Region 185 12 NorthAmerica n Region 199 Specieswithou t an identified region 207 References 209 Indexo fbotanica l names 228 Preface

The aimo f thiswor k ist ogiv e thereade r quick reference toth e regionso f diversity ofcultivate d plants.Fo r important ,region so fdiversit y of related wild areals opresented .Wil d species areofte nusefu l sources of genes to improve thevalu eo fcrops . Species cultivated primarily asornamental s and timber crops,an dusefu l lowerplan t species areno t included. Taxa are arranged alphabetically firstb y family,secondl yb y genusan d thirdlyb y specieswithi n genera. emor e common taxonomiesynonyms ,a s well asth ebette rknow n (English)name s are listed.Taxonom y isbase d pri­ marily onWillis' s dictionary (1966)an d theBail yHortorium ,Hortu s Third (1976). Somatic chromosomenumber s and formulae arepresente d whereknown . Most of thechromosom enumber s arederive d fromBolkhovskik et al. (1969). Where thechromosom enumbe r could notb e traced,a spac eha sbee n leftopen . Chromosomenumbe r and genomeconstitution sma y indicate the relationships of aspecies . Thewor k includedman y more species thanw e could know.Corrections ,crit ­ icisms and additions including datao nchromosom enumbe rwoul d behighl y appreciated. They should be sent toth esenio r author,Institut e ofPlan t Breeding (I..P.), Agricultural University,P..B . 386,670 0A JWageningen , theNetherlands . Wehop e that thiswor kma yhel p theplan tbreede r toeas e shortageso f andothe r agricultural products. ehop e that itwil l also encourage theestablishmen t ofnatura lwil d reserves inanticipatio n ofneed s forwil dgenes .

Anton C.Zeve n JanM.J .d eWe t History of the work


In196 8Prof .P.M . Zhukovskijpublishe d apape r 'New centres oforigi nan d new genecentre s of cultivated plants including specifically endemicmicro - centres of species closely allied tocultivate d species'.Thi spape rwa s issued inBotanica l Journal,Mosko v 53:430-460 andwa s abstracted inPlan t BreedingAbstract s(1-968) .I wrot e toProf .Zhukovski jaskin gwhethe rh e would prepare anEnglis h version.H ewrot ebac k thath ewa spreparin ga booklet inRussia no n the 'World genofund ofplant s forbreeding :worl d gene centres ofcultivate d plants and theirwil d progenitors',whic hwa spublish ­ ed in1970 .Th etex twa s translated by DrE.E .Leppik ,Researc hBotanis t of theNe w CropsResearc h Branch of theU SDepartmen t of Agriculture,Beltsville , Maryland,wh o invitedm e toedi t themanuscrip t and tosee k apublisher . Thepublisher s suggested that thewor k beextende d to includemor eculti ­ vated plants.Prof .Zhukovski j agreed tothi sproposa l and thewor k hasno w been enlarged from 700specie s to about 2300species . A.C. Zeven


InOctobe r 1975m y co-author,Professo r DrP.M . Zhukovskij died at Leningrad after alon and fruitful lifewhic hh ededicate d tocultivate d plants:thei rbotany ,thei r and their agriculture and use.H e worked almost toth elas t dayo fhi s tosprea d knowledge of cultivated plants.A fewmonth sbefor ehi s death,h e received copieso f the first edi­ tiono f thisDictionar y andh eexpresse d hishappines swit h thework . In1979 ,Pudo c informed me that thestoc k of theboo kwa s almost exhausted and that they considered reprinting thework .Howeve r asman y scientists are working oncultivate d crops,man y newdat awer e available for ane wedition . Furthermore,colleague s andmysel fha d discovered mistakes andomission s and soi twa s agoo dopportunit y toprepar e arevision . Ia mver y gratefult o thosewh ohav e suggested additions andimprovements . Tohel p inpreparin g arevise d edition, Iaske d help fromProfesso rJ.M.J . deWet ,Cro pEvolutio n Laboratory,Departmen t ofAgronomy ,Universit y of Illinois,Urbana-Champaign , Illinois,Unite d States.H e is anexcellen ttaxo - nomist of cultivated plants and Iwa sextremel y happy thath e tooku pth e invitation despite abus y life asscientist .Th epresen t editionha s greatly benefited fromhi sencyclopaedi c knowledgeo fcultivate dplants . A.C. Zeven Origins of agriculture and of plants


Manwa sno t always afarmer .Onl y during the last fifteen thousand yearso r soha e learned tosom edegre e tocontro l his food supply.Befor e thead ­ vent of agriculture,ma nwa s ahunte r and food gatherer.Gradually ,however , someo f the species heuse d tohun twer eprotected , and selected species of foodplant swer ebrough t into cultivation.Plan t and animal hus­ bandry were initiated, and theseplant s and eventually becames o dependent onma n that they could no longer compete successfully with their wild relatives fornatura l .The ybecam e domesticated. The antiquity of thisshif t inman' s activities from food gathering to food producing isno t knownwit h certainty.Plan t and animalhusbandr y were probably well established longbefor e noticeable phenotypic changes occurred inspecie s underdomestication , andbecam e preserved in archaeologicalre ­ cords ofman' shistory .B e that as itmay ,ma n had abandoned hisnomadi c food-gathering way of life some 1000 0year s ago foron eo f sedentary food- production insevera l partso fbot h theOl d andNe wWorlds . Inman y regions,eve nwit h ahig h level of agriculture,ma n still gathers wild and semiwild plants or ,suc h asbrambles , ,rasp ­ , , s for food,heat h forbrooms ,woo d forbuildings , fuelo rpaper-making , and grass fordomesti c animals.Howeve rma ndoe sno t depend on theseplants ;h eonl y collects them for economic or recreative reasons. Ifh edepende d on them,h ewoul d grow themo r find asubstitute . Some peoplema y growplant swhil e others collect thesam e species inth e wild. Wema y askwh yma n started tocultivat e plants,wh y he started tod o only 'recently' andwh y only certain plant species orvarietie s weredo ­ mesticated.


Much hasbee nwritte n aboutman' s shift from plant collecting toplan t grow­ ing.Som e authorshav epu t forward 'deterministic'hypotheses ,suc h asa highermenta l orsocia l level leading toth ecultivatio n ofplants ,o rclima ­ ticchange s causing aprogressiv e desiccation of thecountr y and enforcing the application of artificial methods of food production (Spinden,1971 ; MacNeish, 1964a). Sauer (1952),however ,though t that agriculture couldno t have originated solely from chronic food shortage,a s fourcondition sha d to be fulfilled before plant or animalhusbandr y could be initiated: - Previously acquired skills inothe r fields tostar texperiments . - Sedentarywa y ofliving . - Presence ofwoode d lands easier toclea r thansavanna s or .Larg e river-valleys subject toperiodica l flooding areunsuitable ,becaus ema nwa s not ablet ocontro lfloods . - Amarke d diversity ofplan t populations must bepresent ,s otha t alarg e reservoir of genes isavailabl e forselection . 10 ORIGINSO FAGRICULTUR E

Sauer concluded that the ancestors of the earliest were relatively prosperous progressive fishermen living in amil d along freshwaters . Little isknow n about the skills ofth e first ,an d information on thecorrelatio n between earlier fixed dwelling and incipient food production islimited . Theearlies t siteswit h year-round occupationwer ediscovere d in theNil e Valleyo f Upper (1500 0t o1 050 0B.C. )bu t they shown oevi ­ denceo fplan t of animal domestication (Churcher& Smith , 1972). Earlyoccu ­ pation sites found insouther n Africadatin g from 4700 0B.C . (BorderCav e inZululand) ,4 300 0B.C . (Howieson's Poort nearMontagu ,southwes t Cape Province),4 200 0B.C . (RoseCottag e Cavenea r Ladybrand ineaster nOrang e FreeState )belon g to thiscategory .But ,i t isno t clearwhethe r these sites were occupied all theyea rround .Th ebotanica lmateria l associatedwit h them hasno t yetbee n analysed (Dart& Beaumont , 1971;Beaumon t &Boshier , 1972). Siteswher e agriculture developed firstmus thav ebee n in areaswher e plant collectors/hunters/fishermen roamed. Iti smos t likely that they lived in wooded lands forhuntin g ,o rnea rwate r for fishing.Fishin g communities led asedentar y life.Nomad s roam,bu t return tosite sknow n for theirrich ­ ness inanima l and plant food.Thi sma yhav e led to annual occupation of sites for afe wweek sunti l the food supplywa s depleted. On suchsites ,th esoi l may havebecom ebar ebecaus eo fdisturbanc e byman ;paths ,loa m pits,graves , dilapidated mudhouses and abandoned compounds.Nea rwater ,ther ewoul d be natural bare lands such asriverbanks ,gravel ,rocks ,landslide s and esturian plains.Plant s pre-adapted to such environments would colonize them.Aroun d dwellings,man y plantswoul d derive from plant parts collected byma nan d brought home.Plant s adapted todisturbe d habitats areweed y inhabi t and prefer 'open'ric h .The y grow quickly andhav e large food reserves that enables them tosurviv e adverse conditions.Thes e characteristics make them suitable forcultivation .The yma y growwil d inmountain so rhill swit h awid e topographical diversity. Insuc h areaswit hman y microclimates,vari ­ antshav emos t chance tosurvive .Afte r they hadmigrate d into theartifi ­ cialhabitat ,ma nma y have found someusefu l types among them.Som eo fth e plantsma yhav ebee n genotrophes adapting quicker toman-mad e conditions thanexpecte d (Zeven, 1975). Other siteswher e agriculture mayhav e arisenwoul d bemidden s onth e compounds.Man y partso f plants (fruits, ,tubers , )mus thav e been accidently orpurposefull y thrown away.The ymus t have developed into plantswit h aluxuriou s growth on these fertileplace s (Anderson,1952 ; Burkill, 1952;Chang ,1970 ;Engelbrecht ,1916 ;Flannery , 1965;Harla n& d e Wet, 1965;Hawkes , 1969). The sequenceb ywhic h crops arosema yb e summarized asfollows : -Wil d plants collected byman . -Wil d plantsmigrate d into temporary orpermanen t dwelling siteso fma n eitherb y accident asgathere d plant parts orspontaneously . Thismus t have continued for anextremel y longtime . - Plant preadapted todisturbe d habitats colonized areas arounddwellings . Man gathered wanted plant parts from someo f theseweed yplants . -Natura l selectionwa s reduced and selection pressures introduced foradap ­ tation toman-mad ehabitats .Decreas e invariatio nwa s counteractedb y hybridization andmutation ,followe d by isolation,protectio n and conscious selection byman .Selecte d deviants from thewil d phenotypeswoul d survive. This state canb e calledproto-agriculture . - Thedependenc e ofma n onselecte d plants increased insuc h awa y thatwhe n demand exceeded availability,ma n eradicated undesirable plants and started to improveusefu l plants.Whe nma nmove d outside thenatura l rangeo fa ORIGINSO F AGRICULTURE 11 specieso nwhic hh edepended ,h ewa s forced toplant .Thu s man learned to retain seeds andothe r propagules when theplan twa s to growoutsid e its natural range,t opurposefull y prepare ahabita t inorde r torea p abette r harvest of the colonizer,no w turned into .Thi s stage represents in­ cipient agriculture.Near-eradicatio n has led to incipient cultivation of Tabernanthe iboga and Camassialeightlinii . - Cropswer e further improved intentionally by cropping methods.Thi s stage represents effective agriculture. Thechange-ove r from food collector/hunter/fisher to full- agricultur­ istmus t havebee n very gradual.Onc e theproces s started, itbecam epracti ­ cally automatic (Hawkes,1969 )o r self-generating.Thi s gradual change- including thechang e to -resulte d in - less toobtai nmor e food, - peoplebecomin g tied tothe(ir )lan d - spare time forothe r pursuits (MacNeish, 1964). By inventing agriculture,mankin d gained more from solarenergy .Raisin g crops (andhusbandin g animals) areman' smajo rmean s ofexploitin g that form of energy (Rappaport, 1971).


Twokind so forganisms , s and domesticates,prospe r inman-mad ehabitats . adapted tohabitat s not notably disturbed byma n arewild .Amon g wild organisms arekind s adapted tovariou s degrees ofnatura l disturbance. They occupy different positions insera i succession.Plant s atth epionee r end of succession can also invademan' sdisturbe d habitats.Whe n thehabita t iscontinousl y being disturbed byman ,however ,a differen t seto f species becomes established. Plants that arespontaneou s and persistant inhabitat s that are continually beingdisturbe d byma n areweeds .Ther e aredegree s ofweediness .Wil d colo­ nizerswil l invademan-disturbe d habitats,bu t cannot survive continual disturbances byma no rb ynatura l means. Ifno t continually disturbed, waves of specieswil l becomeestablishe d untildynami cbu t essentially stable populations are achieved.Whe n habitats arecontinuall y beingdisturbed ,onl y cansurviv e spontaneously. Onenee d onlydriv e alonghighway s toobserv e thestric t adaptation ofweed s toman-disturbe d habitats.Roadsid e species rarely formpar t of the adjacent natural ,eve n ofcultivate d fields. Plants tended byma n arecultivate d but notnecessaril y domesticated. They mayb ewild ,wee d ordomesti c inadaptation .Ma nmaintain s cultivated plants inth eman-mad e because they areo f sufficient value.Cultivatio n includes allkind so f agricultural practices,fro mmerel y protecting indivi­ dual plants toactua l planting or sowing,an d tendingo fplante d populations. Villages inWes tAfric a areofte nbuil t aroundon eo rmor e giantbaoba b trees ( digitata). These trees provide shade aswel l as fruitsfro m which arefreshin g isproduced .Baoba b iscultivate d butwild ,an d survives continuous disturbance byma n of itshabita t because it isperennia l andno tbecaus e it isa weed .O n theothe r hand,weed s canb e cultivated. Animal (Brachiariadeflexa )i s acultivate d inWes t (Portères, 1976). It iswidel y distributed across theAfrica n savannaan d oftenharveste d asa wil d cereal (deWet ,1979) . InAngola ,however ,a wee d raceo fBrachiari a deflexa isofte n encouraged by local growers of (Sorghum bicolor)t o invade their cultivated fields,an d forms aconsiderabl e part of the annual cereal harvest (deWet , 1975). Domesticates arestrictl y adapted tohabitat s specially created forthe m byman .The y have evolved underdomesticatio n toth epoin twher e theydepen d 12 ORIGINSO FAGRICULTUR E onma n both forhabita t andpropagation .Domesticate d -plants havelos t thenatura l ability todispers e seed efficiently natural seeddispersa l and domesticated and tuber crops are oftenpoo r seedproducer s or arecom ­ pletely sterile sexually. Cropsi n anearl y stage ofdomesticatio n oftenbecom e weedy, andman yweed s represent species invariou s stageso fdomestication . Indeed,weed s differ from domesticated primarily indegre eo fdependenc eo n man for success inth econtinuall y disturbed man-madehabitat . Ecological boundaries,a swel l asboundarie s ofusefulnes s toma nbetwee n wild,wee d anddomesti c taxa areno t always sharp.Higg s &Jarma n (1969, 1972)correctl y point out that thewil d class oforganism s merge intoth e domestic classb y acontinuou s serieso f degreeso f intimacywit hman .Th e question thus ariseswhethe r domestication occurs fromwil d acrossbridgin g weedy races.Thi s certainly hasbee non e route.Th emajorit y ofweeds ,how ­ ever,d ono t represent astag e inth eevolutio n ofcrops .

Origins and evolution ofweed s

Weeds evolved and arestil l evolving inman-mad e habitats inon eo rmor eo f fourprincipa lway s (deWe t &Harlan , 1975). First,the y evolve fromcolo ­ nizer speciesb y selection for adaptation tohabitat s that are continually being disturbed.Second ,weed soriginat e asderivative s ofhybrid sbetwee n wild and cultivated raceso fdomesti c species.Third , they evolve fromdo ­ mesticates that are abandoned byma no r escapecultivation ,b y selection for a less intimate associationwit h cultivation.Fourth ,weed y raceso f crops originate as aresul t of introgression with related wild species ofth e domesticate. Amajorit y ofweed s haveevolve d fromwil d colonizers that invaded the man-madehabitat .Thei rwil d ancestors are aggressive colonizers ofal l disturbed habitats,an dman y of themhav ebee ndistribute d byma nwel lbeyon d theirnatura l ranges.Th ecommo nweed s ofNort hAmeric a areEurasia n in origin (Reed &Hughes ,1970) . Inthei r newhabitat s these species areobli ­ gateweeds ,whil e inthei r nativehabitat s races areknow n that formpar to f thenatura lhabitat .Dandelio n (Taraxacum officinale),henbi t (Lamium apoplexicaule), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) andman y other urbanweed s arenative s ofEurope ,an dhav ebee n introduced toth eNe wWorl d sinceth e Fifteenth Century. Weed raceso f domestic species originateb ynatura l selection as aby ­ product ofdomestication ,b y selection frompartiall y domesticated oraban ­ doned domesticates,o r fromhybri d betweenwil d progenitors and theirdo ­ mestic relatives.Weed y derivatives areknow n formost ,i fno tall , crops (Harlan,1965 ,1969) . There are,fo r instance,wee d sunflowers ( annuus),wee d (Daucus carota),wee dmaiz e (Zeamays )an d weedwatermelon s (Citrillus vulgaris). Indeed,eve ndomesti c species that areregularl y propagated by vegetativemeans ,suc h ascassav a (Manihot esculenta),swee t potatoe (Ipomoeabatatas )o rpotat o ( tuberosum) ihavewee d races.Wee d races that originate asa resul t of introgression '(Anderson,1949 )betwee nwil d anddomesti c taxaar eofte n strictly agricul­ turalweeds .The y rarely invadenatura l habitatso f theirwil d relatives with any success.Adaptativ e traits acquired under domestication have little selective value inprimar y habitats,an d gene exchange inth edirectio no f wild taxa isno t extensive.Gen e flow inth edirectio n ofth e crop,however , mayno t only produce successful weeds,bu t may actuallybenefi t thecro p (Harlan, 1969). Inth eNobogam eValle y ofChihuahu a inMexico ,ear so fmaiz e showing tracesof.introgressio n from teosinte (Zeamay s ssp.mexicana )ar econ ­ sciously selected by farmers assee d stock (Lumholz,1902 ;Wilkes , 1970). ORIGINSO FAGRICULTUR E 13

Weed races of domestic species oftenmimi c thecultivate d race they accom­ pany invegetativ e and inflorescencetraits ,excep t forretainin gnatura l .Suc hweed s areparticularl y obvious inpear lmille t (Penni- setum americanum)an d arewidel y distributed with this crop across theWes t African .Schol (1979)suggest s that thesemimeti cweed s are actually degeneratedomesticates .Brunke n et al. (1977)indicate ,however ,tha tal ­ though shibras closely resemble pearlmille t ingros smorphology , inmor e detailed traits they arewidel y variable,an d generally inter­ mediate between pearl and itswil d progenitor.Weed-cro p mimicry may alsobecom e established between unrelated species. Itwa s already knowni n Biblical that darnel (Lolium temulentum)grain swer e difficult tosepa ­ rate from thoseo f thewhea t orbarle y it accompanies as aweed . Similarly, false (Camelinasativ a ssp.linicola )i sa nobligat ewee d of flax fields insouther n Russia,wher e itmimic s raceso f cultivated flaxi ngrowt hhabit , time of flowering and seed size (Sinskaja& Beztuzhera , 1931).Thes eweed s originated from ssp.sativ ab y selection in fields of cultivated flax. Cultivated raceso f domestic species canrever tbac k towee d .Man y fence and hedgerowweed s ofEurop e arederive d from species once growni n herb orvegetabl e .Th ecommo n QueenAnne' s lace,th eweed y annualo f temperate and isa wee d raceo f the . Incereals ,wher enatura l seed dispersalmechanism s havebecom e lost under domestication,ne w dispersalmechanism snee d tobecom e established after thecro p isabandone d as acultigen .See d dispersal ingrasse s commonly occurs as aresul t of an layer that formsbelo w theglume so r between theglume s and the florets. Inth e Sorghum disarticulation is commonly below theglumes .Thi s istru eo fbot hwil d andwee d raceso f Sorghumbicolo r inAfrica .Mississipp i chicken corn (ssp.drummondii )i n theUnite d States,however ,disperse s its grainb ybreakin g of therachi s below the spikelet.Thi s dispersalmechanis m evolved in anescape ddomesti ­ cate and is also encountered inpart so fEthiopi awher ewil d relativeso f S.bicolo r areabsen t (deWet , 1978). There arewee d inth eUnite d Stateswit h theusua lmean s of seeddispersal .Thes erepresen t derivatives of introgression between diploid cultivated sorghum and tetraploid Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), anintroduce d Mediterranean weed.Thi swee d was introduced into theeaster n some 100year s agoan d hasbee n extending itsrang eb y absorbing genes from cultivated sorghum. The initial hybrid istriploi d and partially sterile.Whe nbackcrosse d with thecultiva ­ ted parent,som e fully fertile tetraploid offspring areproduced . Diploid offspring are alsoproduce d from such introgression. They resemblecultiva ­ ted grain sorghum inhabi t and habitat preference,an d have inrecen t years become obnoxiousweed s inth e cornbelto f theUnite dStates . Weeds areno t restricted toth eplan tkingdom .Numerou s animal species areweedy .Th ehousefl y isa cosmopolita n 'weed',Europea n rabbits are 'weedy'i nAustralia ,an d theHol y Brahmin cow is anobnoxiou s thoughre ­ vered weed inHind u . Indeed,b y definition civilized man isth eulti ­ mateweed ,bein gobligatel y confined tototall y disturbed man-createdhabitats .

Evolutionary dynamicso fplan t domestication

Domesticates areadapte d topermanentl y disturbed man-made habitats.Plan t husbandry musthav ebee n initiated toprotec t and increase population and density of selected food-plants.Phenotypi c changes that accompanied adap­ tationunde r domestication probably resulted from acombinatio n ofnatura l andconsciou s andunconsciou s selection.Saue r (1952)an dAnderso n (1960), amongothers ,suggeste d thatwil d food-plants invaded theman-disturbe d 14 ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE habitat,becam eweed y around wasteplaces ,an d eventually adapted toculti ­ vation.Thi s isprobabl y trueo f aggressive colonizers such asth e several cultivated species ofChenopodiu m (Sauer,1950 )an d probably somevegeta - tively propagated tuber-crops.Part s of edible tubersmus t havemad e their way torubbis hheap swher e they sprouted toproduc e vigorous plants,an d suchdum pheap s arenotoriou s habitats for colonizers.Ma n certainly could not have failed tonotic e theseplant sno r failed torealiz e the convenience inhavin g them readily available forharvesting .Plan thusbandr y is anob ­ viousnex t step,an d domestication of selected food-plantswoul d be initiated. Sowing orplanting ,however ,i sonl y part ofplan t domestication,an d thesepractice swer eprobabl y known toma n longbefor e theadven to f agri­ culture.Domesticatio n isinitiate d withplantin g or sowing,bu t thedomes ­ tication process continuesonl y as long asth ecro p isgrow non e generation after another inhabitat s specially created byman .Foo d collecting,sowing , plantingo r anyothe r husbandry by food gatherers doesno t necessarily lead todomestication .Diggin g foredibl eundergroun d parts,an d stripping plants ofedibl e ,stem so r fruits are asextensivel y practiced by other animals thanman .Plant s that areuproote d during food-gathering are fre­ quently allowed to set seedbefor e harvesting (Burkill,1952 )and ,eve ni f not allowed to fullymature ,seed s produced inpreviou s generationswil l insure continuation of thegen epoo lo f the species.Similarly ,whe npopu ­ lations areharveste d for theirmatur e fruits or seeds,sufficien t seeds usually escape theharveste r to insure establishment of ane wgeneration . Individuals ina wil d population dono t allmatur e atth esam e time andin ­ florescences on thesam e individual usually mature atdifferen t times.Amon g theman y thousands ofplant s regularly harvested inth ewil d as food,fe w havebecom e domesticated. Evenharvestin g followed by sowingo rplantin gwil l notnecessaril y lead todomestication .Wil d ,a s anexample ,ar eofte n sownb ynomadi c food gatherers to increasenatura l populations (Steward, 1941). Thispractice ,however ,wil l onlymaintai n natural evolutionary de­ velopment.Thes e food gatherers rarely try to improve thehabitat ,excep t perhaps forburnin g the area tob e sown,an d very rarely repeat theexperi ­ mentwit h thesam epopulatio n more thantwice . Adaptation toman-mad e habitats iscomplex .Th e ability tocoloniz e dis­ turbed habitats ischaracteristi c ofwil d progenitors of all seed-crops as well asothe r food plants propagated by sowing.Sowin g inprepare d habitats selects for an increase incolonizin g ability. It increases competition among individuals.Seedling s that germinate firstwhe n conditions become favourable,an d those that growmos t vigorously when crowded will provide most seeds fromwhic h thenex t sown generationwil lbecom e established.Wit h eachsuccessiv e man-sown generation,selectio n pressure forsurviva l inth e man-madehabita t increases.Domesticate d seed-crops therefore lack , and tolerate crowdingb y their ownkind ,bu t arepoorl y adapted tocompet e withnatura lcolonizers . Harvesting alone selects toenforc ewild-typ e survivalmechanisms .Th e deepest rooted individuals of tuber-bearing species orindividual swit h the most efficient meanso f seed dispersal escape the food gatherer,an dtrans ­ ferthei rgene s forsurviva l to the following generations.Wil d seed-crops areharveste d bybeating ,swingin g of abasket ,han d stripping,b y uprooting wholeplants ,o rb y cutting inflorescenceswit h aknif eo rsickl e forlate r threshing.Wilk ee t al. (1972)poin tou t that harvesting in anywa y other than for later threshingwil lno t encourage losso f seed-dispersal ability, even iffollowe d insuccessiv e generationsb y sowing.Cereal s such assauw i ( sonorum)i nnorthwester n ,o rraisha n (Digitaria cruciata)i n northeastern India (Singh& Arora ,1972 )ar ecommonl y harvested by uprooting ORIGINSO FAGRICULTUR E 15 plantsbefor e the individuals are fullymature .The y retain efficient seed- dispersal mechanisms although thespecie s are fullydomesticate d inth e sense that cultivated races cann o longer compete successfully with their wild progenitors fornatura l habitats.Harvestin g and later threshing,how ­ ever,selec t for individualswit h themos tpersisten t floretso r fruitsa t maturity.Majo r seed-crops therefore lack the ability ofnatura lseed-dis ­ persal, and domesticated racesdepen d onma n both for asuitabl ehabita t and seed dispersal (sowing).The y areneve r successfully spontaneous (weedy)i n theman-mad e habitat formor e than afe wgenerations . Food gatherers harvest anarra y of annual and perennial edibleplants , seeds and fruits.Relativel y fewo f thesewer edomesticated . The siteso f early agriculturemus t have limited thenumbe ro f species available for cultivation.Numerou s desirable food plants,however ,d ono t lend themselves todomestication .Som ehav e exact habitat requirements and areno t already pre-adapted toman-mad e habitats.Th eprogenitor s of all seed-crops are aggressive colonizers,an d theprogenitor s of vegetatively propagated crops readily adapt totransplantin g byman .Man y desirable food plants givea poor return for theeffor t and for time invested insowin go rplanting ,an d wereprobabl y soon abandoned by man ascultigens .Stil l otherswer e probably neverbrough t intocultivation . Plant domestication issympatri c evolution.Th ewil d progenitors ofcrop sar e commonly sympatricwit h their domestic conspecific races.The y usually differ strikingly inphenotyp e and adaptation,bu t remain sufficiently relatedgenet ­ ically tocros s and produce fertilehybrids .Hybridizatio n iscommo nan d genes areexchanged ,particularl y in thedirectio n of cultivated races. Divergence and introgression areopposin g evolutionary processes.Evolution ­ ary divergence depends on isolation.Burkil l (1952)suggest s that the ini­ tial isolation that led todomesticatio n wasprovide d byma nwhe etrans ­ ported his favourite food plantsbeyon d theirnatura l ranges.Thi swoul d alsohav e forcedma n toplant ,replan t seedharveste d from populations planted inspeciall y prepared habitats.However ,selectio n pressuresassoci ­ atedwit h domestication themselves act asisolatin gmechanisms . Indomesti ­ cation,isolatio nbetwee nwil d and cultivated racesbecome s disruptive. Thoday (1972)demonstrate s thatunde rcondition s ofdisruptiv e selection associated with differences inadaptation ,populatio n divergencecontinues , evenwit hhybridization .Whe ndivergenc eha sprogresse d toth estag ewher e parent and daughter populations havedistinctl y different adaptivenorms , interpopulation gene flow iseffectivel y eliminated, sincehybrid s between them arepoorl y adapted toeithe r parentalhabitat .Onl ywit h achang ei n selection pressures does divergent evolution come to anend .Racia l isola­ tion indomesti c species isachieve d by gametophytic and sporophyticbarri ­ ers, anddifference s inflowerin g time.Th eprincipa l isolating force between domestic races and their progenitors,however , isecologica l adapta­ tion.Wil d raceso fdomesti c species dono t successfully invade cultivated fields,an d cultivated races aretotall y adapted tohabitat s specially created for themb yman .Hybrid sbetwee nwil d and cultivated races,an d derivatives ofsuc h introgression survive in 'intermediate'habitat s asweed s and provide abridg ebetwee n them foroccasiona l geneexchange .

Evolutionary dynamics ofplan t domestication

Crane (1950)an dMasefiel d et al. (1969)presen t classeso f selection schemes fromwil d plant toth epresen t cultivated crop.Th epossibl e changes of aspecie s caused bydomesticatio n were listed byPoluni n (1960)an d Purseglove (1968). 16 ORIGINSO F AGRICULTURE

Domesticated plants - spread to amor edivers e environment andhav e awide r geographic range -ma y have adifferen t ecological preference - may and simultaneously -ma y lack or scattering of seeds andma y have lostdispersa l mechanism completely - may have larger fruits and seeds,an d so lower efficiency of dispersal -ma yhav ebee n converted from aperennia l to anannua l - may have lost seed dormancy -ma y have lostphotoperiodi c controls - may lacknorma l pollinating organs -ma yhav e adifferen tbreedin g system (Usually the change is from complete orpartia l cross-fertilization topartia l orcomplet e self-fertilization. This changema y result from achang e in flowermorphology ,o r achang e from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility.) -ma y lackdefensiv e adaptation such ashairs ,spine s and thorns -ma y lackprotectiv e coverings and sturdiness -ma y havebette rpalatabilit y and chemical composition,renderin g themmor e likely tob e eatenb y animals -ma yb emor e susceptible todisease s and pests -ma y develop seedless parthenocarpic fruits - mayhav eundergon e selection fordoubl e ,whic hma y involvecon ­ version of intopetal s -ma y havebecom e sexually sterile and vegetatively reproduced. Speed ofdomesticatio n depends on theduratio no f ageneratio n and inten­ sityo f selection pressures.Fo r cereals,a generatio nusuall y takeson e year,wherea s forvegetativel y propagated plants,fas t changes areno t usual.Braidwoo d &How e (1962)estimate d that allmajo r changes inwhea t andbarle y underdomesticatio n had takenplac ewithi n2 00 0years .Helbae k (1966)suggeste d even 150 0years . Some cropswer e domesticated forsevera l uses.Example sare : - Sorghumbicolor : annual grass,syru p sorghum, grain sorghum,broo m corn,poppin g sorghum used for confectionary, inflorescenses in floral arrangements, - sativus:fibre ,drugs ,oi lseeds , - Brassicanapus : rape,swedes ,hungar y gapkales ,oil-see d colzas, -Brassic a campestris:rapeseed , , yvegetables , - oleracea:vegetable ,forage ,ornamental ,walkin g stick,construc ­ tionmaterial , - Helianthus annuus:oil ,cattl e feed,ornamental ,bir d food,ceremonies , - :mesocar p oil,kerne l oil,win e - :dr y seed,fres h seed,forage ,gree nmanure . This list can easily be extended. Someplant sma yhav ebee n domesticated foron eus e that eventually became obsolete. Ifn o alternative usewer e found, its cultivation would be abandoned and itwoul d be lost asa culti - gen,bu t may survive as aweed .Crop sma y havebee n abandoned untilus ewa s found for them.Fo r instance,severa lmedicina l crops and areals o grown asornamentals ,a s areViol a tricolor and Digitalis purpurea.Som e formermedicina l species arenowaday s grown only asornamentals .Similarl y reverseplant s used inritua l becameornamentals .Man y fencing orhedgin g plants,grow n tosto pdomesti c animals from running away andwil d animals from enteringprotecte d areas,ar euse d nowadays asornamental s or for .Anderso n (1960)an d Chang (1970)suppose d that the first cropswer e not food plants.Anderso n suggested thatplant swer e first domesticated for body paints,hedges ,poisons ,chewing , fatiguedrug s and ritualpurposes . ORIGINSO FAGRICULTUR E 17

Changbelieve s theearl y domesticated plantswer euse d formakin g containers ( trunks,fruit so fbottl e ), cordageo r asherbs .Thes eplant s wereusefu l and,whe nma nbecam edependen t on them,h e started to cultivate them.Mos t experts on crophistory ,however ,believ e that food crops are among the first domesticants.Burkil l (1952)liste d the sequence inwhic h hebelieve d cropswer e domesticated: - cereals - pulses - - oil seeds - 'roots' - herbaceous fruits - fibre - y plants,chiefl y fruit trees - various industrialplants . Numerous species ofwil d grasses areadaptabl e todomestication ; theyyiel d well,gro wgregariously , sotha t their caryopses could be collectivelyhar ­ vested, theyhav e edible caryopses,thei r foliage isexcellen t forfodder , and thecaryopse s aregoo d tostore .Ma ndi d not overlook these advantages of grasses (Burkill,1952) . Pulsesmus thav e followed grasses indomestica ­ tion.Subsequently , several plants collected forth eleave s came intodo ­ mestication asoi l crops.Man ywood y plants received particular attention. Purseglove (1968)state d that cerealswer e first domesticated inari dan d semi-arid regions,wherea s inth ewe t tropics cultivation started withroo t and tuber crops.Archaeologica l researchwil l eventually elucidate thecor ­ rect sequence ofdomestication . Itma ydiffe r from region toregio nan d different kindso fcrop sma yhav ebee n domesticated simultaneously. Theplan t familieshav eno t contributed equally toth epresen t supply of domesticated species.Amon g the 173 families (see table)4 8familie s arere ­ presented by only one item,2 4b y 2items ,1 0b y 3items ,an d 4b ymor e than 100items .Th e familywit hmos t items isth eGraminea e (379,15.2 %o fth e totalnumbe r of items); most of them coming fromRegio n 8:Africa .Thi scon ­ tinent iswel lknow n for its foragegrasses .The'Leguminosa e followwit h 337 items (13.5%); Regions 2,7 ,8 an d 10ar e themai n sources.Graminea e and Leguminosae contribute about one third of thenumbe r of items.Rosacea e rank thirdwit h 158 items (6.3%),mos t of them come fromRegion s 1an d9 .Solana - ceae rank fourthwit h 115 items (4.6%),mos t of them come from Regions 10an d 11. Region 2ha s contributed thehighes tnumber : 331item s (12.5%), closely followed by Region 1 (295items , 11.8%), and Regions 8an d 10 (each292 , 11.7%). These four regions contribute almosthal f of allitems . 18 ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE

Table. Number of items per family per reg ion, per family and per centre

Family Reg:io n

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 uni- Total den- ti- fied

Acanthaceae 1 2 1 4 Aceraceae 1 1 Actinidaceae 4 4 Agaraceae 1 1 1 6 2 17 1 29 3 1 4 1 1 Alliaceae 9 1 3 4 2 2 21 Alstromeriaceae 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 6 3 3 1 21 2 2 2 7 1 1 1 S 4 1 1 23 2 1 4 8 15 1 2 1 4 2 1 11 Aquifoliaceae 1 1 2 Araceae 1 7 4 1 8 2 1 24 Araliaceae 5 4 1 10 Aristolochiaceae 1 1 Asclepiadaceae 1 1 1 1 1 5 Averrhoeaceae 2 2 Azollaceae 1 1 2 Balanitaceae 1 1 Balsaminaceae 1 1 Basellaceae 1 2 1 4 1 1 2 1 3 4 Bixaceae 1 1 4 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 2 1 6 Bromeliaceae 3 1 4 1 4 2 7 Cabombaceae 1 1 Cactaceae 18 36 54 Campanulaceae 2 1 1 4 Cannabidaceae 4 1 2 1 8 Cannaceae 1 1 2 Capparidaceae 1 1 Caricaceae 3 1 4 1 1 2 2 4 Casuarinaceae 1 1 Celastraceae 4 4 Chenopodiaceae 4 1 2 4 6 6 5 2 1 2 1 34 1 1 Chrysobalanaceae 1 1 Cleomaceae 1 1 Combretaceae 4 4 Compositae 10 7 3 5 3 18 9 16 6 4 5 86 Convulvulaceae 2 1 1 1 2 3 10 Cornaceae 1 1 Corylaceae 4 3 1 8 Corynocarpaceae 1 1 1 2 3 Cruciferae 8 3 5 11 4 12 1 1 45 5 2 9 1 2 3 17 2 2 7 1 2 53 1 1 2 Cyperaceae 5 3 3 2 1 2 16 Datiscaceae 1 1 2 8 1 15 2 1 29 ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE 19

Family Region

9 10 11 12 uni--Tota l den- ti- fied

Dioscoreaceae 2 8 2 1 29 Dipsacaceae 2 Dipterocarpaceae 1 1 3 2 1 1 8 Ehretiaceae 1 3 5 1 Elaeocarpaceae 3 1 1 5 1 Erythroxylaceae 2 2 Eucommiaceae 1 1 4 13 10 2 1 1 43 Euryalaceae 1 1 5 2 9 6 9 Geraniaceae 9 Ginkgoceae 1 1 Gnetaceae 1 1 Gramineae 35 47 32 12 34 37 39 22 20 25 2 379 Grossulariaceae 3 1 6 2 12 Guttiferae 9 1 2 16 Hippocastanaceae 2 Hydrastidaceae 1 1 Hydrophyllaceae 1 1 2 Illiciaceae 2 2 Iridaceae 2 1 1 6 Juglandaceae 4 1 1 1 1 2 4 14 Labiatae 5 6 1 10 3 1 52 Laminariaceae 1 1 2 3 2 3 12 Lecythidaceae 2 2 Leguminosae 14 45 54 33 44 14 10 6 337 Lemnaceae 1 1 8 1 2 2 20 Limnanthaceae 1 1 1 1 Linaceae 1 6 Lythraceae 1 Magnoliaceae 1 1 2 3 2 5 6 4 14 1 9 9 1 3 70 Marantaceae 1 2 3 Martyniaceae 1 1 1 3 4 Menispermaceae 1 2 3 Moraceae 3 6 4 2 2 14 2 1 25 Moringaceae 1 1 2 Musaceae 1 4 3 2 11 Myricaceae 1 1 Myristicaceae 2 2 10 40 13 5 73 Nelumbonaceae 1 Nyctaginaceae 1 1 2 5 11 1 1 2 Orchidaceae 2 2 Oxalidaceae 1 1 Paeoniaceae 1 1 Palmae 1 10 4 2 30 Pandaceae 4 5 20 ORIGINS OF AGRICULTURE

Family Region

123456789 10 11 12 uni- Tot iden­ ti­ fied

Papaveraceae 11 1 3 Passifloraceae 17 1 1 19 Pedaliaceae 12 4 7 Pentaphragmaceae 1 1 Peperomiaceae 1 1 Perioplocaceae 11 2 Phytolaccaceae 1 3 15 Phytolaccaceae 1 3 15 11 2 Piperaceae 5 2 2 1 10 Pistaciaceae 2 2 Plantaginaceae 112 1 5 Polygalaceae 1 1 81 111 15 2 20 Portulacaceae 4 112 8 Protaceae 3 3 Punicaceae 1 1 2 2 3 7 Resedaceae 113 1 6 Rhamnaceae 3 3 2 1 9 41 2 1 26 22 2 1 37 4 1 21 158 14 4 1 612 19 12 15 1 4 15 3 2 1 44 1 7 19 Sambucaceae 2 2 Santalaceae 1 1 Sapindaceae 3 5 1 13 13 3 3 3 5 6 20 Saurucaceae 1 1 Saxiphragaceae 1 1 Scrophylariaceae 1 13 5 Simaroubaceae 1 113 Simmond si aceae 1 1 12 6 4 2 12 4 47 31 5 1 115 Sterculiaceae 4 4 2 10 Stilagninaceae 1 1 Strychnaceae 1 1 Styraceae 1 1 Taccaceae 1 1 Tamaricaceae 11 2 1 1 Tetragoniaceae 5 1 1 1 2 13 Tiliaceae 12 1 4 Trapaceae 3 3 Tropaeolaceae 3 3 Typhaceae 1 1 Ulmaceae 2 2 4 Umbelliferae 5 3 2 2 4 13 11 1 41 Urticaceae 112 1 2 7 Valerianaceae 12 4 1 8 Verbenaceae 1 12 1 5 Violaceae 1 11 3 Vitadaceae 2 12 11 7 14 4 16 9 2 31

Total 295 311 70 166 82 129 246 292 231 292 225 113 27 2489

% of total 11.8 12.5 2.8 6.7 3.3 5.2 9.9 11.7 9.3 11.7 9.0 4.5 1.1 Cradles of agriculture and regions ofdiversity

Geographic centreso f plant domestication cannotb e foundwithou t studying theorigins ,hearth s or 'cradles',an d spread of agriculture and ofdomesti c plants. Wild plants arestil l entering cultivation,wherea s an important croplik e theoi l palm inWes t Africa isstil l largely semi-domesticated (Zeven,1967 ; 1973). Other examples of semi-domesticates aresecondar y crops,i.e .crop s thatwer e firstweed s inprimar y cropsbu twer e later themselves domestica­ ted. Siteso fprehistori c farmshav ebee ndiscovere d inThailand , theNea rEas t and Mexico.The y showed that incipient agriculture existed inThailan d at about 1100 0B.C . (Gorman, 1969), inth eNea rEas t at about 900 0B.C . (Cambel& Braidwood , 1970)an d Mexico at about 600 0B.C . (MacNeish,1964a ; 1964b). Inothe r partso f theworl d no suchearl y siteshav eye tbee n found, and it isgenerall y accepted that from these cradles agriculture spread to other partso f theworld . There aregoo d arguments for independent origin of agriculture inChin a (Ho,1969) . But agriculturema yhav ereache d and ,an d S.E.Asi a from ,whil e agriculture probably reached ,Africa ,W . and S.Asi a from theNea rEast . Alexander VonHumbold twa sprobabl y the first author torefe r toth eorigi n ofcrops .I nhi swor kEssa i sur laGéographi e desPlante s (1807)h e said: "The origin,th e first home ofth eplant smos t useful toma n andwhic hhav e accompanied him from remotest epochs,i s asecre t asimpenetrabl e asth e dwellings of allou rdomesti c animals.W ed ono tkno wwha t region produced spontaneously , , s and .Th eplant swhic h constitute the natural richeso f all inhabitants of the tropics,th ebanana ,th epawpaw , thecassava ,an dmaiz ehav eneve rbee n found inwil d state" (citedb yHawkes , 1970). Ifh ewer e alivenow ,Vo nHumbold twoul d bedelighte d to learnho w muchw ekno w of theorigi n of cultivated plants. Thenex t studywa sb y AlphonseD eCandoll e in"Géographi e Botanique Raisonêe" (1855). Then cameCharle s Darwin (1868)wit hhi sboo k "Variation of animals and plants underdomestication" .Howeve r Darwinwa sno tinter ­ ested inth eorigi no fcultivate d plants,bu t inevolutio n of animalsan d plants,whethe r innatur e orunde rdomestication . DeCandolle' sthought s on tracing theorigin s ofcultivate d plantswer e published in 1882 inhi sboo k Originede sPlante s Cultivées.Hi swor ki s still largely up todat e(Harlan , 1961). Hebase d his investigationson : - classical (plant ,knowledg e of adventive and ruderal species,understandin g ofhistor y ofdevelopmen t ofwhol e ), - bio-archaeology (plant remains,pictoria l records,especiall y from Egypt), - palaeontology, - philology. He concluded that theregio nwher e aspecie swa s abundant wasno t necessarily its centreo forigin .Perhap s DeCandoll e (1882)wa s the first to indicate regionswher eplan t domestication might have takenplac e (Smith, 1968): -Chin a -S.W . Asia andEgyp t 22 CRADLESO F AGRICULTURE

-tropica lAsia . InD eCandolle' s time,i twa squit enatura l to includeEgyp t asmuc h ofth e knowledge ofplan thistor y came from that country. After DeCandolle ,Nicola i IvanovióVavilo v suggested cradles ofagricul ­ ture.A t theheigh t ofhi s career heha dmor efacilitie s than anyonebefor e (Harlan, 1951).Wit h his abundant energy,h eexploite d them to the full. During theFift h International Congress atBerli n in1926 ,Vavilo v (1928)develope d his theory ofcentre s of origino rgen e centres indicating that several regionso fth eworl dposses s concentrations ofvariatio no f certain cultivated plants and that these regionsoverla p forsevera lculti ­ vated plants.Thes e regions canb e identified by theDifferentia l Method, described byBurkil l (1952): - Take ama p - selectmajo r cultivated plants -mar k thesite swher e recognizable botanical varieties and raceso f these cultivated plants are found.Th e identificationo f thebotanica l varieties was doneb y investigating themorphology , cytology,genetic s and resistance todiseases ,pest s andunfavourabl e climatic conditions of theplant s -Wher e thosemark softe n coincide is acentr eo forigin . Insuc h centres the greatest diversity of thecultivate d crop isobserved . Vavilov concluded that acentr eo forigi nwa s characterized by dominant alleles and that the frequency of recessive alleles increased anddiversit y decreased towards theperiphery .Th ecaus ewa s ,geographica l iso­ lation anddrift . At theperiphery ,secondar y genecentre sma y develop;ne w areaswit ha great diversity conditioned by recessive alleles.I n 1926,Vavilo v reported that AsiaMino r lies inth eAsiatic ,Mediterranean ,Balka n andTranscauca - siangen ecentre s ofwhea t andothe r crops.I n1931 ,h eextende d this idea by distinguishing seven gene centres.I n1935 ,h eraise d thisnumbe r to eightb y splitting SWAsi a intoCentra lAsi a and theNea rEast .Late r Zohary (1970)propose d toreunit e them.Th e centres recognizedb yVavilo v were:

I. China II. India IIa. Indo-Malaya III. C.Asia ,includin g ,Punjab ,Kashmir ,Afghanista n and Turkestan (USSR) IV. NearEas t V. Mediterranean coastal and adjacent regions VI. VII. S.Mexic o and C.Americ a VIII. S.Americ a (, , ) Villa. Isleo fChilo e ().

ous regions andofte n in areaswit h atemperat e climate.The y areseparate d by great deserts or lieo ndifferen t continents.Accordin g toVavilov ,agri ­ culture inthes e eight regionsdevelope d independently,becaus eo fth e differences inagricultura l methods,implement s anddomesti canimals . Vavilovma yhav ebee n influenced byWillis 'Ag e andAre ahypothesi s (Willis, 1922): incomparin gwil d specieswit h similarmode so fdispersal , thosewit h thewide r distribution are theolder ,an d that thelonge r aspe ­ ciesha sbee npresen t in anarea ,th emor edivers e thederive d species and found there.Vavilo v may alsohav ebee n influenced by theagro - CRADLES OFAGRICULTUR E 23 geographical work ofEngelbrech t (Zeven, 1973).Howeve r time isno t the only factor that influences thedispersa l of aspecie s and its increaseo f variation. Inth e 1930s,Vavilo v established an 'ecological passport' for theacces ­ sionso fhi s largecollection s by sowing them atvariou s sites ('geographical sowing')afte rwhic h he estimated: - differences ingrowt h during thevegetativ e period - differences inlengt h ofth evariou s development stages,includin g growth rhythm - economic characters,suc h assiz eo f fruitsan dseed s - vegetative characters - resistance todifferen tkind so f - resistance tocol d - differences in flowering - resistance tobacteri a andviruse s - resistance toinsect s - ecological growth form:xerophyte ,hydrophyte ,mesophyte . Thediversit y was enormous butwithi n limits andwit h certainregularities . Vavilov discovered parallelisms that areespeciall y clear forplant s ofth e samegenera l group (annuals,herbaceous) ,characterize d by thesam e areao f distribution and following the same geographical route inthei revolution . Since it seemed as thougheac h species differentiated intodifferen tagro - ecological and geographical groups,h ewa s ablet oestablis h the 'ecological passport'fo rannua l cereals,grai n ,oi l and fibre flax. In1940 , Vavilov divided theOl dWorl d (excluding Africa south of theSahar aan d tropical Asia)int o1 9areas ,eac h characterized by theplant swit hessen ­ tially the same 'ecologicalpassport' :

1. nGrou pAgricultura lTerritory :chiefl y foothills ofSyria ,Palestin e and Jordania.Characteristic s ofcultivate d andwil d plants:relativel y small;wit h small leaves,flower s and seeds;thin ,stif f stems;non - shattering spikes or indéhiscent pods;hig hmaturin g temperature;shor t vernalization stage.Examples :type so fwil d anddomesticate d Triticum species;barley ; ; ; lentils;grass-peas ;chick-peas ;domesticate d flaxan dvetch . 2. n Group AgriculturalTerritory :mountainou s partso fTurkey . Characteristics:medium-size ;thin ,stif f stems;medium-size d spikes,fruit s and seeds;resistan t todrought ;shor tdevelopmen t stages;requirin gcon ­ siderablewarmt h during laststag e ofdevelopment .Examples :a sGrou p 1. 3. nXerophyti cMountai nGrou p AgriculturalTerritory : arid,mountai ­ nous ofSovie tan dTurkis h Armenia.Characteristics :markedl yxero ­ phytic (small narrow leaves); small seeds.Examples :Triticu m vavilovii (alsoresistan t toshattering , andwinterhardy) ; early dwarf,smal l seeded, xerophytic chick-peas;a larg enumbe ro f relatives ofdomesticate d wheat; Secalevavilovii . 4.Caucasia nMesophyti cHigh-Mountai n Group AgriculturalTerritory :hig h mountain plateauxo f Daghestan andGeorgia ,Norther n America.Characteris ­ tics: thin stems;comparativel y smooth awns; smallo rmedium-size d seeds; shorto rmediu mvegetatio nperiod .Examples :origina l ecotypeso fsof t wheat;prototype s ofEuropea n steppewinte r and springbread- ;Tri ­ ticum carthlicum; aspecifi c groupo fbarle ywit hnarro w leaves;man yxero ­ phytic andmesophyti c typeso fSecal emontanu m andS .cereal e ssp.segetal e (manywit h agrea t diversity of andbrow n forms). 5.Daghestan-Azerbaija nFoothil lGrou pAgricultura lTerritory : coastalre ­ gionso f Daghestan and .Characteristics :mesophytic ; longvege - 24 CRADLESO F AGRICULTURE tation period; tall; leafy; large seeds;rathe r resistant to leafrust . Examples: giant forms of soft and durumwheats ;barley , rye;peas ,vetch , types of . 6.Transcaucasia nHumi d SubtropicalGrou pAgricultura lTerritory :Wes t andBlac k Sea coast,humi d regionso f and S.Azerbaija n (Lenkoran),N. .Characteristics :hydrophytic , tall, leavy;late ; rather resistant to variousEuropea n diseases,Examples :endemi c Triticum ssp.suc h asT .mach a and T.timopheevi ,an d someothe rdiploi d and tetraploid Triticum types;lat e typeso fprostrat e fibre-flax sown inautum n andwinter ;transitor y andver y latesprin g varieties ofcereals . 7. Iran-Turkestan Group AgriculturalTerritory : irrigated andunirrigate d regions of Iran, ,Sovie t Central Asia (Uzbekistan,Tadjikistan , Turkmenia).Characteristics : low tomedium-high ; rathernon-shatterin g rough spikes;wea k stems subject tolodging ;slo w growth during early stageso f development;drought-resistan t during late stages;hig h temperaturerequire ­ ment atmaturity ; extremely susceptible to allEuropea n fungus diseaseswhe n sown instepp eo rwoode d regions ofEurope .Tw osubgroups : a.Khiv aSubgroup :nea rmout ho fAmu-Dary a river,lat evarietie s ofwheat , barley, flax andpea s b. Kashgar Subgroup:hig hplateau xnea r thePamir ,extremel y cold-resistant varieties of softwhea t and relatively latevarietie s of flax (frequently withwhit e flowersan d seeds). 8.Pamir-Badakhsta n GroupAgricultura lTerritory : Soviet andAfgha nBadakh - stan (PamirAgricultura l District),C . andN .Kafirstan , atver yhig h alti­ tudes (even 3000m o r more). Includes types from UpperHimalaya s andTibet . Characteristics:mesophyti c types;o fmediu m height;broa d leaves;shor t vegetative period; extremely susceptible toal lEuropea n fungaldiseases . Furthermore agian t typeo f ryewit h large anthers andpolle n grains,bi g kernels and large spikes;liguleless ,sof t and compactumwheat ;larg ebroad - leaved,naked ,six-rowe d barley; small seeded,earl y peas, s andgrass - peas. 9. IndianGrou pAgricultura l Territory:N . India.Characteristics : asthos e for thePamir-Badakhsta n Group;despit e thediversit y inecologica l circum­ stances quiteuniform ;no tbushy ;thin ,stif f stems;smal lnarro wleaves ; early;short ;developmen t stages and rapid development rhythm; resistant to drought;nee d high temperatures,especiall y during last stageso fdevelop ­ ment; rapid filling-out of seeds;smal l seeds (incereals ,fla xan d grain legumes); spikeso fwhea t andbarle y smoothwit hnon-shatterin g grain. InKashmir ,a subgrou sbee n established based on aspecia lwhea t type characterized bymediu m height,thi nstems ,lon gnarro w leaves,smal lker ­ nels,rathe r smooth awns,winte r habit,an d less susceptibility tobrow n thanth eplant so fGrou p 7. (Thereaso nwh y Group 8an d 9hav ebee n separated, despite identity ofcharacteristics ,wa sno t stated.) 10.Arabia nMountai nGrou pAgricultura lTerritory :Yemen ,wher ehigh-moun ­ tainagricultur e issubjec t toth e influence of thesurroundin gdeserts . Characteristics:shor t spring annualswit h extremely rapid growth;thi n stiff stems;narro w leaves;relativel y large seeds.N oexample s aregiven . 11.Ethiopia n (Abyssian)Grou p AgriculturalTerritory : Ethiopia andEritrea . Divided into twosubgroups ; a.varietie s sown atbeginnin g ofmai n rainy season;cosmopolitan ,hydro ­ phytic typeso ftal l large-seeded varieties ofbarle y and peas. (Ethiopian wheats,thoug hno t notably cosmopolitan,ma yb e included here.) b.varietie s sown atth een do f therain y season: flax,chick-peas ,lentils , ,grass-peas ,an d anArabia n typeo fpe a (xerophytic,early ,low ,small - leaved,small-seeded) .Origin :ver y probably linkedwit h India andmountain - CRADLESO FAGRICULTUR E 25 ousArabia . 12.Chinese-Japanes eGrou pAgricultura l Territory: China andJapan .Ver y likely, theorigina l materialwa s imported fromAsi aMino rb ywa y of India severalmilleni aago ,bu t very important new characters havedevelope d in this group.Characteristics :shor t development stages;lo wo rmediu mheight ; extremely small seeds;rapi d filling of grains.Examples :rapidl y filling wheatswit h smallkernels ,awnles s or awnletted. 13.Mediterranea n Group AgriculturalTerritory :Mediterranea n Area.Charac ­ teristics:rathe r tall,bush ;larg e spikes;lon g awns; large light-coloured seeds;hig h yields;usuall y solid ,shor t first development stage; resistant tolo w airhumidity , requiringmuc hwarmt h atmaturity ; resistant tofunga l diseases. (Noexample swer e given.) 14.Egyptia n GroupAgricultura lTerritory :Egypt .Characteristics :barle y and durumwit h short stiff stems,medium-size d spikes and short firstdevelop ­ ment stages.Simila r typeshav ebee n foundo nCyprus . 15. SouthEuropea n GroupAgricultura lTerritory :S . ,N . ,par t ofYugoslavia , n coast.Characteristics :tal lplants ;larg eleaves ; big fruits;hig hyields .Examples :Triticu m turgidum sensustricto ,sof t wheats; inLombardy , giant formso foats ,chick-peas ,hors ebeans ,an da polonicoid wheat havebee n found. 16.Europea n SteppeGrou p AgriculturalTerritory :Europea n Steppe fromTiro l toth eUrals ;transferre d toN .America ,especiall y toth eprairies .Examples : xerophytic spring andwinte r typeso fcereal s and grain legumes,th ewinte r typeswinter-hardy , the spring typesdrought-resistant ; rather smallseeds , weak straw,narro w leaves. (Vavilov divided thisGrou p into twosubgroups , but gaven ogroun d for them.) 17.Wes tEuropea nGrou pAgricultura lTerritory :W .Europ e including S.Fin ­ land and S. .Characteristics :tal lhydrophyti c plants;thick ;stif f stems;larg ebroa d leaves;larg e dense,highl y productive spikes;medium - sized or large grain;ripenin g late.Loca l varieties have laxspikes ,an d are tall andearly . 18.Centra lEuropea n Group AgriculturalTerritory : forest andwoode d steppe ofC .Europe .Characteristics :high-yieldin g mesophytes.Examples :long - fibre flax,high-yieldin g peas, awnless softwheats . 19.Norther n (Boreal)Grou p AgriculturalTerritory :N .Europea n SovietUnion , ,N .Scandinavia .Characteristics :mesohydrophytic ;precocity ;medium - sized; lowwarmt h requirement; cold-resistant.Examples :self-compatibl e rye and veryearl y typeso f foragebarley .

Vavilovworke d onhi s concept of gene centres,modifyin g it,unti lhi s death.Thes e agro-ecological groupsnee dno t coincide exactlywit h gene centres.Th e purpose of allhi s effort isobvious .Ther e aregroup so f plants possessing certain characteristics not present inothe r groups.S o when looking for acertai npropert y ina species ,i ti sno tnecessar y to study its entire areao fdistributuion ,bu t it issufficien t to look fori t inth egroup(s )wher e thispropert y has alreadybee n found. Thegen emicrocentre s ofHarla n (1951)ar e afurthe r breakdown ingeobo - tanical patternso f variation.The y aresmal l areas inwhic h evolution is still proceeding ata rapi d rate.Fo rwheat ,Harla n identified threemicro - centres inTurkey .Undoubtedl y many more exist elsewhere.Wit h theintro ­ ductiono fhigh-yieldin g foreignwhea t varieties,thes emicrocentre s are disappearing.Harla n also identified genemicrocentre s inTurke y for anum ­ bero fothe r crops.H e found that such centres frequently coincide.The yma y be inth eplain so r inmountainou s regions,nea r civilizationo r remote from it,i narea swit h very primitive ormor e advanced husbandry. 26 CRADLES OFAGRICULTUR E

With increasing knowledge of cultivated,weed y andwil d plants,i t isbe ­ comingeviden t that somepart s ofVavilov' s theory had tob e changed (review­ edb yKuckuck , 1962). Nevertheless itstil l forms agoo dbasi s tosearc h for wild orsemi-wil drelative s ofparticula r crops.Th e large collectionsmad e byVavilo v andhi s introduction of ageneti c element in investigation still render these discussions pertinent.On epoin t inVavilov' s theorywa s thata primary centrewa smarke d by ahig h frequency of dominant alleles.Gökgö l (1941)showe d that itwa s impossible toindicat e such acentr e forwheat . Brieger (1963)di dno t findon e formaize ,Zeve n (1967; 1972)no t foroi l palm andHanel t (1972)no t forVici a faba.Beside s itha sbee npointe dou t that agrea t diversity may also arise from thevariatio no f theenvironment . Hence the relationbetwee nmountai n regions and centres oforigin .Suc ha greatdiversit y may alsodevelo pwhe n twopopulation so f a (partial)cross - fertilizing speciesmeet ,a sha sbee n shown forCarthamu stinctorus .Vavi ­ lov'stheor y thatwher e the greatest diversity is found isals oth ecentr e oforigin ,i sn olonge r tenable,a swa s shown forcrop s such asTriticu m dicoccum andHordeu m vulgare inEthiopia .Thes ecrop s show agrea t diversity there,bu tn owil d relatives arepresent . Kuckuck (1963)conclude d thatVavilo vwoul d certainly have alteredhi s theorieswit h presentknowledge . Indeed,h e introduced changes ashi sre ­ searchprogressed . Thenumbe ro fcradle so f agriculture hasbee nextensivel y discussed.Va ­ vilovbelieve d in several,other s suggested two (Sauer, 1952); one forth e OldWorl d (Burmaan d adjacent area)an don e for theNe wWorl d (C.America) . Darlington (1952,1969 )als o suggested two:th eFertil e Crescent of theNea r East andMexico .Fro m thesenuclea r areas agriculturewa s supposed tohav e spread across theOl dWorl d and theNe wWorld , respectively.Afte r theintro ­ ductiono f agriculture,ne wcentre s ofplan t domestication developed.Thus , Darlington &Janak iAmma l (1945)distinguishe d twelve 'centreso forigin' :

1.Ethiopi a 2.Mediterranea n coast 3. Iran,incl .th eCaucasu s andE .Turke y 4.Afghanista n 5.Indo-Burm a 6.Siam-Malaya-Jav a 7.Chin a 8.Mexic o 9.Per u 10.Chil e 11. -Paraguay 12.Unite d States

As comparedwit h the listo fVavilo v (1926), theypropose d continental Chile insteado f the Isleo fChiloe , andadde d theBrazil-Paragua y and theUnite d Statescentres . They considered theMediterranea n centres asdiffuse ,fo rcultura l rather thanbotanica l reasons."Th eMediterranean , abarrie r towil dplants ,ha s been amean so f dispersal and abon d ofunio n forplant so f established cultivation". In1956 ,Darlingto n addedEurop e (forn o indicated reason),Centra lAfric a (perhapsbase d onPortères 'view s- se ebelow )an dC .Americ a (alreadymen ­ tionedb y Vavilov).H e also switched inexplicable to 'region',thoug hth e captions ofhi s table and figure stillmentio n 'centres'.Thi sresulte d in the followingcentres : CRADLESO FAGRICULTUR E 27

Gene centres of cultivated plants ofDarlingto n& Janak iAmma l (1945) derived fromVavilo v

1. S.W. Asia 7. China 2. Mediterranean 8. Mexico 2a. Europe 8a. United States 3. Ethiopia 8b. C.Americ a 3a. C.Afric a 9. Peru 4. C.Asi a 9a. Chile 5. Indo-Burma 9b. Brazil-Paraguay 6. S.E.Asi a

In1950 ,Portère ssuggeste d independent cradleso f agriculture inAfric a southo f theSahara ,on e inE .Africa ,th eothe r inTropica lW .Africa .H e divided the latterinto : - theSenegambia n 'Subcradle', - theCentra l Niger 'Subcradle', - theBeni n 'Subcradle'an d - theAdamaw a 'Subcradle'. Other African cradles of agriculture are inN .Afric a and Ethiopia. In1962 , hechange d his concept bydividin g and subdividing Africainto :

West African Cradle B.Nilo-Abyssinia nCradl e I.Tropica l Sector I. Nilotic Sector a.Senegambia n Subsector II.Abyssinia n Sector b. C.Nige r Subsector C.E .Africa nCradl e c.-Niloti c Subsector D.C .Africa nCradl e II.Subequatoria l Sector

TheNilo-Abyssinia n Cradlecoincide swit hVavilov' sEthiopia n andpar to f theMediterranea n Centreo forigin .Th elas t two cradleshav eno t been further elaborated.Portère s (1950; 1962)decide d on aW .Africa n Cradle because of thepresenc eo f several crops typical totha t area. Inthi sh ewa ssup ­ ported byMurdoc k (1959), wh oestablishe d four regional agricultural com­ plexes: 28 CRADLES OFAGRICULTUR E

1.S.W . Asian Agricultural Complex,develope d by Caucasoids 2. SE. AsianComplex ,develope d by Mongoloids 3.C .America n Complex,develope d by American Indians 4.W .Africa nComplex ,develope d by theW .Africa nNegroes .

His decision ona n independent West African Agricultural Complex isbase do n grounds similar tothos eo fPortères . Anderson (1960)starte d from quite another characteristic, individin g agriculture into floral andnon- l seed-crop agriculture inC .Afric a and a 'pole'o f floral agriculture in .H e supposed that the floral typeo f agriculture spread intoOceania ,Chin a and Japan, India andAfgha ­ nistan,an d thenon-flora l typeremaine d inAfrica .Th e almost completelac k of interest in flowers andornamenta l plants among theAfrica n peoplesi s really astonishing,wherea s inth e regiono f the floral typeeve n thepoores t man grows someornamental s (Anderson,1960) . This isno t due to anabsenc e ofornamenta l species inAfrica .Man y species arecommonl y grown elsewhere now. The claimo f anAfrica n cradleo f agriculture hasbee n refutedb y Wrighley (1960), Clark (1962), Baker (1962), Harris (1967)an d Harlan (1967). Baker (1962)summarize d hisobjection s asfollows : - fewo f thedomesticate s aredefinitl y known tooriginat e from W.Afric a - several of thedomesticate s have solittl e differentiated from their wild progenitors that they cannotb eo f great antiquity ascultivate d plants - ifcultivatio n hadbee n practised locally forseve nmillenia , an associated weed flora rich in indigenous specieswoul d have evolved. Harris (1967)conclude d that typically W.Africa n crops are local additions to an intrusive agricultural complex,rathe r thancompound s of anancien t indigenous one.Afte r the introduction of agriculture intoN .Afric ai t spread into theSahara .Wit h thedesiccatio n of this area inth ethir d millenium BC,agricultur ebecam e established inth esavann a zone stretching from theAtlanti c toLak eCha d and further toCap eHor n inE .Africa .I n this centre,th eman y typically African plants,liste db yHarla n (1971)wer e domesticated. Kupzov (1955,cite d by Darlington 1956)showe d regions ofth eworl d that belong tocertai nhearth s of agriculture.H e identified ten,groupe d into5 'main agricultural regions':

Hearth of agriculture Main agricultural region

1. Indian I. Australoid 2. Indonesian 3. Chinese II. Mongoloid 4. C.Asiati c 5. NearEas t III. Europoid 6. Ethiopian 7. Mediterranean 8. Nigerian IV. Negroid 9. Mexican V. Americanoid 10.Peruvia n Except forNigeri a they derive from aneolithi cstage . Zhukovskjj(1965 )wa s the first torefe r toSiberi a as agen e centre for crops.Man y , ,Pyru s andothe r specieswer edomesticate d there. Further,i t isa ric h source ofwil d relatives of thesespecies . CRADLESO FAGRICULTUR E 29

Primary regions of agriculture ( )an d regionso fexpansio n ( )o f Darlington (1956)derive d from Kupzov (1955)

V ? J ^S»^ S i i ° s^~^ ** I? Jk-J g iL i s. i \ *v ^ ly _à \i 12 «VysP 5 8 ? \\ w JioS/ '/

Megacentres of cultivated plants ofZhukovski j (1968)

In1968 ,h eheralde d his idea about 'megagenecentres' .A oman y crops originate outside oneo fVavilov' s centreso forigin ,i twa snecessar y to enlarge the areas inwhic h specieswer edomesticated . Thesemegacentre s en­ gulfmuc h ofth eworld' s landsurfac e andexten d overvas t areas.The yare : 30 CRADLESO FAGRICULTUR E

1.Chin a 7. Mediterranean coastal and adjacent regions 2. Indochina-Indonesia 8. Africa (8aEthiopia ) 3.-Ne w Zealand 9. Europe-Siberia 4. Indian Subcontinent 10, C.Americ a 5.C .Asi a 11, Bolivia-Peru-Chile 6.W .Asi a 12. N.Americ a

Megacentres 1,2 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8a ,1 0an d 11a srecognize d byhim , arebase d onVavilov' s concepts thoughmuc h enlarged. Zhukovskijpropose d asne wone s 3 (Australia-),8 (wholeAfrica )an d 9 (Siberia).Megacentr e 12 (N.America )ha d already been presented by Darlington &Janak i Ammal (1945) and 9 (Europe)b y Darlington (1956). Zhukovskij (1968)di dno t drawbound ­ ariesbetwee n 2an d4 ,5 an d 6. In1970 ,Zhukovski jmad e some amendments;som emegacentre s were enlarged andboundarie swer edraw nbetwee n 2an d4 ,an d 5an d6 . Obviously thegreate r thenumbe r of investigated crops,th e larger theareas .Therefor e Harlan (1971)develope d the ideao f centres andnon-centres .H e suggested that agriculturebega n independently inthre e areas and that therewa s asyste m composed of acentr e and anon-centre ,man y indigenous plant specieswer e domesticated, after agriculturewa s introduced.Harla n (1971)preferre d the term 'non-centre'becaus e of thelarg e area involved.Hi s classificationwas :

Centre Non-centre

Al. Near-Eastern A2. African Bl. Chinese B2. SE.Asia n and Pacific Cl. C.America n C2. S.America n

Major cropsdomesticate d in the 'non-centres'ma y sometimes have spread to their centres inearl ytimes . Zhukovskij's (1970)classificatio nha sbee nuse d asbasi s for thefollow ­ inglist ,thoug hpossibl y somemegacentre s stillhav e tob eenlarged .Thi s

Centres andnoncentre s of agriculturalbeginning s ofHarla n (1971) CRADLESO F AGRICULTURE 31 holds especially forS .America ,wher e ashif t of theeaster nboundar y may includeBrazi l and Paraguay and thelan dwes t of thesecountries ,a spropose d by Darlington &Janak iAmma l (1945). We preferred the term Region toMegacentre . Future researchwil l showwhethe r therehav e actuallybee n three cradles of agriculture: 1.E .Asi a (China andBurma ) 2. theNea rEas t () 3.C .America , and how agriculture spread from thesecradle s over theworld . 1 Chinese-Japanese Region

Vavilov called the Chinese-Japanese Region the 'East Asian Centre of Origin'. For several crops, Japan is a secondary centre of diversity. The Chinese- Japanese Region is the primary region of diversity for several fruit-crops from the Amur-Ussuri Region. Li (1966, quoted by Chang 1970) divides China into two regions: (1) N. China with a seed and vegetable agriculture; (2) S. China, which forms a buffer zone between N. China and Region 2, with its vegetatively produced crops. Chang (1970) and Harlan (1971) suggest an in­ dependent origin of agriculture in the N. China Region, which resulted in a wholly original assemblage of cultivated plants. Harlan calls the Bl North Chinese Centre of Origins for Agriculture. The earliest known site of agriculture in China is at Yang-Shao. It is strictly Chinese, with no appreciable foreign influence before 1300 BC. It is at present assessed to date back as far as the 4th millenium BC. Older agri­ cultural sites will probably be found in China (Ho, 1977). China contributed several major crops. These include several species of fruit trees, Camélia sinensis, Corchorus sinensis, Glycine max, Panicum miliaceum and Setaria italica. It is a secondary centre of diversity for sativa and other crops.

Actinidiaceae A polygamous, trioecious ornamental. In Japan the leaves are boiled and eaten. ARGUTA Sieb.fc Zucc. Tara . 2n= c. 116. China, Japan, and the Primorye Alismataceae Territory, USSR. Very frost resistant. Used in crosses with A. chinensis* (Schroeder & SAGITTARIA SAGITTIFOLIA L. Arrowhead. 2n=22. Fletcher, 1967). Europe and Asia. A herb cultivated in China and Japan for its edible conns. ACTINIDIA CHINENSIS Planch. Chinese goose­ , , Yang tao. 2n=c. 116, Alliacéae c. 160. W. and C. China. Extensively cultiva­ ted in the Yangtse valley and elsewhere for CHINENSE G. Don (syn.A . bakeri Regel). its large, fragrant, juicy fruits. Luther Rakkyo, 'iao T'. 2n=(=S) 16,24 ,32 . Burbank used it as a donor with the China (Li,1970) . Cultivated in China, Japan, frost resistant A. arguta*. and elsewhere by the Japanese and Chinese. ACTINIDIA KOLOMICTA Maxim. Kolomikta. 2n=c. 112. NE. China and the Primorye Territory, L.Wels h onion, Cibol, Stone USSR. Very winterhardy. With delicious ber­ leek, Spring onion. 2n=16.Siberi a and China ries containing much C. It is culti­ (Li, 1970). Cultivation started probably in vated. N. China. Cultivated in China and Japan.Re ­ lated toA . altaicum Pall. (2n=16) from N. ACTINIDIA POLYGAMA Miq. Silver vine. 2n=c. . A.wakegi i Araki. (2n=16) and A. 58, c. 116. N. and W. China, Korea and Japan. microbulbum Prokh. The latter is considered a ALLIACEAE - BALSAMINACEAE 33 hybrid of A. fistulosum* and A. altaicum. Cul- Araceae tivars with blue- leaves and white are sometimes separated as A. bouddbae 0. C0L0CASIA ESCULENTA (L.) Schott var. anti­ Deb. (2n=16) (Purseglove, 1972). quorum (Schott) Hubbard & Rehder (syn. C. an­ tiquorum Schott,C . esculenta var. globulifera ALLIUM LEDEBOURIANUM Roem. & Schult.Asatsuki . Engl. & Krause). Eddoe, ,Dasheen . 2n=2x= 2n=16.Fro m USSR to Japan.Cultivate d inJa ­ 28, 3x=42. SE.Asi a (p.49) .Man y socalled pan (Kihara, 1969). wild specimens are probably derivatives of run wild plants.Fro m SE.Asi a it spread to ALLIUM MACROSTEMON Bunge.Chines e . China and Japan where var. antiquorum devel­ Chromosome number varying with parts of the oped. In 500 AD. some are mentioned plant from diploid (2n=2x=18) to hexaploid in China (Li, 1969). At present many culti­ (2n=2x=72). Including aneuploids. Ancient Chi­ vars are described. Some of them are triploid nese plant with very big .Intro ­ (Bai et al., 1971). Their vernacular names duced inW . Georgia (USSR)durin g the Middle are alsouse d for Xanthosoma spp. Dasheen is Ages. a corruption of 'eddo de laChina' . In Japan a secondary centre of diversity developed. ALLIUM NIPPONICUM Franch. & Savat. 2n=16,32 . Formerly cultivated inChin abu t now it only Araliaceae grows wild there (Li, 1969). CORDATA Thunb.Udo . 2n=28. Japan. Cul­ ALLIUM RAMOSUM L. Chinese leek. 2n=32. N. tivated in Japan as avegetabl e (Kihara, China and Siberia. Cultivated in N.China . An 1969). autotetraploid. Itdiffer s from A. porrum*. PANAX C.A. Meyer.Ginseng , Chinese ALLIUM SATIVUM L. Garlic. 2n=16, genome formu­ ginseng, Korean ginseng. Ussuri region,China , la SS.C . Asia (p. 81).Var . pekinense Makino Manchuria and Korea.Exterminate d in the Chi­ sometimes considered anativ e of N.China . nese provinces Shansi and Shensi. There it Cultivated in N.Chin a and Japan (Li, 1969). was cultivated for alon g time in SE.Man ­ churia, N. Korea, Japan and also USA and ALLIUM SCHOENOPRASUM L. Chive. 2n=16, 16+ USSR (Baranov, 1966). Radix Ginseng comes IB, (24,32) .Europe ,Asi a and N.America . from the cultivated ginseng, and Radix ­ Very polymorphous. Domesticated in USSR (region seng Sylvestris from the wild (Hu, 1976). not given) (Kazakova, 1971). Cultivated over thewhol e world. PANAX PSEUDO-GINSENG Wall. San-ch'i.2n = China. Wild and cultivated for its roots used Rottl. ex Spreng, (syn.A . inmedicin e (Hu, 1976). odoratum L.).Ku i ts'ai, Nira,Chines e chive. 2n=16, 32.Primar y centre of origin unknown, PANAX REPENS Max. (syn.Arali a repens Max.). as it easily runswil d (Jones &Mann , 1963). China and Indochina.A herb cultivated in At present from E.Mongoli a to Japan,th e Yunaran, China and elsewhere for its medicinal and through Thailand to N. India. roots. Its tetraploid type may derive from anauto - tetraploidization of adiploi d species or from PAPYRIFERUM (.)Koch . - an amphiploidization of ahybri d of twodi ­ plant. 2n=24. N. Formosa and S. China ploid species.Cultivate d in China for its (Hunan, Szechwan, , Kweichow, Kwangsi edible leaves and young inflorescenses, and and Kwangtung provinces). Cultivated in the as anornamental . (sub)tropics as an ornamental (Perdue & Kraebel, 1961). Amaranthaceae Azollaceae AMARANTHUS GANGETICUS* AZOLLA PINNATA R. Brown.Wate r velvet,Wate r Anacardiaceae , Mosquito fern. 2n= .Domesticate d in China and (p.50 ) and grown for its RHUS SUCCEDANEA L. Waxtree. 2n=30. China and symbiosis with theN-fixin g alga Anabaena Japan. axollae Strassburger. InChina , several culti­ vars have been developed: Red azolla, Green RHUS VERNICIFERA DC. (syn.R . verniciflua azolla, Wild azolla-Whole river red andViet ­ Stokes). .2n=30 . China and Japan. nam azolla. See further p.50 . It is the source of avarnish , Japanese . Balsaminaceae Aquifoliaceae IMPATIENS BALSAMINA L.Balsam , Garden balsa- ILEX INTEGRA Thunb. 2n= .Japan .A tree cul­ mine. 2n=14. Indo-Malaya and China.Cultiva ­ tivated for its which is pounded and used ted inChin a as a cosmetic plant andelse ­ asbir d lime. where as anornamental . CHINESE-JAPANESE REGION

Boraginaceae Chenopodiaceae

LITHOSPERMUM OFFICINALE L. Var. erythrorhizon KOCHIA SCOPARIA (L.) Schrader. Summer cypres. (Sieb. & Zucc.)Hand.-Mazz . (syn. L.murasak i 2n=18. S. Europe and Asia. Cultivated inJa ­ Sieb., L. erythrorhizon Sieb. & Zucc). 2n= pan and China as apotherb , and as anorna ­ 28. Cultivated inN . China and Japan for are d mental. . Ssp. officinale is cultivated inBohemi a (P. ). SALSOLA KOMAROVII (Iljin.)Oka-hijiki . 2n=36. Japan. Cultivated there (Kihara, 1969). Burseraceae SALSOLA SODA L. 2n=18, 36.Mediterranea n area ALBUM (Lour.)Raeusch . White Chinese and Asia.A herb cultivated inJapan . . 2n= .China . Cultivated in S. China and Cochinchina. SUAEDA GLAUCA Bunge.Matsuna . 2n= .Japan . Cultivated there (Kihara, 1969). Cabombaceae Chloranthaceae BRASENIA SCHREBERI J.F. Gmel. Watershield, Junsai. 2n=28. Asia,Africa ,Australi a and N. CHLORANTHUS SPICATUS (Thunb.)Mak . (syn.Ch . America. Cultivated in Japan as a vegetable inconspicuus Swartz.). 2n=30. China.Culti ­ (Kihara, 1969). vated in China, Indochina and Japan as a tea aroma. Campanulaceae Compositae CODONOPSIS TANGHEN Olivier. Szechuan tang- sêng. 2n= .China .Cultivate d for seng. ARCTIUM LAPPA L. 2n=32, 36.Europ e and Asia. Cultivated in China and Japan as a rootvege ­ PLATYCODON GRANDIFLORUM DC.Chines e bellflower, table and in China andEurop e (p. ) as a 2n=(16), 18, (28).Cultivate d in China and medicinal plant. Japan as amedicina l crop. CAPILLARIS Thunb. 2n=18, (36).E . Cannabidaceae Asia.Cultivate d there and elsewhere asa medicinal plant. CANNABIS SATIVA L. . 2n=20. Its origin is described on p. 149. In NE. Asia including CHRYSANTHEMUM CORONARIUM L. Garland chrysan­ Japan, Korea and the Peking area exceptionally themum, Crown daisy. 2n= .China . Cultiva­ tall plants are grown (Small et al., 1975). ted in S. China (Li, 1970), later in whole China and Japan and elsewhere. Used as avege ­ HUMULUS JAPONICUS Sieb. & Zucc. 2n=16 inmal e table. plants and 17 in female plants with an X-Y1-Y2 sex chromosome system. E.Asi a (Japan,Taiwan , CHRYSANTHEMUM SEGETUM L. 2n=18. Europe and China, Korea and Manchuria). Naturalized in Asia. Cultivated especially in China. Leaves E. N. America,Europ e and sporadically else­ are used as avegetabl e in the Near-East, where. An annual aggressive weed (Small, 1978). Malaya and Indochina.

HUMULUS LUPULUS L. Hop. 2n=2x=20 with X-Y sex CHRYSANTHEMUM SINENSE Sab. (syn. Pyrethrum chromosome system. Var. cordifolius (Miquel) sinense DC). 2n= .Chin a and Japan.Culti ­ Maximowicz (syn.H . cordifolius Miquel) is vated there as avegetable . wild and cultivated in Japan and China.A per ­ ennialmainl y propagated by (Small, GYNURA PINNATIFIDA DC. (syn.G . japonica 1978a). Mak.). San ch'i,Tie n ch'i. 2n=20. China.A perennial herb cultivated for its medicinal HUMULUS YUNNANENSIS Hu. 2n= .Dioecious . properties. Yunnan,China . It looks similar to the female plant ofH . lupulus and isofte n confused with LACTUCA DENTICULATA Maxim. 2n=10,(20) . It it. was cultivated inChina .

Celastraceae LACTUCA INDICA L. Indian . 2n=18. In­ dia, Japan,Philippine s and Indonesia.Culti ­ JAPONICUS Thunb. (syn.E . pulchellus vated inChina , Japan and other countries. Carr.). 2n=32, S. Japan.A . Cultivated Many varieties exist inChina . in and elsewhere for rubber. PETASITES JAPONICUS F. Schmidt. Fuhi. 2n=87. TRIPTERYGIUM WILFORDII Hook.f. 2n= .China , Sachalin and Japan.Cultivate d for its flower Japan and Taiwan.Cultivate d inChekiang , and leaf stalks (Uphof, 1968;Kihara , China as asourc e of insecticide. 1969). BORAGINACEAE -CRUCIFERA E

XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM L.Cocklebur . 2n=36. In blanched heart (see B. campestris*), Var. China itwa s used as vegetable. Now it isa parachinensis Bailey (Sinsk.) is B. parachi- weed in fields and along roadsides (Li, 1969). nensis Bailey,mo k pak-choi. B. japonica* has also the same genome formula.Thi s genome is Convoivulaceae related to the Ad genome (n=7)o f B. adpressa Boiss. (2n=14), the F genome (n=8) ofB . CALYSTEGIA SEPIUM (L.).R.Br . 2n=22,(24) . fruticulosa Cyr. (2n=16) and the T genome (n= Subtropics and tropics.A perennial herb cul­ 10)o f B. tournefortii Gouan (2n=20) (Mi- tivated in China for its roots which are used zushima, 1969). Prakash &Narai n (1971)con ­ as avegetable . cluded that the of B. tournefortii are younger than the A genome, and that this IPOMOEA AQUATICA Forsk. (syn. I. reptans species has evolved from the oleiferous Poir.). 2n=30. Throughout the tropics.Var . plants of the species carrying the A genome. aquatica is an and apadd y vege­ table in S. India and SE.Asia . Propagated by BRASSICA NARINOSA L. (syn.B . campestris L. cuttings. Cultivated in fishponds to provide ssp. narinosa L.). Kou T'sai, Broad-beaked spinach, pig and fishfood (Purseglove, 1968). , Chinese Savoy. 2n=20.Onl y known as Var. reptans is an upland vegetable inSE . a .Cultivate d inE .Chin a esp.a - Asia propagated by cuttings or seed. round Shanghai» Introduced to Japan and later to the USA (Helm, 1963b). Related toB .chi - Corylaceae nensis* and other A genome carrying diploid Brassica-species. Itha s entire, deep dark- CORYLUS CHINENSIS Franchot. 2n= .China . green leaves. Cultivated especially in the Szechuan and Yun­ nan provinces. BRASSICA OLERACEA L. Chinese kale. 2n=18,ge ­ nome formula CC.Formerl y described asB . Fischer. Siberian alboglabra Bailey, but Phelan & Vaughan (1976) . 2n=28, N.China , Japan,Kore a and the showed thatChines e kalebelong s toB . olera- Primorye Territory, USSR. Cultivated inChina . cea, however Snogerup (1979) suggested that The seed has amedium-goo d . The shell this vegetable may derive from introductions is very hard. of B. cretica* ssp.nivea .

CORYLUS MANSHURICA Maxim. Manchurian hazel. NASTURTIUM INDICUM DC. 2n= .I n China it 2n= ,China , Japan and the Primorye Terri­ was cultivated as avegetable .Nea r Saigon tory,USSR . Cultivated inChina . var. apetala Gagnep. is grown as amedicina l crop. CORYLUS SIEBOLDIANA Blum. Siebold's hazel. 2n=28. Japan. Cultivated there. PUGIONUM CORNUTUM Gaertn. 2n= .A herb cul­ tivated as avegetabl e inMongolia . Cruciferae RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. , Small radish.2n = BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L. 2n=20, genome formula 18, genome formula RR. This is aver y poly­ AA. See p. 150 for the origin of this species. morphic species including biennials with InRegio n 1 four (sub)species developed. Ssp. large, fleshy roots and annual forms.Japa n chinense (L.)Makin o (syn.B . chinensis*) is and the opposite coastal areas of themain ­ an annual, fast-growing, precocious,leaf y land are suggested as primary centre. If so vegetable.Th e juicy leaves only contain 3.5- the radish would have derived from the wild 4% dry . Ssp.nipposinic a (Bailey) R. raphanistrum L. (2n=18)an d spread over Olsson (syn.B . japonica Sieb.,B . rapa var. the Old World probably introgressing with laciniifolia (Bailey) Kitam). Itha s finely other ecotypes and otherwil d species as R. dissected deep-green leaves (7%o f fresh leaves maritimus Smith (2n=18) and R. rostratus is dry matter). It grows slowly and has little DC.Wei n (1964) suggested that R. maritimus winterhardiness. Ssp.pekinensi s (Lour.) is the parent of radish,whil e R. landra Olsson (syn.B . pekinensis Rupr.) is one of Moretti (2n=18) is the parent of the small the oldest in China. It forms large, radish. He indicated the E. Mediterranean re­ compact heads. Ssp.narinos a (Bailey)Olsson , gion as its gene centre (p.107) . Broad-beaked mustard forms atigh t of InJapa n and China large rooted forms: small, curley leaves (see B. narinosa*). daikon (R. acanthiformis de laBlanch. , R. sativus var. acanthiformis Mak., var.macro ­ BRASSICA CHINENSIS L. (syn.B . campestris L. pus Mak., var. longipinnatus Bailey) have ssp. chinensis (L.)Makino) . Chinese , been developed,A giant form, the Sakurajuma cabbage,Pak-choi . 2n=20, genome formu­ Daikon (f.gigantissimus) , is cultivated in la AA, Primary centre Chinawher e itwa s do­ Japan. The rootsweig h up to 20kg . Vavilov mesticated. Cultivated in SE.Asi a and else­ (1949/50) called these giant cultivars,th e where. It is avegetable , a and an oil champions of . crop (var. oleifera). Var. pekinensis (Rupr.) Var. oleiformis*Pers. , the oil-seed radish (syn B. pekinense Rupr.), -tsai. (2n=20)ha s is cultivated inChin a and Japan and also CHINESE-JAPANESE REGION elsewhere. tivated in Japan,Chin a and neighbouring is­ lands. Some taxonomists include this species WASABIA JAPONICA (Miquel) Matsumura (syn. inD . opposita*. Eutremawasab i (Sieb.) Maxim.). ,Ja ­ panese . 2n=28, Cultivated for its OPPOSITA Thunb. (syn.D . batatas pungent rhizomes. Decne.). Chinese ,Cinnamo n vine,2n=c . 140, c. 144.China .Cultivate d inChina ,S . Cucurbitaceae Japan, Taiwan and the Ryukyuislands .

CUCUMIS MELO L. ,Muskmelon , Canteloupe. 2n=24. Centre of origin in Africa (p.124) . Secondary centre inChina . Chinese andJapa ­ nese have small fruit and an unpleasant strong taste.Th e genotypes areconvar .chi - nensis (Pang.) Greb., convar.monoclinu s (Pang) Greb., ssp. conomon (Thunb.) Greb. (syn.C . conomon Roxb.), oriental pickling melon.

CUCUMIS SATIVUS L. , Gherkin, 2n=14. Centre of origin in India (p. 72).Secondar y gene centre amesophyti c type with elongated fruits arose in the Far East. Sources of resistance to powdery mildew are found there.

HODGSONIA MACROCARPA Cogn. (syn.H . heteroclita Hook.f. &Thomson , kadam Miq.). Lard fruit.2n = .Cultivate d inYunna n and elsewhere inChin a for its oily seeds. Dioscorea opposita (Harris,1972 )

TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMEROIDES Max. Japanese snake gourd. 2n=44, The chromosomal number suggests Ebenaceae and autoploidization or alloploidization, which may have happened in Japan or China KAKI L.f. (syn.D . chinensis Blume). where their roots are used toprepar e , Kaki, Japanese , 2n=c. 54-56,90 . Mountains ofC .China .Centr e of origin and TRICHOSANTHES JAPONICA Regel.2n=22 . Japan. primary centre of diversity inChina . Second­ There starch is prepared from the roots. ary centre is Japan,Cultivate d inMediter ­ ranean countries and USA for its edible Cyperaceae fruits.

CAREX DISPALATA Boott. 2n=78, 84.Japan . Cul­ DIOSPYROS LOTUS L.Caucasia n persimmon. 2n=30. tivated there in rice fields for its leaves Subtropical China, inTalys k andW ,Georgia , which are made into hats. USSR and adjacent Iran (p. 82).Al l three are countries ofprimar y diversity.Natural ­ CEPHALOTUS Vahl, (syn.C . natans ized in the Balkan peninsula and elsewhere. Buch-Ham.). 2n= .Trop .Asi a and Australia. The fruit is excellent when dried. A perennial herb cultivated in the rice fields inJapa n forma t making (Uphof, 1968). DIOSPYROS MAJOR (Forst.f.). Bakh. (syn. D. andersonii P.S. Green). 2n= ,Pacifi c CYPERUS GLOMERATATUSL . Wangul. 2n= ,Korea . islands.Cultivate d for its fruitswhic h pro­ Old fibre crop.Rare r thanC . iwasakii*. duce oil that can be used to scent other oils. The seeds are edible (Smith, 1971). CYPERUS IWASAKII M.Wangul .2n = .Korea .Ol d fibre crop.Muc h more common than C. glomera- Elaeagnaceae tatus*. MULTIFLORA Thunb.Cherr y eleagnus (Burm.f.)Triniu s (syn.E . 2n= .China , Japan and Korea. Cultivated plantaginea R.Br.). .2n = for its edible nuts (Mansfeld, 1959). W. Africa,upt o India,China ,Japan ,Philip ­ , Fiji and New-Caledonia.A herb. Cul­ ELAEAGNUS PUNGENS Thunb. 2n=28. N. China tivated inS . China for its tubers. Probably and Japan,Cultivate d for its edible fruits. derived from E. tuberosa Schulteswhic h grows wild in trop.Asia . Thunb. 2n=28.China , Korea and Japan.Cultivate d for its edible Dioscoreaceae nuts (Mansfeld, 1959).


Eucomraiaceae Ginkgoaceae

EUCOMMIA ULMOIDES Oliver.Gutt a percha tree, L. Gingko,Maidenhai r tree.2n = Tuchung. 2n=34. The upland regions ofW . and . E0 China.Cultivate d inChin a and Japan C. China,Cultivate d as amedicina l plant.A as anornamental .Th e seeds are eaten. polygamous plant, dioecious forms have been found. Gramineae

Euphorbiaceae ARUNDINARIA AMABILIS McClure.Tonki n bamboo, Tonkin cane,2n = .Onl yknow n as cultigen and ALEURITES CORDATA (Thunb.). R.Br. Tung oil may have originated inVietnam . Secondary gene tree. 2n=22. Primary gene centre:Japan . centre: China - Province Guandun and adjacent Cultivated there and inTaiwan . Itscross - regions of Guancy. Cultivated for its stems ability with A. fordii* and A.montana * points which have many technical properties.Use d for to an affinity. hand work, including fishing rods.

ALEURITES FORDII Herasl.Tun g oil tree. 2n=22. AVENA SATIVA L. convar.nud a Nord. (syn.A . C. China,betwee n 26° and 33°N.Hybrid s may nuda L.),Nake d oats. 2n=42t genome formula occurbetwee n wild and cultivated forms.Se ­ AACCDD,Th e origin of oats has been described condary gene centre of cultivated tung trees on p. 109.Cultige n ofNE .Chin a andMongolia , probably in USA (p.202) .Cultivate d in other theTibetan-Himalay a highlands, in Turkestan American countries, in USSR and . andW . China. It is characterized by 5t o 7 With A, montana* natural hybrids may occur. florets per flower andb y big seeds. It also crosses with A, cordata. BAMBUSA GLAUCESCENS (Willd.)Sieb , exMunro . ALEURITES MONTANA (Lour.)Wils . Tung oil tree. (syn. B. nana Roxb.). bamboo. 2n=72, 2n=22.Chin a south of 250N. Cultivated in China and Japanwher e it is cultivated. In , Brazil and elsewhere.Wit h A. fordii* Indochina it isgrow n as aborde r plant. natural hybrids may occur. It also crosses with A. cordata*. BAMBUSA MULTIPLEX Raeusch. 2n=72. Cochin China and Japan.A shrubby,wood y grass.Cultivate d SAPIUM SEBIFERUM Roxb.Chines e tallowtree . in trop.Asi a for variouspurposes , 2n=36. Cultivated in the tropics. BAMBUSA STRICTUS Nees. 2n=70, 72. India (p. Euryalaceae 73) and provinces Guancy, Guandun, China and in Hongkong, in tropical forests. EURYALE FEROX Salisb. 2n=58, Tropical Asia. Stems are about equal to those of the best Cultivated in S,China . Indian species B. arundinaceae*. Secondary centres: Indochina (p. 53) and S. China. Fagaceae BAMBUSA TEXTILIS McClure. 2n= .Provinc e Sieb. & Zucc.Japanes e chest­ Guancy,China . nut, 2n=22, 24.Japan ,Cultivate d in Japan and inUS A for its nuts. BAMBUSA TULDOIDES Munro. 2n= .S .China . Cultivated for variouspurposes , Blume,Chines e chestnut, 2n=24. N. and W. China.Cultivate d in China CHIMONOBAMBUSA QUANDRANGULARIS (Fenzi.)Mak . and elsewhere for its nuts. It is source of 2n=48, Continental China and Taiwan.Culti ­ resistance to Endothia parasitica, a fungus vated in Japan,Chin a and Taiwan and occa­ causing damage to chestnut (C.sativa ) in USA. sionally on the shores of the Black Sea in , USSR, QUERCUS ALIENA Blume.2n = .Japan ,Kore a and C. China.Cultivate d as food for the Ja­ ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLIL . Barnyard grass.2n = panese spinner (Mansfeld, 1959). 36, (42,48) , 54, (72).Japa n and China. Close affinities with the cultivated E.fru - Thunb.Daimy o oak. 2n=24,48 . mentacea*. The hexaploid type,2n=6x=5 4 is Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria and W. and an allopolyploid with E.oryzicol a Vasing., N. China.Cultivate d as food for the Japanese 2n=36 as one parent.Accordin g to Yabuno oak spinner and also used for timber (Mans­ (1968) this species has the same genomic con­ feld, 1959). stitution asE .utili s (seeE , frumentacea*).

QUERCUS M0NGOLICA Fisch.Mongolia n oak. 2n=24. ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-PAVONIS Schult. 2n=36,54 . N. China,Kore a and N, Japan.Cultivate d as Subtropics and tropics.A grass cultivated in food for the Japanese oak spinner and also for Yunnan,China . timber. ECHINOCHLOA FRUMENTACEA (Roxb.)Link . (syn. Panicurafrumentace a Roxb.). Japanesemillet . 38 CHINESE-JAPANESE REGION

Billion dollar grass,Sanw amillet . 2n=36, PHYLLOSTACHYS DULCIS McClure. Sweetshoot bam­ 54, (56).China . Primary centre inChina . boo, 2n= .C . China. It is cultivated there. Cultivated inKorea ,China ,USS R and N.Ameri ­ The young are edible. ca for human consumption, and as a fodder crop.Closel y related toE . crus-galli*.Ohw i PHYLLOSTACHYS HENONIS Mitf. 2n=48, 54. C. and Yabuno separated E. utilis Ohwi & Yabuno China (Szechwan). It is cultivated there.Se ­ (2n=54) from E. frumentacea because they condary centre is in Japan.On e of the forms found differences in the genomic , developed under cultivation, isblac k bamboo, geographical distribution and panicle morph­ kenon bamboo ('Nigra',syn .Ph .nigr a (Lodd.) ology of these two species (Yabuno, 1968). Munro, which is cultivated for its young shoots Yabuno considers that the genome formulas of E. utilis and E,crus-galli * are the same and PHYLLOSTACHYS MAKINOI Hayata. 2n=48. Taiwan. that the genome formulas of E. frumentacea and It is cultivated in Japan. E. colona are also the same, PHYLLOSTACHYS MEYERI McClure. 2n=48. China ELYMUSARENARIU S L. Sea lyme grass,San d ely- (Chzesian).Apparentl y cultivated in Japan mus. 2n=56.Europ e and Asia.A perennial grass. where a strain with deformed internodes arose. Cultivated inJapa n for its culms and else­ where as adun e stabilizer. PHYLLOSTACHYS PUBESCENS Mazel ex deLehaie . 2n=48, Mountains of SE.China . Secondary gene VULGARE L. ssp.humil e Vav. &Bacht . centre in Japan. This species has the largest 2n=14,Barley . The origin of barley is des­ plants in the genus.Use d in the timber in­ cribed on p. 91.Japa n and C. China. Ssp. dustry and for its shoots. humile is short,ha s small leaves,hexasti - chious earswhic h are apically awned or awn- PHYLLOSTACHYS VIRIDIS (Young)McClure . 2n= less. China. It is cultivated there for pulping.

LINGNANIA CHUNGII McClure. 2n= .S . China SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. -cane. 2n vari­ (Provinces Junjan and Guancy) in tropical ever­ ous. On New Guinea, the New Guinea Noble green forests. canes developed (p.54 ) and via Indonesia and Philippines they reached S. China where MISCANTHUS SACCHARIFLORUS (Maxim.)Hack . 2n= they hybridized with a4 x Miscanthus species 4x=76. E. Siberia, N.,C . and NW. China,Mon ­ (probably M, sacchariflorus*) toproduc e the golia, Manchuria,Korea , Japan.Erec t types Tekcha clones of the new Sinense group.Thi s nearHongkon g were cultivated as 'arrowplants' . must have taken place 705-220 BC. during the This species probably played a role in the Yueh culture.Th e Tekcha clones have 2n=118. development of Chinese sugar-canes (Saccharum From these basic Sinense clones,younge r officinarum* Sinense group). It is also used clones originated with 2n=106-120. They cross­ as an ornamental (Grassl, 1977). ed with Chinese S. spontaneum*, 2n=96 to produce still younger Sinense clones,inclu ­ ORYZA SATIVA L, ecospecies japonica (syn.ssp . ding the 'S. sinense Roxb. clone'.Durin g its japonica Kato). Japonica rice,2n=24 , genome migration to India itmus t have hybridized formula AA. Indochina. The origin of rice is again with S, spontaneum and probably other discussed on p. 74.Ecospecie s japonica con­ grasses. Its migration to India (p.75 )ma y sists of ecotypes japonica and nuda. Spread have been promoted by the red rot disease to Japan,Korea ,N .China ,Himalay a region, which affected the S. officinarum clones, Egypt, Italy and Spain. which had reached N. India via S. India from Indonesia. This must have taken place ca 250 PANICUM MILIACEUM L. Proso millet, Shu.2n=36 , BC, InN , India, the Sinense group was des­ (40, 54, 72), Primary centre: N,China . From cribed as the Pansahi group (Grassl, 1977). here itha s spread upto Italy. InChin a it was an important cereal till the introduction SETARIA ITALICA L. (syn.Panicu m italicumL.) . of wheat and barley (Li, 1970). P. spontaneum ,Liang . 2n=18, genome formula Lyssev, (2n= )migh t be aweed y type of this AA. N.China ,Fro m here it spread throughout species. It grows inAfghanistan , Kazakstan Asia and Europe in prehistoric times.I n and may be wild inMongoli a (Mansfeld, 1959). China itwa s an important cereal till the in­ troduction ofwhea t and barley (Li, 1970), It PASPALUM DISTICHUM L. 2n=40., genome formula derives from S. virides (L.)Beauv . (2n=18), X5X5WW, (48),60 .Lowland s of theworld . In genome formulaAA . It ispossibl e that S. Japan, it is valued as a forage crop in rice- pallidifusca Stapf & CE. Hubbard (2n=36) is fields. See also p.202 . an allotetraploid with S. italica as one of the diploid parents. PHYLLOSTACHYS BAMBUSOIDES Sieb. & Zucc.Madake , Giant timber bamboo,Japanes e timberbamboo . SINOBAMBUSA T00TSIK (Sieb.)Makino . 2n=48. 2n=48. China where its primary gene centre is Japan (Ryu-Kyu Islands). located. Secondary gene centre is Japan,Man y forms occur there under the name 'Madake'. SINOCALAMUS BEECHEYANUS (Munro)McClure . 2n= GRAMINEAE -LABIATA E 39

. S. China. It is cultivated there. used to improve the strig length of R, nigrum*. SINOCALAMUS EDULIS (Odashima)Kenf .2n = China. Its shoots are edible, USSURIENSE Jancz. 2n= .E .Asia . It is a source of resistance toblack-curren t SINOCALAMUS OLDHAMII (Munro)McClure . 2n= mite, Phytoptus ribes Nal., apes t of R. Taiwan. nigrum*. Iteasil y hybridizes with R. nigrum.

SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.)Moench .Chines e Amber Illiciaceae Canes and Kaoliang. 2n=20. Sorghum was do­ mesticated in Africa (p. 133).Chines e amber ILLICIUM ANISATUM L. Japanese star .2n = canes are found on the coast of China and 28. China,Kore a and Japan.Cultivate d for its Korea, and also in India and Burma.The y very medicinal seeds. likely arrived inChin a and the FarEas t by sea traffic.The y are related with the E. Hook.f. (syn.L . religiosum African sorgo.Afte r introduction of sorghum Sieb. & Zucc). Star anise. 2n=28. SE.Asia . from India into S.Chin a it came into contact Cultivated for its medicinal fruits. It isno t with S. propinquum (Kunth.)Hitchc. , 2n= , known wild. and by hybridization kaoliang arose (Doggett, 1970). Iridaceae

TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. The11. ssp. vulgare BELAMCANDA CHINENSIS (L.)DC .Blackberr y lily, (Vill.)MK . (syn.T . vulgare Vill.). flower. 2n=32. China and Japan.Cul ­ wheat, . 2n=42, genome formula tivated there as amedicina l crop. AABBDD. Centre of origin:Transcaucasi a and adjacent regions (p.93) .I t arrived through IRISENSAT A Thunb. 2n=40. Temp.Asi a upto Korea and Japan in about 300 BC. (Kihara, Himalaya.Cultivate d inChin a for its leaves 1969). Secondary centre of diversity in both (binding material). countries.Th e Chinese wheats are character­ ized by very broad leaves,wit h 5 to 7 florets Juglandaceae per spikelet,wit h squarehead ears,wit h day- length neutrality,wit h fast ripening grain, CARYA CATHAYENSIS Sarg.Chines e . and by precocious forms. In the mountains of 2n~ .E ,China .Cultivate d inYunnan , China the Sinkiang Province of China very frost re­ (Mansfeld, 1959). It closely resembles C. sistant wheats developed. Chinese and Japanese tonkinensis Lecomte. wheats cross easily with rye,probabl y because there was no selection pressure against this AILANTIFOLIA Carr. 2n= .Japan . characteristic due to absence of Secale ce- Var. ailantifolia (syn.J . sieboldiana Maxim,), reale-types. Some Japanese and Korean wheats Siebolds .Var . cordiformis (Maxim.) are short and this character was introduced in Rehd. (syn.J . cordiformis Maxim.), Cultiva­ wheat varieties of Italy, Japan,USA , Mexico ted inN ,America . and elsewhere. JUGLANS DUCLOUXIANA Dode.2n = .Mountai n ZEA MAYS L. . 2n=20. Maize was domesti­ regions ofAsia .Cultivate d inChina . cated in C. America (p. 190).Secondar y cen­ tre: China (Brandolini, 1970). The mutant Maxim. Manchurian walnut. ceratina Collins originated in E.Asia .Culti ­ 2n=32. NE.Chin a and the Primorye Territory, vated inChina , Japan,Manchuria ,Burm a and USSR, It iswinterhard y and is used as root- thePhilippines . stock,

ZIZANIA LATIFOLIA Turc. Manchuria water-rice, Labiatae Gau Sun,Chiaopai . 2n=30, 34.Chin a and adja­ cent regions.Cultivate d as acerea l inN . ELSHOLTZIA CRISTATA Wildd. 2n= .Chin a and China in ancient times.Late r its cultivation Japan,A introduced in other moved to the south and its use as acerea l parts of Asia,Europ e andAmeric a as an oil­ gradually decreased. It is cultivated as the seed crop. vegetable Chiaopai or Gau Sun.Th e fungus Ustilago esculenta P. Henn. infects the leaf ARVENSIS L. var, piperascens Mai.Ja ­ bases, which swell and areeaten . panese mint.2n=96 , genome formula RaRaSSJJAA. Japan.Cultivate d in Japan,Chin a andBrazil . Grossulariaceae It is the main source of menthol.Var .agres - tis (2n=72,genom e formula RaRaSSJJ) is very RIBES ALPESTRIS Decne. 2n= .Himalay a up to likely ahybri d of var. piperascens and M. 3000m . InChin a used as ahedg eplant . japonica Makino (2n=48). It is a source of early maturity and rust resistance (Ikedae t RIBES LONGERACEMOSUM French. 2n= .W .China . al,, 1970), M. arvensis ison e of the parents Cultivated there for its fruits. It could be ofM . x gentilis (seeM . cardiaca*). CHINESE-JAPANESE REGION

PERILLA ARGUTA Benth. 2n= .Chin a and Japan. soja and G. max are sympatric and represent Cultivated for various purposes. It issome ­ derivatives of hybrids between wild and culti­ times included inP . frutescens*. vated (Hymowitz & Newell, 1980).

PERILLA FRUTESCENS Britt. (syn.P . ocymoides LESPEDEZA CUNEATA (Dum.Cours. ) G. Don. (syn. L.). Suttsu, Perilla. 2n=38, 40. , L. sericea Benth,), Perennial lespedeza. 2n= China and Japan,Primar y centre: China ,Th e (18), 20.E .Asia .Cultivate d in the USA for red-leaved strains (syn.P . crispa (Thunb.) erosion control, Nakai) are sometimes used as ornamentals and the green-leaved plants (P.crisp a var, LESPEDEZA STIPULACEA Maxim, Korean lespedeza. ocymoides) for the seed oil.Cultivate d in 2n=20. E.Asia .Cultivate d in the USA forha y China, Japan and Korea as a drug plant (Li, making. 1969) and formerly as a leafy vegetable. LESPEDEZA STRIATA Hook.Commo n lespedeza, King SIEBOLDII Miq.Chines e .Ja ­ grass. 2n=22. E,Asia .Cultivate d in the USA panese artichoke,2n = ,I t is one of the in pastures and for hay making, few tuber crops domesticated inChina .Culti ­ vated there, Japan,Belgiu m and France. MUCUNA HASSJ00 (Piper & Tracy)Mansf . (syn. Stizolobium hassjoo Piper & Tracy). Yokohama Laminariaceae bean. 2n= .Japa n and China.Cultivate d there and in the USA for theseeds . LAMINARIA JAPONICA Aresch,Haidai .2n = China. Cultivated as a food plant and as a PHASEOLUS ANGULARIS Wight.Adzuk i bean. 2n=22. source of iodine. Primary gene centre C. China. It is unknown wild. Cultivated inChina ,Manchuria , Korea Lauraceae and Japan. Secondary gene centre Japan.

CINNAMOMUMCAMPHOR A (L.)Nee s &Eberm . Cam­ PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. var. chinensis (syn. phor tree. 2n=24. China, Japan and Taiwan. Ph. chinensis Hort, ex Schur,). Cultivated in these countries and other tro­ bean, 2n=22, Its origin is discussed on p. pical countries. 194. It reached China from the after Columbus' voyage. In China asecondar y gene CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM Breyn. 2n=24. centre arose. The main character, aparchmen t and SW. India,Cultivatio n started in Sri -like layer in the pod wall was lost and the Lanka in 1770.Cultivate d now in several pod became edible. countries. PUERARIA THUNBERGIANA (Sieb.& Zucc.)Benth . Leguminosae Kudzu. 2n=24. China and Japan,Cultivate d as a , green and hay crop,i n ASTRAGULUS SINICUS L, (syn.A . lotoides Lam.). New Guinea andNew-Caledoni a as a tuber crop Genge, 2n=16. China.Cultivate d there on rice (p.58) . soils as a improver. VICIA UNIJUGA A.Br. (syn.Orobu s lathyroides CANAVALIA GLADIATA (Jacq.)DC .var . alba L.). Two-leaved vetch. 2n=12, (24, 36). E, (Makino)Hisauch i (syn.C , ensiformis (L.)DC . Siberia,Manchuri a and Japan. Occasionally var. alba Makino). Siro-nata-name. 2n=22, cultivated. Cultivated in Japan (Sauer, 1964). Character­ ized by white seeds, BRACHYBOTRYS Sieb. & Zucc. 2n=16.A vine. Cultivated for its fibrous bark, GLEDITSIA JAPONICA Miq. 2n= .Japan .Culti ­ vated for fruit juice,whic h is used for Liliaceae washing. ANEMARRHENA ASPH0DEL0IDES Bunge. 2n=22. GLYCINE MAX (L.)Merr . Soya, soybean. 2n=40. N.China . A medicinal plant occasionally cul­ China. Available evidence suggests that soya tivated, was domesticated around the 11th Century BC. in E.N. China, Since the 1stCentur y AD.,i t VERTICILLATA Willd. 2n=24. Var, became widely introduced and land races evol­ thunbergii Baker.Cultivate d inChin a as a ved in China,Korea , India and other parts of medicinal plant. Asia. The species is today widely cultivated inmos t agricultural regions of the world AURATUM Lindl. Gold band lily, Yama- (Hermann, 1962;Hymowitz , 1970). yuri. 2n=24. Japan. Cultivated there for its large bulbs (Kihara, 1969). GLYCINE SOJA Sieb.& Zucc.Wil d soya. 2n=40. Widely distributed inN. ,NE .an d C. China, LILIUM CORDIFOLIUM Thunb. 2n=24. Japan. Cul­ adjacent USSR, Korea, Japan and Taiwan. The tivated there for its starchybulbs . weedy G, gracilis Skvortz.occur s where G. LABIATAE

LILIUM LANCIFOLIUM Thunb.Oni-yuri . 2n=24. being acultige n of M. verticillata. Japan Cultivated there for itsbulb s (Kihara, 1969). Menispermaceae

LILIUM MAXIMOWICZII Regel.Ko-oni-yuri . 2n= COCCULUS THUNBERGII DC. 2n= .A woody vine 24. Japan.Cultivate d there as a food crop cultivated in Japan forbaske t making. (Kihara, 1969). Moraceae LILIUM TIGRINUM Ker-Gawl. Tiger lily. 2n=(24), 36.China .Cultivate d there and in Japan for BR0USS0NETIA KAZINOKI Sieb. 2n=26, 39.A tree its edible bulbs. cultivated in Japan and Korea for its bark which is asourc e for paper production, OPHIOPOGON SPICATUS Kunth. 2n= .China .A herb cultivated inChekian g as amedicina l BROUSSONETIA PAPYRIFERA (L)Vent .Pape r mul­ plant. berry. 2n=26.Chin a and Japan. In the Far East this tree is used for making paper and bark- Magnoliaceae cloth (Purseglove, 1968),

MICHELIA FIGO (Lour.) Spr. (syn.M . fuscata ALBA L.Whit e mulberry. 2n=28.China . Andr.). shrub. 2n=38.China .Cultiva ­ Cultivated there and elsewhere for its leaves ted there for itsbanana-scente d flowers used eaten by worms, for its fruits and for for scenting hairoil . paper making. It is often planted as a road­ side tree, cv Makado has2n=3x=42 . Malvaceae Musaceae ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT* MUSA BASJ00 Sieb.& Zucc. 2n=22. Japan. Species ABUTILON AVICENNAE Gaertn. (syn.A . theo- of the Eumusa section.Use d formakin g fibre. phrasti Medic.). Button weed, Chinese , Velvet weed, Butter print chingma. 2n=42. Myricaceae Cultivated inChin a (many local varieties), USSR and elsewhere for its fibre called jute RUBRA Sieb.& Zucc. (syn.M . nagi or Indian mallow. Thunb,). Chinese strawberry tree, Ioobai,Ya - mamomo . 2n=16.Cultivate d inChin a for its ARBOREUM L. Tree . 2n=26, fruits. genome formula A^A^. Arose in India (p.77) . Race sinense,Chines e cotton,Nankin g cotton, Oleaceae developed inE .China . It is the earliest fruiting form of this species. Itha s short CHINENSIS Roxb. 2n=92, 138.W . and lint and requires alon g daylength. First C. China.Especiall y var, acuminata Lingelsh. cultivated as anornamental .A t present it (syn.F . koehneana Lingelsh.) is cultivated has a lowbreedin g value. as ahos t plant of the Coccus pela for production. SYRIACUS L.Ros e of Sharon. 2n=80, 80-84, 90,92 .Chin a and Taiwan. Cultivated Thunb. Japanese , first inChin a as ahedg e plant and later 2n=44. A shrub.Cultivate d in Japan for its elsewhere as anornamental . seeds.

MALVA SYLVESTRIS L. High mallow. 2n=42. Pro­ LIGUSTRUM LUCIDUM Ait. 2n=46.A tree cultiva­ bably the early vegetable K'uei mentioned in ted inChin a as ahos t plant of the insect Chinese literature.A t present awee d in Chi­ Coccus pela forwa x production. na (Li, 1970). Cultivated in Europe as a medicinal crop andornamental . Hassk. 2n=46. Japan. A shrub widely planted for hedges in Europe and L. (syn.M . crispaL. , M. elsewhere. It may have run wild there. mohileviensis Graebn.,M . pamiroalaica IIj.). Mallow, 2n=c. 84,c , 112.E .Asia . Itwa s an OSMANTHUS FRAGRANS Lour. 2n=46.Himalaya , Chi­ early Chinese domesticate there. About 500AD . na and Japan.A tree cultivated in E. Asia it was there an important vegetable with se­ for its very scented flowers used to aroma­ veral varieties like purple and white stemmed, tize tea. large and small leaves.Durin g the 7-10th Century the cultivation inChin a declined. In Palmae 1848 itwa s only observed in remote areas. Introduced to Japan,wher e it is awee d now TRACHYCARPUS F0RTUNEI (Hook.)H . Wendl. ­ (Li, 1969). Also inW . Asia and Europe. Cul­ mill palm, Chusan palm. 2n=36. China. Often tivated inEurop e as amedicina l crop. This planted inE ,Asi a for its fibres. plant has often been described asM . crispa CHINESE-JAPANESE REGION tivated inChin a (Uphof, 1968). an ornamental. It is frost resistant and fast growing. The fruits are not very palati- PRUNUS DAVIDIANA (Carr.) Franch. (syn.P . ble. persica var. davidianaMaxim. , Persica da- vidiana Carr.). Chinese wild peach. 2n=16. PRUNUS SIMONII Carr.Aprico tplum ,Simo n . Vladivostok, SW. through Charbin upto Dacin- 2n=16B Primary centre: probably N.Chin a and San andAla-Sa n (China). Cultivated as an Japan.N o wild plants are found.Als o culti­ ornamental. It is frost, drought and heat re­ vated there.Crossin g with P. triflora Roxb.* sistant. Probably it is valuable as aroot - (2n=16) from the same area has led to the stock forAmygdalu spersica * and Prunus do- development of cultivars which are especially mestica* (Zylka, 1970). grown in N.America .

PRUNUS PSEUDOCERASUS Lindl. (syn.P . pani- Thunb. (syn.P . trichocarpa culata Edwards). 2n=32.W . Hupei,China .A Bunge). Nanking ,Manchu r cherry, Chi­ tree cultivated there for its fruits. nese bush cherry. 2n=16, N. and W,China , Japan,Himalaya , Turkestan and in the Far PRUNUS SALICINA Lindl,Chines e plum, Japanese East of USSR. Cultivated as a and plum. 2n=16. Primary gene centre: the forests ornamental in the Far East of USSR, N. China of N.China . Second gene centre: Japan.Culti ­ and Japan. vated in Japan,Chin a and also inCalifornia . It crosses easily with the North American PRUNUS USSURIENSIS Kov. & Kost, (syn.P . tri­ plum species,A new stone fruit 'cherry plum' flora Roxb. var.mandshuric a Skvoro.).Us - was derived from crossing the wild P. cerasi- surian plum, 2n=16.Cultivate d or runwil d fera*wit h P. salicina var.Burbank , Because inManchuria , E,o f USSR and for some years of itswinterhardines s this fruit tree can also in Siberia and N.Kazakhsta n (Zylka, be grown where apricot will not fruit. 1970). It is a source of good fruit flavour and cold resistance.Thi s species issome ­ PRUNUS SARGENTII Rehd. Sargent cherry,Moun ­ times considered as asubspecie s of P. cera- tain cherry, 2n=16. Japan,Manchuria , Korea sifera*. and rarely in the Far East of USSR, Used as PYRUS BETULAEFOLIA Bgb. 2n=34.N . and C. Chi­ na. Used as rootstock. Resistance against scab (Venturia) is found in this species.

PYRUS BRETSCHNEIDERI Rehd. 2n=34. Hupei and Shansi,China ,Primar y gene centre: N.China . There itwa s domesticated. It is the common­ est cultivated in this region.Th e fruits are characterized by hard, crisp,whit e sweet flesh.

PYRUS CALLERYANA Dene. 2n=34. China, Japan and Korea.Primar y gene centre: the Tsinling mountain range,China . It is used as rootstock.

PYRUS PHAEOCARPA Rehd. 2n=34. N.China .

PYRUS PYRIFOLIA (Burm.)Naka i (syn.P . sero- tina Rehd.), Sand pear. 2n=34. Primary gene centre: the highlands of N. and C,China . Var. culta (Mak.)Naka i is drought resistant,bu t not very winterhardy. The leaves reach 15c m in length.Th e fruits are outstanding for their preserving quality. It crosses easily with the wild European pear,P . communis*.

PYRUS USSURIENSIS Maxim. Ussuri pear. 2n=34. SE. Siberia upto theManchurian-Chines e area. Primary gene centre: NE . China and thePrimo - rye Territory, USSR, along the Ussuri river. The ancient var. culta iswidel y distributed over N. and C,China . It is adapted to cold, dry regions. It is the most winterhardy wild pear.A s this species originated outside the Chinese centre proper it has no resistance to scab and other diseases. Itprobabl y played Prunus davidiana a part in the origin of P. communis*. SAPINDACEAE

ROSA MULTIFLORA Thunb. 2n=14. E.Asia .Use d japonica Thunb,). Round ,Ma - as rootstock, rumi kumquat. 2n=18. Primary centre Japan. This .fruit tree is unknown in awil d state. Thunb. 2n=, .Chin a and Japan. It isoccasionall y cultivated. The hips are used by the Ainu.Use d as anornamenta l and inhedge s as one parent to FORTUNELLA MARGARITA (Lour.) Swing, (syn. forrootstocks . Citrus margarita Lour.). Oval kumquat, Nagami kumquat. 2n=18. Japan,Cultivate d inJapan , RUBUS ILLECEBROSUS Focke.Strawberr y rasp­ China and ,USA . Fortunella species berry, Balloon berry. 2n=14. Japan.Cultiva ­ cross easily with each other andwit h Citrus ted inN .America , species.

RUBUS PHOENICOLASIUS Maxim. Wine . PONCIRUS TRIFOLIATA (L.)Raf .Trifoliat e o- 2n=14, Japan and N.China .Cultivate d for its range. 2n=18, (36),N .China , also primary fruits and as anornamental , centre. This area is its centre of diversity. Cultivated inChin a as an ornamental, and in RUBUS PUNGENS Oldhami. 2n= .Korea .Use d in USSR and Japan it is used as a rootstock. Hy­ breeding with R. idaeus*. brids with sweet (Citrus sinensis ) are citranges used as rootstocks,wit h sour Rubiaceae orange (C. aurantium*) are citradias, crosses of citrange with kumquat (Fortunellamargari ­ GARDENIA JASMINOIDES Ellis (syn.G . florida ta*) resulted in citrangequat.Othe r hybrids L.). Cape jasmin. 2n=22. Probably S.China . are citrandarin (P.trifoliat a xC . reticula­ Cultivated inE .Asi a forperfumer y oil, ta) and citrangedin (citrange x calamondin (seeC . reticulata)). Rutaceae TRIPHASIA TRIFOLIA (Burm.f.)P . Wilson (syn. CITRUS ICHANGENSIS Swing. 2n=18. S.o f Tsin T. aurantiola Lour.,T . trifoliata DC.). Lime 'lin range inW. , C. and SW.China , It is berry,Trifoliat e lime berry. 2n= .Centr e very frost resistant.Therefor e it has been of origin possibly China (Mansfeld, 1959). crossed with cultivated Citrus species.Use d Cultivated for its edible fruits. as a rootstock. PIPERITUM DC.Japanes e prickly CITRUS JUNOS Tan. Juzu. 2n=18.Han's uprov ­ ash, Japan pepper, Sanshô. 2n=70, China and ince, China at 1372 m altitude. It is frost Japan.Cultivate d there (Uphof, 1968;Kihara , resistant and therefore used as a rootstock. 1969). Its fruits are big but sour. Itwa s already known in the time of Confucius (about 2500 ZANTHOXYLUM SIMULANS Hance (syn.Z . nitidum years ago).Becaus e of introgression, char­ DC., Z. bungei Planch.). 2n=32. China.A shrub acters of 12Japanes e and 2Chines e wild cultivated inC . and S. China for itsseeds . Citrus species are recognized in juzu. This seed is a source of Chinese pepper.

CITRUS RETICULATA Blanco. (C.nobili s Andr. Sapindaceae non Lour.). Mandarin, Tangerine. 2n=18. See for its possible origin p. 63.Secondar y cen­ LITCHI CHINENSIS Son.Litchi , ,Leechee . tre: Japan. New types such as the Satsuma 2n=28, 30.S ,China .Leenhout s (1978)descri ­ (var. unshiu, syn. 'C,unshiu' ) and theNat - bed three subspecies: ssp.chinensis ,ssp . sudaudau ('C.natsudaidai' )aros e through philippensis (Radlk.)Leenh . and ssp. javensis mutation and spontaneous hybridization. Leenh. Ssp. chinensis is the cultivated litchi. Satsuma tangerine (unshiu mikan) is probably Itwa s first mentioned ca 100BC .whe n Em­ a derivative of So-kitsu or Man-kitsu. peror Wu Ti tried to introduce it from N. Indo­ china into S.China . It is grown now inN . LANSIUM (Lour.) Skeels.Wampi . 2n= India, S,Africa , Florida and ,Ther e 18. It is a small-fruit tree of S.China . are many races.Thos e from China canb e group­ Cultivated in several tropical countries. ed asWate r litchi and Mountain litchi.Wate r litchis are grown in the lowland and have FORTUNELLA CRASSIFOLIA Swing. Meiwakumquat , smooth fruits,whil e theMountai n litchi is 2n=18.Chin a and Japan. It is occasionnally used as stock or as a fruit-tree inhill y cultivated, regions. Its fruits are smaller andmor e prick­ ly.Leenhout s (1978) thinks that the Mountain FORTUNELLA HINDSII (Champ.) Swing.Wil d kum­ litchis are similar towil d types.Ssp . ­ quat. Hongkong kumquat. 2n=18, (36).Th e lippensis is found in the Philippines,wher e Tziulun mountains of Hongkong. Itha s no it is not cultivated; its fruits bear sharp great value.Th e 4x form originated sponta­ pyramidal warts and are not eaten. It is not neously (Cameron & Soost, 1969). a wild type (Leenhouts, 1978). Ssp„ javensis has fruits like the original ssp.chinensis . FORTUNELLA JAPONICA (Thunb.)Swing , (syn. It is occasionally grown in Indochina and W. 2 Indochinese-Indonesian Region

Vavilov called the Indochinese-Indonesian Region theTropica l Asian Centre ofOrigin .Darlingto n (1956)an dL i (1966 cited by Chang, 1970)divide d this regionint oS .Asia :Burma ,Thailan d and Indochina,an d SE.Asia :Malaya n Peninsula and theMalaysia nArchipelago .L i described an agriculture based mainly onvegetativel y propagated crops.Harla n (1971)considere d thisre ­ gion asB 2Southeas t Asian and South Pacific noncentre, asagricultur e may havebee n introduced there. Theoldes t known agricultural remains fromRegio n 2com e from Spirit Cave 60k mN .o fMa eHongson ,NW .Thailan d (Gorman, 1969). This agreeswit h Sauer's (1952)conclusio n that theOl dWorl d centre ofdevelopmen t of agriculture wassituate d inth eNW .par t ofRegio n 2 (aboutpresen t day Burma). Spirit Cavewa s inhabitated from ca.1 000 0t o 560 0BC .Solhei m (1972)propose d thathorticultur e may have developed in 2000 0- 1500 0BC .an d therewa sa further domestication of plants and alsoo f animals in 1500 0- 800 0BC. , resulting in large-scale agriculture and animal husbandry. Another early archaeological site is atNo nNo k Tha,NE .Thailand .I t dates from around 500 0BC . InSpiri t Cave remains of Prunus,Terminalia ,Areca ,Vici ao rRaphia ,La - genaria andTrapa , and in another layerPiper ,Madhuce ,Canarium ,Aleurite s andArec awer e found, and in athir d layerCanarium , andCucumi s (Gorman, 1969). Further research isneede d to support thetaxonomi eidenti ­ fications.Fo r instance Schultze-Motel (1972)doe sno t accept thatVici a faba could havebee npresent .Chan g (1970)use d thepresenc e ofVici a faba,La ­ genaria,Trap a andCucumi s asproo f that theseplant swer e actually cultiva­ ted. The region is important for crops such asbamboos ,tropica l fruit trees, ,Coco s nucifera,Colocasi a esculenta,Dioscore a spp.,Mus a spp.,wil d andweed y Oryza spp.,Pipe r spp.,an dSaccharu m officinarum. AGAVACEAE -ARACEA E 49

Agavaceae STELECHOCARPUS BURAHOL (Bl.)Hook.f . &Thorns , (syn. Uvaria burahol Bl.). Burahol. 2n= CORDYLINE TERMINALIS Kunth. Palm lily. 2n=ca Malaya and .Cultivate d in Java for its 152. SE.Asia ,Australi a and most ofOceania . fruits. Cooked roots will keep for severalweeks . During the 17th and early 18thCentury , roots Apocynaceae were fermented and distilled to produce spir­ its (Barrau, 1961). ERVATAMIA CORONARIA Stapf, (syn.Tabernae - One clone is extensively cultivated for the montana coronaria Willd.,T . divaricata fleshy roots that contain laevulose (Ezumah, R.Br.). . 2n=22. Malaya.Culti ­ 1970). vated there for various purposes.

Amaranthaceae Araceae

AMARANTHUS GANGETICUS L. 2n=34.Asia .Culti ­ ALOCASIA INDICA (Roxb.) Schott. 2n=28. Centre vated in India,Malaya ,Chin a and Japan as a of diversity SE.Asia .Cultivate d there for spinach. See also A.mangostanus* . its stem which is eaten and as anornamental . Introduced to other countries such as India. AMARANTHUS MANGOSTANUS Juslen (syn.A . tri­ This species is sometimes included inA . ma- color L. var.mangostanu s Thell.) 2n=32. crorrhiza*. Trop.Asia .Cultivate d as apot-herb . InA . tricolor are sometimes included var.gangeti - CAMPANULATUS (Roxb.)Blume . cus and var. tricolor (syn.A . melancholicus Elephant yam. 2n=28. SE.Asia . Cultivated in L.). See A. gangeticus*. C. andE . Java and India (p.71) .

AMARANTHUS PANICULATUS L. 2n=32. Used as a AMORPHOPHALLUS HARMANDII Engl. & Gehr. 2n= pot-herb and grain crop in SE.Asia . It might . Occasionally cultivated inTonkin . be conspecies with A. cruentus* (Sauer, 1950) or a . AMORPHOPHALLUS RIVIERI Dur. 2n=24, 26,32 , 39. Indochina. Var.konja c (Schott) Engl. Anacardiaceae Philippines.Cultivate d inChin a and Japan (Mansfeld, 1959). BOUEA MACROPHYLLA Griff. 2n= .A fruit tree of thewe t tropics of SE.Asia . COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (L.)Schott .Dasheen , Taro, Cocoyam. 2n=2x=28, 3x=42. SE„ Asia or MANGIFERA CAESIA Jack. 2n=40. Primary centre NE. India (p. 71).I twa s introduced into Indonesia.Thi s fruit tree is cultivated China and Japan,wher e var. antiquorum de­ there and elsewhere. veloped. It is also grown in theMediterra ­ nean region,W . Africa, the Pacific islands, MANGIFERA FOETIDA Lour. Bachang . 2n=40 New Guinea, Samoa and New Zealand. InSE . Indochina and .Cultivate d inJava . Asia, var.esculent a (syn.C . esculenta sensu

MANGIFERA 0D0RATA Griff.Kurwin i mango. 2n= . Malaysia. Cultivated in Java. It is closely related toM . indica* (Rhodes et al. 1970).

SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM L.f. (syn. Anacardium orientale L.). marking nut tree, Oriental cashew nut. 2n=60. Trop. Asia and Australia. Cultivated in the tropics.

SPONDIAS LAOSENSIS Pierre. 2n= .Trop . Asia.A tree cultivated for its fruits.

SPONDIAS PINNATA (Koen.& L.f. ) Kurz (syn. S.mangifer a Willd.). Hog plum. 2n= .Trop . Asia. A fruit tree whose flower clusters are also eaten.


CANANGA ODORATUM Lamb.Ylang-ylang .2n=16 . Malaysia. Cultivated there and in other countries for the flowers which are a source of essential oils. Distribution of somatic chromosome numbers for taro (Colocasia esculenta)(Yen & Weeler,1968) 0=3x. 50 INDOCHINESE-INDONESIAN REGION

. Probably the Pacific islands.Perhap s it is a cultigen of N. pinnatum* or a closely re­ lated species (Mansfeld, 1959).

NOTHOPANAX OBTUSUM Miq. (syn.Pana x obtusum Blume, Polyscias obtusa (Bl.)Harms) . 2n= Probably SE.Asia . Cultivated in Java.

NOTHOPANAX PINNATUM Miq. (syn.Pana x pinnatum Lam., Polyscias rumphiana Harms). 2n= .SE . Asia and New Guinea.Cultivate d for itsleaves .


GYMNEMA SYRINGIFOLIUM Boerl. Sajor pepe.2n = . Cultivated inMalay a as avegetable .


AVERRHOA BILIMBI L. Bilimbi. 2n=22, 24.Ma ­ laya. Its fruits are very acid.

AVERRHOA CARAMBOLA L. Carambola. 2n=22,24 . Indonesia.Cultivate d for its fruits.Som e varieties have been developed.

Azollaceae ^^*r1S0%&e£t AZOLLA PINNATA R.Brown. Water velvet,Wate r Colocasia esculenta fern. Mosquito fern. 2n= .Domesticate d in Vietnam and China (p.33 ) for its symbiosis with the N-fixing algaAnabaen a azollae Strass- stricto,C . esculenta var. typica A.E.Hill ) burger and therfore used to enrich soils with developed. N, especially of rice fields.Fo r thispur ­ Many wild populations are probably déri­ pose, it has already been grown for several vâteso f escapes from cultivation (Purseglove, centuries. InVietnam , the cv. Beo Giong was 1972). Yen & Wheeler (1968) showed that the developed. It dies at the time of the maximum first introduction of taro into thePacific , tillering of the rice plants and its nutrients including the Philippines, composed of 2n=28 become available at this crucial stage.Othe r and 2n=42 cultigens were introduced cultivars have been developed in China (p.33) . later into Indochina-China-RyuKyu-Japa n area Water fern may also be used to suppress pest and intoTimor-Ne w Caledonia-New Zealand area. weeds and as fodder. In some areas like New Chromosome counts are needed of Indonesian Zealand, it is itself apes t weed, blocking tarocultigens . water channels and pipes (Lumpkin & Plucknett, 1980). CYRTOSPERMA CHAMISSONIS (Schott)Merr . (syn. C. edule Schott,C .merkusi i (Hassk.) Schott.). Basellaceae 2n= ,Indo-Malaysia n area. Introduced into many Pacific islands.Cultivate d for itstu ­ BASELLA RUBRA L. Indian spinach.Ceylo n spi­ bers (Purseglove, 1972), nach. Malaba r nightshade. 2n=44, 48. Probably S. Asia (Winter, 1963), Cultivated as avege ­ PISTIA STRATIOTES L.Wate r lettuce. Tropical table,no w throughout the tropics.Formerl y it duckweed. 2n=28. Subtropics and tropics of may have been used for dyeing. The commonest the Old and New Worlds.A floating plant. synonyms are B, alba L, (2n=48), with white Cultivated in Java in fishponds for edible flowers, and B. cordifolia Lam. (2n= )wit h shrimps that live below the plants (Uphof, heart-shaped leaves. 1968). Bombacaceae Araliaceae CEIBA PENTADRA Gaertn,,var . indica (DC.) NOTHOPANAX FRUTICOSUM Miq. (syn.Pana x fruti- Bakh. Kapok tree,Sil k cotton tree.2n=72 ,80 , cosum L., Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms). 88. Secondary gene centre:SE .Asia . Intro­ 2n=22, 24.SE .Asi a and . Cultivated duced fromAfric a (p. 123)probabl y via In­ in Java for its roots and leaves. dia. Cultivated inSE .Asi a (Zeven, 1969). The Indonesian cultivar Reuzenrandoe (giant NOTHOPANAX GUILFOYLEI Merr. (syn.Pana x guil- kapok)bear s some characteristics of thevar , foyleiCogn .,Arali a guilfoylei Bull.). 2n:= caribaea*. ARACEAE - CYPERACEAE 51

DURIO KUTEJENSIS (Hassk.)Beccari .Lai .2n = TERMINALIA CATAPPA L. Indian , Myroba- . Along the foothills of the central lan,Almendro . 2n-24. Trop. Asia,N .Austra ­ ranges of Borneo. Itha s now spread toE . and lia and E, Polynesia. Widely cultivated in N. of Borneo, the tropics.Th e kernels contain about 55% oil. Used for manufacturing edible , cos­ DURIO OXLEYANUS Griffith. Kerantongan. 2n= metics and pharmaceutic preparations.Use d for . Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo,Th e fruits timber; leave s and bark are used forprepara ­ are eaten and seeds are dispersed around the tion of medicines.Th e fruits are edible. (temporary) settlements. Occasionally culti­ vated.Othe r wild species of which the fruits Retz. 2n=14, 24,26 , 48. are eaten are D. graveolens Beccari, tabelak India toMalaysia . (2n= ),D . dulcis, lahong (2n= ),an d D, grandiflorus (Mast.) Kostermans & Soegeng, Compositae munjit (2n= ).D . graveolens grows wild in Borneo, Malaya and Sumatra, D, dulcis BLUMEA BALSAMIFERA (L.).DC . 2n=20. Himalaya, inBorneo . India, Malaysia, S,Chin a and Taiwan,Culti ­ vated in Java as amedicina l crop. Murray. Durian, 2n=56.W . Malaysia,Unknow n wild. Cultivated throughout BLUMEA MYRIOCEPHALA DC. 2n= .India ,Viet ­ SE, Asia,W . Irian,Moluccas ,Celebes ,S , nam,Malay a and Indonesia.Occasionall y culti­ Philippines, Introduced to Indochina, Thai­ vated in Vietnam. land,Burma , Sri Lanka and elsewhere. It is often semi-cultivated, i.e. semi-wild trees ENHYDRA FLUCTUANS Lour. (syn.E .helonch u DC, result from dispersal of seeds. In this way, Hingtsha repens Roxb.), 2n=22. India, Indo­ durian groves have arisen, china, Thailand, China and Indonesia.A water plant occasionally cultivated inCambodi a and Boraginaceae Malaya for its leaves.

TOURNEFORTIA ARGENTEA L.f. (syn.Messer - EUPATORIUM STOECHADOSUM Hance, 2n=40. Vietnam. schmidia argentea (L.f.) Johnston), Velvet Cultivated there. leaf, 2n= ,Trop .Asia ,A shrub cultivated for its leaves which are used as to­ PLUCHEA INDICA Less. 2n=20.Cutting s of this bacco. shrub are planted as hedges in Indonesia. Young leaves are eaten as avegetabl e or used Burseraceae toprepar e amedicina l tea.

CANARIUM COMMUNE L. Java almond. 2n= .Mo ­ SPILANTHES PANICULATA Wall, ex DC.2n = .SE . luccas. Cultivated inman y other tropical Asia.and New Guinea,Cultivate d as a vegetable countries. The kernels are eaten and oil is or salad, extracted fromthem .Sometime s they areplant ­ ed as shade trees and as ornamentals. VERNONIA ANTHELMINTICA Willd. Kinka oil iron weed. 2n=20, 54.Trop ,Asia , Itmigh t be a CANARIUM MOLUCCANUM Blume.2n = .Moluccas , source of epoxy fatty acids. New Guinea and W. Polynesia.Cultivate d in Malaysia. Convoivulaceae

CANARIUM OVATUM Engl. Pili, Pili nut.2n = IPOMOEA MAMMOSA Chois.2n = .Abouana . Phil­ S.Luzo n (Philippines). The kernels contain ippines.Cultivate d in Indochina. Formerly it 70-80%pili-nu toil . was erroneously believed that this species was the ancestor of I,batatas* . CANARIUM PIMELA Koenig. Black Chinese olive. 2n= .E .Asia .Cultivate d in S.Chin a and Cucurbitaceae Cochin China.

BENINCASA HISPIDA (Thunb.)Cogn a (syn.B . ceri- Combretaceae fera Savi). Wax gourd,Whit e gourd. 2n=24, Java. Cultivated throughout Trop,Asi a (Purse- QUISQUALIS INDICA L. Rangoon creeper.2n = glove, 1968). Itwa s already mentioned asa SE. Asia.A wood y vine.Cultivate d as anor ­ vegetable in China in 500AD . (Li, 1969), namental, vegetable and as an anthelmintic. TRICHOSANTHES ANGUINA L. Edible snake gourd. TERMINALIA BELLIRICA (Gaertn.)Roxb . (syn. 2n=22. Trop.Asi a from India (p.7*3 )t o Myribalan bellirica Gaertn.). Bellirica,Ter - Australia. minalia. 2n=26, 48,Indi a and Malaysia.Culti ­ vated as asourc e of myrobalan which is used Cyperaceae for leather, forblac k dye and for making ink. FIMBRISTYLIS GL0BUL0SA (Retz.) Kunth, 2n= Trop.Asia , Sri Lanka, India,Malaysi a and 52 INDOCHINESE-INDONESIAN REGION

Mariannes,Cultivate d on Malaysia for mat- Dennst, D. triphylla L.).2n=40 , (80).Indi a making etc. (p. 73) and SE.Asia . Closely related to the . dumentorum (Coursey, 1967). LEPIRONIA ARTICULATA (Retz.)Domin . (syn.L . mucronata Rieh.). 2n~ .SE .Asia ,Malaysia , DIOSCOREA NUMMULARIA Lam. 2n= .SE .Asia . Australia and Fiji. Cultivated in Indonesia. Cultivated there and in Indonesia andOceania . It closely resembles D, cayenensis*. SCIRPODENDRON GHAERI (Gaertn.)Merr . (syn.S . costatum Kurz.). 2n= .Trop .Asia , Samoa DIOSCOREA QUARTINIANA A. Rich. 2n= .Through ­ and Australia.Cultivate d in Sumatra forma t out Trop.Asia .Cultivate d inE . making. (Coursey, 1967).

Dioscoreaceae DIOSCOREA PENTAPHYLLA L. 2n=40, 80,144 ,c . 144. SE.Asia .Cultivate d throughout Indonesia L. Greater yam,Wate r yam, and the Pacific islands. Winged yam, Ten months yam. 2n=(20), 30,40 , 50, 60, 70,80 .SE .Asia , in the -Burma Dipterocarpaceae region it is the cultigen of D. hamiltonii Hook., 2n= ,o r D. persimilis Prain & Burk, STENOCARPA Burck. 2n= .Malaya . Cul­ 2n= ,o r a similar species (Burkill, 1935). tivated for its seeds,a sourc e of aBorne o Some types have been described asD u atro- tallow. purpurea Roxb., 2n= ,an d D. purpurea Roxb., 2n= .I t is virtually sterile (Ayensu & Ebenaceae Coursey, 1972). DI0SPYR0S DISCOLOR Willd. (syn.D . blancoi How.). Malobo, Velvet . 2n= ,Malaysi a and Philippines.Occasionall y cultivated for its edible fruits.

MABA MAJOR Forst.f. 2n= .Cultivate d for its fruits on the Friendship Islands.


ELAEOCARPUS FLORIBUNDUS Blume.2n = .Fro m to Java.Cultivate d in and Assam for its fruits.


ALEURITES MOLUCCANA Willd. Tung oil tree.2n = Dioscorea alata (—), D. esculenta ( )an d 44. Autotetraploid. Indonesia. Itswil d ­ D. hispida (•••) (Harris, 1973) rent isno tknown .Crosse s between this species andA . montana did not succeed (Wit, 1969b). DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L. yam, Aerial yam, Bulbil-bearing yam. 2n=36, 40, 54,60 , ALEURITES TRISPERMA Blanco.Tun g oil tree, 80, 100.Trop .Asi a and Africa.Possibl y it Banucalang. 2n=22. Philippines. Cultivated was domesticated inAsi a aswel l as Africa there, inMalay a and Indonesia. Crosses with (p. 125).Cultivate d in Trop.Asia ,Africa , A.montan a did not succeed (Wit, 1969b). and theW . Indies.Th e tubers and bulbils are edible. The African form (p. 125) BACCAUREA DULCIS Muell.-Arg. Tjoopa. 2n= has been described as D. latifolia Benth., Malaya and Indonesia.Cultivate d there for 2n= .Ther e are many types which often have its fruits (Uphof, 1968). been described as species e.g. D. heterophylla Roxb., 2n= BACCAUREA MOTLEYANA Muell.-Arg. Rambai.2n = . SE.Asia .Cultivate d there for its fruits DIOSCOREA ESCULENTA (Lour.)Burk .Lesse r yam, (Uphof, 1968). Asiatic yam, Potato yam, Fancy yam, Chinese yam. 2n=40, 60,80 ,90 ,100 . Indochina. Cul­ BACCAUREA RACEM0SA Muell.-Arg. 2n= .Malay ­ tivated in S.China , and later throughout the sianArchipelago . Cultivated there for its tropics. Most flowers are male (Ayensu & fruits. Coursey, 1972). GL0CHIDI0N BLANCOI Lowe.2n = .A treeculti ­ DIOSCOREA FLABELLIFOLIA Prain. &Burk . 2n= vated in Far East and Philippines for the young . Malaya.Occasionall y cultivated there. leaves and shoots (Terra, 1967).

DIOSCOREA HISPIDA Roxb. (syn.D 0 hirsuta BRASILIENSIS (Willd.)Muell.-Arg .Bra - CYPERACEAE - GRAMINEAE 53 zilian hevea, Para rubber tree. 2n=36. Amazon gnemon is the cultivated type planted inJava . basin (p. 169). A secondary gene centre : Ma­ Introduced to Java, Sumatra and elsewhere. laya. Domesticated in SE. Asia at the end of Cultivated in SE.Asi a for its seeds and the 19th Century (Purseglove, 1968). leaves. A large dioecious shrub.

MANIHOT ESCULENTA Crantz. .2n=36 . Gramineae America (p. 170 and 190).Secondar y centre of diversity in Indonesia. ANDR0P0G0N ACICULATUS Retz. (syn.Chrysopogo n aciculatus Trin.). 2n= .Th e tropics.Cul ­ PLUKENETIA CORNICULATA Smith, (syn. Pterococcus tivated inVietna m for its roots which con­ corniculatus Pax & Hoffm.). Painapaina. 2n= tainChienden t grenille àbross e (Uphof, 1968), . SE.Asia .Cultivate d as vegetable. BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA (Retz.)Willd . Spiny bam­ DISTICHUS (L.)Muell.-Arg . (syn. boo. 2n=70. Primary centre: India and Burma Ph. acides (L.)Skeels .Otaheit e . (p. 73).Secondar y centre:Malaysi a and E.Java. 2n=26, 28.Indi a and Madagascar. Cultivated in the tropics for its fruits (Purseglove, BAMBUSA CORNUTA Munro. 2n= .Java .A woody 1968). grass cultivated for its tender shoots,whic h are used as avegetable . L. Emblic, Myrobolan. 2n=28, 98.Trop .Asia .Cultivate d in the Old BAMBUSA SPINOSA Roxb. 2n= .Philippine s and and New Worlds for its fruits (Uphof, 1968). Indonesia.A woody tall grass cultivated as a timber bamboo and also for its young shoots SAUROPUS ALBICANS Blume (syn. S. androgynus used as avegetable . Merr.). 2n= .Cultivate d as avegetabl e in SE.Asia . BAMBUSA STRICTUS Nees. 2n=70, 72.Indi a and Burma (p.73) .Secondar y centres: Indochina TRIGONOPLEURA MALAYANA Hook.f. Gamber ooran. and S. China (p.37) . 2n= .Malaysia n Archipelago0 Cultivated there for its leaves which substitute for BAMBUSA TULDA Roxb. 2n= .India , Burma (p. gambir*. 73) andTahiti . Secondary centre:Java ,

Flacourtiaceae Schrad. exWendl . 2n=72. Probably Malaysia or India. It is unknown in FLACOURTIA RAMONTCHI L'Hér. Botoko plum,Ma ­ thewild . Cultivated in the tropics for its dagascar plum, Governor7s plum,Ramontchi . young shoots and for its stems. 2n=22. Malaya and Madagascar. Cultivated in the tropics for its fruits. COIXAQUATIC A Roxb. 2n=10. S.Asia .Grow n as fodder in India, also collected as awil d FLACOURTIA RUKAM Zoll. &Mor .Rukam . 2n= cereal inOrissa , India. Malaysia and Philippines.A tree cultivated for its fruits. COIX GIGANTEA Koenig ex Roxb. 2n=20, 40.S . Asia. Involucres are used as beads and poultry ALCALAE C. DC. 2n= .Philip ­ are fed on the grains in NE. India, pines.Cultivate d for its seeds which are a source of oil used to cure . COIX LACRYMA-JOBI L. Job's tears,Adley . 2n= 20, genome formula BB. S.Asia .Wil d races HYDNOCARPUS ANTHELMINTHICUS Pierre exLanessan . have indurated involucres of various colours 2n=24. Indochinaan dThailand . Cultivated in used asbeads .Domesticate d races have soft many tropical countries for the seeds which involucres and arewidel y grown as cereals in are a source of oil used to cure leprosy. NE. India and SE.Asia .Cultivate d kinds are often referred to asC . Ma-yuen Romanet (A- HYDNOCARPUS KURZII (King)Warb . 2n= .Ssp . rora, 1977;Jai n & Banerjee, 1974;Kaul , 1973). kurzii in Burma Highlands and Assam. Ssp. australis inBurm a Lowlands and N. Siam.Ssp . CITRATUS (DC.)Stap f (syn.Andro - kurzii is cultivated inman y trop, countries pogon citratus DC.). grass.2n=40 ,60 . for the seeds which are a source of oil used Probably Malaysia or Sri Lanka. Unknown wild. to cure leprosy. Cultivated in S.Asia , Indochina and else­ where for its lemon grass oil. EDULE Reinw. Pangi. 2n= Malaysia. Cultivated inJava . CYMBOPOGON NARDUS (L.)Rendl e (syn.Andropo - gon nardus L.). Citronella grass.2n :=20, (40, Gnetaceae 60). Cultivated in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and elsewhere for its citronella oil.Ther e are GNETUM GNEMON L. Bulso. 2n= .Fro m Assam to two types of oil: (1)Sr iLank a type obtained Malaysia and Fiji.Var ,ovalifoliu m (Poir.) from var, lenabatuwhic h is cultivated in S. Bl. is considered the wild typewhil e var. Sri Lanka; (2)Jav a type obtained from var. 54 INDOCHINESE-INDONESIAN REGION mahapengiri (syn.C . winterianus Jowett, 2n= New Guinea.Thi s species together with M. 20). The latterwa s introduced into Java from sinensis* from Fiji played a role in the ori­ Sri Lanka early in 20th Century. It is now gin of the Edule group of Saccharum offici- widely distributed throughout the tropics.Th e narum* (Grassl, 1977). wild type in Sri Lanka has a different oil composition (Wijesekera et al., 1973). ORYZA GRANULATA Nees & Am. (incl. 0. meye- riana Baill.). 2n=24, 48. Malaya. It belongs DENDROCALAMUS ASPER (Schult.)Becke r ex Heyne to the '' group of Oryza. (syn. Bambusa asper Schult.). 2n= .Probabl y from the Malay Peninsula and adjacent areas. ORYZA LONGIGLUMIS Jansen. 2n=48. New Guinea. Unknown wild. Secondary centre: Malaysian Archipelago. Itha s strong stems and edible ORYZA MINUTA Presl. 2n=48, genome formula shoots. BBCC. This wild species has the same genomes as the African 0. eichingeri*. Itbelong s to DENDROCALAMUS BRANDISH Kurz. 2n=72. Burma, the 'officinalis' group. Thailand, and Vietnam. Its stems are used asbuildin g material. ORYZA NIVARA Sharma & Shastry. 2n=24. S. and SE. Asia and N. Australia.Thi s is the wild DENDROCALAMUS MERRILLIANUS . 2n= .Pri ­ annual close relative of 0. sativa*. mary centre: Philippines. Its stems are used asbuildin g material. ORYZA OFFICINALIS Wall. 2n=24, genome formula CC. Thiswil d species is the parent of the DIN0CHL0A GIGANTEA Munro. 2n= .Lowe r Bur­ species belonging to the 'officinalis' group. ma. Primary centre:Lowe r Burma. Its stems are used as building material. The plant of ORYZA PERENNIS Moench. 2n=24, genome formula this species is the largest among thebamboos . AA. The distribution of thiswil d species is discussed on p. 74.I nOceania , the Oceanian DIN0CHL0A MACLELLANDII Kurz. 2n= .Cambodia , race (2n=24)o f this species developed. See Laos and Vietnam. Its stems are used in the also0 . rufipogon* and index. basket industry. ORYZA RIDLEYI Hook.f. 2n=48. SE.Asia . DINOCHLOA PENDULUS Ridb. 2n= .Mala y Penin­ sula. Its stems areuse d forbaskets . ORYZA RUFIPOGON Griff, (syn.0 . montana Lour.). 2n=24. Several SE.Asia n countries. It is a GIGANTOCHLOA APUS (Schult.) Kurz. 2n= .Bur ­ pernicious weed of rice land. It easily cros­ ma and Indochina.Severa l species areculti ­ ses with rice. Itmigh t be ahybri d product vated in Java,Borne o and Philippines and of natural crosses of rice and 0.perennis * on theMala y Peninsula (Tenasserim). Second­ and would then be of the same as 0. ary centre:Java . sativa var. fatua*.Accordin g to recent views of taxonomists,0 . rufipogon includes 0. GIGANTOCHLOA LIGULATA Gamble. 2n= .N . part perennis*,0 . fatua*,0 . sativa f. spontanea*, of Malay Peninsula and Thailand. The timber 0. perennis ssp.balunga* ,0 . perennis ssp. is used and the shoots are eaten. cubensis*. See also 0. nivara*.

GIGANTOCHLOA MAXIMA Kurz. 2n= .Unknow n ORYZA SATIVA L. Rice. 2n=24, genome formula wild. Secondary centre: Java. Its stems are AA. Primary centre: SE.Himalay a area (p.74) . an excellent material forbuilding . Ecotype Tjereh andBul udevelope d inIndo ­ nesia. Tjereh belongs to the ecospecies 'aman' GIGANTOCHLOA SCORTECHINII Gamble. 2n= (ssp. indica Kato) (Morinaga, 1968). Malay Peninsula. Its stems are used as buil­ ding material. ORYZA SCHLECHTERI Pilger. 2n= .Ne w Guinea.

GIGANTOCHLOA SCRIBNERIANA Merr. 2n= .Lao s PASPALUM SCROBICULATUM* and Cambodia. Its stems are used as building material. SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. Sugar-cane,Noble - cane. 2n=40II=80. New Guinea.Moder n clones GIGANTOCHLOA VERTICILLATA (Willd.)Munro . resulting (2n=100-125) from hybridization. 2n= .SE .Asia .Cultivate d inW .Africa , Sugar-cane derives form S. robustum Brandes & W. Indies,Fij i and elsewhere (Purseglove, Jeswiet ex Grassl,whic h growswil d in New 1972). Guinea,Celebes ,Borne o up toNe wHebrides . Basic types of N. coast of New Guinea,Ce ­ ISCHAEMUM INDICUM (Houtt.)Merr .Batik i blue lebes and Borneo have 2n=60, while those from grass. 2n= .SE .Asia . Cultivated inW . southern coast of New Guinea have 2n=80. The Africa,W . Indies,Fij i andelsewher e (Purse- first basic type may have originated in Borneo glove, 1972). The second basic type may have been the wild parent from which primitive sugar-cane deve­ MISCANTHUS FLORIDULUS (Lab.)Warb . 2n=38. loped. GRAMINEAE -GRAMINEA E 55

Dispersal of races Oryza sativa across Asia.Are a of origin (grey), "Indica" Japonica" ( ), "Javanica" (—), extend ofwil d relatives(•••• )(Chang , 1976).

S. robustum is cultivated for its large The New Guinea Noble canes were alsotrans ­ stalks used for fences and for construction. ported northwards and northwestwards to other During the domestication of sugar-cane, geo­ parts of Indonesia, Philippines, S. Japan,S . graphic types may have hybridized. Through China (p. 38) and India (p.75) . selection, sugar-cane has amuc h lower fibre content, increased juiciness and sugar content SACCHARUM SPONTANEUML . Wild sugar-cane. 2n= throughout the stalk. These are the New Guinea (x=10)40-128. SE.Asia . InPhilippine s three Noble canes which must have originated ca 700 groups are found: 2n=56, 2n=72 and 2n=80. BC. On New Guinea, these Noble canes hybrid­ Plants with 2n=80 occur inman y habitats for ized with .Wit h hybrid­ instance on mountains and river banks,an d in ization, and and perhaps other (Rithidech & Ramirez, 1974). In the intergeneric hybridization (Roach, 1972), the Indo-Gangetic Plain, plants with 2n=40-72 Edule group of canes developed (Grassl,1964 , are found (Mehra & Sood, 1974). In Indonesia 1967, 1968, 1977). This group has also been and especially inJav a and Sumatra, plants described as S. edule Hassk. The Edule canes with 2n=112 occur. They may be of hybrid ori­ have been subdivided into Vitho canes (syn. gin, deriving from S. officinarum (2n=80)x Erianthus maximus Brongn. and E. pedicelare S. spontaneum (2n=64). Used as fencing for Trin.), 2n=87-100 and Nduruka canes (syn.S . pigs by theAustronesian s from SE.Asia . edule Hassk.), 2n=70. From Fiji, sugar-cane was taken toHawaii , SCHIZOSTACHYUSBRACHYCLADU S Kurz. 2n= which lies outside the Miscanthus area.Ther e Java and E.Malaysia . Secondary centre: the the Hawaiian (Original)Nobl e canes developed, Malay Peninsula. which are thicker and are used as chewing canes and as ornamentals. SCHIZOSTACHYUS GRANDE Ridl. 2n= Malay INDOCHINESE-INDONESIAN REGION

Peninsula, PEDUNCULATA Roxb. Tikul. 2n= Bengal and Silhat (Bangladesh). Cultivated for SCHIZOSTACHYUSLULAMPA O Merr. 2n= .Centr e its fruits. of origin Philippines. Used in the paper industry, GARCINIA TINCTORIA (DC.)W.F .Wight .Matau , tree. 2n=c.80. India (p. 75)an dMa ­ SCHIZOSTACHYUS ZOLLINGERI Steud. 2n= Ma- laya. Cultivated in the tropics for its fruits. lay Peninsula, Java and Sumatra. Hydrophyllaceae SINOCALAMUS LATIFLORUS (Munro)McClur e (syn. Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro.) 2n= .Bur ­ HYDROLEA ZEYLANICA Vahl„ 2n= .Trop .Asia . ma, Thailand, Taiwan and Philippines, Its Cultivated in Java for its young leaves. stems are used asbuildin g material. The young shoots are eaten. They are also canned Labiatae and exported. COLEUS AMBOINICUS Lour. (syn.C . aromaticus TRITICUM TURGIDUM (L.)Thell . Durum wheat Benth.). Indianborage ,Daco n ajenton 2n=68. (syn.T . durum Desf.). 2n=28, genome formula Indonesia.Cultivate d in SE.Asi a andW . In­ AABB.Fo r origin see p. 94. In India asec ­ dies for its aromatic leaves.Thes e leaves ondary centre of diversity (Jain et al., are used in stuffings and for flavouring 1976). meats. They may substitute for sage (*)an d (Borago officinalis*)

VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES Stapf (sync V. odorata (Purseglove, 1968). Virey,Andropogo n muricatus Retz,), Vétiver. 2n=20.A grass of Trop.Asia .Cultivate d for COLEUS PARVIFLORUS Benth. (syn.C . tuberosus volatile oils in its rhizomes and as a hedge Benth.). 2n=56,64 .Thi s tuber crop isculti ­ plant. vated in SE, Asia.

ZEA MAYS L. Maize. 2n=20. Domesticated inC . GRATISSIMUM L. 2n=40, 48,64 .Trop . America (p.190) .Secondar y centre arose in Asia, esp. India.Cultivate d in India asme ­ S. and SE.Asi a (Brandolini, 1970). dicinal crop.

Guttiferae OCIMUM SANCTUM L. Holy . 2n=64. Shrub of trop. Old World.Cultivate d as a sacred plant CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L. Alexandrian laulal, in India and elsewhere, Undi. 2n=32. Coastal regions from E.Afric a upto Australia and Polynesia,Ofte n planted. ORTHOSIPHON STAMINEUS Benth. (syn.Ocimu m In India itha s a rather restricted economic grandiflorum Blume). 2n= ,SE ,Afric a to importance. The kernel yields Dombaoil . Australia,A shrub cultivated in Java asme ­ dicinal plant, GARCINIA ATROVIRIDES Griffith. Gelugur. 2n= . Assam and Malaya,Occasionall y cultiva­ P0G0STEM0N CABLIN (Blanco)Benth .Patchouli , ted. 2n= ,Philippines .Cultivate d for itses ­ sential oil. GARCINIA COCHINCHINENSIS (Lour.)Choisy . 2n= . Cochin China.Cultivate d for its fruits. Lauraceae

GARCINIA DULCIS (Roxb.)Kurz . Baniti.2n = CINNAMOMUM BURMANI Blume. Batavia . Philippines to Java,Th ebar k yields a green 2n= .Malaysia . Cultivated there. dye and the fruits are edible. Occasionally cultivated inJava . Blume (syn,C . aromaticum Nees), Cassia cinnamon,Chines e cinnamon. Choisy.Kokura ,Kokan , Ktambi. 2n= ,Cultivate d inS . China for its bark 2n=48, c. 54.Trop ,Asia .Cultivate d for its and flower buds. Cassia oil is obtained from fruits. In India, it is amino r oil-seed the leaves (Purseglove, 1968), plant (p.75) . LITSEA CALOPHYLLA (Miq.)Mansf . (syn.L . te- GARCINIA MANGOSTANA L. . 2n=c.76 , tranthera Mirb., L, sebifera Blume). 2n= 96. Malaysia, It is considered tob e the most Malaya and Indonesia.Cultivate d esp, in delicious of all tropical fruits. It is deri­ Bangka, Indonesia for its fruits. ved from wild G. silvestris,whic h is also found in India (p.75) . Leguminosae

GARCINIA MULTIFLORA Champ, (syn.G .tonki - ALBIZIA LEBBECK Benthe Lebbek, Indianwalnut . nensis Vesque), Cây giôc, Bira tai,2n = 2n-26. Trop.Asi a to N.Australia ,Cultiva ­ N, Vietnam, Laos, Hainan and Hongkong.Culti ­ ted in tropics and subtropics as fodder crop vated in N.Vietna m for its fruits. and as . GRAMINEAE -LEGUMINOSA E 57

ALBIZIA MOLUCCANA Miq. (syn.A . falcata ALATA Ham. 2n=16. Malaysian Archi­ (Stickm.)Backer) . 2n= .Malaya .Culti ­ pelago. Excellent green manure. vated there and elsewhere as shade tree and as greenmanure . DERRIS DALBERGIOIDES Baker. 2n= . Used as shade tree in SE.Asia . ALBIZIA MONTANA (Jungh.)Benth . 2n= Malaysia.Cultivate d as green manure and DERRIS ELLIPTICA Benth. Derris.2n=22 ,24 , shade tree. 36. From E, India to New Guinea except S. Malaya. Clones are distributed locally except ALBIZIA SUMATRANA. 2n= .Indonesia .Culti ­ one which is found inman y places in SE.Asia . vated in Zaïre as soil cover, green manure This clone has ahig h content of rotenone and shade tree. (Toxopeus, 1952).

CANAVALIA GLADIATA (Jacq.) DC.Swar d bean. DERRIS MALACCENSIS Prain.Derris . 2n=22,24 . 2n=22, 44.Ol d World. Probably derived from Malaysian Archipelago,wher e also cultivated C. gladiolata Sauer (2n=22), which occurs in types are found. Like D. elliptica*, it is theBurma-Yunna n area (Sauer, 1964). Wild in a source of rotenone (Toxopeus, 1952). Trop.Asi a and Africa.Cultivate d inAsia , especially in India as food, forage and DERRIS MICROPHYLLA (Miq.)Jackson . 2n= cover crop or as green manure. In some areas, Used as shade tree in SE.Asia . Introduced in­ it has naturalized (Purseglove, 1968). In to Indochina. Japan, the white-seeded cultigen (var. alba) is cultivated (p.40) . DERRIS ROBUSTA Benth. 2n= Used as ashad e C. polystacha (Forsk.) Schweinf„ (2n= ). tree in SE. Asia. Cultivated from SW.Chin a upto Ethiopia/Soma­ lia as pulse and seed. It is also considered DESMODIUM GYROIDES DC. 2n=20, 22.Trop .Asia . the parental type of C. gladiata. A shrub used as a greenmanure .

CASSIA DIDYMOBOTRYA Fresen.Candelabr a tree. INDIGOFERA TEYSMANNII Miq. 2n=32. SE.Asia . 2n=28. A shrub used as green manure inMala ­ It is a green manure. ya and Sri Lanka. INOCARPUS EDULIS Forst.Tahit i chestnut.2n = CASSIA HIRSUTA L. 2n=28, 56.Vigorou s bush 20. From Malaysia toPolynesia ,wher e it is used inMalaya , Indochina and for cultivated for seeds and as shade tree. soil cover.C . intermedia Sharma, Vivek. & Rathak (2n= ) is anatura l hybrid of C. MELILOTUS SAUVEOLENS Ledeb. (syn.M . grave- occidentalis L., (2n=26, 28) and C. hirsuta olens Bunge). Daghestan sweet clover.2n=16 . (Sharma et al., 1974). E. Asia and Indochina. Cultivated in USA. Some annuals are found in thisbiennia l plant. CASSIA LESCHENAULTIANA DC. 2n=48. Shrub used in India and Indonesia as greenmanure . MIMOSA SEPIARIA Benth. 2n= .Trop .Asia . Used forhedge s (Mansfeld, 1959). CASSIA MIMOSOIDES L. 2n=16, (32).Trop . Asia and Africa.Tre e used in Indochina and Indo­ MUCUNA ATERRIMA (Piper h Tracy)Hollan d (syn. nesia as green manure. Stizolobium aterrima Piper& Tracy). Mauri­ tius bean,Benga l bean. 2n=22. Trop.Asia . CASSIA OCCIDENTALIS L.Coffe e senna,Negr o Cultivated there and elsewhere as a green , Stink weed. 2n=26,28 .Tropics .Use d manure and soil cover. in Indochina as greenmanure . MUCUNA CAPITATA (Roxb.)Wigh t &Arn . 2n= CASSIA PUMILA Lam. 2n= Cover crop in India and Java.Cultivate d as a vegetable Indochina. and for itsseeds .

CASSIA SIAMEA Lam. (syn.C . florida Vahl.). MUCUNA COCHINCHINENSIS (Lour.)A . Cheval, 2n=28. India,Malay a and Indonesia.Culti ­ (syn.M . nivea DC.,Stizolobiu m niveum 0. vated in Malaya and India as fodder crop. Kuntze). 2n=22.Cochi n China.Cultivate d in Introduced onCub a as greenmanure . tropics as vegetable, for seeds,a s green manure and soil cover. CASSIA TORA L. Sickle senna,Wil d senna.2n = 26, (28,56) .Tropics .Occasionall y cultiva­ MUCUNA DEERINGIANUM (Bort.) Small, (syn. ted as a greenmanur e inChin a and Indonesia. Stizolobium deeringianum Bort.). Florida vel­ vet bean. 2n=22. Probably trop.Asi a orMa ­ CLITORIA LAURIFOLIA Poir. (syn.C . cajanifo- laysia.Cultivate d as cover crop, greenma ­ liaBarth) . 2n=24. Tropics. Occasionally nure and forage crop. cultivated in SriLank a and Indonesia and formerly inTanzani a as greenmanure . MUCUNA PRURIENS DC.var .utili s Wahl. (syn. Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy). Bengal 58 INDOCHINESE-INDONESIAN REGION


Distribution ofwil d (—) and cultivation inAfric a ( ).Origi n and movements of Eumusa groups (AA-ABBB) and of Australirausaserie s (open arrow) (Simmonds, 1962).

AAB group. Its major centre of origin lies in MUSA* TEXTILIS Nee.Abaca ,Manill a hemp. 2n- India (p,68) ,whil e a clone (Maio maoli)ma y 20. Philippines. A tall perennial. Cultivated have arisen in Philippines (Simmonds, 1964). there and elsewhere in the tropics for its The third hybrid group is the triploid AAB fibre. Canton fibre is obtained from anatura l group. S. India is amajo r centre of origin. completely sterile hybrid (2n=21)o f M. tex- It isquit e likely that a second centre is tilis xM . balbisiana*. found inPhilippines . The fourth hybrid group, consisting of one Myristicaceae clone, is the tetraploid ABBB group. Its centre of origin very probably lies in Indo­ MYRISTICA ARGENTEA Warb. Papuan . 2n= china (Simmonds, 1964), . New Guinea,wher e it is also occasionally cultivated (Flach &Cruickshank , 1969). MUSA* cultivars of theAB B group.2n=33 . Most ABB cultivars originated in S. India (p.68) . MYRISTICA FRAGRANS Houtt.Band a nutmeg. 2n= However it ispossibl e that after theculti ­ 42, 44.Centr e of origin:Moluccas . It is vated M. acuminata (AA)reache d Philippines, not found there wild.Fro m there, it spread hybrids arosewit h M. balbisiana*. throughout the tropics (Flach& Cruickshank, 1969). MUSA* BALBISIANA Myrtaceae

EUGENIA AQUEA Burm.f. (syn. Syzygiuraaqueu m (Burm.f.) Alston). Watery roseapple. 2n= f^° Bangladesh,Burma , Sri Lanka,Sumatr a and Moluccas. It is also cultivated.

EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS (Sprengel) Bullock & Harrison (Syzygium aromaticum (L.).Merr . & 3 Perry). tree.2n = .Th ewil d clove (+- tree, sometimes named E.obtusifoli a Rein- wardt (Caryophyllus sylvestris T. &B,) , ^ grows onman y islands of Moluccas and inNe w Guinea. Itha sbigge r leaves and flower buds, and is less aromatic than the cultivated W j> tree. Cultivated for a long time. Some variation exists in and outside its The wild Musa balbisiana (—) and M. acumin­ centre of origin. ata ( )type s (Simmonds, 1962). EUGENIA FORMOSA Wall. (syn. Syzygium mappa- ceum (Korth.) Mansf.). 2n= .Trop .Asia . MUSACEAE -PINACEA E 61

Tree cultivated inCochi n China for fruits. laya,Molucca s and New Guinea. Sago isob ­ tained from themarro w of the stem. This spe­ EUGENIA JAMBOLANA Lam. (syn.Syzygiu m cumini cies is occasionally split inM . sagu - the (L.). Skeels,Eugeni a obtusifolia Roxb.,E . wild type andM . rumphii (Willd.)Mart . (2n= cumini (L.)Druce) . Java plum, Jambolan plum. ) - the cultigen. 2n=33, 44,46 ,55 . India toMalaysia , China and N.Australia . It is cultivated there and NYPA FRUTICANS Wurmb. (syn.Nip a fruticans elsewhere. In India, a large-fruited type is Thunb.). Nipa palm. 2n=16. SE.Asi a upto cultivated (Mansfeld, 1959). Australia. Cultivated on Sumatra for its leaves and forwin e production. Introduced to EUGENIA JAMBOS L. (syn.Syzygiu m jambos (L.) the area of S.Nigeria ,wher e it Alston). Roseapple. 2n=28, 33,c.42 ,44 ,46 , has runwil d (Zeven, 1973). c.54. Tree cultivated for a long time in Indo-Malaysia. Its centre of origin is not PRITCHARDIA GAUDICHAUDII H.Wendl . 2n= known. Sandwich Islands.Cultivate d there for its leaves which are used for thatching. EUGENIA JAVANICA Lam. (syn.Syzygiu m sema- rangense (Bl.)Merr .& Perry). 2n=33,42 ,44 , PRITCHARDIA PACIFICA Seem &Wendl .2n=36 . 45, 66,88 ,110 .Malaysi a to India.Muc h Fiji and Samoa.Cultivate d for its leaves, cultivated inJava . which are used for thatching.

EUGENIA MALACCENSIS L. (syn.Syzygiu m malac- SALACCA EDULIS Reinw. 2n= .Malaysia nArchi ­ censis (L.)Merr . & Perry). Pomerac,Mala y pelago.Cultivate d on Java for its edible apple. 2n=22. Malaya. Some varieties are known. fruits.

MELALEUCA QUINQUENERVIA L.f. (syn.M . leucaden- Pandaceae dra L.). Cajêput tree.2n = .Australi a to Burma. Planted in projects inPhilip ­ AMARYLLIFOLIUS Roxb. (syn.P . odorus pines, Hawaii and elsewhere.Als o planted to Ridl.). 2n= .Cultivate d inMalay a for its drying out swamps, and as ornamental. fragrant leaves.

PIMENTA ACRIS Kostel. 2n=22. Indonesia.Culti ­ PANDANUS BROSIMAS Merr.& Perry. 2n= .Cul ­ vated there foroi l distilled from the leaves tivated in the highlands ofNe w Guinea for (Purseglove, 1968). its seeds,whic h have apleasan t flavour and are rich inoi l (Purseglove, 1972). RH0D0MYRTUS T0RMENT0SA Wight. Downy rose-myrtle. 2n= .Indi a and Malaysia. A shrub cultivated PANDANUS SPURIUS Miq. (syn.P . moschatus in the (sub)tropics for its fruits. seu laevis Rumph., R. moschatus Rumph. ex. Miq.,P . tectorius Soland. var.moschatu s Nyctaginaceae (Rumph.e x Miq.)Merr. , P. laevis Lour.,P . odoratissimus L.f.,P . inermis Roxb.). Thatch PISONIA ALBA Span.Maluko ,Lettuc e tree. screw ,Putat ,Pudak . 2n=c.51,54 ,60 . 2n= .Malaya .Wil d tree is called P. syl­ Cultivated in SE.Asi a to the extremes of vestris Teijsm. & Binn. (syn.P . grandis R. Polynesia for its leaves for thatch and for Br.) (2n= ).Cultivate d for leaves,whic h its fruits.Th e cultivar ison e clone,pro ­ are used as vegetable. bably originated as abu d sport on astami - nate plant of some wild species of section Palmae Pandanus. Perhaps the mutation occurred on a specimen of P. spurius some millenia ago Merr.Betelnu t palm. 2n=32. (St.John , 1965). Trop. Asia.Cultivate d for nuts. PANDANUS WHITMEEANUS Martelli.Paogo . 2n= ARENGA PINNATA (Wurmb.)Merr . Sugar palm. Cultivated inNe w Caledonia,Ne w Hebrides and 2n=26, 32.Primar y centre: the Indonesian- elsewhere.O n Futuna, it is used only for Hindustani gene centre (p. 78).Possibl e se­ personal adornment.Th e fruit oil is used to condary gene centre: India. perfume oil (St.Joh n & Smith, 1971).


CALAMUS CAESIUS Blume. 2n= .Malaya , Borneo PENTAPHRAGMA BEGONIAEFOLIUM Wall. 2n= .A and Sumatra.Cultivate d forstems . fleshy herb cultivated as vegetable in Malaya (Terra, 1967). COELOCOCCUS ARMICARUM Warb.Polynesia n ivory- nut palm. 2n= .Carolin a Islands.Cultiva ­ Pinaceae ted in Philippines for its ivory-like nuts. PINUS MERKUSII Jungh & de Vriese (incl. P. Rottb. Sago palm. 2n= Ma- merkusiana Corling & Gaussen). Merkus pine. INDOCHINESE-INDONESIAN REGION

2n= .Burm a toPhilippine s and south to AEGLE MARMELOS (L.)Corr . Indian bael, Bengal Sumatra. Planted in tropics as a source of fruit. 2n=18, (36).Cultivate d inSE .Asi a and paper, and to control erosion. and some other trop, countries for its fruits, which are used medicinally. Piperaceae CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA (Christm.) Swing.Lime . PIPER BETLE L. pepper,Betl e vine,Be - 2n=18, (27).Probabl y Malaysian Archipelago tal, Sirih. 2n=32, 64, (78).C . and E.Malay ­ or N. India. Itma y derive from a cross of sia,Cultivate d in the tropics.Th e leaves C. medica* with abiotyp e of the primitive are chewed together with betelnut (Areca subgenus (Scora, 1975). Wild trees are catechu*). reported to grow in N. India. Spread throug- out tropics.Th e cultivar Tahiti is triploid. L.f. Cubeb,Cubebe ,Taile d pep­ Interspecific hybrids have been obtained. per, 2n=24. Cultivated there and inneigh ­ Mandarin lime is probably ahybri d with C, bouring countries. reticulata*, sweet lime with C. medica* and limequat with Fortunellamargarita* . The PIPER METHYSTICUM Forst.Kav a pepper.2n = nakoor lime (named C. nakoor) is a complex . Polynesia. Cultivated there.Th e roots natural hybrid with some Papeda group par­ and rhizomes are used toprepar e anon-al ­ entage. The Rangpur lime belongs toC . reti­ coholic beverage. In small amounts it isa culata*. stimulant; in large amounts anarcotic . CITRUS AURANTIUM L. Sour orange, Seville Vahl (syn. P. officina- orange, Bigarade. 2n=18.Probabl y SE, Asia or ruraDC,) . Javanese , 2n= .Ma ­ Cochin China,Unknow n wild. Itma y derive laysia. It resembles P. longum*. Cultivated from C. reticulata* xC . grandis* (Scora, for its spike,whic h is used as aspice . 1975). Spread throughout (sub)tropics. In some areas,i t has runwild , Ssp,bergami a PIPER SAIGONENSE C. DC.Lolo . 2n= .Indo ­ (Risso &Poit. )Wigh t &Arn. ,Bergamo t (2n= china,Cultivate d there occasionally. Closely 18)i s cultivated especially inCalabria , S. related toP , lohot C. DC., which comes from Italy for the production of bergamot oil Tonkin district. (p, 105),Crosse s with C, sinensis* (Sweet orange)gav e Bitter sweet orange.Th evar . Polygonaceae myrtifolia Kergawl.,Myrtle-leave d orange is a bud mutant. Its fruits,Chinottos , are can­ POLYGONUM ODORATUM Lour, 2n= ,Indochina . died in Italy and S.France . Cultivated as apot-her b inVietnam, , CITRUS GRANDIS (L.)Osbec k (syn.C . decuma- Rosaceae nus L, 2n=18, 21;C . maxima (Burm.)Merr . 2n=18, 36).Pummelo ,Shaddock . 2n=18,36 . RUBUSALBESCENS * Probably SE. Asia,Primar y centre of diver­ sity: SE.Asia , Spread toChina , India and RUBUS ROSAEFOLIUS Smith.Cap e bramble,Mau ­ Iran, and later toothe r tropical countries ritius raspberry, 2n= ,Tropica l Asia, (by Captain Shaddock toBarbado s in 17thCen ­ Introduced in other continents. Cultivated, tury), Unknown wild. The best fruits come It is considered aparen t of R, probus Bailey, from Thailand where the plants are cultiva­ Queensland raspberry, a shrub from Australia. ted on ridges surrounded by brackish water. The other parent is R. ellipticus Smith, Self-incompatible and monoembryonicperennial . the Himalayan raspberry from E. India, Introgression with C. reticulata* occurs (Scora, 1975). Rubiaceae CITRUS HYSTRIX DC.Mauritiu s papeda,2n = MITRAGYNA SPECIOSA Korth. 2n= .Malay a and Philippines and Burma toMalaya .A small S. Thailand, Cultivated as asubstitut e for type cultivated for its fruits. opium. CITRUS JAMBHIRI Lush.Roug h lemon. 2n= MORINDA TRIFOLIA L. Indian mulberry. 2n= It derives from C, medica* xC . reticulata* Indonesia and Malaya.Cultivate d on Java (Scora, 1978). as ady e crop. CITRUS LIMETTA Risso. Sweet lemon. 2n=18. OLDENLANDIA UMBELLATA L. Indian madder. 2n= Trop.Asia . Small tree cultivated in some 36, Trop.Asia .Cultivate d as ady eplant . countries.

UNCARIA GAMBIR (Hunt.) Roxb. Gambier. 2n= CITRUS LIMON (L.)Burm.f . Lemon. 2n=18, 36. . Malaya, Formerly cultivated in SE.Asia . Centre of origin somewhere in SE. Asia. The Its leaves and young branches contain atannin . area east of Himalayas inN . Burma and S. China has been suggested. Unknown wild. Has Rutaçeae a complex origin (Torres et al,, 1978).A PINACEAE -SOLANACEA E 63 secondary centre: the Mediterranean Region PANICULATA (L.) Jacq. Cosmetic bark- (p. 118).Scoi- a& k (1970)suggeste d that tree,Orang e jasmine. 2n=18. SE.Asia . Cul­ this species might be a stabilized hybrid of tivated in the tropics as an ornamental and

C.medica * -C 0 aurantifolia* assemblage. forhedges .Th ewoo d (Satinwood) is used in Cultivated in several (sub)tropical regions. Java tomak e cutlery.

CITRUS MEDICA L.Citron . 2n=18. Subtrop.Asia . Santalaceae A basic Citrus species (Torres et al., 1978). Itma y be one of theparent s ofC . limon* and SANTALUM ALBUM L. (syn.Siriu m myrtifolium C. jambhiri*.Monoembryonic . L.). Sand^elwood . 2n=10. E. India to Malay­ sia. Cultivated there and elsewhere for CITRUS MITIS Blanco.Calamondin . 2n=18. Philip­ scented wood. pines. It derives from C. reticulata var. austera xFortunell a sp.A tree occasionally Sapindaceae cultivated in (sub)tropics. Hybrids of this species have been produced, for instance ERIOGLOSSUM RUBIGINOSUM (Roxb.)Blum e (syn. Calarin andCalash u are hybrids with C. reti­ E. edule Bl.). 2n= .Trop .Asi a to New culata* (Satsuma), Calamondin is ahybri d of Guinea and Australia,A small tree cultiva­ C. reticulata xFortunell a sp. ted in Indonesia and elsewhere.

CITRUS PARADISI Macf. Grapefruit. 2n=18.SE . NEPHELIUM LAPACCEUM L. Rambutan. 2n=22.Ma ­ Asia. Unknown wild. Probably derived from C. laysian Archipelago.Cultivate d for itsde ­ grandis* xC . sinensis* (Torres et al., 1978). licious fruits.Man y varieties have beende ­ Chiranja is ahybri d with C. sinensis and veloped. citrumelo with Poncirus trifoliata*. NEPHELIUM MUTABILE Blume.Pulasan . 2n= CITRUS RETICULATA Blanco (C.nobili s Andr. Malaysia. Cultivated in SE.Asi a and in non Lour,). Mandarin,Tangerine . 2n=18. Pro­ other countries. bably Philippines,o rCochi n China. Unknown wild. Secondary centre arose in Japan (p.45) . POMETIA PINNATA Forst.Matoa , Taun, 2n= Minessy et al. (1970) found close relation­ Malaysia, Indonesia, and ship with C. sinensis* 'Balady Blood'. Its Pacific islands.A forest tree used for tim­ relationship with C. paradisi* 'Duncan' and ber and for its fruits.Cultivate d for its 'March' ismoderat e andwit h C. grandis* edible fruits.O n W. Irian alongside the remote. Var.auster a Swing is the sourman ­ banks of the Sentani Lake. darin. Itprobabl y includes the Rangpur lime This crop will probably be replaced by higher (Purseglove, 1968). -yielding exotic fruit trees (Rappard, 1961). Hybrids with other species have beenmade . For instance Oranguma is an artificial hybrid RARAK DC. 2n= .Cochi n China and of Satsuma xC . sinensis* (Orange), and Tangor Malaysia.Plante d in Java, India and else­ is anatura l hybrid of the same parents. Its where for its fruits. origin is inThailand . Tangor hasbee n des­ cribed asC . nobilis Lour.Citrandari n derives Sapotaceae from Poncirus trifoliata* xC . reticulata, calamondin (seeC .mitis ) from C. reticulata MANILKARA ELENGI (L.)Chev . 2n= .Origi n x Fortunella sp., and chironja from orange x uncertain (Uphof, 1968). Cultivated in the C. reticulata. Malaysian Archipelago.

CITRUS SINENSIS (L.)Osbec k (syn.C . aurantium PALAQUIUM GUTTA (Hook.) Burck. Gutta percha. L. var. sinensis L.).Swee t orange. 2n=18, (27, 2n=24.Malaysia , It is tapped for its . 36). Probably S.Chin a orCochi n China. Unknown Ingeneral , the tree is first felled. inwild . Itma y derive from C. reticulata* x C. grandis* (Scora, 1975). Secondary centres: PAYENA LEERII (Teijsm.& Binn.)Kurz . 2n= and Spain (p.118) .I twa s already men­ Burma and W. Malaysia.Cultivate d on Java as tioned inChines e sources dated 2200 BC. It a source of gutta percha. has the same origin asC . aurantium* but the wide genetic variation of C. reticulata causes Saururaceae differences in the derived species. It is widely distributed in the (sub)tropics. There Thunb. 2n=56,96 ,c.96 , are many cultivars,Citrang e is ahybri d with 100-104. Indochina and China.Cultivate d in Poncirus trifoliata* and chironja is aspon ­ Vietnam for salad and asmedicina l crop, taneous hybrid with C. paradisi*. It origina­ ted inPuert o Rico. By apomixis, it Solanaceae true. LYCINUM CHINESE Mill. Chinese wolfberry.2n= = MURRAYA EXOTICA L.Limonia . 2n=18. Trop.Asia . 24. E.Asia .Cultivate d inJav a as vegetable. Used for hedges. 64 INDOCHINESE-INDONESIAN REGION

SOLANUM UPORO Dunal. 2n= .Polynesia . Cul­ laysia. Cultivated there. tivated inFij i for its fruits. AMOMUM KEPULAGA Sprague & Burk. Round carda- Stilagninaceae mon. 2n= .Cultivate d inMalaysi a and Java.

ANTIDESMA BUNIUS (L.) Spreng. Bignay, China AMOMUM KRERVANH Pierre.Krervanh . 2n= laurel. 2n=117,Indi a toAustralia .Cultiva ­ Cambodia.Cultivate d in Indochina. ted inMalaysi a and elsewhere for its fruits (Purseglove, 1968). AMOMUM MAXIMUM Roxb. Java cardamon.2n = Malaysia.Cultivate d inJava . Styraceae BOESENBERGIA PANDURATA (syn. Gastrochilus Dryander. 2n= .Malaysia n pandurata Ridl.). 2n= .Malay a and Java. Archipelago. Planted in Sumatra. Cultivated overwid e area for its .

Taccaceae CURCUMA HEYNEANA Valeton. 2n= .Java .Th e rhizomes are a source of an arrowroot. TACCA PINNATIFIDA Forst, (syn.T . involucrata Schum. & Thonn.,T , leontopetaloides (L,) CURCUMA PIERREANA Gagn. 2n^ .Malaya . Cul­ Kuntze). Tacca pin,Tahit i arrowroot. 2n=30, tivated inAnna m (Vietnam). SE. Asia (Massai &Barrau , 1956). Possibly do­ mesticated by Polynesians for its starchy CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA Roxb. 2n= .Amboina . roots and introduced into Malaysia andMada ­ Occasionally cultivated in Java and Malaya. gascar. Also found from Ethiopia toW . Africa. GALANGA L. 2n=22, 54.Trop .Asia . Umbelliferae Widely cultivated for its rhizomes.

CARUM ROXBURGHIANUM Benth. (syn.Trachyspermu m L. 2n=33,54 .Trop .Asia . roxburghianum (DC)Wolff) . Ajmud. 2n(wild)= Cultivated for its rhizomes. (20, 40)42 , (44);(cultivated)=20 . Trop. Asia, Cultivated in Indochina, Sri Lanka and PHAEOMERIA MAGNIFICA Schuin, (syn.Alpini a India. magnifica Rose., A, speciosa D. Dietr,, Amo- mum magnificum Nenth.). 2n= .Malaya . Cul­ MONNIERI Calest. (syn.Selinu m tivated there. monnieri L.). 2n= .E ,Europe ,Siberia , China and Vietnam. Occasionally cultivated in ZINGIBER CASSUMUNAR Roxb.Cassumuna r ginger. N. Vietnam. 2n=22.Cultivate d inCochi n China and Malaya. InMalay a as avillag e medicinal crop. DC. (syn.0 . stolonifera Wall.). Oriental celery,Wate r dropwort,Batja - ZINGIBER ZERUMBET (L.)Smith .Zerumbe t ginger. rongi. 2n=20. From Indochina toMalaya ,Philip ­ 2n=22. Trop.Asia .Cultivate d inCochi n Chi­ pines, China,Korea , Japan andAustralia . Cul­ na, Cambodia and elsewhere. tivated in Indochina,Japan ,Chin a (Kihara, 1969) and Java.A leafy vegetable that often occurs as aweed .


LAPORTEA DECUMANA Wedd. 2n= .Moluccas . Cultivated as amedicina l plant.


ALPINIA CONCHIGERA Griff, (syn.Langua s con- chigera Burk.). 2n= .Malaya , It is a com­ mon village plant there,

ALPINIA GALANGA (L.)Willd . Langwas, Greater . 2n=48. Trop. Asia. Cultivated for its rhizomes. It is acommo n village plant. Several varieties have been observed.

ALPINIA MALACCENSIS (Burra.f.)Rose . 2n=48, Malaysian Archipelago and E. India.Thi s per­ ennial herb iscultivated .

AMOMUM CARDAMOMUM Willd. Cardamon. 2n= Ma- 3 Australian Region

TheAustralia n Region was not described byVavilov ,bu t itwa s marked outb y Zhukovskij (1970)becaus e of the domestication of several plant species to important cropso r theus e ofwil d species asbreedin g parents.Th emai n crops derived from thisRegio n areEucalyptu s species.Wil d species useful for breeding areNicotian a debneyi and N.goodspeedii . Iti s ase ­ condary centre of diversity forTrifoliu m subterraneum.

Agavaceae formula EE.Australia .Al l research into the affinity of the species toothe r Oryza spe­ PHORMIUM TENAX J.R. etG . Forst. New Zealand cies uses plants derived from one collection flax, NewZealan d hemp,Harakak a lily,For - (Chang, 1970). mio. 2n=32. NewZealand . Cultivated there. Introduced into S,Americ a and other coun­ Leguminosae tries. The only other species of this genus Ph0 colensoi Hook., mountain flax (2n=32) ACACIA CYANOPHYLLA Lindl. 2n=26. Australia. produces awea k fibre. Itmigh t be used asa Cultivated as an ornamental and in Europe to breeding parent. stabilize coastal dunes.

Casuarinaceae ACACIA DEALBATA Link. Silver wattle. 2n=26. SE,Australi a and Tasmania.Cultivate d as an CASUARINA EQUISETIFOLIA Forst. Swamp oak, ornamental, for its timber and as soil sta­ Bull oak,Polynesia n iron wood, Horsetail bilizer. It is the familiar florist's mimosa. tree. 2n=18. It isofte n cultivated as soil stabilizer. ACACIA LONGIFOLIA (Andrews)Willd . (syn. A. cibaria F.V. Muell.). 2n=26.Ne w South Wales, Chenopodiaceae Australia.Cultivate d as ornamental and as stabilizer of coastal dunes inEurope , ATRIPLEX SEMIBACCATA R.Br. Australian - bush,Berr y saltbush. 2n=18.Australia . Cul­ De Wild. Black wattle.2n=26 . tivated as fodder crop on the saline soils Cultivated in several countries mainly for of California and Arizona, USA. its and as ornamental. Sometimes the names A. decurrens (Wendl.)Willd . or A, Gramineae mollissima Willd, arewrongl y used for black wattle. HOLCUSLANATU S L. fog,Sof t grass, Woolly softgrass,Velve t grass,2n=14 . Benth.Golde n wattle.2n = See p. 153.A secondary centre of diversity South Australia and Victoria,Australia . Cul­ has developed in New Zealand (Jacques, 1974). tivated for tannin and as ornamental.

ORYZA AÜSTRALIENSIS Domin. 2n=24, genome GLYCINE CANESCENS F.J. Herrn.2n=40 . A close 66 AUSTRALIAN REGION relative of G. max*, being apossibl e source of resistance to powdery mildew, Microsphaera diffusa Cka.& Pk.

LUPINUS COSENTINI Guss. (syn.L . varius L. ssp. varius Franco & P. Silva). Western Aus­ tralia blue lupin,Sandplai n lupin. 2n=32. Along the coast of and scattered in W. Mediterranean region. Introduced into W. Australia about 1850 as a source of flour. Cultivated for summer feed and soil im­ provement. I t is now widely naturalized (Glad­ stones, 1970).

PHASEOLUS LATHYROIDES L. Phasemy bean. 2n=22. Queensland, Australia. Used inE .Afric a in pastures (Whyte et al,, 1953). This species and radiata*posses s ahig h homology of chromosomes,whic h points to aclos e relation (Biswas & Dana, 1975).

TRIFOLIUM SUBTERRANEAUM L. Subterranean clover, Sub clover,2n=16 . Primary centre in theMe ­ diterranean Region (p. 115).Secondar y centre: Australia. Gossypium sturtii

Malvaceae Chile, Zaïre and W. Georgia (USSR). Closely GOSSYPIUM AUSTRALE F.V. Muell. 2n=26, genome related toE ,regnans* . formula C3C3.N . Australia. ASTRINGENS Maiden. Brownmallet . GOSSYPIUM BICKII Prokh.2n = ,genom e formu­ 2n=22. SW.Australia .Cultivate d inMorocco , la G1G1, Queensland, Georgina River, S.Afric a and Cyprus.Th e bark used for the tanning industry. It is very drought-resist­ GOSSYPIUM ROBINSONII F.V. Muell.2n=26 , genome ant, formula C2C2. W.Australia . EUCALYPTUS BOTRYOIDES Smith.Blu e gum,Banga - GOSSYPIUM STURTIANUM J.H. Willis. 2n=2x=26, lay eucalyptus,Bastar d mahogany.2n=22 . genome formula CC. C. Australia, Coastal areas of SW.Australia ,Cultivate d in and Zaïre.E . trabutii Vilm. (2n=22), GOSSYPIUM STURTII F.V. Muell. 2n=26, genome is ahybri d of E.botryoide s andE . camal- formula C]Ci. C. and S.Australia . dulensis*0*arise n in Italy.

Musaceae EUCALYPTUS BROCKWAYI Gardn.2n=22 .S .Austra ­ lia, Its area of distribution is limited. MUSA (Australimusa). Feri banana. 2n=20.Th e Cultivated inN . Africa.Extremel y drought- fe'i banana originated from one ormor e wild resistant. Australimusa species inNe w Guinea-Solomon Is­ lands area.Probabl y carried by man in an EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS Dehn, Longbeak eu- easternly direction.Cultivate d especially in calyptus,Australia n ,Re d gum.2n=22 . Tahiti,wher e many bunches are harvested from Australia, excluding Tasmania, It is cultiva­ semi-wild plants. Some clones have been de­ ted almost in all countriesth ; itgro wEuca - scribed as M. fehi Bert, exVieill. , M. aiori lyptus. Secondary centres: the Mediterranea n Sagot,M . seemanii F.V. Muell. and M. troglo- region (p. 117),Brazi l (p. 12 7)an dArgen - dytarum L. (Simmonds, 1964). tina (p. 127).I n cultivation many sponta- neous hybrids have arisen.E . trabutii Vilm. Myrtaceae (2n=22) is ahybri d of E. bot ryoides Q andE . camaldalensis 0*.A new form de veloped in EUCALYPTUS ALBA Reinw. ex Blume. 2n-22. Israel (p.117) . Timor and Flores and to the south of New Guinea,Cultivate d in Brazil,Th ewoo d is EUCALYPTUS CINERA F.V. Muell.2n=22 .S . areas reddish-brown. The contains much tanning of New SouthWales ,Australia ,Use d asorna ­ material. mental. It is a valuable source for breeding cold-resistant forms of Eucalyptus. EUCALYPTUS AMYGDALINA Labill. (syn.E . salici- folia Cav,), Willowleaf eucalyptus,Pepper ­ EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA Hook. Spotted gum,Le ­ mint tree.2n=22 .Tasmania .Cultivate d in mon-scented gum. 2n=(20), 22, (28).N . coast LEGUMINOSAE -MYRTACEA E 67

. ^u ——••s^—^ «jj \ i .^

ùK*5 j\ ^ *> *• . • —"" / a f x / vi ^-"— î> b eu y \ ^ 0 \\ s X » V " • / _^

"""•• • —- — "*""

Ü ». Wild Australirausa (—) and Fe'i bananas ( )(Simmonds, 1962).

of Queensland, Australia,Cultivate d in many in countries of Mediterranean area, in Africa (sub)tropical countries for and New Zealand. It is oneo f the most va­ rich in citronellal. luable economic species.

EUCALYPTUS CLADOCALYX F.V. Muell. (syn.E . EUCALYPTUS EUGENI0IDES Sieb. (syn.E . scabra corynocalyx F.V. Muell.). Sugar gum. 2n=22. Dum-Cours.). White stringybark, Pink black- S.Australia .Cultivate d inAustralia , Medi­ butt. 2n= ,Coast s areas of SE.Australia . terranean area and in some African countries. Cultivated in S. Africa, , India and The wood is of excellent technical value. Hawaii. Thewoo d is used in industry. Some natural hybrids areknown . EUCALYPTUS COCCIFERA Hook.f. 2n= .Tasmania . Because of its hardiness, it is used for EUCALYPTUS GLAUCESCENS Maiden & Blakely. 2n= breeding types forW . Georgia (USSR). . Mountains of SE.Australia . Its distribu­ tion is very limited. Used for crossing with EUCALYPTUS CREBRA F.V. Muell.2n = .Queens ­ species of poor hardiness. land, reaching New South Wales,Australia . Cultivated in several countries of Africa, EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS Labill.Feve r tree,Blu e India andArgentina . Some spontaneous hybrids gum. 2n=20, 22,28 .SE .Tasmania . Cultivated. areknown . Secondary centre: the Mediterranean region. Used forwoo d and oil.Spontaneou s hybrids EUCALYPTUS CYPELLOCARPA L. Johnst. (E.gonio - are known under cultivation inTasmania . calyx . anct.). 2n=22. SW,Australi a at­ taining 900-1200 m altitude.Cultivate d in EUCALYPTUS G0MPH0CEPHALA A.DC. 2n=22. SW. Mediterranean area, S.Americ a and on Hawaii. coasts of West Australia,Cultivate d in countries of the Mediterranean region.Afric a EUCALYPTUS DALRYMPLEANA Maiden.Mountai n gum. esp. , Hawaii and New Zealand. Itha s 2n=22. SE. Australia, attaining 1350m alti­ the heaviest and strongest wood among all tude and inC . Tasmania attaining 900m alti­ Eucalyptus species. InAlgeria , some sponta­ tude.Cultivate d on the coasts of the Black neous hybrids areknown . Sea in the Caucasus. It is apromisin g econo­ mic species on Hawaii and inChina . It is EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS Hill, exMaiden . 2n= considered tob e of hybrid origin.Natura l and Coast areas of the N. part of New South Wales artificial hybrids areknown . It canb e used and SE.Queenslan d up to 650m . Cultivated inbreedin g better types. inCameroon ,Nigeri a and Madagascar. It is thought that E. 'saligna* or E, 'saligna/ EUCALYPTUS DELEGATENSIS R.T.Baker , (syn.E . grandis' areAfrica n strains developed after gigantea Hook.f.). Alpine ash,Woollybutt , introduction of Queensland material (Larsen Red mountain ash,Whit e top stringbark. 2n= & Cromer, 1970). . Themountain s of SE.Australi a up to 1350m and in Tasmania up to 900 m.Cultiva ­ EUCALYPTUS GUNNII Hook.f. 2n=22. Cultivated ted inNe w Zealand, Hawaii and W. Georgia in USSR, Great Britain, Japan andHawaii . (USSR). Used for cultivation and as breeding Used for industry and breeding on theCauca ­ parent inUSSR . sus coasts of the Black Sea.

EUCALYPTUS DIVERSIC0L0R F.V. Muell,Karri . EUCALYPTUS LEUC0XYL0N F.V, Muell. (syn.E . 2n=22. Coasts of SE, Australia. Cultivated conoidea Benth.). White ironbark,Whit e gum. AUSTRALIAN REGION

2n=22. C. areas of Victoria and South Austra­ breeding hardy strains. Some geographic races lia, In the latter area, it is rare.Culti ­ and spontaneous hybrids are known. vated in the Mediterranean area esp, Cyprus and S.Americ a esp.Argentina . Used for its EUCALYPTUS PERRENIANA F.V, Muell.e x Rodway. wood and oil.Som e geographic races and 2n- ,Tasmania .Cultivate d in the USSR. It spontaneous hybrids have been described. is hardy (it tolerates -13°C).

EUCALYPTUS MACARTHURI Dean & Maiden. 2n=22. EUCALYPTUS REGNANS F.V, Muell.Mountai n ash, C, New South Wales, Australia,Cultivate d in Swamp gum, Australian oak, 2n= ,Mountain s Africa esp.Zaïre , Hawaii, New Zealand, S. of S.Victori a up to 900 m and in Tasmania up France and W. Georgia, USSR. Itproduce s an to 600m .Cultivate d inKenya ,Ne w Zealand essential oil.Som e spontaneous hybrids are and other countries. This is the biggest and known. In the USSR many (poly)hybrids have most valuable species in this genus, Some been produced. trees are recorded up to 96 m high. It is closely related to E, amygdalina*. EUCALYPTUS MACULATA Hook,f. (syn.E .varie - gata F.V. Muell.). Spotted gum. 2n=22. Coastal EUCALYPTUS RESINIFERA Smith (syn.E . spec- areas of SE, Queensland,Ne w South Wales and tabilis F.V. Muell., E. hemilampra F.V. Muell.). E. Victoria. Cultivated inAfric a esp. Ca­ Kino eucalyptus, Red mahogany, Forests ma­ meroon,Zaïre , Kenya and Madagascar; the hogany. 2n=22. Coastal zone of S. Queensland Mediterranean region esp. Spain,France ; Chile and C. part of New South Wales.Cultivate d in and Uruguay. The wood is very valuable. Argentina, Sri Lanka,Ethiopia , Cameroon and other countries.Th ewoo d is very valuable. EUCALYPTUS MAIDENII F.V. Muell.Maiden' s gum, Spotted blue gum. 2n=22. Mountains of SE. EUCALYPTUS ROBUSTA Smith.Beakpo d eucalyptus, Australia.Cultivate d inAfric a esp.Cameroon , White mahogany, Swamp mahogany. 2n= ,Coast s Congo and Kenya; theMediterranea n area esp. of S. Queensland as far as S,o f New and Spain; Brazil and New Zealand. Its Wales, Australia.Cultivate d in Mediterranean wood is valuable, containing essential oil. area, Africa esp.Cameroon , Zaïre andKenya ; Some spontaneous and artificial hybrids have Argentina, India and other countries. Often been reported. cultivated on swampy grounds. The wood is eco­ nomically valuable. EUCALYPTUS MELLIODORA A.Cunn .Yello w box. 2n=22.Australia .Cultivate d in the Mediter­ EUCALYPTUS SALIGNA Sm. Sydney blue gum, Salig- ranean area, inAfric a esp.Zaïr e and Eri­ na gum. 2n=22. Coasts and slopes of mountains trea. Used for itswoo d and as an ornamental in New South Wales and SE.Queensland . Culti­ tree. It is extreme^ melliferous.Ther e are vated inAfrica , esp.Cameroon ,Keny a and Zim­ geographic races and spontaneous hybrids babwe; S ,Americ a esp. Argentina and Brazil. known. After E. globulus*,th e most widely distribu­ ted species in cultivation. Thewoo d isex ­ EUCALYPTUS MICROCORYS F.V. Muell.Fallo w wood. tremely valuable.Thi s is the most rapidly 2n= .Coasta l areas of the N.par t of New growing species in the genus, SouthWale s and SE. Queensland.Cultivate d in Mediterranean area and Africa esp.Zaïr e and EUCALYPTUS SIDEROXYLON A. Cunn. ex Benth.Re d . Used forwood . Some spontaneous ironbark. 2n=22. The W. slopes of New South hybrids areknown . Wales upland and in the N. part of Central Victoria,Australia . Cultivated in Africa esp. EUCALYPTUS NIPHOPHILA Maiden & Blakely. 2n= Cameroon, Kenya,Zaïr e and Rhodesia; theMe ­ . Alpine zone of SE,Australia , up to 2000 diterranean area,esp .Spain , ,Al ­ m. It tolerates -24°C and hence is of great geria, Morocco,Cypru s and Israel; Japan,US A importance for hybridization with valuable and New Zealand. Itswoo d is economically very economic species. valuable. It contains essential oil.Som e spontaneous hybrids areknown , EUCALYPTUS PANICULATA Sm. (syn.E . fergusoni R.T, Baker). Grey ironbark. 2n=22. The coasts EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS Smith, (syn.E . suba- of New SouthWales .Cultivate d inAfric a esp. latum Cunningh.)Re d gum,Floode d gum, Grey Kenya and Tripoli;Mediterranea n area, esp. gum,Blu e gum. 2n=22. Almost thewhol e coast Spain and Tripolitania; S.America ,esp .Para ­ of E.Australia .Cultivate d almost in all the guay and Uruguay, and India,Th e wood ises ­ countries of the world where Eucalyptus is pecially strong, heavy and durable. grown. The wood is very valuable. InUSSR , interspecific hybrids are produced. The strains EUCALYPTUS PAUCIFLORA Sieb.ex.Spreng . 2n= 'Cr ofZanziba r and 'MysoreHybrid * of India Sub-alpine zone of E,Victori a and themoun ­ belong to this species (Larsen &Croner , tains of New SouthWale s and Tasmania, up to 1970). 1650m .Cultivate d inEngland , France, Japan and W. Georgia (USSR),O n the fringe of its EUCALYPTUS VIMINALIS Labill. (syn.E ,manni - area, it is very hardy. It is valuable in fera Cunning,E . persicifolia Lodd,), Ribbon MYRTACEAE - SOLANACEAE 69

eucalyptust White gum, Swamp gum. 2n-22. SE. NICOTIANA GOODSPEEDII Wheeler. 2n=40. New Australia and E. Tasmania. Cultivated in South Wales to SE.o f West Australia. Itha s Mediterranean area, in countries of C. and S. a short growing period. It is very resistant Africa, India, New Zealand and USA. Insub ­ to Peronospora tabacina Adam. Some natural tropical areas of USSR, it is the commonest introgression with the closely related N. Eucalyptus species. The wood is of moderate exigua Wheeler, 2n=32, N.nuaveolen s Lehm., value.A n essential oil is obtained. Many 2n=(24), 32, (48,64) ,an d N. rotundifolia spontaneous and artificial hybrids are known. Lindl., 2n=44.

LEPTOSPERMUM LAEVIGATUM F.V. Muell. Austra­ SOLANUM LACIANIATUM Aiton.Cut-leave d night­ lian tea-tree. 2n=22.Australia . Cultivated shade. 2n~92. Australia and New Zealand. there for the reclamation of moving sand0 Cultivated in Europe and elsewhere forit s Dried leaves are used for tea-making. foliage, which is a source of steroid pre­ cursors. MELALEUCA PREISSIANA Schan. 2n= .Austra ­ lia.Var . leiostachya Schan, (syn.M ,parvi - flora Lindl.) is a soil stabilizer.


HAKEA SALICIFOLIA (Vent.)B.L . Burtt. 2n= SE, Australia and Tasmania. Cultivated for reclamation of arid land in Spain and Portu gal. Itha s runwil d in those countries.

HAKEA SERICEA Schrader. 2n=20. E.Australia . Cultivated for reclamation of arid land in Portugal and Spain, Itha s runwil d in those countries.

MACADAMIA INTEGRIFOLIA L.S. Smith, (syn.M . ternifoli a F.V. Muell., M. ternifolia var. integrifolia andM . tetraphylla L.A.S.John ­ son). Queensland nut,Macadami a nut,Austra ­ lian bush nut,Australia n . 2n=28, 56, E. Queensland, Australia.Cultivate d inHa ­ waii. M. integrifolia isknow n as the smooth- shell type and M, tetraphylla as the rough- shell type,M , ternifolia is now considered to apply correctly only to aspecie s with bitter cyanogenic seeds less than 25m m in diameter, inedible and never cultivated (Kraus &Hamilton , 1970).


EREMOCITRUS GLAUCA (Lindl.) Swing. 2n=18. This tree is capable of withstanding 6 months drought. It easily crosses with Citrus spe­ cies giving fertilehybrids ,


DUBOISIA H0PW00DII F.V. Muell.Pituri ,Pitche - ry, 2n= .Australia .Cultivate d for some decades to yield atropine.

DUBOISIA LEICHHARDTII R.Br. 2n=60. Australia. Cultivated for some decades for atropine,

DUBOISIA MY0P0R0IDES R.Br.Corkwood ,Mgmeo . 2n=60„ Australia. Cultivated for atropine.

NICOTIANA DEBNEYI Domin. 2n=48.Australia . Used as a source of resistance toblu e caused by Perenospora tabacina Adam. 4 Hindustani Region

TheHindustan i Region of diversity was included by Vavilov inhi s Tropical SouthAsia nCentr e ofOrigin .Zhukovski j (1968)distinguishe d this centre onlyb y number (IV),bu t in 1970h e indicated adistinctio nbetwee n thisan d the rest of S.Asia .H ebase d his distinction on theexistenc e of species specific for thisRegio n 4. Although this region isnea rknow nol d farming sites inThailand ,agricul ­ turemus t havebee n introduced from theNW . adjacent area.Earl y farming sites have so farreveale d fewdetail s ofnativ e cultivation.A tMüan-j o Daro (Mo- henjodaro )an dHarapp a on theRive r Indus inPakistan ,almos t on theboundar y betweenRegion s 4 and 5, asit eo f theHarappa n culturewa s discovered dating from 2500- 2000BC .Som eremain s ofGossypiu m arboreumwer e discovered.A t a site,Navdatoli-Mahesva r on theNarbad a River, inC . India,datin g from 2000BC. ,remain so fwheat ,peas ,broa d beans,lentils ,Lathyru s sativus and ricewer e found.Excep t for rice,thes e cropswer e domesticated outside India. Important crops of the region include ,frui t trees,Cucurbit a sati- va,Mangifer a indica,Mus a sp.,Oryz a sativa,Phaseolu s mungo,Pipe rsp. , Saccharum sinense and Vignasinensis . Species of this region have influenced the development of cropselsewhere , mainly by active distribution between this region and areas such asAncien t Egypt,Assyria ,Sumeri a and theHittit e Empire.Exchang e also took placewit h Africa.Crop swer e distributed especially to theMediterranea n areab y the in the 8th-10thCenturie sAD .Suc h crops include citrus trees,cotto n species, jute,ric e and sugar-cane.

Acanthaceae cultivation in and France (p.148) , Iran (Tarée irani, 2n=32; Tahbaz, 1976) and BARLERIA PRIONITIS L. 2n=30, 40.Trop . Africa in Kashmir (Koul k Gojil, 1970). The wild and Asia.Cultivate d in India as amedicina l and cultivated types are both extremely var­ crop. iable. This species is related toA . sativum*, A. porrum*,A . kurrat* and A. scorodoprasum*. Agavaceae Amaranthaceae SANSEVERINIA HYACINTHOIDES (L.)Druc e (syn. S. zeylanica Willd.). bowstring hemp. AMARANTHUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS Lam. 2n=32, (34).S . 2n= .Sr i Lanka.A fibre plant cultivated and C. Europe, SW.Asi a up to India and Tur­ there. kestan and toAfrica . In India var.polygo - noides Thell. is cultivated. Alliaceae CELOSIA ARGEKTEA L.Quai l grass.2n=(36) ,72 . ALLIUM AMPELOPRASUM L. garlic,Pe ­ India. Var. cristata Kuntze (syn.C . cristata rennial sweet leek. 2n=16, (24), 32,genom e L.). Cockscomb grass.2n=36 . It is apot-herb , formula AAA'A", (40,48) .S .Europe ,Asi aMi ­ fodder and fibre crop and an ornamental. nor,Caucasu s to Iran and N.Africa . Some ACANTHACEAE - COMPOSITAE

Anacardiaceae its corras.

MANGIFERA INDICA L. Mango. 2n=40. Assam and ALOCASIA MACRORRHIZA (L.)Schott . Giant alo- the Chittagong Hills.Sprea d toman y tropical casia. 2n=26, (28).Probabl y Sri Lanka. Spread countries. Rhodes et al. (1970) classified in the Malaysian Archipelago and to India and cultivars into: further toTrop .America . Several varieties 1.polyembryoni c group with oblong fruits,com ­ are cyanogenic. A. indica isofte n included mon in SE. Asia, in this species. 2. monoembryonic group with roundish fruits common in India and AMORPHOPHALLUSCAMPANULATU S Blume.Whitespo t 3. agrou p intermediate in fruit shape, also giant ,Oroy . 2n=(14), 28.Trop . Asia common in India. (p. 49).Cultivate d in India and elsewhere 4. the Sandersha-Haden complex, consisting of as a tuber crop. hybrids developed in Florida and Hawaii.M . odorata* and M. zeylanica Hook.f. are not COLOCASIA ESCULENTA (L.)Schott .Taro ,Dasheen . closely related. Natural cross-fertilization 2n=2x=28, 3x=42. The centre of domestication ranges from 5 to62% .A secondary centre of is not certain. Some authors suggest Malaysia, diversity has developed in Florida (p.199) . others likeKuruvill a & Singh (1981)NE .In ­ dia,Assa m or Upper Burma.Thes e authors found 2x cultivars in the plains of India and 2x and 3x cultivars in the hills of NE. India.


MARSDENIA TINCTORIA R.Br. 2n= .Himalay a to China,Malaysia . Cultivated in India as a dye plant.


CANNABIS SATIVA L. Hemp. 2n=20. Centre of origin C. Asia (p. 149).Sprea d to India in early times.Th e Indian type is cultivated for its narcotic properties.Thenc e it must have spread to theMiddl e East and elsewhere. 'C. ruderalis Janesch' is aweed y non-toxicant type.


BETA VULGARIS L. Indian spinach. 2n=18, ge­ nome formula VV. For origin see p. 104.India n spinach is cultivated mainly for its leaves and occasionally for its roots.Ther e is a red-leafed and a green-leafed type.A s it Centre of domestication and routes of migra­ differs inchromosom e pattern and for its tion ofMangifer a indica (Singh, 1976). phenolic compounds from table beetroot, Basu & Mukherjee (1975)describe d it asB . palonga. Apocynaceae However,mor e research is needed. It very likely derives from early introductions from NERIUM INDICUM Mill. (syn.N . odorum Soland.). the Near East via Afghanistan,wherea s the 2n=22. Trop.Asia ,especiall y India.Culti ­ table beetroot was introduced later fromEu ­ vated as amedicina l plant. rope (Basu& Mukherjee, 1975),

RAUVOLFIA SERPENTINA Benth. 2n=(20), 22,(24 , KOCHIA INDICA Wight. 2n=18. Introduced into 44). India, Sri Lanka,Burm a and from Thailand Egyptwher e it is cultivated as a forage crop. to Java.Becaus e of the high demand for this medicinal crop, itbecam e (nearly)extinc t in Compositae some areas.T o provide sufficient roots,som e hospitals in India set up small gardens of it. INULA RACEMOSA Hook.f. 2n=20. Cultivated on Its cultivation could be extended to India a small scale in theLabau l Valley inNW . and elsewhere (Dutta et al., 1963). Himalaya for its aromatic roots.Cultivatio n is reported from N.Africa ,Asi a Minor,Ethio ­ Araceae pia, Iran,E . India and some European coun­ tries. (Lour.)Schott .Gian t taro. 2n=28. India and Sri Lanka.Cultivate d for SAUSSUREA LAPPA Clarke.2n=26 . Grown in the 72 HINDUSTANI REGION

Valley of Kashmir and adjacent area for its aromatic roots,,

VERNONIA AMYGDALINA Delile. Bitterleaf. 2n= . Trop. Africa. Occasionally cultivated.


IPOMOEA ERIOCARPA R.Br. 2n= .India .Use d as a spinach and as a green fodder.


BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L. 2n=20. genome formula AA. See p. 150 for the origin of this species. In Pakistan/India the var. toria Duthrie & Fuller, Indian rape,Toria , and var. sarson Prain, Indian colza,Brow n sarson areculti ­ Raphanus sativus var.mougr i (Sinskaya, 1931). vated. Brown sarson canb e divided into (1) self-compatible and (2) self-incompatible types. These two types can be differentiated bers have been cultivated for at least 300 0 by for flowering time, years (Leppik, 1965). Three varieties have genetic drift in isolated populations, and been described: (1)var , hardwickii (Royle) chromosomal inversions suppressing recombina­ Alef. (syn.C . hardwickii Royle) (aweed y tion in connectionwit h a recessive mutation type); (2)var . sikkimansis Hook, (the 'In­ of amajo r gene, independent of the S locus dian type'); (3)var . squamosus Gab. Sources but inactivating that locus (SwamyRao , 1971). of resistance topowder y mildew Sphaerotheca A considerable diversity is observed inBi ­ fuliginea (Schlecht, ex Fr.)Pol l are found har and E.Utte r Pradesh (Anand et al., 1975). in cucumber material from China, Japan,In ­ donesia and India. ERUCA VESICARIA (L.).Cav . (syn.E . sativaL.) . 2n=22. Mediterranean Region (p. 107)an dAsia . MAXIMA Duch. exLam . .Win ­ Cultivated in India for jambaoil . ter squash. 2n=40. Its origin is described on p. 169.Secondar y centre in India and adjacent RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. Serpent radish, Snakelike areas. radish,Rat-taile d radish,Tre e radish from Java, 2n=18.Cultivate d from Java toNW . In­ LUFFA ACUTANGULA (L.)Roxb . Sponge gourd,An ­ dia. The plant requires a short daylength to gled loofah, Sinkwa towel gourd. 2n=26. Pro­ develop roots.Var „ mougri Helm (syn.R . cau- bably India,Primar y gene centre probably datus L., R. sativus var. indicus Sinsk. is there. Itwa s found inKarakoram/Hind u Kush characterized by small long fleshy fruits and in 1955 (Tozu, 1965). Cultivated inChin a and glabrous leaves.Var . oleiformis Pers.* is Japan. also grown in India. Dutt & Roy (1971) suggested the following evolution of the various related Luffa spe­ Cucurbitaceae cies. They considered the wild monoecious L. graveolens Roxb. (2n=26) as the primary CITRULLUSCOLOCYNTHIS * species. From it, two species derived: the wild dioecious L. echinata Roxb. (2n=26) and CITRULLUS LANATUS (Thunb.)Mansf .Wate r melon. the cultivated monoecious L. aegyptica*. They 2n=22. Var. fistulosis (Stocks)Duthi e & Ful­ considered dioecism as aderive d factor that ler (syn.C . fistulosis Stocks), Round melon arose after divergence from the monoecious L. (2n=24)i s cultivated in India for its round graveolens. fruits. It differs in chromosomal number and From L. aegyptica, the monoecious type of leaf phenolics from C. lanatus and should pro­ L. acutangula and later the type bably be raised to aspecie s (Kaur et al., of that species arose,whic h is also called 1973). L. hermaphrodita*.

COCCINIA CORDIFOLIA Cogn. (syn.C . indica W. LUFFA AEGYPTIACA Tull. (syn.L . cylindrica & A.).Iv y gourd, Small gourd. 2n=24,(36) . (L.)Roem.) . Smooth loofah, Suakwa, Sponge Trop.Asia , and Red Sea area to . In S. gourd,Vegetabl e gourd. 2n=26„ Domesticated India, forms occur with long lessbitte r fruits probably in tropical Asia,possibl y in India. Cultivated in almost all tropical regions CUCUMUS SATIVUS L. Cucumber,Gherkin . 2n=14, where it may have runwild . Used for producing Primary gene centre probably theHimalayas . vegetables or sponges. It is also used for a Introduced into Europe. Near East,Chin a and medicine and for insulation. elsewhere. Secondary gene centres in China This species includes L. racemosa Roxb. (2n and Near East (p. 36 and 89).I n India, cucum- = )wit h L. hermaphrodita* the only two COMPOSITAE - GRAMINEAE 73

'species'wit h bisexual flowers. BAMBUSA TULDA Roxb. 2n= . India. Burma (p. 53) and Tahiti. Secondary centre Java. LUFFA HERMAPHRODITA Singh & Bhandari. Satpu- tia. 2n= .Cultivate d in and Bengal, CEPHALOSTACHYUM CAPITATUM Munro. 2n= .Burm a India. It crosses easily with L. acutangula*, and Himalaya. Its shoots are edible. the Fi being monoecious. It is similar to L, acutangula* and to L, cylindrica (seeL . ae- CYMBOPOGON FLEXUOSUS (Nees ex Steud.) Wats, gyptiaca*), but has bisexual flowers,oblong - (syn.Andropogo n flexuosus Nees). Malabar ellipsoidal fruits and smooth shin}^blac k grass, Cochin grass.2n=20(+l-2B ), 40 (+l-2B) , seeds. Itma y be ahybri d of one of those two x=10. India.Cultivate d for its essential 'East species. Types described as L. racemosa Roxb. India lemon-grass oil'. Var. coimbatorensis and included inL , cylindrica are alsobi ­ Gupta (2n=40) is a cultigen. sexual (Singh & Bhandari, 1963). Dutt & Roy (1971) included L. hermaphrodita CYMBOPOGON MARTINI (Roxb.)Wats . Roshagrass, inL , acutangula*. They condidered it as the Palmarosa, Ginger grass.2n=20 , 40(+l-2B), x hermaphrodite type of that latter species. =10. E. India.Cultivate d in India and Indone­ sia for palmarosa oil and ginger grass oil. L. (syn.T . anquina The cultigen var.moti a (syn,C . motiaGupta , L.). Snake gourd. 2n=22. India to Australia. syn. var. martinii), 2n ;=20,produce s palmarosa Cultivated for a long time in India. oil,whil e var. sofiaGupta ,2n=40(+l-2B ) pro­ duces ginger grassoil . Dioscoreaceae CYMBOPOGON PENDULUS Wats. 2n=20, 60,India . DIOSCOREA HISPIDA*. Recently taken into cultivation (Jagadish- chandra, 1975), Euphorbiaceae CYN0D0N DACTYLON (L.)Pers . Bermuda grass.2 n BACCAUREA SAPIDA Muell.-Arg. 2n= .Malaysia , =(x=9) 18,genom e formula AA; 36,genom e formu­ India and China,Cultivate d by for its la AABB; 45,54 ,genom e formula AAAABB.Wi ­ fruits. dely distributed in the Old World tropics. Malik & Tripathi (1968) and Harlan & deWe t CROTON TIGLIUML . Purging croton. 2n= .SE . (1969) indicate that the two diploid genomes Asia.Cultivate d now in India and Sri Lanka of the tetraploid are essentially homologous. for its seeds (Purseglove, 1968). Var. aridus Harlan & deWe t (2n=18) and var. afghanicus Harlan & deWe t are excellent fod­ Flacourtiaceae ders tolerant to drought. Several selections of var. dactylon are grown as lawngrasses . DORYALIS ()HEBECARP A (Gardn.)Walb . Var. elegans Rendle is amajo r natural grass (syn.Aberi a gardneri Clos.). Ceylon goose­ ofAfrica , and var. coursii (Camus)Harla n & berry. 2n= .Trop . Asia especially India deWe t is amajo r fodder in Madagascar (Har­ and Sri Lanka.Cultivate d for itsberries . lan et al., 1970). See p. 128.

HYDNOCARPUS LAURIFOLIUS (Dennst.) Sleumer (syn. DENDROCALAMUS HAMILTONII Nees &Arn . 2n= Blume). 2n=24, India. C. and E,Himalay a up to 900m and Upper and Cultivated in several trop,countrie s for its Lower Burma up to 120 0m altitude.Use d as oil, used to cure leprosy. building material and in the paper industry. It grows inhumi d areas along rivers and in Gramineae low places,an d forms large ,

BAMBUSA ARUNDINACEA (Retz.)Willd . Spiny bam­ DENDROCALAMUS LONGISPATHUS Kurz, 2n=72. Bangla­ boo. 2n=70. India.Cultivate d there. In forests desh and Burma (Arakan). Used forpape rma ­ bordering rivers and onmountain s up to 900m . king. It is found inhumi d mixed forests a- Much cultivated inJava , rarely in Indochina. long rivers on fertile clay soils. Secondary gene centre inJav a (p. 53).Use d as building material and in the paper industry. DIGITARIA CRUCIATA (Nees)A .Camus .2n = This is one of the largest bamboo species. Its Var. cruciata grows wild in a large area of E, stems canb e 30m long, India and China.Probabl y domesticated in the 19th Century in the Khasi Hills,E . India, BAMBUSA POLYMORPHSMunro . 2n=72. Bangladesh. by selecting var. esculenta Borwit h longer Cultivated there and inBurma .Use d asbuildin g stems, longer spikes,large r material and in the paper industry, and much bigger grains. Itgrow s slowly and yields little. Its advantage is the production BAMBUSA STRICTUS Nees. 2n=70, 72.I n India of straw in an area where little grass grows (except Assam) and Burma.Secondar y centres in (Bor, 1955;Sing h & Arora, 1972). Indochina (p.53 ) and S.Chin a (p. 37).I n dry areas of forests. It is drought-resistant. DIGITARIA SANGUINALIS (L.)Scap .Manna .2n = 18, 36,54 ,72 .Cultivate d in Kashmir and 74 HINDUSTANI REGION

adjacent Afghanistan, and in SE.Europe ,Th e mary centre: theTravancor e Mountains and species is awee d of temperate regions in all Tinneville (altitude 900 - 165 0 m). Iti s continents (Portères, 1955a). Cultivated kinds used in thepape r industry. differ little from their closewil d relatives in floral morphology. 0RYZA MALAMPUZHAENSIS Krish. &Chand . 2n=48. India. ECHINOCHLOA COLONA (L.)Link . Shamamillet , Jungle rice. 2n=(36, 48), 54, (72).Cultiva ­ 0RYZA RUFIP0G0N Griff.Perennia l . ted in India as a fodder grass and as a cere­ 2n=24. The more commonly accepted epithet 0. al. Formerl y itwa s grown also in Egypt.Ya - perennis Moench probably does not refer to buno (1968) considered the genome formula of Asiatic wild race (Tateoka, 1964). Widely this species tob e the same as that of E, fru- distributed inAsi a and Australia.A s recog­ mentacea*. nized by Chang (1976a,b ), i tinclude s thean ­ nual 0.n ivar a SharmaS iShastr y (1965a,b) .Th e (L.)Gaertn .Finge r millet, perennials areweakl y rhizomatous with extra Ragi. 2n=36. Introduced fromAfric a (p.129) . vaginal branching and are adapted tocontin ­ Kempanna (1969)recognize d various types in uously flooded habitats.Cytogeneti c studies India.Hil u & deWe t (1976) described how the suggest that under cultivation this perennial African lowland race musthav e reached India (Nayar, 1973)gav e rise to the annualculti ­ from the south or south-west.Th e introduction vated 0. sativa (Chang, 1964). Spontaneous must have taken place by sea routes c. 1000 annuals of Asia (0.sativ a var, fatua Prain) BC. InS . India, the crop developed asecon ­ are probably weedy derivatives of hybridsbe ­ dary centre of diversity. Thence it spread to tween 0, sativa and 0. rufipogon (Oka and thenorth . InNE . India,th e Indian racede ­ Chang, 1961), whereasOceani c annuals may re­ veloped and inN , India theNort h Indian type. present trulywil d 0. nivara (Oka, 1974). It Is not clearwhethe r the last taxon evolved from the lowland race or from the Indian race ORYZA SATIVA L. Rice. 2n=24, genome formula or fromboth . AA. S.Asia .Th e antiquity of rice cultivation is uncertain. Ricewa s probably collected as awil d cereal across thehumi d tropics ofA - .1 ^ -^.-•^ \ .^"1 sia. Inpart s of India and in Sri Lanka,per ­ r^~* '^.. ennial wild rice is still harvested as a J " T 7 cereal (Vishnu-Mittre, 1974). The oldest known • ^xxx ^ <-. rice remains in the archaeological record (Allchin, 1969;Solheim , 1972) are fromMohen - (''" > * x- jodaro inPakista n (2500 BC.), India (2300BC. ) • — x ^-. i J O*' "• • i ^* and Thailand (3500 BC.). According to esterase ' I V / • x X -. . •- __ -' >• ', isozyme genotypes, the centre of diversity of •-• •""-, >Y ; j rice is inAssam-N .Burma-Yunnan . InAssam , types resembling theAfrica n 0. glaberrima* J i >" X ° o „\5' S '.o r 'v. are found (Seetharam & Ghorai, 1976). Three races of rice are commonly recognized. V 9p O no%° Q^W ~V i. vy] ° cp J~** V > (1)Th ebasi c tropical race indica probably \ {^ ~ originated over abroa d region spreading from \orices of . (2)Rac e indica was introduced into theYello w River (Huang Ho) w» vr Valley and the lower Chang (Yangtze)Rive r B5°°1 V \oJ f V7\ is\s u r— \ Various types ofEleusin e coracana in India, (o)lowlan d race, (•) Indian race,(x) Indian highland type (Hilu& deWet , 1976).

MELOCANNA BACCIFORA (Roxb.)Kurz . 2n= .Bur ­ ma from Garo toArakan .Primar y centre:Bangla ­ desh. Its stems areuse d asbuildin g material.

NEOHOUZEAUA DULLOSA (Munro)A . Camus. 2n= S. and SE.Burma . Itha s aver y long fibre and is used widely toproduc e paper.

OCHLANDRA TRAVANCORICA Bedd. 2n=c. 72.Pri- Centre of origin of rice (Chatterjee, 1951). GRAHINEAE - LEGUMINOSAE

Basin. ,wher e the temperate race japonica e- resistance of S. officinarum*. InN . India,i t volve;d .Rac e japonica was introduced toKorea , has hybridized with S. sinense* group Saretha. and1 .aterJapa n around the 3rd Century BC. (Mori naga, 1968), (3)Rac e Indica also spread SINOCALAMUS GIGANTEUS (Walb.)Keng . 2n= SE. nto theMalaysia n Archipelago,wher e India, Indochina and S.China . Cultivated the 1 .arge-grained race javanica evolved, there. Used asbuildin g material. It is one which iswidel y cultivated across the islands of the largestbamboos . of SE Asia. The wet rice cultivation of Phili ppines, Malaysia and Indonesia is quite SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.)Moench . Juar,Jowar . 2n= a rec :entintroductio n (Spencer, 1963). 20. Primary gene centre:Afric a (p. 133).Se ­ condary centre: India. No hybridization has PANICUM ANTIDOTALE Retz. Blue panic grass, occurred with wild sorghums,becaus e they are Giant panic grass.2n=2x=18 .India ,W . Saudi tetraploids (Doggett, 1970). Arabia. Introduced into Australia as a forage grass. TRITICUM AESTIVUM (L.)Thell . ssp.sphaero - coccum (Perc.)MK . (syn.T . sphaerococcum PANICUM SUMATRENSE Roth ex Roem. &Schult , Perc.). Indian dwarf wheat.2n=42 f genome (syn. P. miliare Lamk.). Little millet. In­ formula AABBDD. Transcaucasia and adjacent re­ dia and Sri Lanka.P . psilopodium Trin. (2n= gions (p.93) .Ssp . sphaerococcum is indige­ 54)migh t be its ancestor (Mansfeld, 1959). nous toNW . India,Pakista n and adjacent parts It ispossibl e that cytotypes with 36 chromo­ of Afghanistan. It is characterized by short, somes occur. non-lodging culms,erec t leaves, globular grains and susceptibility todiseases . PASPALUM SCROBICULATUM L. Khodo millet.2n = 20, 40.C . India.Widel y cultivated in the VETIVERIA ZIZANIOIDES (L.).Nash . Vétiver. Indian Plains as a cereal. Its closest wild 2n=20. Sri Lanka, India up toBurma .A grass relative, P. orbiculare Forst., iswidel y dis­ cultivated in the tropics for its essential tributed and collected as awil d cereal across oil. S.Asia . ZEA MAYS L. 2n=20. Domesticated in C. America SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. Sugar-cane.2 nvar ­ (p. 190). Secondary centre: S. Himalayas (- ious.Sugar-can eoriginate d in New Guinea (p. dolini, 1970), where flint maize (indurata 54) about 600-500 BC. New Guinea Noble canes Sturt.) is common. must have reached S. India via Indonesia. It was transported northwards to reach N. India Guttiferae ca 400 BC.C . 250BC , itwa s severely attack­ ed by red rot disease,whic h must have promo­ GARCINIA INDICA*. ted the introduction of Sinense sugar-cane fromChin a (p. 38).Durin g migration, it GARCINIA SILVESTRIS Boerl.Wil d mangosteen. hybridized with S. spontaneum*, as also happen­ 2n= .Malaysi a (p. 56) and India. Parental ed in Orissa and Bihar (Parthasarathy, 1946; species of G. mangostana*. 1948; Bremer, i966). Originally the Sinense group of sugar-canes were named Pansahi sugar­ GARCINIA TINCTORIA*. cane. InN . India (Punjab to Assam), the Barberi MESUA FERREA L. Nahor,Naga s tree, Indian rose group (S.barber i Jesw.) of sugar-canes de­ chestnut, Ironwood. 2n=32.Trop .Asia , India veloped. Its origin is not yet fully under­ and Malaysia.Cultivate d in India as a timber stood.Th e group can be classed into sub­ tree and for its flowers and fruits.Th e flo­ groups: (1)Mungo , 2n=81, 82,83 ,withou t S. wers are used in the perfume industry, the spontaneum introgression; (2)Dhaulo , 2n=82, fruits are edible and the seeds contain oil 83; (3)Nargori ,2n=105-12 4 with Sinense for lamps. introgression; (4)Saretha , 2n=91. Lauraceae SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM L. Wild sugar-cane,Kas - soer,Thatc h grass,Bagberi , Djarb, Khus. 2n Nees & Eberm. 2n= .India . =40-128, with euploids 40,48 ,64 ,80 ,96 , A tree,whos e bark is used as a substitute 104, 112,12 8 and possibly 54.Probabl y India for the from C. zeylanicum*. in the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. Now it is distributed in innumerable groups of Leguminosae various ranks and significance from Africa overAsi a toJapa n and the Solomon Islands. ALBIZIA STIPULATA Boiv. (syn.A . chinensis One group (2n=112) is found in Indonesia (p. (Osb.)Merr.) . 2n= .Cultivate d in India 55), while another one (2n=104-128)occur s in and Sri Lanka for its high-quality fodder. E. Africa (p. 133).Recentl y introduced into Elsewhere it is cultivated as ashad e tree, New Guinea and hence its influence there is green manure and cover crop. still limited. S. spontaneum is used as a source of disease L. Camel's foot. 2n=28.Chi - HINDUSTANI REGION na to India.A tree cultivated in India for auct. non Linn.). Horse gram. 2n=20, 22,(24) . various purposes and in Trop.Afric a as a Tropics of Old World, especially in India and fodder plant. Himalayaswher e it is also cultivated.

CAJANUS CAJAN (L.)Millsp . Pigeon . 2n=22, INDIGOFERA PILOSA Poir. 2n=16, 32.Use d in 44, 66. India,wher e wild plants of this spe­ Sri Lanka as a green manure, cies and the closely related wild Atylosia cajanifolia Haines,2n = occur (De,1974 ; MELILOTUS INDICUS All. Indian clover, Yellow van derMaesen , 1980). De (1976) suggests the annual sweet clover, Sour clover. 2n=16. Pun­ forests of UpperW . Ghats as the domestication jab, India to the Mediterranean area and Tur­ centre of .A secondary centre of kestan.Cultivate d in N. India as a fodder diversity developed inAfrica . crop and in USA as cover crop. The cultivars can be grouped into two groups: (1)var .bicolo r DC.primaril y large long- MUCUNA CAPITATA*. lived late maturing with red orpurpl e stain­ ed flowers and hairy purplish pods containing MUCUNA PACHYLOBIA (Piper & Tracy)Roc k (syn. 4-5 usually purple-mottled or dark seeds; Stizolobium pachylobium Piper & Tracy). Fleshy (2)var . flavus DC.mostl y smaller and early pod bean. 2n= .India .Cultivate d asvege ­ maturing with all-yellow flowers and light- table. green pods containing 2-3 seeds. MUCUNA UTILIS Wall, exWight . Velvet bean. 2n CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS (L.)DC . Jack bean, = .India .Cultivate d as vegetable, Horse bean. 2n=22. S. America (p, 173).Secon ­ food and green manure. dary centre: India .

SESBANIA ACULEATA (Persu)Poir .Dhanchia . 2n CASSIA AURICULATA L. Tanner's cassia. 2n=14, =(12), 24,32 .Cultivate d in Bengal for its 16, 28.Cultivate d there for tanningmaterial , fibre and especially as green manure. obtained from the bark (Purseglove, 1968). SESBANIA AEGYPTIACA*. L, Indian laburnum, Purging cassia. 2n=24, 26,28 . India.Cultivate d in SESBANIA SPECIOSA Taub, ex Engl. 2n=12. India the tropics for its pods, the pulp around the (?). Cultivated there as green manure in rice seeds being used as apurgativ e (Purseglove, fields, 1968). VIGNA AC0NITIF0LIA (Jacq.) Maréchal (syn.Pha - CASSIA SIAMEA*. seolus aconitifolius Jacq., Vigna lobata (L.) Verde., Phaseolus trilobus Wall.). Mat bean, CICER ARIETINUM L. Gram, Chick-pea. 2n=14, bean. 2n=22. India,Banglades h and Burma. 16, (24, 32, 33).Probabl y W. Asia (p.96) . Cultivated in these countries and also on Sri Probably a secondary centre in India.Intro ­ Lanka and inChina . InUS A it is cultivated duced into India inearl y times and now much as a fodder crop. cultivated there.Strain s with fine dark- brown and black seed have been cultivated for VIGNA MUNGO (L.)Heppe r (syn.Phaseolu s mungo a long time. 'Kabuli' types were introduced L.). Black gram, Urd, Urid. 2n=22, (24).In ­ from Afghanistan about 1700 (van der Maesen, dia. Unknown wild. Closely related toV . ra- 1972). diata*. V. radiata var. sublobata (Roxb.) Verde, (syn.Phaseolu s sublobatus Roxb.) (2n= CROTALARIA BURHIA Buch.-Ham. 2n=16. This fibre 22) is most likely the wild parent. InPant - crop comes from E. India. nagar, strains of this are intersterile (Singh & Ahuja, 1977). CROTALARIA JUNCEA L. Sunn hemp,San n hemp. 2n =16. Probably India.Unknow n wild. Abast - VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)Walp . (syn.V . sinensis fibre crop.Cultivate d inman y tropical coun­ (L.) Savi, Dolichos sinensis L.). , tries as a green manure (Purseglove, 1968). Black eye,Souther n pea.2n=22 , 24.Primar y centre of diversity: W.Africa , Secondary cen­ CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (L.)Taub . (syn.C . tre: India . Probably originally domesticated psoralioides DC.). , Cluster bean. 2n=14. in W. and C. Africa (p.138) . Probably domesticated in Africa (Anderson, From Africa, cowpea was taken to India and 1960). However Hymowitz (1973) described how later it spread from both those regions over seeds of C. senegalensis * arrived in Africa the world.. Ssp.mensensi s Verde, grows wild with Arab-Indian horse t rade. Subsequently it in the African forest zone and ssp.dekindt - came into domestication in India. Cultivated iana Verde.wil d in the African savanna zone. in India,Pakista n and e lsewhere for fodder, Most cultivars belong to ssp.unguiculat a and food and as a source of gum. No wild forms the yard-long bean and asparagus beanculti ­ in the Indo-Pakistan sub continent. vars to ssp. sesquipedalis (L.)Va n Eseltine are rare inAfrica .Thes e last two subspecies D0LICH0S UNIFLORUS L'am. (syn.D . biflorus evolved from ssp,unguiculat a (Summerfield et LEGUMINOSAE al., 1974). Race indicum of Indian subcontinent is more InN ,Nigeria , a form developed for the closely related to belonging to G. fibre obtained from the peduncles.Othe r uses herbaceum* than are other races of 0. arboreum. are food, green manure, forage and cover crop. It includes both perennial and annual forms. It is very likely that the perennial forms are Liliaceae primitive and that the annuals were selected later. IPHIGENIA STELLATA Blatter. 2n= .W . India. In N. India and Pakistan, race bengalense A source of colchicine. was cultivated. Perennial forms are occa­ sionally found in remote places in Rajputana Linaceae and in the Ganges Valley. Itsprea d S,,SE . and W. The African race soudanense*wa s pro­ LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. Flax. 2n=30, (32).It s bably the cotton cultivated by the people of possible origin is given on p. 99. In India Meroë (an ancient Nubian civilization), who and adjacent areas, flax of ssp.indo-abys - were the first inAfric a to spin and weave sinicuraVav . & Ell. is found. It is identical cotton.Chowdhur y & Buth (1970) suggested, to flax of Ethiopia including Eritrea and it that this race might be indigenous to Africa may have originated there. Ithybridize swit h rather than introduced from India as atex ­ ssp.mediterraneum * resulting in ahybri d ssp. tile crop. hindustanicum Vav. &Ell . GOSSYPIUM ST0CKSII Masters.2n=26 ,genom e for­ Malvaceae mula E1E1. Sind, India and SE. Arabia. It is drought-resistant0 ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.)Moenc h (syn.Hi ­ biscus esculentus L.). , Lady's finger, HIBISCUS RADIATUS Cav. 2n=72, genome formula Gombo. 2n=72-132.Probabl y a cultigen devel­ AABB. India toBurma . Introduced into Africa oped from awil d species A. tuberculatus Pal and elsewhere where it is cultivated. Mainly & Singh (2n= ) in trop. Asia, It could be used as ornamental; cultivated in Java as the ancestral or wild form ofA . esculentus vegetable and drug plant. It is a sourceo f (vanBorssu m Waalkes, 1966;Bates , 1968). It resistance to root-knot nematode forH . sab- is aN . Indian species differing from A, ­ dariffa .I t is an allotetraploid of H. can- culentus only in having strigose pubescence nabinus* and another diploid species. Ifi t on the stems and shorter capsules beset with is indigenous to India, the amphiploidization bristly tüberculat e hairs. Van Borssum Waal- must have taken place there after the intro­ kes suggested that A. tuberculatus be included duction of H. cannabinus as a fibre crop.How ­ in A. esculentus. ever the only known diploid B-carrier is the African H. surattensis* (Menzel &Martin , ABELMOSCHUS MANIHOT (L.)Medikus , (syn.Hi ­ 1971). If the origin of H. furcatus Roxb.no n biscus manihot L.). 2n=60, 66. India,Pakis ­ Willd. (2n=144), genome formula BBGGWWZZ from tan, through S.Chin a toNe w Guinea and N. India and Sri Lanka is studied, the origin of H. Australia.Cultivate d for its immature fruits. radiatus may alsob e solved. Ssp.maniho t is the cultigen that must have been selected by man from wild hairy and SIDA RHOMBIF0LIA L. Queensland hemp,Broom - prickly types (ssp. tetraphyllus (Roxb. ex jue sida,Cub a jute. 2n=14, 28.Tropics .Cul ­ Hörnern.)Borss. ,syn .Hibiscu s tetraphyllus tivated in India and later inQueenslan d as Roxb. exHörnern.) . a fibre crop (var.retus a L.). It is anex ­ tremely variable species. ABELMOSCHUS MOSCHATUS Medikus, (syn.Hibiscu s moschatus L.). Musk mallow. 2n=72. India, S. Moraceae China, Indochina to Indonesia and SW, Pacific islands toNe w Guinea and N. Australia. Centre ARTOCARPUS HETEROPHYLLUS Lara. (A. intégra of origin possibly E. India (Mansfeld, 1959). (Thunb.)Merr. ,A . integrifolia L.f.). Jack Cultivated for its seeds,whic h are used as fruit, Jak. 2n=56.Unknow n wild. Itha s aver y perfume, for its immature edible fruits,it s ancient cultivation in India.Ther e and in fibre and often as anornamental . Sri Lanka it ispopular ; it is also cultivated elsewhere in the tropics (Purseglove, 1968). ABUTILON INDICUM*. ELASTICA Roxb. Indian rubber tree,Kare t GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM L. Tree cotton.2n=26 ,ge ­ tree. 2n=26, (39).Indi a and Malaya0 Cultivated nome formula A0A2. Primary centre: Indian sub­ in India,Jav a and elsewhere. It is also cul­ continent.Unkno w wild. Spread E, and SE.t o tivated as an ornamental house-plant (Purse- Burma, Indochina and the Malaysian Archipelago. glove, 1968). Centre of domestication probably , which is the westernmost state of India L. Pipal tree,Peepa l tree, (Hutchinson, 1971). Close to this area, afrag ­ Bot tree. 2n=26.Thi s strangling fig is sacred ment of textile and a string dated 2500-1700 toHindu s and Buddhists. It ispropagate d by BC. have been found atMohenjo-Daro , Pakistan. cuttings and layering.A scion planted at 78 HINDUSTANI REGION cuttings and layering. A scion planted at SESAMUM INDICUM L. ,Ben i seed. 2n=26. Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka in 288BC . (Purse- Primary centre:Afric a (p. 144).Secondar y glove, 1968)die d in1971 . centre: India.Thenc e it isbelieve d to have spread E. through China, Indochina into Japan, FICUS ROXBURGHII Wall, 2n= .Cultivate d for and W. through Afghanistan, Asia Minor and its figs. Iran to theMediterranea n area including N. Africa. Moringaceae Perioplocaceae Lam. Horse-radish tree,Drum ­ stick tree.2n=28 . India.Cultivate d through­ CRYPTOSTEGIA GRANDIFLORA*. out the tropics as a vegetable, inhedge s and for its fruits,whos e oil is used for lamps Piperaceae and cosmetics. PIPER LONGUM L. Indian long pepper, Jaborandi Musaceae pepper. 2n=24, 48,52 ,96 .Th e foot ofHima ­ layas. Cultivated in India and SriLank a for MUSA cultivars of theA B group.Ne y poovan its spike,whic h is used as aspice . Itre ­ (and other names). 2n=22.Cultivate d on a sembles P. retrofractum Vahl*. small scale now. See p. 52 for discussion. PIPER NIGRUM L. . 2n=36,48 ,52 , MUSA cultivars of the AAB group. 2n=33. Mostly 60, 104,128 .Th e slopes of mountains in the India. Only the clone Maia maol iha s probably Ghats,Malabar , SW, India at an altitudebe ­ arisen in Philippines. tween 150 and 2 400m . Spread to SE.Asi a and Philippines. Now cultivated in other trop, MUSA BALBISIANA Colla. Pisang bau,Klu e Tani. countries (Gentry, 1955;d eWaar d &Zeven , 2n=22t genome formula BB. India,Burma , Sri 1969). Lanka and E.Ne w Guinea.Cultivate d for its leaves as apackin g material or as a fibre Plantaginaceae plant (deLanghe , 1969). It is not very var­ iable. It is one of the parents of theAAB , PLANTAG0OVAT A Forsk. (syn.P . decumbens ABB andABB B groups (p.59 )o f cultivated Forskc). 2n=8. Mediterranean area,C . Asia and bananas. India.Cultivate d in India (esp„ Gujarat) for its seeds used inmedicine . Myrtaceae Polygonaceae EUGENIA JAMBOLANA*. RUMEX VESICARIUS L. 2n=18, (20). ,N . RHODOMYRTUS TORMENTOSA*. Africa, India and Malaysia.Cultivate d in In­ dia as amedicina l plant. Oleaceae Resedaceae JASMINUM GRANDIFLORUS L. Catalonian jasmine, Italian jasmine.2n~26 .Himalayas .Cultiva ­ RESEDA 0D0RATA L. Mignonette.2n=1 2 (14).Fo r ted for its fragrant flowers and used inper ­ origin see p. 118.Var .neilgherrensi s (Muell. fumery. -Arg.)Abdalla h & deWi t is found on Nilagiri Mt and inBomba y area and Decca Peninsula (L.).Ait . Arabian jasmine. (Abdallah & deWit , 1978). 2n=26, 39. India and Sri Lanka.Cultivate d in tropics. Flowers are used for scenting tea and Rosaceae as source of anessentia l oil. RUBUSALBESCEN S Roxb. Mysore raspberry. 2n= Palmae . Mountains of India, Sri Lanka,Malay a and Indonesia.Occasionall y cultivated, especially ARENGA PINNATA (Wurmb.)Merr .Suga r palm. 2n= inPuert o Rico. . Primary centre:possibl y Malaysian Ar­ chipelago (p.61) .Secondar y centre: India. Rubiaceae Cultivated inman y trop. Asian countries. C0FFEA BENGALENSE Heyne exWilld . 2n=22.Ben ­ FLABELLIFER*. gal, Burma and Sumatra.Occasionall y culti­ vated in India (Purseglove,1968) „ COCOS NUCIFERA L. Coconut palm. 2n=32.SE . Asia, Indonesia and W. Pacific islands. MORINDA ANGUSTIFOLIA Roxb. 2n= .Trop . Possible secondary centre:India . Himalayas,Assa m and adjacent areas.Cultiva ­ ted forbar k andwood , as source of yellow dye. Pedaliaceae MORACEAE -VERBENACEA E 79

MORINDA CITRIFOLIA L. (syn.M . bracteata Roxb.). Bringal, Melongene,2n : =24, (36, 48). Very Indian mulberry. 2n= . S. India and Malaysia probably India.A wild ' looking form with many up to Pacific isles, Cultivated in India as a small fruits,sometim e s called var. insanum, dye crop. is found on the Bengal Plain of India,Per - haps it is a de-domest icated run-wild type, L. Indian madder. 2n=22. Trop, Martin & Rhodes (1979) found associations of and temp.Asia .Cultivate d in India as a dye some characteristics o f cultivars. This could plant. point to reproductive isolation of this self- or to human selection pressure. Rutaceae Primary centres in Ind: ia, secondary in China (p. 46).S . melongena is closely related to CITRUS LATIPES (Swing)Tan .2n = .Hill s of S. incanurn*. NE, India.Th e fruits are not edible. It can be crossed with other Citrus species,in ­ Strychnaceae cluding the cultigens. STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA L, Strychnine tree,2n = CLAUSENA DENTATA (Willd.)Roem . (syn.C . 24, 44,India ,Sr i Lanka and Indonesia. Cul­ willdenowii Wight & Arn.). 2n=18, 36,India . tivated for its nux vomica used inmedicine . This small tree is known for its edible ber­ ries, Theaceae

FERONIA LIMONIA (L.)Swing , (syn.Limoni a CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L.)0 . Kuntze (syn.C . thea acidissima L.). Indianwoo d apple. Elephant Link.,The a sinensis L.). The origin of tea apple. 2n=18, India and Sri Lanka.No w culti­ is discussed on p. 39.Secondar y centres: vated in several trop,countrie s for its fruits India,Assa m and Sri Lanka.

MURRAYA KOENIGII (L.)Spreng . Curry-leaf tree. Tiliaceae 2n=18. India.Cultivate d for itsleaves . CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS L. Jute,Whit e jute, Sapindaceae 2n=14. Unknown wild. Primary centre: India and Pakistan. Itha s been cultivated there fora SAPINDUS TRIFOLIATUS L. Soap-berry tree,Soap - long timeo Sprea d now throughout the tropics, nut tree,Arceta . 2n= .India ,Pakista n and Sri Lanka.Cultivate d for its fruits,whic h L. Phalsa,2n=36 . SaltRange , yield soap, Puna, India (Mansfeld, 1959). Cultivated in India, Sri Lanka and elsewhere for its fruits. Sapotaceae Umbelliferae INDICA Gmelin (syn.M . latifolia (Roxb.)Macbr .Mo a tree.2n = .N . and C, ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L. (syn.Peucedanu m gra- India.Cultivate d for its flowers,whic h are veolens (L.)Hiern.) . . 2n=22, Eurasia. rich innectar . Cultivated inGreece , the district of Rome and Palestine (p. 118).India n types have longer MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA (Koenig)Macb . (syn.M . fruits. This species includes A. sowa*. indica J, F, Gmel.), Mahua,Mowr a butter tree. 2n= .India .Cultivate d there. CARUM COPTICUM (L.)Benth . &Hook . (syn.Tra - chyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague). Ammi, Lorage. MANILKARA HEXANDRA (Roxb.)Dubard . 2n= ,S . 2n=(16), 18.India , It yields an essential oil. Asia.Cultivate d in India. Urticaceae Solanaceae GIRARDINIA HETEROPHYLLA Dene, (syn.Urtic a L. Belladonna. 2n=(50), 72. heterophylla Roxb.). Nilgeri nettle, 2n=20. From Spain, the ,Asi a Minor to India. From NW. Himalaya toMalaysia . In the Nilgeri Medicinal plant. In India,var . acuminata (syn, area, India var, palmata is cultivated. A, acuminata Royle, 2n=72) is found. It is cultivated there. MAOUTIA PUYA Weddell (syn.Boehmeri a puya Hassk., Urtica puya Wall.). 2n= .Perennia l ANNUUML . ,cayenn epep ­ herb of trop.Himalaya ,Khasi a and Burma,Oc ­ per. 2n=24. Mexico (p. 196).Secondar y centre: casionally cultivated for its fibres. Asia. Verbenaceae DATURA METEL L. Hindu datura. 2n=24. India. Medicinal plant introduced into many parts of NYCTANTHES ARBOR-TRISTIS L.Tre e of sadness. (sub)tropics.Ofte n cultivated asornamental , 2n=44.C . India,Plante d near temples. It is a source of a -yellow dye. The oil is SOLANUM MELONGENA L. Egg-plant,Aubergine , used inperfumery . Cultivated asornamental . 80 HINDUSTANI REGION


AMOMUM AROMATICUM Roxb.Benga l cardamon,Ne ­ pal cardamon. 2n= .Indi a and Pakistan. Cultivated there.

AMOMUM XANTHIOIDES Wall. 2n= .Burma .Cul ­ tivated in India.

CURCUMA AMADA Roxb. 2n=42. India and Pakistan. Cultivated in India forMang o ginger.

CURCUMA ANGUSTIFOLIA Roxb.Eas t Indian arrow­ root. 2n-42, (64).Himalaya n area.Cultiva ­ ted for its edible starchy rhizomes.

CURCUMA CAESIA Roxb.Kalihaldi .2n = .Bengal . Occasionally cultivated for its edible rhizomes.

CURCUMA DOMESTICA Val. (syn.C . longa Koenig nonL.). ,Curcuma . 2n=(32), 62,(63 , 64). A completely sterile triploid, which pro­ bably arose with thewil d C, aromatica Salisb. (Wild turmeric,Yello w zedoary; 2n=42) as one parent.C . aromatica grows in India.A t first, turmeric may have been used as a sacred plant; later itwa s cultivated for its rhizomes,whic h are used for flavouring, and for colouring food and cloth. It spread in early times to China, SE.Asi a and later to other parts of the tropics.Ther e it may have run wild (Purseglove, 1972).

CURCUMA ZEDOARIA Rose. Zedoary. 2n=63, 64.E . India.Cultivate d in SE.Asia , Sri Lanka and Madagascar. Rhizomes are a source of acondi ­ ment. Youn g flowers are used for flavouring food.

ELETTARIA CARDAMONUM (L.)Maton .Cardemon . 2n=48, (52).S . India and Sri Lanka.Culti ­ vated in India and Malaysian Archipelago. Seeds of cardamon are used to flavour coffee and in cooking; the oil is used for perfumery. The cultivated types can be divided into three varieties and two groups:grou p major Thwaites includes the Sri Lanka variety; group minuscula Burkill (syn.var .mino r Watt) includes the Malaban variety andMysor e variety.Wil d types have also been described asbelongin g to major. Plants of this group are marked by pigmentation.

ZINGIBER OFFICINALE Rose. Ginger. 2n=22.Un ­ known wild. Probably domesticated in India. Itwa s known inChin a and Trop.Asi a at an early date.Cultivate d now throughout the tro­ pics. 5 CentralAsian Region

TheCentra l AsianRegio n was called Southwestern AsianCentr eb y Vavilov. Zohary (1970)preferre d to join itwit h Region 6, theNea rEaster nCentre, as did Zhukovskij (1968),wh o separated both areasb y number only.Bu t in 1970,bot h centreswer eo n themap ,separate d by aline ,an dRegio n 5wa sex ­ tended northwards (Zhukovskij,1970) . This centre served as atransfe r zonebetwee n Regions 1an d4 .Furthermore , theHimalaya s haveprovide d many species asparenta l stock for crops.Agri ­ culturemus t have reached this centre fromRegio n 6 about 500 0BC . Major cropso f thiscentr e include fruit-trees,Alliu m cepa,A . sativum, Daucus carota,Lathyru s sativus,Spinace a oleracea andVici a faba.Cucumi s meloha s there asecondar y centre of diversity.

Alliaceae natural hybrid of both these species (Fiskesjö, 1975; Vosa, 1976). Propagated by bulbs. Vivi­ ALLIUM CEPA L.Onion .2n=16 .Cultivate d since parous. 1 000BC .Probabl y C. Asia and esp.NW . India, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan andW . Tien Shan,wher e ALLIUM SATIVUM L. Garlic. 2n=16, genome for­ related species A. pskemense 0. Fedtsch. (2n= mula SS.Som e consider A. longicuspis Regel 16) and A. vavilovi Popov & Vved. (2n=16) (2n=16) as the wild parent of garlic.Thi s grewwil d (Vavilov, 1949/50). Secondary cen­ species occurs inC . Asia.Var . pekinense tre isRegio n 7.Anothe r related wild species (Prokh.)Makin o came into cultivation in Chi­ isA . oschaninii 0. Fedtsch. (syn.A . cepa var. na (p.53) .Secondar y centres developed in sylvestre Regel) from Pamirs,Ala i and Tien Regions 6 and 7 (Kazakova, 1971). Garlic was Shan. This species is used as food. Wendelbo already known inEgyp t before 300 0 BC.Sterile , (1971) andMcCollu m (1974) suggested this propagated withbulbils . species tob e the wild A. cepa or thewil d an­ cestor ofA . cepa. Anacardiaceae The top onion, tree onion or Egyptian onion (A. proliferum*, syn.A . cepa viviparum (Metz­ PISTACEA VERA L. Pistacio. 2n=30. Mountain ger)Alefeld ) is ahybri d ofA . cepa and A. slopes, sometimes forms sparse forests.Culti ­ fistulosum* (Flskesjö, 1975). Such hybrids vated in this centre and elsewhere for its have also been described as A. aobanum Araki, seeds. InTurkmenia , there are relic popula­ 2n=16 and A. wakegii (seeA . chinense*). A. tions,whic h indicate the oncewid e distribu­ cornutum G.C.Clement i exVis. ,2n = near tion of this species (Kabulov, 1969). Dioeceous. Budva, SW.Yugoslavi a is probably abulbilli - Inorchard s ofP . atlantica (2n=28) grown for ferous form derived from extinct cultivation rootstocks in USA,hybrid s with P. vera form (Tutin et al., 1976). Var.ophioscorodo n (Link) and develop female and malebranches .The y Doli has a stem coiled inon e or twowid e loops could perhaps be used tobree d monoeceous before anthesis, trees.

ALLIUM PROLIFERUM. 2n=16.Tre e onion, Egyptian Chenopodiaceae onion. Formerly described asA . cepa*var . proliferum and asA . fistolosum*, but a true VULGARIS L. Beet.2n=18 , (27,36) .Pri - CENTRAL ASIAN REGION mary centre is discussed on p. 104. Secondary (snake melon) (2n=24), var. tarra Pang, and centre developed in Region 5. ssp. agrestis (Naud.)Greb . (2n=24), var. agrestis Pang.Th e last is aweed y SPINACEA OLERACEA L. Spinach. 2n=12. Iran to melon. Manchuria. Primary centre inAfghanista n and . Related to S. tetrandra* and S. Datiscaceae turkestanica*.A n anemophilous species of which the very young seedlings are eaten as DATISCA CANNABINA L. 2n=22. C.Asia .A herb . a vegetable. Cultivated as a source of yellow dye.

SPINACEA TETRANDRA Stev. 2n=12.A wild re­ Ebenaceae lative of S.oleracea *occurrin g in the stony steppes ofCaucasi a including Armenia, and DI0SPYR0S LOTUS L. Caucasian persimmon. 2n= Kurdistan.A weedy anemophilous species. 30. Subtrop. China (p. 36) in Talysk and W. Georgia (USSR) and adjacent Iran.Bot h these SPINACEA TURKESTANICA Iljin. 2n=12.A wild re­ areas form primary centres. lative of S. oleracea*occurrin g in the loess foothills of the Kara Kum, the southern foot­ Elaeagnaceae hills of Uzbekistan and Turkmenia, and along the Syr Darya.A weedy anemophilous species. ELAEAGNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA L. (var.E . argenta Moench). Silverberry, Russian olive. 2n=12t Compositae 28, From S.Europ e toC . Asia,Chin a andHi ­ malayas. Primary centre inC . Asia.Cultiva ­ ARTEMISIA CINA Berg.Levan t wormseed plant, ted there and in Iran for its edible nuts. 2n=18. TheOrien t and Russian Turkestan. Cul­ E. orientalis L. has been included as var. tivated inRussi a and W. of USA. orientalis (L.)0 . Kuntze. in this species.

ARTEMISIA DRACUNCULUS L. , Estragon. Gramineae 2n=18, 36,54 ,72 ,90 .USS R and from W. Asia toHimalaya . Perennial widely cultivated as AEGILOPS CAUDATA* a . 'Russian' tarragon (2n=90), a decaploid, is fertile,wherea s the 'French' AEGILOPS CYLINDRICA* tarragon (2n=36), a tetraploid, is sterile and propagated vegetatively. The types with AEGILOPS JUVENALIS* (2n=45, 54,72 )ma y be hybrids (Rousi, 1969). A, dracunculoides Pursh (2n=18) from N. AEGILOPSKOTSCHYI * America has oftenbee n included in this spe­ cies. AEGILOPS LORENTII*

CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L. . 2n=24,ge ­ AEGILOPS OVATA* nome formula BB.Primar y centre inRegio n 6 (p. 88).Secondar y centre nearKabul ,Afgha ­ AEGILOPS SQUARROSA auct.non ,L . (syn.Ae . nistan. The great variation of the safflower tauschii Cosson, Triticum tauschii (Coss.) population there, that led Vavilov to believe Schmalh.), 2n=14, genome formula DD. E,Tur ­ that area tob e acentr e of origin, is very key, ,Crime a and Caucasia (Zohary et al. likely caused by the meeting of the Middle 1969) in the west, and Pakistan and Kashmir Eastern and West Pakistan safflower types in the east.Primar y centre to the south of there (Knowles, 1969). the Caspian Sea.Thi s wild species is the D

INULA HELENIUM L. (syn.Heleniu m grandiflorum Gilib.). Elecampane, Elfdock,Horseheal , Yel­ low starwort. 2n=20. Probably C. Asia. Also wild westwards toC . and S.Europe . It used tob e cultivated and had various uses.

TARAXACUM KOKSAGHYZ Rodin (syn.T . bicorne Dahlst.). Kok-saghyz. 2n=16.Turkestan . Cul­ tivated inUSS R as rubber crop. ƒ <3 / / i L / Cucurbitaceae

• *^ i J L. Melon,Mus k melon, Canteloupe 2n=24. Probably Africa (p. 124).Secondar y centre inRegio n 5, inwhic h are found ssp. melo Pang., convar. chandalak (Pang.)Greb, , K -x \/^—si . \ convar. ameri (Pang.)Greb. ,convar . zard (Pang.)Greb. , ssp.flexuosu s (L.)Greb . Aegilops squarrosa CHENOPODIACEAE -LEGUMINOSA E 83 genome parent of T. aestivum*. Ssp.eusquar - rosa Eig (syn.Ae . tauschii ssp. tauschii) usually has short anthers and is generally strictly autogamous,wherea s ecotypes with long anthers are facultatively allogamous and resemble ssp. strangulata (Eig)Tzvel . (Ham­ mer & Knüpffer, 1979).



SECALE CEREALE L.Weed y and cultivated rye. 2n=14. The origin of this species is dis­ cussed on p. 91.Secondar y centre inE . Iran and Afghanistan,wher e S. afghanicum (Vav.) Roshev. (syn.S . cereale ssp. afghanicum (Vav.)Khush ) originated. The main stream of cultivated rye spreading over Europe and Asia comes from the secondary centre (Khush, 1963). Khush based his conclusion on the pig­ mented ears of all cultivated rye varieties and those of theweed y rye types inAfghani ­ stan. They occur in grain fields with ahabi t (van derMaesen , 1972). and growth rhythm similar towhea t (Stutz, 1972). CICER MICROPHYLLUM Royle (syn.C . songaricum Var. eligulatum Vav., liguleless rye was Steph.,C . jaquemontii Jaub.& Spach.). 2n= found by Vavilov in the secondary centre. 14. Tibet,Afghanista n and W. Himalayas.Cul ­ tivated inW . Himalayas for its seeds. SECALE TURKESTANICUM* FLEMINGIA VESTITA Benth. exBake r (syn.Mog - TRITICUM AESTIVUM (L.)Thell . ssp.compactu m henia vestita (Benth. ex Baker)0 .Kuntze . (Host.)MK , (syn.T . compactum Host.). Club Sohphlong. 2n=22. W. Himalayas,N . India. wheat. 2n=42f genome formula AABBDD. Ssp. com­ Cultivated for its edible tubers, especially pactum developed in themountain s of theHin ­ inAssam . du Kush. SATIVUS L. Grass pea,Chicklin g pea. TRITICUM TURGIDUM ssp.turgidu m conv.poloni - 2n=14. Probably W. Asia.A centre of diversity cum (L.)MK . 2n=28t genome formula AABB.Th e in theMediterranea n Region.Cultivate d in type 'T. ispahanicum Heslot' was found in Europe since ancient times and inRegio n 7 Isfahan (Iran)wher e it is adapted to irriga­ (p. 114).Unkow n wild. ted cultivation. It ismarke d by its narrow and elongated glumes. MEDICAGO SATIVA L.Lucerne ,Blu e alfalfa. 2n= 16, genome formula SS, 32,genom e formula Hippocastanaceae SSSS. Transcaucasia (p.97) .Th e centre of diversity of blue lucerne is in NW. Iran and HIPPOCASTANUM* adjacent regions toTibet .

Juglandaceae VICIA FABA L. (syn.Fab a vulgaris Moench.). Field bean,Broa d bean,Hors e bean,Tic k bean, JUGLANS REGIA L. Walnut.Persia n walnut, ­ Windsor bean,Fab a bean. 2n=12, 14, Probably lishwalnut . 2n=32, 36.Secondar y centre: Mol­ SW.Asi a (Ladizinsky, 1975c) or Mediterranean davia, SE.Europ e and SW. Europe (p.155) . region (Zohary, 1977). Wild ancestor uncer­ Many varieties have been described. tain. Itma y derive from the weed V. angusti- folia L. (2n=14). Formerly itwa s believed to Labiatae derive from V. narbonensis,bu t Ladizinsky (1975c) and Abdalla & Giinzel (1979) showed LALLEMANTIA ROYLEANA (Wall.& Benth. )Benth . that this species was not related toth e field 2n=14. From Iran toHimalayas .Cultivate d in bean. Ladizinsky (1975c) also showed that V. E. India as an oil crop. galilaea Plit. &Zoh . (2n=14) and V.hyaenis - cyamusMount . (2n=14)wer e not related either. Leguminosae Related species are V.bithynic a (L.)L . and V. johannis Tamanschian. The field bean is CICER ARIETINUM L. Chick-peas,Gram . 2n=14, divided into three varieties according to the 16, (24,32 ,33) .Secondar y centre inAfgha ­ size of the seed: var.minut a (Alefu)Mansf . nistan,whenc e the 'Kabuli' types of India (syn. var.mino r (Pieterm.)Harz,,) , pigeon derive. They were introduced there about 1700 bean or tick bean,var .equin a Pers., horse CENTRAL ASIAN REGION bean, and var. faba (syn.var .majo r Harz.), throughout S. Eurasia for its fruits.Th e broad bean. Black Persian mulberry is probably a variety From its centre of domestication, the field (Purseglove, 1968). bean spread toEurope ,Chin a and the Mediter­ ranean. In the Mediterranean region, asecon ­ URTICA CANNABINA L. 2n= C. and N,Asia . dary centre of diversity arose (p. 116).Th e Cultivated for fibre. pigeon and horse beans are used as animal feed, and the broad bean as avegetable . Oleaceae Schultze-Motel (1972)ha s listed all data on archaeological remains of the field bean.Al ­ JASMINUM OFFICINALE L.Commo n white jasmine. most all these remnants belong to var.minuta . 2n=26. From Iran to Kashmir and China. Cul­ He did not find ashar p distinction between tivated especially in S.Franc e for its flo­ long-seeded and roundish types,s o the develop­ wers, which contain essential oil used in ment of the field bean from two original forms perfumery, is not very likely.Onl y oncewa s var. faba, the broad bean found, in Iraq. It dated from Polygonaceae about 100 0AD. ,whic h may point to late de­ velopment of the large seedt RHEUM RHAPONTICUM L. Rhubarb. 2n=44. SE.USSR . Cultivated as vegetable. Probably one of the Liliaceae parents of R. hybridum*. Related toR , palma- tum*0 FRITILLARIA IMPERIALIS L. Crown imperial.2n = 24, Iran and Turkestan. The bulbs were a Rosaceae source of starch and used inmedicine . It is an ornamental. AMYGDALUS BROWICZII Freitag. 2n= .Afghani ­ stan. Related toA . communis*an d A,korsh - Linaceae inskyi Hand.-Mazz,2n =

LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. Flax, Linseed. 2n=30, AMYGDALUS BUCHARICA Korsh. (syn.Prunu sbu - (32). Origin of flax is discussed on p. 99. charica (Korsh.)Fedtsch.) . Bukhara almond. Primary centre of origin probably in Region 5 2n=16.W . Tien Shan,Pamir s and Alai, and (Vavilov, 1957). This conclusion is based on inAfghanistan . Itma y form a source of sweet the great diversity of flax in India and ad­ pits, of high oil content and of agoo d kernel jacent northerly area. Spread from Region 5 to shell ratio, into Region 4(p. 76). In the mountains of C.Asia , the 'curly oil AMYGDALUS COMMUNIS L. (syn.Prunu s amygdalus flax' developed. It is characterized by the Batsch.). Almond. 2n=16.W . Kopet-Dagh (Turk­ large number (140-150) of seed capsules per menia), Afghanistan andW . Tien Shan (p.100) . plant, Primary centres:W . Kopet-Dagh (Turkmenia) and W. Tien Shan.Extensivel y cultivated in S. Malvaceae Europe and California. In this centre and in Region 6 (p. 100)othe r Amygdalus species are L. Sea Islands cotton. found. InGeorgi a (USSR)A , georgicaDesf . 2n=52, genome formula (AADD)2< Peru, Spread (2n=16)i s found. InKopet-Dag h and Badkhyz to reach Africa and Asia in historical times. A, turcomanica Lincz. occurs. InArmeni a A. Secondary centre in Turkmenia,Tajikista n and nairica Fed. & Takhi.an d A. urartu*wit h A. S. Uzbekistan, USSR. fenzliana are native. In this area and in Nakhichevan A. fenzliana* (syn.Prunu s fenz- GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM L. Short American lianaFritsch ) (2n=16) grows.Thi s species is cotton. 2n=26, genome formula A^Ai. S. Africa very cold resistant and crosses freely with (p. 139).Introduce d intoEthiopia , S. Arabia cultivated species.Furthe r A. scoparia Spach. and Baluchistan,wher e race acerifolium (syn.Prunu s scoparia (Spach.)Schneid. ) (2n= (p. 99) developed (Hutchinson, 1962). 16)i s found inKopet-Dag h and Iran.

Meliaceae AMYGDALUS PERSICA L. Peach. 2n=16.Primar y centre:Chin a (p.42) .Secondar y centre in L. China berry,Bakayan , Pride Iran and C. Asia. of India, Persian lilac,Bea d tree.2n=28 . SW.Asi a up toW . China.Cultivate d in tro­ AMYGDALUS PETUNNIKOWII Litvin. (syn.Prunu s pics as an ornamental and shade tree. Seeds petunnikowii (Litvin.) Rehd.). Turkestan al­ produce oil.The y are also used asbeads . mond. 2n=16.W . Tien Shan,i nKazakhstan , Tad- shikistan and Uzbekistan and partly inKirgizi - Moraceae stan, USSR. It is anornamental . Itha s a high oil content. It isdrough tresistant . It L. Black mulberry. 2n=(89-106), easily crosseswit h A. communis*. 308. C.Asia .Cultivate d athighe r altitude in the tropics (Purseglove, 1968), and also AMYGDALUS SPINOSISSIMA Bge. (syn,Prunu s LEGUMINOSAE spinosissima (Bge.) Franch.). Thorny peach brush. 2n=16.C . Asia from Kopet-Dagh (Turk- menia) through Pamir-Alai to W0 Tien Shan, in Iran,Afghanista n and Kurdestan. It is late flowering and has ahig h oil content.

AMYGDALUS TANGUTICA Korsh. (syn.Prunu sde - hiscens Koehne). Tangut plum. 2n= .W . Chi­ na. Cultivated in some parts ofChin a for the kernels.

AMYGDALUS ULMIFOLIA (Franch.)M . Pop. (syn. Prunus triloba Lindl.). 2n=16.C . Asia.

AMYGDALUS VAVILOVII M. Pop. (syn.Prunu s va- vilovii M. Pop.). Vavilov almond. 2n=16.Ko - pet Dagh (Iran and Turkmenia), W. Tien Shan, the Pamirs and Alai. At one time itwa sbe ­ lieved that this species was ahybri d between A. spinosissima* and A. communis*. Malus kirghizorum ARMENIACA DASYCARPA (Erhr,)Borkh . (syn.A . atropurpurea Lois., Prunus dasycarpa Ehrh.). Purple apricot,Blac k apricot. 2n= .Unknow n wild.Cultivate d inC . Asia, Transcaucasia and Iran.Th e fruits are very sour and may be used in marmalades. Itmigh t be used as a source of late flowering, and of cold resis­ tance of the flower buds.

ARMENIACA VULGARIS L. Apricot. 2n=16. Primary centre inNE .Chin a (p.42) .Secondar y centre for the cultivated apricot E.Tie n Shan.Fo r the wild apricot, this primary gene centre was formerly continuous with the main part in China (p.42) .

CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS L. (syn. C. Bosc.). Azarolier. 2n= .S . Europe, Africa (p. 118) and the Orient. InUzbekistan , a large-fruited type, var, turcomanica Popoff, is found. It is poor invigour . winter-hardy. Used as a root-stock. Where it FRAGARIA BUCHARICA Losinsk. Bukhara straw­ grows together with M. pumila,hybrid s occur berry. 2n= .Regio n 5. and soM . sylvestris must havebee n involved in the distant origin of the cultivated apple. MALUS KIRGHIZORUM Al. & Fed. 2n= .W . Tien One subspecies,ssp ,praeco x (Malus praecox Shan in the underbush ofwil d walnut (Jug- (Pall.) Borkh.), is early-maturing. Primary lans regia L.). Primary centres are in the centre inC . Asia.Occasionall y cultivated basins of the Pskem, Ugam, Kok-Su and other inN .Afric a (Uphof, 1968). rivers. It is apolymorphou s species. It is likely that it introgressed into the cultiva­ PRUNUS subgen CERASUS Pers. InRegio n 5, there ted apple (Malus pumila*). occurwil d with small fruits (sect. Microcerasus Webb.). MALUS PUMILA* Ehrh,Cherr y plum. Myroba- MALUS SIEVERSII (Ledeb.)M . Roem. 2n= lan. 2n=16, genome formulaCC , (24,32 ,48) . W. Tien Shan and inAl a Tau of Ne Xingiang Primary centre is inCaucasi a (p. 101).Secon ­ Uygur (Sinkiang Province) in the underbush dary centre: theW . Tien Shan. It is charac­ of the wild walnut (Juglans regia L.). Var. terized by high yield, early flowering, early hissarica (Kudr.)Ponomarenk o is also descri­ ripening,wid e adaptability and high acid con­ bed as P. hissarica Kudr, tent,

MALUS SYLVESTRIS (L.)Miller . 2n=34u Much of PRUNUS FERGANICA Lincz. Ferghana plum.2n = Europe, inTranscaucasi a and probably into W. Ferghana ridge in Tien Shan and in the Pamirs Turkestan. In the Caucasus, this species is not and Alai (USSR). It is a true-breeding hybrid always distinct from M. pumila*. It isver y of a spontaneous cross Amygdalus communis CENTRAL ASIAN REGION and Prunus cerasifera*. 1978b). Carrot was domesticated inAfghanista n (pri­ PYRUS BUCHARICA Litv. 2n= .W . Tien Shan mary centre of diversity) and from there it and the mountains of Tajikistan It is thought spread over Europe, the Mediterranean area tob e ahybri d of P. regelii* and P.korshins - and Asia. During spread, it introgressed with kyi* (Vavilov, 1930a). local wild types. The domesticated types are divided into two PYRUS KORSHINSKYI Nak.& Kik. 2n= .Pamirs , groups: Alai and W. Tien Shan. It is considered as (1) the 'Eastern (orAsian ) carrots' (var. one parent of P. bucharica*. atrorubus Alef.), with mainly purple and yel­ low roots. PYRUS REGELII Rehd. 2n= .W . Tien Shan, (2) the 'Western carrots' (var, sativus Hoffm.) Pamirs, Alai and Bukhara Uplands. It is very with mainly orange roots (Small, 1978b). The resistant to drought. purple types have a short storage time. InTurke y and Japan,hybrid s between the PYRUS SOGDIANA S.Kudr . 2n= .Shakhrisyab z two groups occur, in Turkey because the two region of Uzbekistan. groups grow near together and hybridize na­ turally,Turke y is therefore a secondary cen­ PYRUS VAVILOVII M. Pop. 2n= .E . Ferghana. tre of diversity (p. 101).I nJapan , It is considered ahybri d of P. communis*x developed varieties from artificial crosses P. korshinskyi* (Vavilov, 1930a). of these twogroups . During its spread, the yellow and white car­ ROSA MOSCHATA J. Hermann. 2n=14, (28).Hima ­ rots probably originated by mutation (but layas and Iran.Cultivate d as ornamentals. It see p. 162).Th e white mutants (albus)wer e is aparen t of R. xbifera* . used for fodder and did not participate in the development of the European carrot (Banga, Salicaceae 1957). After reaching Iran, itprobabl y spread L. (syn. S. Aurea Salisb.). White thence toChin a (Banga, 1962)0 . 2n=76.Europ e (p. 161),Asi a and N. Africa. Cultivated in the Kashmir for lopping Vitadaceae as fodder (Heybroek, 1963). VINIFERA L. Common grape.2n=38 . Deep Tamaricaceae valleys of Tien Shan and adjacent areas. Pri­ mary centre for the cultivated grape lies in TAMARIXGALLIC A L. Tamarisk. 2n=24.W . Hima­ that Region (see furtherp .102) . layas and NW. India. Cultivated for shelter and as anornamental .


ULMUS VILLOSA Brandis ex Gramble. 2n= Himalayas. Cultivated in sacred places or for ornamental purposes. It is lopped for fodder (Heybroek, 1963).

ULMUS WALLICHIANA Planch.2n = .Large-leave d elm.Himalayas ,Cultivate d inKashmi r and lopped for fodder (Heybroek, 1963),



DAUCUS-CAROTA L. Carrot. 2n=18. Wild types occur inEurope ,SW . and C. Asia and N. Africa. These wild types have been grouped into two aggregates: (1 ) ssp. agg,gingidiu m including former sspp. gummifer Hooker f,, commutatus (Paol.)Thell. , hispanicus (Goüan) Thell., hispidus (Arcangeli)Heywood , gadecaei (Rouy & Camus)Heywood , drepanensis (Arcangeli)Hey ­ wood, and rupestris (Guss.) Heywood, (2)ssp . agg. carota with the former sspp. carota,maritimu s (Lam.)Batt. ,majo r (Vis.) Arcangeli andmaximu s (Desf.)Ball . There are some intermediate types (Small, 6 NearEastern Region

The NearEaster n Regionwa s described byVavilov . It included apar t ofRe ­ gion5 . Darlington (1956)calle d the area theSW .Asia n region.Zhukovski j (1968) recognised two regions 5an d 6, and in 1970h e separated theseo nhi smap . Zohary (1969)preferre d to combine these regions intoone .Withi n theRegio n lies theFertil eCrescent .Her e agriculture probably evolved around 9000BC . (Çambal& Braidwood , 1970).Harla n (1971)calle d the area of theFertil e Crescent,A lNea rEas t centre.Agricultur e spread from there toEurope ,th e Mediterranean Region,Afghanistan , India and possibly Africa. Major crops include several fruit-tree species ofBrassic a oleracea,Hor - deum vulgare,Len s esculenta,Medicag o spp.,Secal e spp.,Triticu mspp. , Vicia faba andViti svinifera . InGeorgi a (USSR), asecondar y centre of diversity developed forGlycin e max,Lupinu s albus,Phaseolu s vulgaris,Setari a italica and Zeamays .Maiz e enteredUSS R bywa y ofGeorgia . InTurkey ,Harla n (1951)describe d microcentres forAmygdalu s spp.,Cucu ­ mismelo ,C . sativus,Cucurbit amoschata ,C .pepo ,Len sesculentum ,Lupinu s spp.,Malu s spp.,Medicag o sativa,othe r annual Medicago spp.,Onobrychi s viceaefolia,Phaseolu s vulgaris,Pistace a spp.,Prunu s spp.,Pyru sspp. , Trifolium spp.,Vici a faba,Viti s vinifera andZe amays .

Alliaceae are possible relics of former cultivation (Tutin et al., 1976). ALLIUM AMPELOPRASUM L. Levant garlic,Peren ­ nial sweet leek.2n=16 , (24),32 ,genom e for­ ALLIUMASCALONICU M L. Shallot.2n=16 .N .Afri ­ mula AAA'A", (40), 48,genom e formula AAA'A'- ca, E.Mediterranea n area.Closel y related to A"A",AABBBB .Europe ,Asi a Minor,Caucasi a to A. deserti-syriaci Feinbrun (2n= ) from Iran and N.Africa .A type resembling ssp. Syria and Iraq (deWilde-Duyfjes , 1976). Also iranicum P.W. is cultivated near Tehran (Tah- described as avarian t of A. cepa* (Vosa, baz, 1971). In Israel the diploid is rare, 1976; and others). but the triploid is avegetativel y propagated triploid weed (Kollmann, 1972). Var.babing - ALLIUM KURHAT Schweinfl. Salad leek,kurrat . tonii (Borrer) Syme (syn.A . babingtonii Bor- 2n=32. Probably Arabia and Sinai (Uphof, 1968). rer)o f W0 and SW.Englan d and var. The geographic destribution isno t known.Cul ­ bulbiferum Syme (syn.var . bulbilliferum tivated in the Nile area,Arabi a andPales ­ Lloyd)o f the Channel Islands and W. France tine for its leaves (Uphof, 1968) Itmigh t be NEAR EASTERN REGION derived from A. ampeloprasum* (Kuckuck &Ko - B. lomatogona is foundo The hybrids are proba­ babe, 1962). Because of its close relation­ bly identical toplant s described asB . inter­ ship to A. ampeloprasum*, it is often inclu­ media*. ded in that species as var. kurrat Schweinf. ex Krause or in A. porrum* (de Wilde-Duyfjes, BETA MACRORRHIZA Stev. 2n=18. (Sub)alpine zones 1976) . of mountains in Iran,Turkis h Armenia (Lake Van) and the Caucasus.A winter-hardy species ALLIUM PORRUM L. Leek. 2n=32. Asia Minor. Pro­ containing sugar (8-12%) and white pulp. bably gene centre for cultivated forms (Kuc­ kuck, 1962). Leek is acultivate d form derived BETA TRIGYNA Wald. & Kit. 2n=54, genome formu­ from A. ampeloprasum*. If so, it is included laLLCCCC .Aroun d the Black Sea with outliers as var.porru m (L.)Cav . in the latter spe­ to the Caspian Sea, Iran,Ukrain e and . cies. CHENOPODIUM CAPITATUM (L.)Asch . 2n=16,18 . ALLIUM SATIVUM L. Garlic. 2n=16, genome for­ The Orient.Cultivate d (Mansfeld, 1959). mula SS.Wil d type in C. Asia (p. 81).Secon ­ dary centre inRegio n 6 (Kazakova, 1971). Compositae

Boraginaceae CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L. Safflower. 2n=24, genome formula BB.Vavilo v (1951) and Kupzow SYMPHYTUM ASPERUM Lepechin (syn.S .asperri - (1932)propose d three areas of origin for the mum Donn.). Prickly comfrey. 2n=40o Caucasia cultivated safflower: in India,base d onvar ­ toArmeni a and N. Irant Cultivated as forage iation and ancient culture; inAfghanistan ,i , crop. It is probably one of the parents of based on variation and proximity of wild S. x uplandicum Nyman, (2n=36), a forage crop. species; and inEthiopia ,becaus e of the pre­ The other is S. officinale L., common comfrey sence of wild safflower species.Howeve r Ha- (2n=26, c. 36,40 ,c . 40,48) ,whic h is native nelt (1961),and Ashri & Knowles (1960) placed toEurope ,W . Siberia and AsiaMinor , the centre of origin in the Near East because of the similarity of cultivated safflower to Chenopodiaceae two closely related wild species:C . flave- scens Spreng, (syn.C . persicus Willd. (2n= BETA COROLLIFLORA Zosimovich ex Buttler, 2n= 24, genome formula BB),foun d inTurkey , Syria

36, genome formula CCCC and aneuploids of 360 andLebanon ; and C, palaestinus Eig. (2n=24, Turkey, Georgia (USSR)an d Azerbaijan (USSR genome formula BB), found in deserts of W. and Iran). Self-incompatible and frost-resis­ Iraq and Israel (Khidir & Knowles, 1970). In tant. that area, introgression may still occurbe ­ tween wild and cultivated safflower. BETA INTERMEDIA Bunge. 2n=36,genom e formula The great variation in the Afghanistan possibly LLCC.Plant s which are probably hy­ safflower population must be caused by the brids of B. lomatogona* and B, trigyna* have meeting of the Middle Eastern and the Pakistani been described as B, intermedia. They occur types (Knowles, 1969) (p.82) .Th e wild saf­ where the two species grow together. It is a flower ofEthiopi a cannot be the progenitor source of resistance to yellow mosaic disease, of safflower in the Near East because it has 32pair s of chromosomes,wherea s the cultiva­ BETA LOMATOGONA Fisch. &Mey . 2n=18, genome ted species has 12pair s (Knowles, 1969). Saf­ formula , (22),36 .Asi aMino r and E.Trans ­ flower is or has been cultivated inman y areas caucasia. It is awee d characterized by 'mono- of the Old World and in North America. Many germ fruits'.Wher e the distribution of this improved USA varieties derive mainly from Su­ species and of B. trigyna overlap, tetraploid danese material.The y are now cultivated in Egypte Spain and some other countries too, where they may cross with local varieties and soproduc e new genotypes or they may replace the local varieties so that gene material is lost. Cultivated mainly for its flowers,whic h were a source of pigment. It is now cultivated for its seeds which yield an edible oil,whos e high polyunsaturation due to its high content of makes it very suitable for consumption. Imrie& Knowles (1970) suggested that C, palaestinus is awil d species. Theweed y spe­ cies C, flavescens and C. oxyantha M. B. (2n= 24, genome formula BB) and the cultivated speciesC . tinctorius derive from that species. Beta lomatogona and B. intermedia (—), B. macrorrhiza ( ) andB . trigyna (•••)(Ul- CHRYSANTHEMUM COCCINEUM Willd. (syn.C , roseum brich, 1934). Adam). 2n=18. Wild inN . Iran,Caucasi a and ALLIACEAE -GRAMINEA E

Armenia,Cultivate d as agarde n plant. The used to develop an oil-producing crop. flowers contain the insecticide pyrethrin,bu t their toxity is less than C. cinerariaefolium*. CORDIFOLIA Steven (syn.C . tatarica Jacq.). Tatar sea-kale. 2n= ,Highland s of TANACETUM PARTHENIUM* Asia Minor, India and Ethiopia. The perennial herb is cultivated for the young leaves. Cornaceae IRATIS TINCTORIA L. (syn. I.canescen s DC, I. MAS L. (syn.C . mascula Hort.). Cor­ littoralis Steven, I. taurica Bieb.). 2n^28, nelian cherry. 2n=18, 54.Caucasi a and Asia Most of Europe.Cultivate d as source of dye, Minor as an underbush of forests. and therefore probably introduced. Cultivated for its edible fruits and as an ornamental shrub. The fruits are also used to Cucurbitaceae produce vin deCornouille , an alcoholicbe ­ verage. CUCUMIS MELO L. Melon. Musk melon,Canteloupe . 2n=24. Africa (p. 124).Secondar y centre arose Corylaceae in Region 4, inwhic h convar. cassaba (Pang.) Greb. (cassaba melon,winte r melon) from Asia L. European hazel. 2n=22, 28. Minor, convar. cantalupa (Pang.)Greb , (canta­ Europe and Caucasus,Primar y centre in the loupe melons), convar. adana (Pang.) Greb., Caucasus.Cultivate d widely for its nuts: (kilik melons) convar. flexuosus (L.)Greb . hazel nut or cobnut. (tarra melons,adju r melons,snak emelons , In this same centre there is awealt h of serpent melons) are found. other Corylus species;C . maxima*,C . pontica C. Koch (2n=28), C. colchica Alb.,C 0 iberica CUCUMIS SATIVUS L. Cucumber, Gherkin. 2n=14, Wittm. & Kemular, C. imoretica Kemular,C D India (p. 72).Secondar y centre (bethalpha cervorum Petr, and C. colurna*,Trazel s are type) arose in this region. hybrids ofC o avellana and tree (C, colurna*). They have ahig h kernel quality, Dipsacaceae are winter-hardy andvigorous . CEPHALARIA SYRIACA (L.)Roeme r & Schultes . L. Turkish hazel. 2n=28.Oc ­ Pelemir. 2n=10. This pestweed of wheat fields casionally cultivated inTurke y for its nuts. is occasionally cultivated on the C. Anatolian It is also used as a rootstock and as a source peneplane as anoi l crop. of resistance of diseases of C. avellana*. Hybrids of that species are called 'trazels'. DIPSACUS SATIVUS (L.)Scholier . Teasel.2n = 16, 18, Cultivated in Europe and elsewhere. Miller. Filbert,Whit e filbert, It has probably derived from D. ferox Loissel Red filbert. 2n=22, 28.Caucasia ,W . Asia and (2n=16, 18),whic h grows inCorsica , SE. Europe. Cultivated for its nuts. and some sites inC . Italy or from D, fullosum L, (syn.D . sylvestris Hudson, 2n=16,18) , Cruciferae which grows in S,( W, and C. Europe toNE . . BRASSICA OLERACEA L.Wil d and cultivated cab­ bages. 2n=18, genome formula CC. InAsi a Minor, Fagaceae varieties belonging to convar. oleracea*, con- var, capitata* and convar. acephala* are com­ Mill. (syn.C . vesca Gaertnu). mon. Sweet chestnut,Spanis h chestnut. 2n=22,24 . From Italy northwards toHungar y and eastwards CAMELINA SATIVA (L.)Crantz .Fals e flax.2n = toAsi a Minor and W. Georgia (USSR). Cultiva­ 40. In SE.Europ e and SW.Asia , thewil d ted for its nuts and timber.Outsid e that range, parental form occurs, probably C. microcarpa it is naturalized. Andrz. (2n=40). Itbecam e awee d in cereal crops and flax.Late r iswa s cultivated for Gramineae its oily seeds,th e cultigen being called C. sativa. An intermediate form is C. pilosa (DC) AEGILOPS CAUDATA L. (syn.Triticu m dichasians Zinger. Another weed of flax fields isC , alys- (Zhuk.)Bowden , T, caudatum (L.)Godr . & Gren.). sum (Miller) Thell. (2n=40). All these species 2n=14, genome formula CC. Greece,Turkey , Iraq have alsobee n grouped in one species,C . and Afghanistan,, Its cytoplasm has amale - sativa, being divided into subspecies micro­ sterilizing action oi the T. aestivum*nucleus . carpa (Andrz.)Hegi , sativa,pilos a (DC.)Heg i and alyssum (Miller)Hegi . Itha s almost dis­ AEGILOPS COLUMNARIS Zhuk. 2n=28, genome formula appeared from cultivation, CUCUMCMC. Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Caucasia. It is awee d of cultivation and looks quite like u CRAMBE ABYSSINICA Höchst, ex.R UE. Vries.2n = Ae. triaristata* (Bor, 1970). The C genome 90. Distribution in thewil d is obscure. Three will be renamed U. introductions from Turkey into USA have been NEAR EASTERN REGION

Primary centre (—), secondary centre ( ) and distribution of wild and weedy Secale cereale types andway s of their introduction and that of rye intoEurop e and N. Asia (...) (Khush, 1962).

2n=14, genome formula R R .Primar y centre ancestrale (Zhuk.) Khush). It is a robust tall of annual and perennial rye species and forms: (up to 2.4 m)wee d with small invested seeds NE. Turkey - NW. Iran.Khus h (1963) suggested and fragile rachis restricted to sandy ditch- that asecondar y centre (p.83 ) is inAfgha ­ banks and fence rows nearAydin ,SW .Turkey . nistan and that the cultivated rye of Europe It is reproductively isolated from domesticated and N. and C. Asia derives from that centre. rye (Stutz, 1976). Only a few come from the primary centre. In S. turkestanicum Bensin. À self-compatible the primary centre,S . vavilovii* and S, cultigen of C. Asia (p. 83) and Transcaucasia. montaneum* hybridize with each other and in- Theweed y types have derived mainly from S. trogress, resulting in amixtur e of genetic vavilovii* by introgression with S. montanum* variants described as 'S. segetale', 'S. af- and its derivative species S. anatolicum*. In ghanicum', 'S.daralgesii' , 'S.cereale' , 'S. some places less favourable for wheat and turkestanicum' and 'S. dighoricum' (Stutz, barley, rye may have been developed to become 1972). Stutz (1972) suggested that from this fully domesticated. It is generally proposed highly variable population the annual S.ce ­ that S. ancestrale and S. segetale are the reale types invaded cultivated fields tobe ­ parental types of S. cereale; however Stutz comeweeds . (1972) suggested that S. ancestrale derives S. cereale includes cultivated rye and a from S. cereale.Ther e isn o introgression into number of weedy rye types occurring in grain S. ancestrale of other Secale genetic material, fields and along ditchbanks and roadsides, in spite of contact with other species,be ­ throughout theMiddl e East (Stutz, 1972). cause ahig h incidence of geno-typically con­ These weedy types are: trolled chromosomal breaks inoutcrosse d hy­ S. afghanicum* brids leads to sterility (Stutz, 1971). S. dighoricum (Vav.)Roshev 0 (syn.S . cerea­ Hybridization between wheat (p.93 ) and rye leL . ssp. dighoricum (Vav.) Khush). It is a may have increased in the variability ofwheat . weed in grain fields of N.Osseti a (USSR). Rye is a source of resistance to diseases used S. segetale (Zhuk.)Roshev .(syn .S . cerea­ inwhea t breeding and is aparen t of octaploid leL . ssp.segetal e (Zhuk.) Khush.). This is and hexaploid triticales. a polymorphic weed in grain fields throughout The closest wild relative of cultivated rye E. Europe and the (Stutz, 1972). is S. ancestrale and this taxon probably gave S. ancestrale Zhuk. (syn<,S 0 cereale L, ssp. rise to theweed y S. segetale complex.Wil d rye GRAMINEAE - GRAMINEAE 93

is characterized by spikelets that all dis­ TRITICUM AESTIVUM (L.)Thell . Wheat. 2n=42, articulate at maturity, while in thewee d com­ genome formula AABBDD. Primary centre:Trans ­ plex the lower one quarter or more of the caucasia and adjacent areas. There, natural spikelets are not deciduous atmaturity . Cul­ cross-fertilization is still taking place with­ tivated rye isknow n from the Neolithic of in the species and between subspecies, other , but itbecam e widespread as a cereal Triticum species and related species of Aegi- inEurop e only since the Bronze age. lops and Secale.Thi s species is anatura l am- phiploid of and Aegilops squarrosa*. SECALE MONTANUM Guss. Mountain rye.2n=14 , ge­ This amphiploidization must have taken place nome formula RmRra.Fro m the C. Atlas Mountains after the development of emmer from itswil d of Morocco and the Sierra Nevada Mountains of ancestor T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides* in the Spain, eastwards in isolated pockets in the area south of the Caspian Sea (Nakai, 1979). mountains of , Italy,Yugoslavia ,Greece , This hybridization has led to hexaploid types ,Turkey , Iran and Iraq (Stutz, 1972). with aver y brittle ear.Thi s is a 'wild'cha ­ It is ahighl y polymorphic cross-fertilizing racter and soon e could say that there are perennial. Some of the isolates have been de­ wild hexaploid wheats. However these segregants scribed as distinct species orvarieties : cannot really be called wild. S. ciliatoglume (Boiss.)Grossh . (syn.S . The main division of T. aestivum is into ssp. montanum var.ciliatoglum e Boiss.). A weedy spelta (L.)Thell . (syn.T . spelta LQ), ; population with pubescent culms in ssp. vavilovi (Turn.)Sear s (syn.T . vavilovii and vineyards near Mardin, SE.Turkey . (Tum.) Jakubz.); ssp.mach a (Dek. &Men. )MK . S. dalmaticum Vis., population growing with­ (syn.T . macha Dek. & Men.). Makhawheat , ssp. in the walls of the old St.Johanni s Fortress vulgare (Vill.)MK . (syn.T . vulgare Vill.), above Kotor,S . Jugoslavia. commonwheat ,brea d wheat; ssp. compactum S. daralgesii Thum., aweed y form with non- Host.)MK . (syn.T . compactum Host.), club fragile rachis along roadsides and ditchbanks wheat; and ssp.sphaerococcu m (Perc.)MK . (syn. of Armenia, T. sphaerococcum Perc), Indian dwarfwheat . S. kuprijanovii Grossh., abroad-leave d form The origin of some subspecies has not yet been of mountain of the N.Caucasu s Moun­ assertained. They have originated in another tains. centre. S. montanum has the same chromosomal arrange­ Spelt wheats have been found in Iran, in C, ment as S. anatolicum*, S. silvestre* and S. Europe (p. 154)an dAfric a (p. 135).Th e spread africanum*. Its chromosomal arrangement differs of bread wheat during Neolithic times has been from that of S,vavilovi i and S. cereale and described (Zeven, 1979; 1980). from its closely related forms in reciprocal Ssp. vavilovi wheat is indigenous toArmenia . translocations involving 6 of the 14chromo ­ It is characterized by its branching spikelet. somes. Makha wheat is indigenous toW . Georgia (US­ It derives from S. silvestre* (Singh & Röb- SR). It is often mixed with T. turgidum ssp. belen, 1975) and is the parental species of S. paleocolchicum*. anatolicum (Stutz, 1972), S. africanum, S. The spread ofbrea d wheat during Neolithic vavilovii and S,cereale . times has been described (Zeven, 1979; 1980). Bread wheat is now widespread. Primary centre SECALE SILVESTRE Host. (syn.S . fragile inTranscaucasi a and adjacent regions.Se ­ Marsch.), 2n=14.C . Hungary eastward through­ condary centres inHind u Kush and adjacent re­ out the sandy steppe of S.Russi a up toW .Si ­ gions (p.83) ,i nChin a and Japan (p. 39) and beria and the Pamirs and Alai (Bor,1970 ; probably in African Sahara (p.135) . Stutz, 1972). A low-growing annual psammophyte Club wheat developed in Afghanistan and ad­ with fragile rachis. Itha s the same chromo­ jacent regions (p. 83) and probably inSwit ­ some arrangement as S,montanum* . This spe­ zerland/Austria (p. 154).A secondary centre cies isbelieve d tob e phylogenetically the of diversity isArmenia . oldest species and is probably the ancestor Indian dwarf wheat originated inNW . India of S. montanum* (Rimpau& Flavell, 1974;Sing h and adjacent regions (p. 75).It s presence & RÖbbelen, 1975) from which S. cereale*de ­ has been reported in N. Africa. rives. Dorofejev (1971) suggested that ssp.mach a is the oldest hexaploid. From it,ssp . vulgare SECALE VAVILOVII Grossh. 2n=14. Common to the developed. Ssp. spelta and ssp.vavilovi i are lower slopes of Mount Ararat and along the banks secondary spelts.The y may have derived from of the Araks River. It is awil d low-growing, ssp. vulgare. annual self-compatible psammophyte with fra­ There has been much research to identify the gile rachis. Itha s the same chromosome arrange­ donor species of the B genome.Howeve r invain , ment as S. cereale (see S. montanum*). Bor because itprobabl y does not exist (seeT . (1970), strongly suspected this species of turgidum*). being the same as S. afghanicum*. Khush (1960) suggested that it derived from S. montanum, TRITICUM AESTIVUM (L.)Thell .ssp . compactum but Stutz (1972)mad e it clear that is is the (Host)MK . (syn.T . compactum Host.). Club ancestor of S. cereale*. wheat. 2n=42, genome formula AABBDD. This sub­ species developed in theHind u Kush (p.83) . NEAR EASTERN REGION

Secondary centre Armenia,

TRITICUM MONOCOCCUM L. Wild and cultivated einkorn. 2n=14, genome formula AA.Th e wild ssp. boeoticum (Boiss.)Ma c Key (syn.T . boeo- ticum Boiss.) includes the types aegilopoides (T. aegilopoides (Link)Bal .an d thaoudar (T. thaoudar Reut.), aswel l as 'T. spontaneum Flaksb.' and 'T.urart u Tuman.'. It is spread over Greece, Turkey, Syria,N . Iraq andTrans ­ caucasia.Aegilopoide s is characterized by one grain and one awn per spikelet, whereas thaoudar has two grains and two awns. There are two distribution centres: in the Fertile Wild tetraploid Triticum species: Triticum Crescent and inTurkey . Inperiphera l areas, turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (I,II,III,), ssp. it is segetal. In the Fertile Crescent thaoudar dicoccoides var.nudigluni s (III) andT . timo­ is found,Aegilopoide s type occurs in the pheevi ssp. araraticum (IV) (Johnson, 1972). colder part of Balkans and W.Anatolia . In Anatolia, intermediate types andmixture s are TRITICUM TURGIDUM (L.)Thell .Wil d emmerwheats . found. InArmeni a the type urartu has been de­ 2n=28, genome formula AABB.Th e distribution scribed. Itha s two awns and awinte r habit. of the wild ssp.dicoccoide s canb e divided In the Fertile Crescent, thewil d einkorn into two regions.Th e N0 region is S. Turkey was domesticated tobecom e ssp.monococcura , - Iran - Iraq,wher e var.nudiglumi s is found; which has a tough rachis. the S„ region is Israel,S . Syria and Jordan. Its earliest appearance is from Ali Kosh The cytoplasm of var. nudiglumis is similar datingfro mc . 6500 BC., thus later than the to that of T. timopheevi*,wherea s that of ssp. first appearance toT . turgidum ssp. dicoccum. dicoccoides of the southern region is the same Einkorn was spread over Europe,N .Africa , as the cultivated T. turgidum* (Maan, 1973). AsiaMinor ,Caucasia , Iraq and Iran.Cultiva ­ Ssp. dicoccoides (Köm.) Thell. (syn.T .di ­ ted in some areas as a fodder crop. It forms a coccoides Körn.), derived from anatura l am- component of the Zanduri wheat,whic h isa phidiploidization of an unknown diploid spe­ mixture of einkorn.T , timopheevi ssp.timo ­ cies and T.monococcu m ssp.boeoticu m .Thi s pheevi* and T. zhukovskyi*.Thi s population is amphidiploidization must probably have occur­ cultivated inGeorgi a (USSR). This species red in Syria and Palestine, probably at several forms ausefu l source of disease resistance. places. There has been much research to identify There is still anatura l gene flow between the unknown diploid parent.Howeve r in vain. diploid and tetraploid species (Vardi &Zo - hary, 1967)0

TRITICUM TIMOPHEEVI Zhuk. 2n=28, genome.for­ mula AABB (orAAB'B' , AAGG). This species con­ sists of two subspecies ssp. araraticum (Jakubz.)Ma c Key (syn.T . araraticum Jakubz.) and ssp. timopheevi. Ssp. araraticum grows wild inTranscaucasia .N . Iraq,W . Iran and E.Tur ­ key. Itwa s first described asT . dicoccoides ssp. armeniacum Jakubz.an d asT . armeniacum Mak. Some types closely resemble T0 dicoc­ coides .Howeve r the subspecies only crosses easily with ssp,timopheevi . Ssp. timopheevi ispar t of the Zanduri wheat cultivated inGeorgi a (USSR). It is anan ­ cient cultivated wheat0 Its rather brittle Triticum boeoticum (Harlan &Zohary , 1969). rachis causes difficulties in threshing. It is difficult to cross with otherTriticu m species; It is a source of disease resistance, (Timo­ The research has failed because the B genome pheevi)duru m and aestivum plants often are of this species and of its donor have evolved male-sterile. of the first tetraploid Triticum species - some Maan (1973) concluded from his nucleo-cyto- 10000 0year s ago.Evolutio n followed different plasmic and cytogenic studies that Ta timo­ paths, which branched to give rise to several pheevi ssp. timopheevi and ssp.araraticu m and specieswit h related but different Bgenomes . T. dicoccoides var.nudiglumi s ex Turkey-Iran From ssp. dicoccoides, several cultivated -Iraq area have the same type of cytoplasm and subspecies have been derived. These aredi ­ the genome formulaAAGG . The cytoplasm of Ae. coccum*, palaeocolchicum*, turgidum* and speltoides* is closer to the above cytoplasm carthlicum*. The ssp. turgidum includes conv. than toT D turgidum*-cultivated wheats. turgidum, conv. durum, conv. turanicum and conv. polonicum. Ssp. dicoccoides is a source GRAMINEAE -LABIATA E of disease resistance; it also carries are ­ storer gene of (timopheevi) cytoplasmic male- sterility.

TRITICUM TURGIDUM (L.)Thell . Cultivated em­ merwheats . 2n=28, genome formula AABB.Th e cultivated tetraploid wheat can be subdivided as follows (MacKey, 1966): ssp. dicoccum (Schrank)Thell . (syn.T .di - coccum Schubl.)., emmer, ssp. palaeocolchicum (Men.)Ma c Key (syn.T . palaeocolchicumMen. , T, georgicum Dek.),Georgia n emmer, Kolchic emmer, ssp. turgidum including conv. turgidum,Pou ­ lard wheat,Englis h wheat, conv. durum (Desf.) Mac Key (syn.T . durum Desf.), durum wheat, Spread of durum wheat in the Old World (Ciferri, hard wheat, conv. turanicum (Jakubz.)Ma c Key 1939). (T. turanicum Jakubz.,T . orientale Perc), Khurasan wheat, conv.polonicu m (L.)Ma c Key Polonicum wheat,distinguishe d by long glumes (syn. T. polonicum L.) Polishwheat , and kernels was cultivated in S. Europe,Tur ­ ssp. carthlicum (Nevski)Ma c Key (syn.T . car- key, Iraq, Iran,Afghanista n and NW. India. thlicum Nevski,T . persicum Vav. ex Zhuk.), According toKihar a et al. (1956), in includes Persian wheat.The y have originated by culti­ T. ispahanicum Heslot. vation from ssp. didoccoides* and perhaps by Carthlicum wheat is characterized by the pre­ intergeneric and interspecific hybridization. sence of the Q (vulgare) gene. It is not known Primary centre inNea r Eastern Region« Se­ whether this gene arose independently in this condary centres inEthiopi a (p.135 ) and in wheat or came from vulgarewheat . Carthlicum theMediterranea n Region (p.112) . wheat was cultivated in Iraq, Iran andCauca ­ Emmer is theoldes t cultivated wheat. Its sia. It is asourc e of disease resistance. cultivation is declining. Until recently, it Georgian emmer,Kolchi c emmer (ssp.palaeo ­ was cultivated in Ethiopia (p. 135),Iran ,E . colchicum)wa s formerly cultivated in amixtur e Turkey, Transcaucasia, Volga Basin,Yugoslavia , with T. aestivum ssp.macha * inW . Georgia Czechoslovakia and India. Itma y have been do­ (USSR). mesticated c.8000BC .i n the Fertile Crescent. English wheat (conv. turgidum)wa s aton e The first appearance of domesticated emmer time cultivated inEurop e and elsewhere. From dates from c.7000BC .a tAcerami c Neolithic time to time,i twa s reintroduced into culti­ Beidha,Al i Kosh, Jericho and Ramad. Already vation because itsbranchin g habit (Osiris in 4000-3000 BC., itha d reached the wheat, Wonder wheat) convinced farmers that coast from Scandinavia to Spain and the Nile its yield must be high. Delta.Helbae k (1960)wa s surprised by the uni­ formity of emmer.Howeve r plants are called TRITICUM ZHUKOVSKYI Men. & .Zanduri ,2n = dicoccum when they correspond to a certain 42, genome formula AAAABB orA zAzAtAtß'EBt. It morphological description. It is unknown whe­ was cultivated inW . Georgia, USSR. Zanduri ther the idiotypes of the various dicoccum popu­ was composed of einkorn,T . timopheevi ssp.ti ­ lations also correspond to each other for mopheevi* and T. zhukovskyi. The latter is a characteristics other than morphological ones. hexaploid but its genome formula differs from The disease-resistant khapli (khapli is the those of the common hexaploid subspecies. It vernacular name of emmer)o f India andYaro - is anatura l amphiploid of ssp. timopheevi slav emmer from USSR belong to ssp. dicocum. and einkorn. Its cytoplasm has the samemale - Durum wheat is cultivated over alarg e area: sterilizing action on the durum and aestivum Mediterranean coastal region,Ethiopi a where nuclei as ssp. timopheevi. It carries genes a secondary centre exists (p.135 ) and in for resistance to stem rust and mildew. areasnort h of theBlac k Sea.Anothe r centre of diversity is in India (Jain et al., 1976). ZEA MAYS L. Maize.2n=20 . Secondary centre in It is rarely observed inwheat s of Iran and the Near East (Brandolini, 1970). Domesticated Afghanistan. It is also cultivated in the in C.Americ a (p. 190).Flin t maize - indurata Americas and elsewhere.Distributio n in the Sturt. is common in the NearEast . Old World is shown by Ciferri (1939). It is the second most important wheat in theworld . Iridaceae Turanicum wheat originally involved as an oasis ecotype. Its cultivation is restricted CROCUS SATIVUS* to irrigated fields (MacKey , 1966). Mac Key suggested awid e occurrence inAsia ,bu tKuc ­ Labiatae kuck (1970) and Bor (1970) limited it to Iran and Iraq,Kuckuc k (1970) suggested that it is LALLEMANTIA IBERICA Fisch.& Mey .Lallemantia . a hybrid of durum x polonicum. 2n=16.Asi a Minor and some regions of USSR. 96 NEAR EASTERN REGION

Cultivated in Iran andS .USS R forit soi l seeds(1000-see dweigh t 200-300 g). I ti s cul­ seeds. tivated inth eNea r East,Armenia , Azerbaijan, Ukraine upt oC .USSR , andnea r large cities Leguminosae in theeaster n part ofth eare a ofcultiva ­ tion. Theseed s arewhite . ALOPHOTROPIS FORMOSUM (Boiss.)Lamprech t (syn. Race mediterraneum Pop.ha sth elarges t Pisum formosura (Stev.)Boiss. ,Vavilovi afor - seeds (1000-seed weight over 350 g)0 Iti s mosa (Stev.) Fed.). Wild perennial pea.2n = found inSpain , Italy,Morocco ,Algeria ,Tu ­ 14. Montane andsubmontan e zones ofAsi a Minor, nisia andW .Turkey ,Th eseed s arewhite .How ­ Transcaucasia, Armenia andIran , ever Moreno &Cuber o (1978)groupe d the culti- vars into tworaces :th esmall-seede d inrac e CICER ARIETINUML .Chick-pea , Gram,Garbanzos . microsperma, andth elarge-seede d inrac e macro- 2n=14, 16,(24 ,32 ,33) .Unknow n wild.Se ­ sperma.Th e latter isselecte d from thefirst , condary centres ofdiversit y probably developed in Regions 4 (p.76) ,5 (p.83 )an d7 (p. 113). GALEGA ORIENTALIS Lam.2n=16 . Caucasia.Culti ­ Cultivated inS .Europ e andN .Afric a fromth e vated asa fodde r anda sa nornamental 0 Atlantic eastwards,th eNil e Delta andEthiopia , and northwards andeastward s toNW ,Burma ,W . LENS ESCULENTA Moench (syn.L . culinaris Medik., China, (USSR). Some ofth eCice r Ervum lens L.). Lentil. 2n=14.Zohar y (1972) species indigenous toAnatoli a mayhav e played suggested thatL .orientali s (Boiss.)Hand. - a role init sancestry , particularly C.pinna - Mazz., 2n= ,i sth ewil d ancestor oflentil ; tifidum Jaub.& Spach., 2n=16, (from Anatolia, it grows wild inRegio n 6,L .orientali s isa SovietArmenia , Syria,N . Iraq andCyprus) ,C . dwarf lentil,a swa sconfirme db yWilliam se t echinospermum P^H.Davis ,2n = ,(fro m E.Ana ­ al. (1974). Ladizinsky (1979) toofoun d aclos e tolia) andC .bijugu m K.H.Rech, , 2n=16 (from affinity between thetw ospecie s andL .nigri ­ SE. Anatolia,N .Syria ,an dN . Iraq) (vande r cans (M.B.)Godr. , 2n= .S oWilliam s et al. Maesen, 1972). (1974) concluded that lentil andit swil dan ­ Ladizinsky (1975a) found awil d annual species cestor belonged toon especie s L.esculenta , in Turkey: C.reticulatu m Lad.,2n = ,whic h both types being ssp.culinari s (Medik.) Wil­ is cross-compatible with chick-pea, producing liams, Sanchez& Jackson forlentil ,an dssp . a fertile Fi» This species resembles chick-pea orientalis (Boiss.)Williams , Sanchez & Jack­ and couldb ewil d parent ofth ecultigen . son forwil d lentil. So Moreno &Cuber o (1978)propose d to include Lentil hadbee n divided by seed size into vari­ it asssp .reticulatu m (Lad.)Moren o & Cubero eties: var .macrosperma , alarge-seede d form inC . arietinum. from theMediterranea nRegion , var, syrica Race orientale Pop.i scharacterize d by very Barul., amedium-seede d form from the inner small seeds (1000-seedweigh t 100-120 g). It mountainous regiono fAsi a Minor, andvar » is common inEthiopia , Sudan,Egypt , India, afghanicaBarul, ,a small-seede d form ofth e the Pamirs,Tajikista n andIran .Thos e from highlands ofAfghanistan , Another divisioni s Ethiopia areblack-seeded 0 ssp. macrosperma (Baumg.)Barul .an dssp .mi - Race asiaticum Pop.ha ssomewha t bigger, crosperma (Baumg.)Barul ,Howeve r Williamse t but still small,seed s (1000-seed weight140 - al. (1974) concluded that such divisioni s 200 g).I toccur s inC .Asia ,Afghanistan ,W . meaningless asmacrosperm a andmicrosperm a China, Iran andE .Turkey . form theextreme s ofa clin e forsee d size. Race eurasiaticum Pop.ha smoderatel y large Microsperma is found inal lprehistori c exca-


L _, ) „.~'"" -r~^ ^ < >. •'"'A • - ^?T • \ J o§> t»> \è, o #; '^îv f / / îv*^ 0 «° \ l \>»' °o 0 K t y ^ a [-•'' \r ( °oo °o° o ' i*K u^/ oo o >r\ \ - oo3\ ,. / ••" -7sö°ö i \ oo '\ r' "—

TRIFOLIUM AMBIGUUM M.B.Caucasia n clover.2n = 2x=16, (32;allo-6x=48) . Caucasia,Crime a and Turkey. This valuable fodder plant forms an Medicago sativa (Fischer, 1938). essential part of pastures and meadows. In Australia, an allohexaploid cultivar derives Persian-Greek War inth e 5thCentur y BC.,lu ­ from an introduction from USSR. It withstands cerne (from Provencal,meanin g shining) and periods of 6week s submerged inwater . its older name alfalfa (from Arabic and ulti­ mately Old Iranian aspo-asti,hors e fodder) TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L. . 2n=16, was introduced into Greece,whenc e it spread (4x=32). Probably SW.Asia .Cultivate d inS u to S. Italy and Europe, and later to other Europe,N .Afric a and India as a fodder.Th e parts of the world (Lesins &Lesins , 1979). seeds are also eaten in India and used in medi­ cine. MEDICAGO SAXATILIS Bieb. 2n=16.Yail a Range of NEAR EASTERN REGION

Pisum humile(— ), P . elatius (•••) and Alophotropis forraosum ( )(Govorov, 1937).

VICIA ERVILEA (L.)Willd . Bitter vetch, Ervil. sativa L. var. angustifolia L.), 2n=12, more 2n=14. Primary centre in theMediterranea n Re­ than 25 karyotypes.Mediterranea n Basin and gion (p. 116).I nAsi a Minor, a characteristic Europe, runwil d in the , cultivated group developed. for hay. It is now cultivated as a fodder but in pre­ 3b. ssp.nigr a (L.)Ehrh . var. segetalis historic times itwa s cultivated for food. It (Thuill.)Ser . inD C (syn.V . segetalis Thuill. was already cultivated in Turkey in 5750 BC0 mostly 2n=12, more than 80karyotypes . Medi­ and probably inGreec e about 5500BC . (van terranean Basin deep intoC . Europe, very Zeist & Bottema, 1971). weedy, recently cultivated forhay . 4. ssp. cordata (Wulfen exHoppe )Aschers . & VICIA NARBONENSIS L. Narbonne vetch. 2n=14. Graebn. (syn.V . cordata Wulfen ex Hoppe), 2n= Primary gene centre probably E.Georgia .Se ­ 10, more than 30karyotypes .Mediterranea n condary gene centre in theMediterranea n Re­ Region, very weedy, some domesticated types gion. This species is awee d inwhea t and ­ (hay) ley fields of Transcaucasia and other areas in 5. ssp. incisa (M.B.)Arcang . (syn.V . incisa SE. Asia. It is not cultivated there. M.B.), 2n=14, karyotypic variation unknown. Near East VICIA PANNONICA Crantz.Hungaria n vetch. 2n= 6. ssp. amphicarpa (Dorth.)Aschers .& Graebn . 12. Primary gene centre inGeorgi a (USSR), on (syn. V. amphicarpa Porth.), 2n=14, karyotypic the plateau of Akhalkalak, where it grows wild variation unknown.Mediterranea n Area and Near and is cultivated. Secondary gene centre in East. This type is unique for its subterranean Hungary. pods and is according toLadizinsk y (1978)a n advanced form VICIA SATIVA L. Common vetch. 2n=10, 12,14 . 7. ssp.pilos a (M.B.)Plitm . & D.Zoh. (syn.V . The V. sativa aggregate is complex because of pilosa M.B.), 2n=14, karyotypic variation un­ variation in form, in chromosome number and known. Crimea and Caucasia. inkaryotype , and of irregular cytogenetic By further hybridization of cytotypes and affinities between the typeswit h different karyotypes, and by natural and human selection, karyotypes (Ladizinsky & Temkin, 1978). The 3 the variation of this species may still in­ cytotypes are found among thewild , weedy and crease considerably. domesticated types (Zohary & Plitmann, 1979). In thewil d types, they are partially isolated VICIA VILLOSA Roth. Sand vetch,Hair y vetch, by ecological barriers,partia l hybrid steri­ Winter vetch. 2n=14. W. and C. Europe,Medi ­ lity and predominance of self-fertilization,, terranean Region, N. Iraq, N, Iran and SW.o f Human disturbance of the land has removed USSR. Primary centre probably W. Asia andAn ­ these barriers and increased variation,in ­ te-Asia. Spread to theMediterranea n area and cluding that of thekaryotypes . Europe as acerea l weed. Zohary & Plitmann (1979) divided the aggre­ gate up as follows: Liliaceae 1. ssp.sativa , 2n=12, 7karyotype s found. From Atlantic fringe of Europe through Medi­ HYACINTHUS ORIENTALIS L. Common hyacinth. terranean toW . India,weedy , escapes and cul- 2n=16, (24,32) .Syria ,Asi a Minor,Greec e and tivars (seed and hay), runwil d inNe w World Dalmatia.Cultivate d in the as an 2. ssp.macrocarp a (Moris)Arcang, , 2n=12, 2 ornamental and in S. France as a source of an karyotypes.W , Mediterranean, cultivars (seed) essential oil used in perfumery. 3a. ssp.nigr a (L.)Ehrh .var .nigr a (syn.V . LEGUMINOSAE -NELUMBONACEA E 99

coastland race,a perennial ,als o described asL . angustifolium Huds. (2n=30). Itha s the highest seed oil content and the highest seed weight of all wild species (Seetharam, 1972). During domestication and furter development, types for fibre (flax) and oil (linseed)de ­ veloped.




GOSSYPIUM AREYSIANUM Deflers.2n=26 , genome formula E3E3. S.Arabia . It is drought-resis­ tant and early maturing.

GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM L. Short-staple cotton. 2n=26, genome formula A-JA-J^ S.Afric a (p. 139). Introduced to Ethiopia, S.Arabi a and Baluchi­ stan,wher e race acerifolium* developed. In Iran, a characteristic group of annual forms has arisen,name d race persicum. It spread to W. India,wher e itwa s the first annual cotton cultivated. Varieties of G. herbaceum are now often cultivated. InC . Asia, race kuljianum developed. Itmature s in threemonth s from sowing, giving asmal l crop.

GOSSYPIUM INCANUM (Schwartz)Hillcoat . 2n=26, genome formula E4E4. S. Yemen. It isdrought - resistant.

Liniunusitatissimum , various length andbran ­ GOSSYPIUM STOCKSII* ching types Moraceae Linaceae FICUS L.Commo n fig.2n=26 .Probabl y S. LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. Flax,Linseed . 2n=30, Asia. Primary gene centre in SE, Asia. Spread (32). Primary centre probably inCentra l Asian toAsi a Minor,Mediterranea n countries and W. Region (Vavilov, 1957), since flax varieswi ­ Europe (Storey &Condit , 1969). Long cultiva­ dely in India and adjacent northerly areas. ted. In400 0BC. , figswer e already cultiva­ However as the progenitor of flax,L . bienne ted inEgypt . InTranscaucasia ,Crimea ,C . Mill. (Pale flax, 2n=30) is not found in this Asia, Baluchistan and the Mediterranean coun­ area it cannot have been domesticated there tries, it ranwil d a long time ago. (Helbaek, 1956). Helbaek suggested that flax Aweke (1979) suggests that Ethiopia or at was domesticated about the same time as emmer least Africa might be the area of origin of the and barley in the mountains of the Near East. fig and that F. palmata* is its ancestor.Var . Thence it spread toothe r parts of the Old transcaspica from the Kopet Dagh of Turkmenia World. So itmus t have been domesticated be­ is a source of frost resistance. fore c.6200BC.(va n Zeist &Bakker-Heeres , 1975). FICUS SYCOMORUS L. Sycomore fig. 2n=26. Its L. bienne can be divided into two main geo­ distribution is given on p. 116.Gali l et al. graphic races.Th e first is the continental (1976) suggested that the sycomore was domes­ winter annual of the semi-arid foothills of ticated in theMiddl e East where man was forced Iraqi Kurdistan and Iran. Itmigh t be thepa ­ topropagat e the tree vegetatively because of rent of the prostrate multi-stemmed type cul­ the lack of the specific . tivated since ancient times along theN .coas to f Turkey, theCaspia n coast of Azerbaijan and some Nelumbonaceae parts of Colchis bordering the Black Sea.Ac ­ cording to Helbaek (1956), this type is the an­ NUCIFERA Gaertn. Indian lotus.2n=16 . cestor of the small-seeded flax cultivated by Centre of diversity probably lies inN . Iran, the prehistoric C. European pile-dwellers. The the Kura Estuary inTranscaucasi a and Volga latter is the parent of 'Winterlein', awinte r Delta.Cultivate d inChina , Japan andelse ­ annual cultivated inmountainou s S. Germany. where for its rhizomes and fruits.Formerl y it The second is the Atlantic-Mediterranean was also grown in theE .Mediterranea n Region 100 NEAR EASTERN REGION

(Hjelmquist, 1972). sparse oak forest of Caucasia. It ispolymor ­ phous. Through introgression, characteristics Papaveraceae such as tallness, late ripening, good trans­ portability of fruits,hig h sugar content and, SOMNIFERUM* unfortunately, lowhardines s entered theculti ­ vated apple (Malus pumila Mill.), as can still Polygonaceae be recognized inCaucasian ,Crimea n and even Italian cultivars. FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM Moench. (syn.F . vulgare T. Nées, F. sagittatum Gilib., Polygonum fa- MALUS PRUNIFOLIA (Willd.)Borkh . (syn.Pyru s gopyrum L.). , Silverhull. 2n=16,32 . prunifolia Willd.). Chinese apple.2n=34 ,51 , C. Asia. Introduced into several countries as 68. Primary centre inN . China.Cultivate d in a grain crop. It is often found as aruderal . E. Asia for its fruits. In the USSR, this spe­ It is insect-pollinated. cies is represented inwil d forms inE .Siberia . It is highly resistant to frost and drought, Punicaceae much used by I.V. Michurin tobree d hybrid va­ rieties such as Kandil Kitaika (Kitaika= PUNICA GRANATUM L. . 2n=16, 18,19 . Chinese), Bellefleur Kitaika, Saffran Peppin, Wild in the Near East and C0 Asia.A n ancient Saffran Kitaika. fruit-tree,whic h was even cultivated in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon.Cultivate d now in many countries.Th e only related species is P. protopunica Ralf, found wild on Socotra in the IndianOcean .





AMYGDALUS COMMUNIS L. (syn.Prunu s amygdalus Batsch.). Almond. 2n=16.Primar y gene centres inC . Asia (p.84 ) and in the Near Eastern Region.

AMYGDALUS FENZLIANA (Fritsch)Lipsk y (syn.A . divaricata Fenzl., A. urartu S. Tam., Prunus fenzliana Fritsch.). F'enzel almond. 2n=16. S. Transcaucasia and Anatolia. An ornamental. It easily crosses with A. communis*an d it might be a source of cold and drought resistance for that species.

AMYGDALUS PERSICA L. Peach. 2n=16.Primar y cen­ Malus prunifolia tre inChin a (p.42) .Secondar y centre inCau ­ casia and Crimea. MALUS PUMILA* ARMENIACA VULGARIS L. Apricot. 2n=16. Primary centres in NE.Chin a (p. 42) and in Daghestan MALUS TURKMENORUM Juz.& M.Pop . 2n= .Turk - on the slopes of the Khunzakh Plateau at anal ­ menia, in the gorges of the Kopet Dagh. Pri­ titude of 1200-1800m . The latter centre pro­ mary gene centre also there.Th e cultivated bably formerly linked with themai n one (p. form isknow n inRussia n as 'Baba-arabka* (old 42). The tree has ashrubb y habit. Cultivated arab woman). This name refers to the dying- over the entire NearEast . down of the main stem at an age of about 20 years and its replacement by soboles perma­ CYDONIA 0BL0NGA Mill. .2n=34 . Talysh nently rejuvenating the tree. Mountain Range (S.Daghestan) , the lor Valleys and Azalan (Georgia), in the Terter Valley MESPILUS GERMANICA L. Medlar. 2n=34. Caucasia, (SovietAzerbaijan ) and in the canyons ofAi - N. Iran and Asia Minor.Cultivate d elsewhere dero and Yuz-Begi,Kope t Dagh (USSR). Primary and runwil d there. It crosseswit h centre lies there.Lon g cultivated. oxyacantha* and Sorbus aucuparia*.

MALUS ORIENTALIS Uglits.2n = .Thi s is the L. (syn.Cerasu s avium Moench.). only wild Malus species in the especially Sweet cherry, Mazzard. 2n=16, (24,32) .Pri - NELUMBONACEAE - UMBELLIFERAE 101 mary centre inAsi a Minor and Transcaucasia. nome formula SSSS of SSS]^ or SSC C .Wil d Wild trees also in other parts of Europe,W . throughout the entire territory of this centre Asia and N.Africa .Th e wild trees of Ukrainia and inEurop e and N. Africa.Volg a Basin types could be grouped into four classes: 1.dark - carry genes for high hardiness. It is one of coloured fruit: a. bitter and b. sweet and 2. the parents of P. domestica*. Some natural light-coloured fruit: c,bitte r and d. sweet. hybrids with P. domestica are described as P. The sweetfruited types had elongate stones fruticans Weihe (2n-40). and longer fruit-stalks and petioles than the bitter-fruited types (M'yakushko & M'yakushko, PYRUS. The Near East is the main geographic 1970). It is likely that man selected the sweet- centre of origin of Pyrus species. Of about fruited types. 60Pyru s species in the world, about 25 have Rjadnova (1967) suggested that domestication been described for Caucasia. Some of them also occurred in various places. This resulted in occur in Iran or inAsi a Minor. several ecotypes differing, for instance, in resistance to unfavourable conditions and qual­ PYRUS CAUCASICA Fed. 2n= .Th e entire forest ity of fruit.Constan t selection resulted in zone of Caucasia except the Talysh Mountain large-fruited hardy types. Range (Soviet Azerbaijan). A polymorphic spe­

P. avium is one of the parents ofP s cerasus*. cies. In open areas, it spreads quickly and Hybrids with P. cerasus (P.x gondounii (Poi- vigourously. teau& Turpin )Rehde r areknow n inW.Europ ea s 'Duke' cherries,,Thes e hybrids and P. cerasus PYRUS SYRIACA Boiss.2n = .Armenia . It is are sources of resistance tobacteria l canker cold-resistant and probably played apar t in caused by Pseudomonas syringae Van Hall. the origin of the cultivated pear (Evreinov, 1944). Cultivated locally.

PRUNUS CERASIFERA Ehrh. (syna P. divaricata Led.).Cherr y plum,Myrobalan . 2n=16,genom e PYRUS TAKHTADZHIANA Fed. 2n= .Habi t of a formula CC, (24,32 ,48) .Wil d inCaucasia , cultivated tree.Cultivate d in ancient times Iran,Asi a Minor,Alta i andC . Asia. Primary but later ranwild . centre C. and S.Caucasia n coast of the Black Sea,whenc e it spread eastwards andwestwards . ROSA CENTIFOLIA L. (syn.R . gallica L. var. Secondary centre inW . Tien-Shan (p.85) .I t centifolia Reg.). Provence rose. 2n=:28.E , is highly polymorphic. Caucasia.Cultivate d for its flowers.Th epe ­ This species is one of the parents of P.do ­ tals are used in the perfume industry. mestica*. It is also planted as a rootstock and inhedges .Var .pissardi i (Carrière) L.H. L. Service tree. 2n=34. Its Bailey has dark red leaves and flowers tinged distribution is given on p. 161. Large-fruited with reddish pink. It is anornamental . forms are found in forests of Crimea.

PRUNUS CERASUS L. (syn.Cerasu s vulgaris Mill.). Rubiaceae Sour cherry, Pie cherry. 2n=32. Unknown wild, although trees that have run wild grow mainly ARABICA L. Arabica coffee. 2n=22,44 , inCaucasi a and Asia Minor,bu t also in the (66). The primary centre in SW. Ethiopia.Se ­ European USSR,W . Balkan countries and Germany. condary centre inYemen .Thi s area is the Probably an allotetraploid of P. fruticosa* x source of Arabica coffee now cultivated in P. avium*. Sour cherry canb e divided into the Latin America, Kenya, India, Java andelse ­ true Sour cherries and 'Duke' cherries.Th e where (Meyer, 1965). first canb e subdivided intoMorello s (austera L.) and Amarelles (caproniana L.) (Zylka,1971a). Rutaceae A special population 'Vladimir cherry' ori­ ginated inRegio n 9 (p.160) . CITRUS MEDICA L. Citron. 2n=18. Probably SW. Asia, although India has often been mentioned L. Garden plum, Domestic plum. as centre of origin.Unknow n wild. It has now 2n=48, genome formulaCCSSS S or CdCdSSS^^Sjo r spread through the (sub)tropics. CdCdDlDiD2D2. Caucasia. This species is thought The Etrog citron (var.ethro g Engl.) is used tob e anatura l hexaploid of P. cerasifera* and by Jews at the Feast of Tabernacles, and the P. spinosa*. This alloploidization apparently fingered citron (var.sarcodactyli s Noot.) took place inCaucasia ,wher e both species oc­ Swing) by the Chinese as amedicin e and anor ­ cur and natural hybrids with 2n=24 and 48 are namental. still found. However itma y have happened else­ where. For instance Werneck (1958) considered Umbelliferae the garden plum tohav e arisen in Upper Austria (p.160) . CUMINUM CYMINUM* Rybin (1936) resynthesized the garden plum. Artificial hexaploids resembled the natural DAUCUS CAROTA L. Carrot. 2n=18. For origin see ones. p. 86.B y hybridization between the 'Eastern' and 'Western' carrots inTurkey , a secondary L. Blackthorn, Sloe. 2n=32,ge - centre of diversity has developed there. 102 NEAR EASTERN REGION

MALABAILA SECACUL (Mill.)Boiss .Sekakul . 2n= . Asia Minor and Syria.Cultivate d for its roots, used as a aphrodisiac,

PIMPINELLA ANISUM L. (syn.Anisu m vulgare Gaertn.,Anisu m officinarum Moench). Anise plant. 2n=18, 200 Probably the Orient.Culti ­ vated for aromatic fruits.


VALERIANA PHU L0 2n= .N .Anatolia .Culti ­ vated for its rhizome,whic h yields the drug valerian.


VITIS LABRUSCA L. Fox grape. 2n=38.N . America (p. 206).Introduce d into W. Georgia (USSR)a s a cultivated grape.

VITIS VINIFERA L. Common grape,Europea n grape. 2n=38, (40,57 ,76) .Primar y centres: the Central Asian (p.86) ,th eNea rEaster n and theMediterranea n Regions (p. 119).Th e wild vine, ssp. sylvestris Gmel., is found inre ­ gions bordering theMediterranea n Sea, except and Egypt,u p toTurkesta n and Kashmir. Primary centre:probabl y Armenia (USSR) and N. Iran.Th e western wild types have been called ssp. silvestris, and the eastern types ssp. caucasia Vav. Thewil d type is dioecious and the domesticated type (ssp.sativ aDC , ssp. vinifera) is hermaphrodite derived from the male wildplants . The vine may have been domesticated in SE. Europe where types with large bunches, and seedless havedeveloped .Natura l hybrids are still forming in several areas,e.g . the mountains of S. Tajikistan (USSR), where many new forms are observed. From crosses between the wild grape and cultivated types inEurope , old and new cultivars developed. The common grape has been crossed with the North American V. labrusca*.Th e fruits are used to prepare wine, currants and raisins. V. amurensis* is apossibl e source ofhardi ­ ness. 7 Mediterranean Region

TheMediterranea n Regionwa s described byVavilov .Darlingto n (1956)suggeste d thenam eMediterranea n Region ofOrigin . Itssituatio n near theCradl e ofAgricultur e in theNea r East led toa n early introduction of plant cultivation.Earl y farming siteshav ebee n found atNe a Nikomedeia inGreec e dating c.5470BC . (vanZeis t &Bottema , 1971)an d atFayu m inEgyp t dating from the 5thMillenium , reaching the coast ofth e Atlantic perhaps c. 3rdMillenium .A very old site atKo mOmb o in theNil e Valley ofUppe rEgyp t dated from 15000-1 050 0BC .I ti s anon-farmin g site occupied thewhol e year round (Churcher &Smith , 1972). Many crops havebee n domesticated in the region including Avena sp.,Bet a vulgaris,Brassic a napus,B .oleracea ,Lathyru s sp.,Linu m usitatissimum,Lo - lium sp.,Lupinu s sp.,Ole a europaea,Raphanu s sativus,Trifoliu m sp.an d .

Alliaceae P0ETICUS L. Poet's narcissus. 2n=14, 21. Portugal,Spain ,Franc e and Italy.Culti ­ ALLIUM CEPA L; Spanish onion. 2n=16. See p. 81. vated as an ornamental and in S.Franc e for Secondary centre in the Mediterranean Region. its essential oil.

ALLIUM SATIVUM L. Garlic. 2n=16, genome for­ Anacardiaceae mula SS. C. Asia (p. 81).Secondar y centre in the Mediterranean Region (Kazakova, 1971). RHUS L. Sicilian sumach. 2n= .Medi ­ terranean area.A shrub cultivated in Sicily Amaranthaceae and S. Italy for the leaves,whic h are a source of tanning material. AMARANTHUS LIVIDUSL . 2n=34. Spread through Europe, Asia and to the tropics of theOl d Apocynaceae and New World. Var. ascendens Thell. (syn.A . viridis L., 2n=34) is native toS .Europ e and NERIUM OLEANDER L. Oleander. 2n=16,22 .A shrub E. Mediterranean Region.Cultivate d there ofMediterranea n area.Cultivate d as an in theMiddl e Ages. Var. lividus is unknown ornamental. wild. Itmigh t be a cultigen of this species. Itwa s cultivated in the 16th and 17thCen ­ Asclepiadiaceae turies as avegetabl e and medicinal crop and in the 18th Century as pig food. CYNANCHUM VINCET0XICUM* Var. oleraceus Thell. (syn.A . oleraceus L., 2n= )i s probably a cultigen of var.ascen ­ Balanitaceae dens.Cultivate d in Europe and elsewhere as a vegetable (Mansfeld, 1959). BALANITES AEGYPTIACA Del.Betu ,Deser t date. 2n=16, 18.Thi s shrub grows wild inArabia , Amaryllidaceae Palestine, N.Trop .Afric a and .Culti ­ vated inEgyp t for its edible leaves and flo­ NARCISSUS JONQUILLA L. Jonquille. 2n=14.Eu ­ wers (Cufodontis, 1957;Terra , 1967). rope,Ante-Asi a to Iran and Algeria. Commonly cultivated as an ornamental and in S. France Boraginaceae for its essential oil. 104 MEDITERRANEAN REGION

ALKANNA TINCTORIA (L.)Tausch . . 2n= Now it is an ornamental. 14. S. and E. Europe and Turkey. A herb cul­ tivated as asourc e of a red pigment. Chenopodiaceae

BORAGO OFFICINALIS L. Borage. 2n=16. Mediter­ BETA PATELLARIS Moq. 2n=18, (36). Mediterra­ ranean Region.A herb cultivated as anorna ­ nean and Atlantic coasts of NW. Africa, Canary mental, as apot-her b and for . Islands,Cap e Verde Islands and .A source of resistance tonematode s andCerco - Capparidaceae spora and tolerance to yellow mosaic for B. vulgaris*. CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. bush. 2n=24, 38. The cultivated formswit h large flower-head, var. BETA PROCUMBENS Chr. 2n=18. Canary Islands and spinosa, and small flower-head, var. parviflora Cape Verde Islands.A source of nematode re­ J. Grey probably derived from the wild var. sistance for B.vulgaris* . aegyptia (Lam.)Boiss .Thi s variety grows wild in S. and SE.Mediterranea n area to the Sudan L. Beet.2n=18 , genome formula and Eritro-Arabia. Var. spinosa developed in VV. The parental form is the wild sea-beet the N.Mediterranea n Region,whenc e it spread (ssp.maritim a (L.)Thell. , syn.B . maritima to other areas, where it is cultivated asa L.). Primary centre probably in the E. part of condiment.Var .parviflor a is also cultivated the Mediterranean Region. Spread in awesterl y and might be amutan t of var, spinosa. Hybrids direction along the Mediterranean, Atlantic with C. ovata Desf. are found. coast of Europe and toCap e Verde Islands and Canary Islands. In the Mediterranean Region, Caryophyllaceae leaves and roots of the wild plant may have been collected, perhaps leading to development DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS L.Carnation ,Clove , of Swiss chard and Spinach beet (var, cicla, Pink, Picotée. 2n=30. Mediterranean Region.A var. vulgaris), whose leaves and stalks are perennial herb cultivated as an ornamental and eaten, and to garden beet, table beet and red also as asourc e of an essential oil. beet (var. cruenta, var. esculenta). Develop­ ment may have been influenced by hybridization GYPSOPHILA PANICULATA L. Baby'sbreath . 2n= with wild types like ssp.macrocarp a (syns B. 340 S. and C. Europe and Caucasia. Cultivated macrocarpa Guss.) inN .Africa . InCalifornia , formerly for its roots,whic h contain . such hybridization still continues (McFarlane,

Beta vulgaris (1),B . patellaris (2) procumbens and B.webbian a (3),B . patula (4)an d B. atriplicifolia (5)(Ulbrich, 1934). BORAGINACEAE -COMPOSITAE

1975). The fodder beet (var. rapa) probably W, and C.Mediterranea narea.Cultivate d for developed in the Netherlands (p. 149),afte r its leaf stalks.Probabl y together with C. introduction of types from Spain, and the sugar syriaca*, one of the parents of C. scolymus* -beet in Silesia () (p. 149).Th e wild (Zohary & Basnizky, 197.5). B. macrocarpa Guss. from the coasts of the Mediterranean Region and Canary Islands,B . CYNARA SCOLYMUS L. Artichoke,Glob e artichoke. patula Ait. from Madeira and B. atriplicifolia 2n=34.Mediterranea n area.Cultivate d for soft Rouy from S. Spain easily hybridize with B. fleshy edible receptacles of young flower vulgaris,wit h which they may be included as heads and thick bases of the scales around the subspecies. flower heads aswel l as for a source of abit ­ In NW. Europe,hybri d plants of cultivated ter compound. Several varieties are known. sugar-beet and ssp.maritim a are occasionally If it derives from C. syriaca*wit h introgres- observed. They derive from material propagated sion of C. cardunculus*, it originated inW . inFranc e and Italy. Such hybrids bolt in the Mediterranean area; if it derives from C. car­ first year,producin g seed. The seed drops and dunculus with introgression of C. syriaca,i t may result in awee d (F2plants ) for several originated inE .Mediterranea n area (Zohary & years. It is possible that,o n aver y small Basnizky, 1975). scale,wil d genes derived from these hybrids introgress into the cultivated population. CYNARA SIBTHROPIANA Boiss.& Heldr. 2n= The wild plants may form sources of re­ Mainly onAegea n Islands,Cret e andCyprus . sistance to disease such as Cercospora, yellow Related toC . cardunculus* and C. scolymus* mosaic and increase the variation forselec ­ (Zohary & Basnizky, 1975). tion of new high-yielding types. CYNARA SYRIACA Boiss.Wil d Syrian artichoke. BETA WEBBIANA Moq. 2n=18.Canar y Islands.A 2n= .Levan t and S. Turkey. Probably one of source of nematode resistance for B,vulgaris* . the ancestors of C. scolymus*.

CHENOPODIUM AMBROSIOIDES L. American wormweed, LACTUCA VIROSA L. Bitter lettuce,Lettuc e Indian wormweed. 2n=16, 32,36 ,64 .Probabl y opium. 2n-18. Primary centre round the Medi­ S. Europe.Widesprea d in the tropics and in­ terranean (Lindqvist, 1960). Cultivated on a troduced into N.America .Th e cultivated type, small scale in some parts ofEurop e for its var. anthelminticus L. is a source of medici­ latex,whic h has narcotic properties. nal and essential oils. SCOLYMUS HISPANICUS L. Golden thistle,Spa ­ SATIVUS (L.)Moq . 2n= .NW .Africa . nish oyster plant, 2n=20. Mediterranean area. Cultivated in the Mediterranean Region for the A root vegetable. Its cultivation is declining. base-rich ash it yields when burned. SCORZONERA HISPANICA L. Scorzonera, Black sal­ Compositae sify. 2n=14. C. Europe,Mediterranea n area, Caucasia and S. Siberia.A vegetable especial­ ANACYCLUS OFFIÇINARUM Hayne.Bertram . 2n=18. ly of S.Europe .Perhap s itwa s first cultiva­ Probably the Mediterranean Region. Formerly ted in Spain (Mansfeld, 1959). cultivated inC .Europe . SILYBUM MARIANUM (L.)Gaertn .Hol y thistle, ANACYCLUS PYRETHRUM (L.)Link . Pellitoria of thistle,Lady' s milk. 2n=34. S.Europe . Spain. 2n=18. N.Africa ,Arabi a and Syria, Cultivated as amedicina l plant and as anor ­ Formerly cultivated in Europe as amedicina l namental. plant and now inAlgeri a for an essential oil. TANACETUM CINERARIIFOLIUM (Trev.) Schultz Bip. ARTEMISIA JUDAICA L. 2n= Cultivated in (syn.Chrysanthemu m cinerariifolium (Trev.) the Mediterranean Region. Brocc. Pyrethrum. 2n=18. Dalmatian coast in­ cluding Yugoslavia and . Introduced in­ CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L.Marigold . 2n=(28), toman y countries.Keny a is the main producer 32. Centre of origin probably in theMediter ­ of the insecticide Pyrethrin. ranean Region.Cultivate d as an ornamental, but formerly as amedicina l plant. TANACETUM PARTHENIUM (L.)Schult z Bip. (syn. Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.)Bernh. , Leucan- CICHORIUM ENDIVIA L. Endive,Escarolle . 2n=18. theraumpartheniu m (L.)Gren . & Godron, Pyre­ So Europe to India. Cultivated as avegetable . thrum parthenium (L.) Sm). Feverfew, Wild camomile. 2n=18. Mediterranean area,Balkan , CNICUS BENEDICTUS L. (syn.Centaure a benedic- AsiaMino r and Caucasia,Cultivate d as medi­ taL. , Garberia benedicta Adans.). Blessed cinal plant and as anornamental . thistle. 2n=22. Mediterranean Region toTrans ­ caucasia, Syria and Iran.Formerl y cultivated TRAG0P0G0N PORRIFOLIUS L. Salsify, Oyster in Germany. plant, Purple goats beard. 2n=12. Mediterra­ nean Region.Thi s vegetable was first cultiva­ CYNARA CARDUNCULUS L. (Wild)cardoon . 2n=340 ted for its roots long ago. Itma y have been MEDITERRANEAN REGION eties have been described (Mansfeld, 1959): var. oleiformis Pers. (R. chinensis Mill,)i s the oil-seed radish cultivated in India,Japan , China (p. 35)an d on asmal l scale in Rumania and Spain; var. mougriHelm * (syn. R. caudatus L.); var. sativus, the radish, small radish; var. niger Kerner, radish, Spanish radish.Re ­ cently fodder radish has been bred.I t is are ­ puted selection from oil-seed radish inFrance . More research isneede d to ascertain the ori­ gin of radish and the various botanic varieties and cultivars.Throug h natural(an d artificial) hybridization with Brassica spp.,gene sma y introgress into R. sativus.

SINAPIS ALBA L. (syn.Brassica alba (L.)Boiss.). . 2n=24, Mediterranean area. The wild plant is low-growing and much-branched, with siliquae containing browny black seeds (melanosperma) (Hemingway, 1976), Weedy orna ­ unedo (Hutchinson, 1969). turalized plants may be found from Spain through Asia Minor to E. India. Young seed­ lings are used as salad. Seeds are the source Euphorbiaceae ofwhit e mustard. CHROZOPHORA TINCTORIA (L.) Juss. Giradol.Me ­ Cucurbitaceae diterranean Region,France ,Yugoslavia , Cri­ mea toW .Asia ,NW . India,Arabia . Formerly CRETICA* cultivated in S. France as asourc e of red and blue dye.Th e red dye was used for colouring CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS (L.)Schrad . Colocynth. Dutch cheeses. 2n=22, (34).Ari d regions ofN . Africa and Trop. Asia.Cultivate d in India and the Medi­ LATHYRUS L. 2n=20. S., W. and C. terranean area for itspurgativ e fruits. Europe.A ruderal andweed y plant occasionally cultivated as amedicinal . Probably only na­ ECBALLIUM ELATERIUM (L.)A . Rich. Squirting tive toE . and C. Mediterranean Region. cucumber. 2n=(18), 24.Mediterranea n area, , Asia Minor andCrimea . Cultivated in Fagaceae as amedicina l plant, L„ Cork oak. 2n=24.W . Mediter­

Cyperaceae ranean Area.A very variable species0 Culti­ vated in S. France,Portugal , Spain,Sardinia , CYPERUS ALOPECUROIDES Rottb.Ma t sedge.2n = Corsica, Istria, Dalmatia andAlgeria . . Trop.Ol d World, Cultivated inEgyp t for mat-making (Mansfeld, 1959)0 Geraniaceae

CYPERUS ESCULENTUS L. Chufa, almond, ERODIUM CICUTARIUM (L.)L'Herit . ex Ait. Storks- Tiger nut,Rus h nut,Zul u nut,Yello w nutgrass. bill, Red-stem filaree,Alfilaree . 2n=(20,30 - 2n=(18), 108.Whit e Nile region and in the 40, 36),40 , (48, 54). S.,W . and C.Europe , tropics. Introduced to S,Europ e by theArabs . Mediterranean area,Temp ,Asia .Cultivate d as Cultivated in Spain, Italy and elsewhere for fodder for sheep inN . and S.America . its flavoured tubers.Th e wild form is var. aureus (Ten,)Richt , and the cultivated form ERODIUM MOSCHATUM (L.)L'Herit . exAit , Musk is var.esculentus . storksbill,White-ste m filaree. 2n=20e Medi­ terranean Region. Formerly cultivated as a L. Papyrus plant. 2n=c.l02. medicinal cropu Africa. Formerly cultivated in Egypt,Pales ­ tine and the Mediterranean Area.No w rarely Gramineae cultivated. It could probably remedy and pre­ vent eutrophication of tropical lakes by nu­ AEGILOPS BICORNIS (Forsk.) Jaub. & Sp. (syn. trient extraction. 'More active' extractor Triticum bicorne Forsk.). 2n=14, genome for­ genotypes could perhaps be obtained by breeding. mula SbS .Xeri c sandy soils of S. Israel, Lower Egypt and Cyrenaica (Libya). It issome ­ Ericaceae times believed to be the B donor of tetraploid and hexaploid Triticum spp. (p.93) . L. Strawberry tree,Arbutus .2n = 26. Mediterranean Region. Occasionally culti­ AEGILOPS C0M0SA Sibth.& Sm. (syn.Triticu m vated for its edible fruits. comosum (Sibth0 & Sm.)Richter) . 2n=14,ge - CRUCIFERAE - GRAMINEAE 109

nome formulaMM . Mediterranean Greece, the clauda Dur.)u Aegean Islands and W. Turkey. Used as a source of resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia strii- AVENA DAMASCENA Rajhathy & Baum. 2n=14,ge ­ formis West.). nome formula AdAd. An area 60k m north ofDa ­ mascus, Syria. Itha s ahig h degree of genome AEGILOPS CYLINDRICA* homology with A. prostrata*. Both species are considered relics of aonc e common population, AEGILOPS KOTSCHYI* but are now separated by some 2500 km (Raj­ hathy & Baum, 1972). Cahana & Ladizinsky (1978) AEGILOPS LORENTII* consider A. damascena toderiv e from A. pros­ trata*. It resembles A. strigosa*. AEGILOPS OVATA* AVENA L0NGIGLUMIS Dur. 2n=14, genome formula AEGILOPS TRIARISTATA* A1A1. The coastal fringe of Mediterranean coun­ tries and Morocco,Portuga l and Spain.Medi ­ AEGILOPS TRIUNCIALIS* terranean and Negev desert ecogeographic races have been recognized (Ladizinsky & Zohary, AEGILOPS UNIARISTATA Vis. (syn.Triticu m uni- 1971). It derives from A. prostrata* (Cahana aristatum (Vis.)Richter) . 2n=14, genome for­ & Ladizinsky, 1978). mula M^lV The Mediterranean Greece, around the Sea of Marmara and theAdriati c coast ofYugo ­ AVENA MAROCCANA Gandog (syn.A .magn a Murphy slavia. & Terrell). 2n=28, genome formula AACC. Moroc­ co. Probably not an ancestor of A. sativa* AEGILOPS VARIABILIS Eig. (syn.Ae . peregrina (Leggett, 1980). An annual belonging to the A. (Hackc)Mair e &Weill. ,Triticu m peregrinum maroccana (magna)-A. murphyi*-A. sterilis com­ Hack & Fraser). 2n=28, genome formula CUCUSV plex. It is often confused with A,sterilis . Sv. N.Africa ,Egypt ,Palestine ,Gree k Islands, Turkey and Iraq.Probabl y identical with Aea AVENA MURPHYI Ladizinsky. 2n=28, genome formu­ kotschyi*. laAACC .Betwee n Tarifa and Vejer de laFron - tera, S. Spain.Probabl y not an ancestor of A. AEGILOPS VENTRICOSA Tausch, (syn.Triticu m sativa* (Leggett, 1980). Itbelong s to the A. ventricosum Ces.,Pass . & Giba). 2n=28, ge­ maroccana* (magna)-A,murphyi-A . sterilis* nome formulaM VMVDD. W. Mediterranean Area. complex. It is a source of resistance to the wheatdi ­ sease eyespot caused by Cercosporella herpo- AVENA PROSTRATA Ladizinsky. 2n=14, genome for­ tricoides Fron.Natura l hybrids with Triticum mula ApAp, SE, Spain.Parenta l genome donor of turgidum group durum havebee n found andde ­ A. longiglumis* and A. damascena* (Cahana & scribed as Triticum rodeti Trabut. Amphiploids Ladizinsky, 1978). It isno t the ancestor of with tetraploid Triticum species have been named theA . maroccana*-A, murphyi* complex (Leg­ Aegilotricum. gett, 1980).

AGROPYRON JUNCEUM (Jusl.)Beauv . Seawheat - AVENA SATIVA L.Oat . 2n=42, genome formula grass,Ben t grass.2n=28 , 42, (84).Coast s of AACCDD.Tw o species of hexaploid oats are Europe, N.Afric a and AsiaMinor . Occasionally commonly recognized: A. sativa, characterized cultivated to stabilize dunes. by florets that separate by fracturing of the rachilla, leaving a section of rachilla at­ AGROSTIS TENUIS* tached to each floret after threshing; and A. byzanthina C. Koch inwhic h thebasa l floret

ARUNIX)DONA X L. Giant reedD 2n=(c.60), 110, leaves an abscission scar on threshing. It is Mediterranean area toCaucasi a and Syria.A widely held that these two complexes were in­ grass cultivated since ancient times in S. dependently domesticated (Bell, 1965)bu t a Europe.Als o cultivated elsewhere now. monophyletic origin of oats is equally likely (Coffman, 1946), asbecome s obvious ifA . AVENA CANARIENSIS Baum,Rajhath y & Sampson. sterilis is accepted as thewil d progenitor of 20=14, genome formula AcAcu Uplands ofFuerte - domesticated oats. Florets of A. sterilis occur ventura, Canary Islands. It is the donor of the among remains of cultivated wheat and barley A genome of the evolutionary complex ofmaroc ­ in agricultural settlements from Europe to cana*, A. murphyi* and A. sterilis* (Craig et China. In the northern extremes of wheat cul­ al., 1974;Leggett , 1980). tivation the better adapted weed was eventually adopted as a cultivated cereal.Th e cytoplasm AVENA CLAUDA Dur. 2n=14. Thewhol e Mediterra­ comes from adiploi d species with A genome nean Basin from Morocco,eastwards . It usually (Steer & Thomas, 1976). Thewinte r crop Dorm- grows together with A. sativa type sterilis* oats is an oat with a deep dormancy deriving and A. strigosa typebarbata * (Ladizinsky & from A. septentrionalis* (A. fatua)x A .sa ­ Zohary, 1971). This wild species includes type tiva. eriantha (syn.A . eriantha Dur.,A . pilosaMB ; genome formula CpCp) and type clauda (A. AVENA STERILIS L. (syn.A 0 athenathera Presl, MEDITERRANEAN REGION

Avena clauda (Ladizinsky & Zohary, 1971).

Avena longiglumis (Ladizinsky & Zohary, 1971).

A. trichophyllaC . Koch), Wild oats. 2n=42. species thewil d A. hirtula Lag. (2n=14), A. Near East,Mediterranea n Region of Europe and wiestii Schreb. (2n=14), A.barbat a Pott. (2n= .Wil d oats is characterized by 28) and A. vaviloviana Malz0* (2n=28), and the dispersal units that disarticulate through cultivated A. strigosa Schreb, (2n=14) and A. abscission callus below thebasa l floret of abyssinica Höchst.* (2n=28). Leggett (1980) each spikelet.Floret s separate laterb y frac­ gives the following genome formulas:A .hir - turing of rachilla segments. tula-wiestii oat group AsAs and A. barbata It is often assumed that themimeti c weed AABB. oats (A. fatua L., A. hybrida Petterrct,,A . All over theMediterranea n area,wil d and occidentalis Dur. as recognized by Baum, 1977) weedy diploid and tetraploid forms are found, are progenitors of domesticated oats. This is hybridizing freely. "A.hirtula " is common unlikely. These weeds are characterized by in Spain,Morocco , Algeria, Italy,Greece , florets that disarticulate individually by Turkey and Israel„ "A.wiestii " grows in the formation of abscission callus.Lac k of a drier steppe of the northern fringes of the mechanism for seed dispersal in domesticated Sahara and theArabia n Desert.Th e cultivated oats isgeneticall y dominant over fatua-type strigosa ofW . and N,Europ e derives from the seed dispersal.A more likely explanation is weedy forms common in cereal fields and edges that the fatua-type dispersal evolved after of cultivation in the Iberian peninsula. The oats became domesticated. As and B genome are partially homologous and may derive from acommo n parent (Ladizinsky AVENA STRIGOSA Schreb.Blac k oat,Bristl e oat. & Zohary, 1971). The As genome might be the 2n=14, genome formula AsAs, 2n=28, genome for­ prototype of theA genome of the polyploid mula AsAsBB, AABB orAsAsAsAs .Th e As andB species (Rajhathy et al., 1971)„ genomes are partially homologous and may de­ Diploid and tetraploid cytotypes introgress rive from a common parent (Ladizinsky &Zo ­ by means of triploids. hary, 1971;Ladizinsky , 1973). TheA s genome might be the prototype of the A genome of the AVENA VENTRICOSA Balansa. 2n=14, genome for­ polyploid species (Rajhathy et al., 1971). mula CvCv. This wild species includes ssp. Ladizinsky & Zohary (1971)include d in this bruhnsiana (Grüner)Malze w (syn.A . bruhnsiana GRAMINEAE - GRAMINEAE 111

Avena ventricosa (Ladizinsky& Zohary, 1971).

Grüner) and ssp.ventricos a (Balansa)Malze w (syn.A . ventricosa Balansa s. Str., genome formula AvAv). Ssp.bruhnsian a is found in the Apsheron Pen­ insula of Soviet Azerbaijan and ssp.ventri ­ cosa inAlgeri a and Cyprus.Th e karyotype of ssp. ventricosa is cv* and of ssp.bruhnsian a cv3 and cy2 (Rajhathy, 1971). A. ventricosa is also found inCyrenaic a (Li­ bya) and Iraq (Ladizinsky & Zohary, 1971).

CHRYSOPOGON GRYLLUS (Torner)Trin . (syn0 An- dropogon gryllus Torner). 2n=20, 40.Mediter ­ ranean area to India,Cultivate d in the Po plain, Italy for its essential oil.

HORDEUM VULGARE L. 2n=14. For origin of barley see p. 91.Th e Mediterranean Region is the centre of origin of ssp.mediterranea n Vav, & Bacht.

LOLIUM MULTIFLORUM Lam. ssp.italicu m (A.Br.) Volkart ex Schinz & Kell. Italian ryegrass. 2n=14, The irrigated lands of inN . Italy. Probably cultivated there in the 13th or 14th Century (Beddows, 1953). Spread to N. Europe, Sorghum halepense.

LOLIUM PERENNE* tous perennial was introduced as a fodder to PHALARIS CANARIENSIS L. . 2n=12. all warmer parts of the world. The leaves and W. Mediterranean area:Canar y Islands,Spain , stems containHC Nbu t make excellent hay. In Portugal,Cultivate d for birdseed. theAmericas ,S ,halepens e has widely intro- gressed with grain sorghums (Celarier, 1958). PHALARIS TUBEROSA L. (syn.Ph . aquaticaL.) . Derivatives of such introgression are known Toowoomba grass,Hardin g grass.2n=28 . Medi­ as S. almum Parodi (Columbus grass) inArgen ­ terranean area.Cultivate d inwar m countries. tina (Saez, 1949) (p.171) . Some new perennial diploid types were se­ SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.)Moench . Broomcorn. 2n= lected from the cross S0 halepense x S,bi - 20. Sorghum originated inAfric a (seep .133) . color.Thes e types combine high yield and The broomcorns developed in the Mediterranean palatibility with some frost tolerance and area from material that came from India/Iran disease resistance.Thei r origin is similar to orAfric a through the MiddleEast . S.almum* .

SORGHUM HALEPENSE (L.)Pers . (syn.S .milia - STIPA TENACISSIMA L. Haifa,Alfa ,Esparto . ceum (Roxb.)Snowden , S. controversura (Steud.) 2n=32, 40. Mediterranean area. InSpain , some Snowden). Johnson grass.2n=40 . Mediterranean cultivation is done with cv.Albardin , which area toPakista n and S. India.Thi s rhizoma- has a larger fibre than wild ones. The variety 112 MEDITERRANEAN REGION

Sorghum halepense (deWe t &Huckabay , 1967). seems tohav e developed there. InN , Africa CROCUS SATIVUS L. Saffron crocus 2n=(14,16) , and Spain,wil d halfa yields a fibre forpaper - 24, (40).Mediterranea n area and Ante-Asia. making. Cultivated since ancient times for its styles, which are a source of saffron.Formerl y cul­ TRITICUM TURGIDUM spp. turgidum conv. durum tivated for this purpose inEurop e and N. (Desf.)Ma c Key. 2n=28, genome formulaAABB . America, and now in S.Europe ,Asi a Minor, It originated during cultivation of emmer (p. Iran, N. India and China. 95). Secondary centre in the Mediterranean The origin of present-day cultivars is not area. known.

ZEA MAYS L. 2n=20. Maize was domesticated in IRISGERMANIC A L. German , Flag iris. 2n= C. America (p. 198).Secondar y centres in 24, (34,36) ,44 , 48, (60).Mediterranea n area. Mediterranean area and in the Nile Basin (Bran- A perennial herb widely cultivated as anorna ­ dolini, 1970). mental and for its rootstocks,whic h are used in perfumery.


HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS L. 2n=12. Mediterranean area, AsiaMino r and Iran.Cultivate d for its essential oil,a s amedicina l plant and as an 1 / ornamental. rn LATIFOLIA Medik. Broad-leaved la­ &y vender. 2n=54.Cultivate d in S. France and 1 ^ "~\ (^^iT*^^ h •' \ occasionally inC . Europe for itsOi l of Spike. -• ^O ^^>w0 *; The cultivated plants are often hybrids with L. / ^- " ^V - - officinalis*. Spread of maize in the West European and the Mediterranean region, indurata (—), indentata LAVANDULA OFFICINALIS Chaix. (syn.L . angusti- ( ),centur y of introduction (roman number) foliaMill. , L. spica L.). Lavender. 2n=(36), (Brandolini, 1970). 54. Primary centre.A n old cultivated plant for perfumery. First used as an insect repel- lant.Man y cultivated varieties are hybrids Grossulariaceae with wild plants andL . latifolia*.

RIBES MULTIFLORUM Kitt. 2n=16.Mediterranea n MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. Common balm. 2n=32,64 . area. It is one of the parental species of E. Mediterranean area toCaucasia , SW. Siberia, present-day red currant cultivars (p.155) . S. Iran,Turkesta n and Syria.Cultivate d for­ merly inEurop e and elsewhere for diverse pur­ Hippocastanaceae poses.Th e commonest cultivated type var. officinalis is perhaps derived from var.hir - L. Horse-chestnut. 2n= suta Pers. (syn.M .hirsut a (Pers.)Hörnern.) , 40. C. Balkan Peninsula,E .Bulgaria ,W . Iran a variety from theBalkans . and theHimalayas .Cultivate d as an ornamental or shade tree,an d for its timber,A . carnea MENTHA AQUATICA L. (syn.M . citrata Ehrh.). Hayne (2n=40,80 ) is ahybri d with the N. Bergamot mint.2n=(36 ,60) ,96 ,genom e formula American A. pavia L.,Re d buckeye (2n=40). RaRaSSJJAaqAa

A genome of M, arvensis var.piperascens * LamJo Common germander, 2n-32, 60,64 ,Medi ­ (Ikeda& Ono, 1969). It is one of the parents terranean area, France,C . Germany to S. Ural, ofM . x piperita*.M . aquatica is cultivated Iran, N. Syria and Morocco,Formerl y cultiva­ asM . citrata in the USA for its lavender-like ted as amedicina l crop, oil used in perfumery (Todd &Murray , 1968). Patented hybrids with M. crispa L. (syn.M . TEUCRIUM MARUM L. 2n= .W . Mediterranean spicata* var. crispata Sehrad.) are also cul­ area and S. France, Cultivated in S. Europe tivated in the USA (M.J.Murray , pers. comm., and formerly in Germany. 1971). THYMUS VULGARIS L. . 2n=30. Mediterranean MENTHA LONGIFOLIA (L.)Huds . (syn.M . spicata Region. Now cultivated in temperate and tro­ L. var. longifolia L., M. sylvestrisL.) , pical countries. Horse-mint. 2n=18, 24, (27,36 ,48) .S . and C. Europe, N.Africa ,Ethiopia ,Arabia ,Ante - Lauraceae Asia and C.Asia , Formerly itwa s much culti­ vated. Now only var. crispa Benth. isculti ­ LAURUS N0BILIS L.Laurel ,Tru e bay, Sweet bay. vated. It is related toM . rotundifolia* and 2n=42, 48.Mediterranea n Region.Primar y cen­ M. spicata*. tre also there. Cultivated there and elsewhere for its leaves,whic h are used as acondiment . MENTHA PULEGIUML . Penny royal,Puddin g grass. 2n=(10), 20, (30),40 , (40-42). Mediterranean Leguminosae area and Europe to Iran.Formerl y cultivated inEurop e and elsewhere, ASTRAGALUS B0ETICUS L.Mil k vetch, Loco.2n = 16, 30.S . Europe and Mediterranean area.Cul ­ ORIGANUM MAJORANA L. (syn.Majoran a hortensis tivated as a substitute for coffee. Moench.). . 2n=30. Wild on Cyprus,i n SW. Turkey, Palestine and E0 Egypt0 Subsponta- CERATONIA SILIQUA L. ,Locus t tree,St . neous in the Mediterranean area0 Cultivated John's bread. 2n=24. Mediterranean area, Syria all over the world. Hybrids with 0. vulgare* and adjacent countries.Primar y centre in this have been described as0 . x applii (Domin) Region. Cultivated especially on Cyprus as Bores, 2n= and 0. x majoricum Cambessedes, a fodder crop. The fruits are eaten and the 2n= .0 . x applii occurs in gardens inW . seeds are used toprepar e carob coffee.Mor e and C. Europe.0 . x majoricum grows wild on uses are given by Uphof (1968), the Balearic Islands,Spai n and Portugal (Iets- waart, 1980). Cultivated asmedicina l plant. SILIQUASTRUM L. Judas tree. 2n=14.A tree of the Mediterranean Region to Crimea ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS LQ . 2n=24. and Iran,Cultivate d for its leaves (vege­ Mediterranean area.Cultivate d as ornamental table). and for its aromatic oils.

CICER ARIETINUM LQ Garbanzos, Chick-pea. 2n= SALVIA OFFICINALIS L„ Sage,Dalmatia n sage. 14, 16, (24, 32, 33). Probably W. Asia (p. 2n=14, (16).Mediterranea n area.A culinary 96). Secondary gene centre in the Mediterranean herb now cultivated inman y gardens in tem­ area. Especially large-seeded types, race me- perate and tropic countries. diterraneum Pop., are cultivated.

SALVIA SCLAREA L. Clary sage,Clar y wort. 2n= CYTISUS CANARIENSIS (L.). 0. Kuntze.Genista . 22. Mediterranean area to Iran and Transcau­ 2n=46.Canar y Islands.Cultivate d elsewhere. casia. Formerly cultivated in the Mediterra­ Used inMexic o as hallucinogen. nean Region and S.Europ e for various pur­ poses, e.g. flavouring wine andbeer . CYTISUS PALLIDUS Poir.2n = Canary Islands. Cultivated as a forage crop. SALVIA VIRIDIS L. Bluebeard. 2n=16.Mediter ­ ranean area to Iran,Cultivate d locally for CYTISUS PR0LIFER Kit. (syn.C . pullilans Kit.). its oil to flavour wine and beer. Tree lucerne,Tre e alfalfa,Tagasaste ,Esca - bon, 2n=48,Canar y Islands or, according to HORTENSIS L. (incl0 S. laxiflora C0 Uphof (1968), Hungary, Cultivated there asa Koch and S.pachyphyll a C. Koch). Summer sa­ forage plant. Introduced into New Zealand. vory. 2n=45-48.Mediterranea n area,C . Europe and Siberia.Cultivate d for oil of savory and GLABRA* as apot-herb . HEDYSARUM C0R0NARIUM L. Spanish esparcet. 2n= SATUREJA MONTANA L. (syn.S . obovata Lag., S. 16. Mediterranean area.Cultivate d as a fodder illyrica Host). Winter savory. 2n=12, 30.Me ­ crop. diterranean area toUkraine .Cultivate d in S. Europe and Germany. LATHYRUS ANNUUS L. 2n=14. Mediterranean area and Portugal. Sometimes cultivated as afodder . TEUCRIUM CHAMAEDRYS L. (syn.T . officinale 114 MEDITERRANEAN REGION

LATHYRUS CICERA L. Vetchling, Flat-pod pea- bably domesticated in the Balkans (Gladstone, vine, Jurosse,Garousse . 211=14.Mediterranea n 1977). All cultivars have white seeds, the pro­ area, Canary Islands, Iraq, Iran andTrans ­ duction of pigment being suppressed by two caucasia.Cultivate d in S. Europe as a fodder independent pairs of inhibitor genes.Thes e crop and as agree n manure. genes must already have been selected forb y farmers some 4000 years ago (Kazimierski, LATHYRUS CLYMENUM L. (syn.L . purpureus Desf., 1960).

L. alatus Sibth.& Sm.). Cicerchia porporina. L. albus is closely related to Lu termis*. 2n=14.Mediterranea n area and Madeira.Culti ­ According to Kazimierski (1960)bot h derive vated in S.Europe . from L, graecura (seeL . termis*). This latter species would derive from L. jugoslavicus LATHYRUS HIRSUTUS L. Rough pea,Cale y pea, Kazim. & Now. (2n=50)whic h is found inYugo ­ Singletary 2n=14,Mediterranea n area.Cul ­ slavia.Gladston e (1970)considere d L. termis, tivated especially in USA as apastur e hay, L. graecus and L. jugoslavicus as synonyms of winter cover and for soil improvement. L.albus .

LATHYRUS OCHRUS DC. 2n=14.Mediterranea n area. LUPINUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS L. (syn.L . varius L., Occasionally cultivated inGreec e as a fodder. L. linifolius Roth,L . reticulatus Desv,). Narrow-leaved lupin,Blu e lupin. 2n=40. Pri­ LATHYRUS 0D0RATUS L. Sweet pea.2n=14 . Medi­ mary centre in theMediterranea n areaD The terranean area. Seeds ofwil d plants were sent present European cultivars probably derive from Sicily to NW.Europ e in 1667b y amonk , from wild types of Palestine.Cultivate d also Francesco Cupani. It is commonly cultivated in S.Afric a and Australia as a forage.Widel y as an ornamental. Its flowers are also used as cultivated as an ornamental too. a source of an essential oil. LUPINUS COSENTINI Guss. (syn.L . varius L., LATHYRUS SATIVUS L. Grass pea,Chicklin g pea. spp. varius Franco & P. Silva). Western Aus­ 2n=14. Probably domesticated inW . Asia (p. tralian blue lupin, Sand-plain lupin, Gerald- 83). Primary centre in theMediterranea n area. ton lupin. 2n=32. Coastal Morocco and other sites inW .Mediterranea n area. Introduced LATHYRUS TINGITANUS L. Tangier pea. 2n=14. into W.Australi a about the middle of the 19th Mediterranean Region. Itha s amicro-centr e in Century and naturalized. Since 1910,i t has Morocco.Cultivate d as awinte r annual, also been cultivated for summer sheep food and soil inUSA . improvement.Describe d asL , pilosus L., L, varius L. and L. digitatus Forsk. LOTUS EDULIS L. Asparagus pea,Winge d pea.2n = 14. Mediterranean area toAsi a Minor and LUPINUS LUTEUS L. (European) yellow lupin. 2n Syria.Occasionall y cultivated for its young =(46, 48,50) ,52 .Mediterranea n area,wher e pods. its primary centre lies. The present European cultivars derive probably from wild Palestinean

LUPINUS ALBUS L. (syn.L . sativum Gaertne). plants.Cultivate d as a fodder crop, green White lupin,Mediterranea n white lupin. 2n= manure and ornamental.Closel y related to L. 50. Wild inBalkan ,Cret e and W. Turkey.Pro - hispanicus Boiss.& Reut, and L. rothmaleri Klink (2n=50,52) .

LUPINUS PILOSUS L. (syn.L . varius L. ssp. orientalis Franco & P. Silva). Greater blue lupin,Hair y lupin. 2n=42, (50).NE .Mediter ­ ranean Region. Itma y occasionally be cultiva­ ted. It is characterized by itsbi g seeds,th e biggest of all Lupinus-species.Th e cultivated type has 2n=50.

LUPINUS TERMIS Forsk. (syn.L . graecusBoiss. , L, albus ssp. albus). Egyptian lupin. 2n= Palestine and Egypt.Cultivate d inEgyp t since ancient times and inNigeria .Th e seeds con­ tain alkaloids,whic h have tob e removed be­ fore consumption. Closely related toL . albus*. Distribution of Lupinus albus in theMediter ­ L. termis and L. graecus may be varieties of ranean as awil d and cultivated plant. L. albus*. Hatched: cultivated (var. albus only); black: cultivated (var. albus) and native (var. MEDICAGO ARBOREA L. Cytisusu 2n=32, 48.Canar y graecus)(Gladstone, 1976). Islands,Balaeri c Islands,S . Europe to Asia Minor. The 4x type is commonwhil e the 6x type is found on Esparta,Baleari c Islands only. A shrub formerly used for fodder and for making LEGUMINOSAE - LEGUMINOSAE 115

baskets (Lesins & Lesins, 1979). tivated for fodder.

MEDICAGO POLVMORPHA L. (syn.M . hispida Gaertn. JUNCEUM L. Spanish broom, Weaver's and M. denticulata Willd.). Bur clover. 2n= broom. 2n=48, 52, 52-56.Mediterranea n area 14u Mediterranean area. Spread world wide. and Europe.Cultivate d inFranc e near Aspiran Cultivated as a green manure, for pasture and (Hérault). as aha y crop inAustralia , S.Americ a and S. USA. TRIFOLIUM ALEXANDRINUM L.Alexandria n clover, Egyptian clover,Berseem . 2n=16. E.Mediter ­ MEDICAGO SATIVA L. Lucerne, (Blue) alfalfa. ranean area.Cultivate d in the Near East and 2n=16, genome formula SS, 32 genome formula India, It is the oldest clover cultivated and SSSS, 64.Transcaucasi a (p.97) .Secondar y is closely associated with agriculture in centre inN . Africa, especially Algeria. Egypt. Secondary centre inEgypt .T . alexan- drinum derives from T. berytheum Boiss. (syn. MELILOTUS INFESTUS Guss. 2n=16. A plant of W. T0 alexandrinum var. berytheum) and T. salmo- Mediterranean area,bein g a source ofresis ­ neum Mout., 2n= .T . alexandrinum isself - tance to the sweet clover weevil of M.albus * compatible while its progenitors are self-in­ and M. officinalis*. compatible. Self-compatibility may be achar ­ acteristic of domestication. MELILOTUS MACROCARPA Coss. &Dur . 2n=16. N. Africa.Cultivate d inAlgeri a for its large TRIFOLIUM FRAGIFERUM L. (syn.T , neglectum fruits used as spice. Fisch &Mey) o Strawberry clover. 2n=16.Europe , Canary Islands,Madeira ,N .Afric a and W. Asia, MELILOTUS SULCATUS Desf. 2n=16, (32).S .Por ­ Cultivated as fodder. tugal and the Mediterranean area. Plantsbe ­ longing to ssp.brachystachu s Maire are cou- TRIFOLIUM INCARNATUM L. Crimson clover. 2n=14. marin deficient and resistant to drought, and C0 and S. Europe,Balkan s and N.Africa .Th e most pests including the sweet clover weevil, cultivated type (var, sativum Due,, ssp,in - Ssp. segetalis (Brot.)Mair e has also been de­ carnatum) probably derives from thewil d var, scribed asM , segetalis Ser. (2n=16). molinerii (Balbis exHörnern. )Syme .Th e latter is found in Spain.Lon g cultivated inCata ­ ORNITHOPUS COMPRESSUS L. 2n=14. Spain,Portu ­ lonia (Spain) and S. France.Sprea d toE , and gal and Mediterranean area. Its northernmost N. Europe and later toN .America , point of occurrence is Brittany inFrance . It has ahig h leaf and seed production. It might TRIFOLIUM ISRAELITICUM D. Zoh.& Katzn. (syn. be useful as abreedin g source for0 . sativus*. T. subterraneum L. var. telavivensis Eig).2 n =14. N, Israel. It is not aparen t of T.sub ­ ORNITHOPUS SATIVUS Brot. Serradella. 2n=14. terraneum as has been suggested. Itonl y has Wild plants inNW . Portugal,N . Spain and SW. 14chromosome s while T. subterraneum has 16. France. From here its cultivation spread over Formerly itwa s considered as the "Israeli W. and N.Europe , since the beginning of the race" of this species. 19th Century. A green manure and fodder.Ssp . sativus (syn.0 . roseus Dufour) isnativ e to TRIFOLIUM REPENS L, var. giganteum.Lod i clo­ SW. France,N . Iberian Peninsula and the ver, Ladino clover. 2n=32, Probably, Lodi, N, Azores.Cultivate d elsewhere. Italy. Cultivated first inN . Italy and the A related species is0 , isthmocarpus Coss. Netherlands (p. 157).A n excellent fodder crop. (syn.0 . sativus ssp. isthmocarpus (Cosson) Dostal) (2n=14). A Mediterranean-Atlantic TRIFOLIUM SUBTERRANEUM L. Subterranean clover, species,wher e it grows together with 0. sati­ Sub clover.2n=16 ,Mediterranea n area,SE ,an d vus, hybrids, described as0 . macrorrhynchus W, Europe,Caucasia n Region and N. Iran. It is (Willk.)Klinkowsk i & Schwz. (syn.0 . sativus possible that thewestwar d migration followed var.macrorrhynchu sWillk. ) are found, the course of clearing and cropping by man (Katznelson &Morley , 1965a, 1965b). Secondary PISUM SATIVUM L. ssp.hortens e Asch. &Graeb . centre in Australia (p.66) .Naturalize d in Garden pea. 2n=14. Ssp.hortens e isdomesti ­ Australia, S. Africa, andN . and S.America . cated in SW.Asi a (p. 97).Secondar y centre in T. subterraneum can be divided into three the Mediterranean area. subspecies: 1. ssp. subterraneum (syn.T . blesense Dodart)whic h is the commonest taxon PISUM SATIVUM ssp.joraard i (Schrank) Alef. sympatric with the species;2 . ssp. yanninicum (syn. ecotype arvense s.str., P. elatius (M. Katzn. &Morley , which occurs in Istria, - B.) Stev.,P 0 jomardi Schrank, P. transcauca- matia, Albania, and N.Greece ; 3,ssp . sicum Stankov). 2n=14. Cultivated inEgypt . brachycalycinum Katzn.& Morle y (syn.var . Closely related to ssp.abyssinicu m (p. 137) oxaloides Eig)whic h occurs from W. Thrace to (Fouzdar & Tandon, 1976). Caspian Sea.Thes e subspecies are almost com­ pletely intersterile (Katznelson & Morley, PSORALEA BITUMINOSA L.Asphal t clover. 2n=20. 1965a), The existence of two closely related Mediterranean area and Canary Islands.Cul - but more primitive species (T.batmanicu m 1.16 MEDITERRANEAN REGION

Katzn. (syn.T . anatolicum Katzn.) (2n=16) in Liliaceae Diyarbakir Province, and T. chlorotrichum Boiss. & Balansa (2n- )i nPhrygia ) inTur ­ BARBADENSIS Mill. (syn.A . vera L.). Cu­ key and the absence of these and other close racao aloe,Barbado s aloe. 2n-(10), 14.Medi ­ relatives elsewhere indicates the origin of T, terranean area, S,Arabia , E. Africa, NW. In­ subterraneum inTurkey . However, the greatest dia and S.China .Th e wild var. barbadensis of variation is found in Greece (Katznelson & the Mediterranean area has runwil d inC . Ame­ Morley, 1965a). rica,W . Indies to Bolivia. Itprobabl y arrived Bailey & Francis (1971) found that the iso- there through Spain.Cultivate d inW . Indies. flavone pattern of T. batmanicum closely re­ sembles that of spp.brachycalycinum . They con­ LILIUM CANDIDUM L. Madonna lily,Bourbo n lily„ cluded that T. batmanicum might be the ances­ 2n=14,Mediterranea n area and SW.Asia .Culti ­ tor species of T. subterraneum and ssp,bra ­ vated especially in S.Franc e for its flowers. chycalycinum is probably the earliest form of These are a source of an essential oil. It is subterranean clover.The y postulated that ssp. the oldest lily of European gardens. subterraneum evolved later and colonized a wider range of environments. URGINEA MARITIMA (L.)Baker , (syn.U . The isoflavone pattern of T,batmanicu m is Steinh.). Sea onion. 2n=20, (30),40 ,60 . Medi­ very similar to that of T. globosuraL . (syn. terranean coast;mos t common inE .Algeria . T. radiosum Wahlenb.,T . nidificum Griseb.) Wild and cultivated plants are used for their (2n=16)f However, that species belongs toan ­ pharmaceutical properties and in ratpoison . other subsection. Linaceae TRIFOLIUM VAVILOVII Eig. 2n=16. Israel. LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. Flax,Linseed , 2n=30, VICIA ARTICULATA Hörnern.One-flowere d vetch0 (32). For origin see p.99 . In theMediterra ­ 2n= .Mediterranea n area,Asi a Minor,Ma ­ nean area, the oil-flax (spp.mediterraneu m deira and Canary Islands.Cultivated . Vav. & Ell.) is cultivated. In Italy, hybrid forms (spp. transitorium Vav. & Ell.) of ssp. VICIA BENGHALENSIS L. (syn.V . atropurpurea eurasiaticum and ssp.mediterraneu m are found. Desf,)o Purple vetch. 2n=12, 14.Mediterranean , Large-seeded types are cultivated inN .Africa , area.Naturalize d in the USA. Cultivated as Those from Algeria are a source of Fusarium a clover crop and green manure, and as awin ­ resistance. ter and spring forage. Malvaceae VICIA CALCARATA Desf. Demehi. 2n=12, 14.Sa ­ hara Oasis,wher e it is cultivated for its ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS L. Marsh mallow. 2n=42, seeds.Als o Iran & cultivated in Tripolitania (c.42, 40-44). Europe,E .Mediterranea n area (Libya). and W. Asia.Cultivate d for its roots,whic h are a source ofmedicine . VICIA ERVILEA (L.)Willd . Bitter vetch, Ervil. 2n=14, Primary centre in the Mediterranean ALTHAEA ROSEA (L.)Cav . Garden hollyhock, area.Cultivate d in Spain.A characteristic Hollyhock. 2n=(26), 42, (56).Asi a Minor, Bal­ group developed inAsi a Minor (p.98) .Use d as kans and Crete.Ra n wild in Italy, S0 France forage and for grain. and S. Tyrol.Cultivate d in Europe since the 16th Century, especially var, nigra hort., VICIA FABA L. (syn. Faba vulgaris Moench). which has blackish purple used to colour Field bean, Broad bean, Horse bean, Pigeon wine and asmedicine .Cultivate d now inman y bean, Tick bean, Windsor bean. 2n=12 (14). SW. types as anornamental . Asia (p. 83) or Near East or Mediterranean area (Zohary, 1977). Wild ancestor uncertain. Moraceae See p. 83 for discussion of origin.

Schultz-Motel (1972) found no evidence for FICUS SYCOMORUS L. Sycomore figa 2n=26. Its a supposed division of the small-seeded type area of distribution can be divided into two into two geographical races: a long-seeded type parts: 1. the main part is the E,Coas t of in theW . Mediterranean area and a round-seed­ Africa from S.Afric a to Sudan,wher e trees ed type in the eastern part. So there isn o produce viable seed and grow wild; 2,th e reason to suppose that the broad bean origina­ northern area is the Middle East and N. Africa ted in two separate areas.Whethe r V. pliniana where trees dono t produce viable seed and have (Trabut)Moratov a found inAlgeri a andMoroc ­ tovegetativel y propagate.Th e tree was per­ co, is a type of V. faba or a related species haps domesticated in theMiddl e East (p.99) . isno t known. The southern boundary of the domesticated sy­ comores runs through Sudan (Galil et al., VICIA NARBONENSIS L. Narbonne vetch. 2n=14. 1976). SW. Asia (p.98) .Secondar y gene centre in Mediterranean areawher e it is cultivated. Myrtaceae LEGUMINOSAE -RESEDACEA E

EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS Dehn.Longbea k euca­ Papaveraceae lyptus,,2n=22 . Primary centre in Australia (p. 66). Secondary centres in the Mediterra­ PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L. Opium poppy. 2n=2x=22, nean Region and S. America (p. 177).I t was 4x=44. The cultigen ssp, somniferum derives believed that the trees of this species culti­ from the wild ssp. setigerum (DC)Corb . (syn. vated in Israel came from S. Australia,bu t P. setigerum DC), 2n=2x-22, 4x=44, which occurs the leaves of the Israeli trees contain three in theMediterranea n Region from the Canary polyphenols which have not been found in the Isles eastwards. InGreec e and Cyprus,tetra - species anywhere in Australia. ploid types are found,whic h are more ruderal than the diploid and hence spread easier (Ham­ EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS Labell.Feve r tree,Blu e mer & Fritsch, 1977). Schiiltze-Motel (1979) gum. 2n=20, 22,28 .SE . Tasmania. Cultivated. stated that the poppy was domesticated in the Secondary centre in the Mediterranean Region. W. Mediterranean area.Th e cultigen is grown for the dried latex obtained from unripe cap­ COMMUNIS L. Myrtle. 2n=22. Mediterra­ sules,whic h is used in medicine and as anar ­ nean area and SW. Europe.Cultivate d since an­ cotic, for its ripe seeds,whic h are eaten or cient times for its fruits and for its medici­ pressed forpopp y oil, and as anornamental . nal properties. Itofte n escapes from cultivation. There are several taxonomie classifications to divide Oleaceae the cultigen into various subspecies on the basis of phenotypic variation. L. Flowering ash,Mann a ash. 2n=46. A tree of C. and E,Mediterranea n area. Pinaceae Cultivated on the N. coast of Sicily. PINUS PINEA L. ,Pinie .2n = .S . OLEA CHRYSOPHYLLA Lam. Golden-leaved olive Europe.A tree often cultivated for its edible tree. 2n= .Wil d over a large part of the seeds. Old World, including the Mediterranean area. It is possibly the wild ancestor of0 .euro - Pistaciaceae paea*. If so, it is a synonym of 0. europaea var, sylvestris Brotero. LENTISCUS L. Lentisk pistache. 2n=24. Mediterranean area.A small tree cultivated OLEA EUROPAEA L. Olive tree. 2n=46.Mediter ­ for its . ranean area. Primary centre in the Mediterra­ nean Region. Its domestication started there PISTACIA TEREBINTHUS L. pistache. in ancient times.Var . sylvestris Brotero in­ 2n= .Mediterranea n area.O n the Aegean cludes thewil d forms and thepossibl e natural­ islands, a typewit h big fruits and large ized cultivated types.Var . europaea is the leaves was cultivated, cultivated form.Th e main differences of var. sylvestris are spiny lower branches and small Plantaginaceae leaves and .Som e cultivars are developed

for table , others for oil.Se e also 0. PLANTAGO INDICA L. 2n=12.C. , S, and E0 Eu­ chrysophylla*. rope and W.Asia .Cultivate d in S,Franc e as a medicinal herb (Mansfeld, 1959).

PLANTAGO PSYLLIUM L. Psyllium, 2n=12. Medi­ terranean area,


AQUILEGIA VULGARIS L. Columbine. 2n=14. S. and C. Europe (p. 158),N . Africa and temp. Asia. Cultivated widely as anornamental ,for ­ merly also formedicina l purposes.

NIGELLA SATIVA L. Black . 2n=12. C. (p. 158) and S. Europe,N . Africa and W. Asia. Cul­ Olea europaea (Polunin &Huxley , 1972). tivated for its seed in the Mediterranean area and in theOrient .Cultivate d formerly inC . Europe. Palmae Resedaceae CHAMAEROPS HUMULIS L. Dwarf palm. 2n=36. Wild in the W. Mediterranean area.Cultivate d in L. Weld. 2n=24, (26, 28). C. some parts of Morocco.Ofte n planted as anor ­ Europe (p. 158), Mediterranean area, Iran and namental. A source of fibre (crin vegetable). Afghanistan, Formerly cultivated as a source of deep yellow dye. 118 MEDITERRANEAN REGION

RESEDA ODORATA L. Mignonette. 2n=12, (14).N . cia,bloo d orange). Africa. Itma y derive from R. phyteuma* with introgression of R. arabica Boiss., 2n-24 and RUTA CHALEPENSIS L. Fringed rue.2n=36 .Medi ­ R.orientali s (Muell,-Arg.)Boiss. ,2n = terranean area. Cultivated there and elsewhere R. arabica is found inAfric a north of the as amedicina l plant. Sahara, Egypt,Palestine , Syria and upto the Persian Gulf,whil e R. orientalis occurs in L. Common rue,Rue .2n=72 ,81 , S.Turkey , Cyprus,Lebanon , Syria andPales ­ Wild in theMediterranea n area. Introduced into tine. Between 1733 and 1737materia l was sent many tropical countries.Th e leaves are used toPari s and from there its cultivation asa as a condiment and medicinally. perfumery plant started and spread (Abdallah & deWit , 1978). Var.neilgherrensi s is grown Scrophulariaceae in India (p.78) . DIGITALIS PURPUREA* RESEDA PHYTEUMA L. 2n=12. N. and S.o f the W. and C. Mediterranean area. Said tob e eaten as Solanaceae a vegetable in Greece. It may be the main an­ cestor of R. orientalis* (Abdallah & deWit , ATROPA BELLADONNA L. Belladonna. 2n=72. From 1978). Spain, the Balkans,Asi a Minor to India (p. 79). Cultivated inEurope , India and USA as Rhamnaceae a medicinal plant. A. martiana F.Q. is consid­ ered ahybri d of A. belladonna and A. baetica CATHARTICUS* Willk. (2n=72), which is found inSpain .

RHAMNUS FRANGULA* HYOSCYAMUS NIGER L. Black henbane. 2n=34. Mediterranean area.A medicina l plant cultiva­ RHAMNUS PRINOIDES L'Hér. 2n=14. Ethiopia. Cul­ ted in some countries for its alkaloids. tivated for leaves and branches which are used to flavourbeverages , and for medicine (Jansen, Ulmaceae 1981). AUSTRALIS L. (syn.C . excelsa Salisb.). LOTUS (L.)Lam . 2n=24. Mediterranean Hackberry. 2n=40. Mediterranean area.Tre e cul­ area. A tree cultivated in Italy, S. Spain and tivated there as an ornamental and in Asia Egypt. It is probably the lotophagus of the Minor for its edible fruits (Mansfeld, 1959). ancient peoples ofLibya . ULMUS spp. Semi-cultivated by the Romans as a Rosaceae support for grapevines and so distributed. The leaves are used as fodder in dry summers. AMYGDALUS PERSICA L. Peach, 2n=16. Primary centre inChin a (p.42) .Secondar y centre in Umbelliferae Italy andSpain . AMMADAUCUS LEUCOTRICHUS (Coss.& Bur.). 2n=16. CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS L. (syn.C . aronica Bosc.). N. Africa,Cultivate d there. Azerolier^ 2n= .S 0 Europe, N,Afric a and theOrien t (p.85) .Thi s shrub or small tree AMMI MAJUS L. (syn.Apiu m ammi Crantz), Bish­ is often cultivated for its edible fruits. op's weed. 2n=22. Mediterranean area to Iran Var. aronica L. is found wild onCrete . and to and , Cultivated since the Middle Ages for its aromatic seeds Rutaceae and formedicina l purposes.

CITRUS AURANTIUM L. spp.bergami a (Risso & ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS L. (syn.A . sowa Kurz.). Poit.)Wigh t & Arn.Bergamot . 2n=18. Satapashpi, Sowa, Suwa. 2n=22. Eurasia.Culti ­ (Italy.Primar y centre probably in SE0 Asia vated in India. Itha s longer fruits than the (p.63) .Cultivate d forbergamo t oil inCala ­ Indian type (p.79) . bria. GRAVEOLENS L. Celery. 2n=22. Cultivation CITRUS LIMON (L.)Burm . Lemon. 2n=18,(36) . started in the Mediterranean area.Th e wild Primary centre probably in SE.Asi a (p.63) . parent A. graveolens var. silvestre Presl. Secondary centre in theMediterranea n Region, (syn. var. graveolens) is cosmopolitan. Not especially in Sicily. much isknow n about the development of the three botanical varieties ofA . graveolens: var. sil­ CITRUS SINENSIS (L.)Osbec k (syn.C , aurantium vestre f. secalinum Alef. (syn. var, secalinum L. var. sinensis L.). Sweet orange. 2n=18, Alef,), Leafy celery, Smallage or celery; (27, 36)„ Primary centre probably in Su China var. rapaceum (Mill.)DC. , , Turnip- or Cochinchina (p.63) .Secondar y centres in rooted celery or German celery; var. dulce Israel (e.g. the varieties Shamuti, Beladi, (Mill.)Pers. , Blanching celery, Pascal celery Khalili) and in Spain (e.g. the variety Valen- or Stalk celery. RESEDACEAE - VITADACEAE 119

CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L. . 2n=22. Medi­ sewhere. Mansfeld (1959)ha s classified the wild terranean area and W, Asia.Cultivate d .forit s and cultivated types. aromatic fruits. L. Skirret,Chervin . 2n=20,22 . MARITIMUM L. Samphire,Se a samphire, E. Asia and Mediterranean area. Occasionally Sea ,Piercestone . 2n=20t (22).Canar y cultivated for its edible tuberous roots (var. Islands,Madeire , coasts of Portugal to S. sisarum). England and those of the Mediterranean area and Crimea. Cultivated in the USA as akitche n herb. L. Alisander,Alexanders , Maceron. 2n=22, Mediterranean area, S. and W. CUMINUM CYMINUM L.Cumin . 2n=14. Mediterranean Europe and Caucasia. Formerly much cultivated area to Turkistan. Cultivated in SE.Europe , but now replaced by celery. N.Africa , India andChina a Urticaceae DAUCUS CAROTA L. Yellow carrot. 2n=18. Wild species from Afghanistan (p. 86) to the Medi­ SOLEIROLIA SOLEIROLII (Req,)Dandy „ 2n= terranean area. Although yellow carrots may Islands of W. Mediterranean area. Cultivated. have arisen in other areas where purple carrots were cultivated, it is thought that the true Valerianaceae yellow carrots developed in the Mediterranean Region from crosses with the wild D. carota FEDIA CORNUCOPIAE Gaertn.Africa n valerian, ssp. agg, carota (syn, ssp.maximu s (Desf.) Valériane d'Alger, 2n=32.Mediterranea n area. Ball). Cultivated as apot-her b and during famine.

FOENICULUM VULGARE Mill. (syn.F . officinale VALERIANA ERIOCARPA Desv. Italian corn salad. Gaertn.). Fennel.2n=22 . Mediterranean areau 2n= ,Mediterranea n area.Cultivate d for Cultivated there for a long time and introduced salad. into many other temperate countries. Var. piperitum (Ucr.)Cout . (syn,F . piperi- Verbenaceae tum Acr., 2n=22) is Bitter fennel. Var. dulce (Mill.)Thell . (syn.F . dulce Mill,, 2n=22) VITEXAGNUS-CASTU S L.Chast e tree. 2n=24,32 . is the Florence fennel,Swee t fennel or Roman Mediterranean area. Cultivated in the Old and fennel.Cultivate d for itsblanche d petioles New Worlds for various purposes. in S0 France and the Mediterranean area.Var . azoricum(Mill.)Thell . (syn.F.azoricu m Mill.), Violaceae Carosella or Italian fennel, originated in Ita­ ly. Itha s very broad leaf-stalk bases. VIOLA ODORATA L. (syn.V . officinalisCr,) . Sweet violet,Swee t scented violet, Common MEUM ANTHAMANTICUM Jacq. Signel. 2n=22.A herb violet. 2n=20, Europe and SW,Asia . Var. parma of C. and S. Europe,onc e cultivated in N.Eng ­ is cultivated in N. Italy and S. France asa land for itsroots . source of an essential oil for perfumery.

PETROSELINUM CRISPUM (Mill.)Nym . exA.W . Hill Vitadaceae (syn.Caru m petroselinum Benth.). . 2n= 22. S, Europe.Widel y cultivated there and el- VITIS VINIFERA L. Common grape,Europea n grape.

• ;

. / V •£,j ! .: V / r^-H ^^^••- '""tp ^r*N*•jpOG? ? /—/ /—^) i -*>*.. v..>^* N'•"'.• .\ \ Sj?&i0ä*ty ^N \ sr r ~~> oW ^<^^~S^Mc^k \\ 0 Y

\ i c Li A v- /' \ I' \ i Wild grape (Vitis vinifera. var. silvestris) (Zohary & Spiegel-Roy, 1975). 120 MEDITERRANEAN REGION

2n=38, (40,57 ,76) .Th e Mediterranean Region is one of the three primary centres of diver­ sity. On p. 102 the domestication of the grape is discussed and other data are presented. The grape reached Greece and Italy c, 1000 BC. and spread northwards to enter France c. 55AD , There by introgression, it absorbed genes for adaptation to cooler and more humid (Rives, 1975)<,Ther e are several secondary cen­ tres, e.g. the varieties for currants inGreece , and thevarietie s forwin e in Italy, Spain and Algeria. 8 AfricanRegion

The African Region includes allo fAfric a south of theSahara .Portère s (1950)recognize d fourmajo r centres ofplan t domestication inAfrica :a Mediterranean cradle,whic h formspar t of theMediterannea n Region (Chap.7) ; anEthiopia n cradle,whic h correspondswit h theAbyssinia n Centre ofVavilo v (1928)an d theEthiopia n Centre ofDarlingto n (1956); anEas tAfrica ncradle ; and aWes t African cradle.Portère s divided hisWes tAfrica n cradle into Senegambian,Centra l Niger,Beni n andAdamaw a subcradles. An independentor ­ igino f agriculture in theWes tAfrica n savannawa s alsopropose d by Anderson (1960)an dMurdoc k (1960), bu t several research workershav epresente d evi­ dence against thishypothesi s (Wrigley, 1960;Clark , 1962;Harris , 1967). Agriculture inAfric a north of theSahar a istypicall y NearEaster n inorigin . South of theSahara , agriculture isbase dprimaril y on nativeAfrica ncrops . Anotabl e exception is theHighland s ofEthiopia ,wher e wheat andbarle y have been grown since at least thebeginnin g of theChristia nEra . The antiquity ofnativ e agriculture inAfric a isno tknown . Archaeological remainso f fingermille t (Eleusine coracana) fromEthiopi a suggests that this cereal hasbee n cultivated inAfric a fora tleas t fivemillennia .Thi s AFRICAN REGION

archaeological raceo f finger millet has lost the ability to disperse seed naturally, so cereal cultivation inAfric a mustb e substantially older than 5000year s (Hilue t al., 1979). Remains ofpear l millet (Pennisetumamerica - num)datin g back toth e fifthmillenniu m BC.wer e uncovered from lakeedg e settlements inMauritani a (Munson, 1976). A sequence from gatheringwil d grasses to growing cereals such aspear l millet and possibly sorghum (Sorghumbicolor ) isobviou s in these settlements.However , these cropsprob ­ ably reachedMauritani a fully domesticated. Wild raceso fpear l millet occurs inC .Sahe l andHighland s ofC . Sahara,an dwil d sorghum isnativ e to the savanna regions,wher e these two cerealswer e probably domesticated (Brunkene t al., 1977;d eWet , 1978). Thepolle n record shows that theSahar awa s substantially wetter some 8000 years ago thannow .Peopl ewit h cattle,goat s and sheep camped along theed ­ geso fnumerou s shallow lakes inC . Sahara, andharveste d wild cereals and otherplan t inarea s that are now desert (Clark, 1976). The Saharabe ­ cameprogressivel y drierove r several subsequent millennia, and itwa sprob ­ ably thesenomadi cherdsme n who domesticated thenativ e cereals ofWes tAf ­ rica as they migrated south intowha t isno w savanna (Harlan et al., 1976).

Acanthaceae 2n=18. S.Africa . An annual cultivated in Zaïre and the Mediterranean area as a spinach. ADHATODA SCHIMPERIANA (Höchst.)Nées . 2n= E. Africa. InEthiopi a cultivated as ahedge - MESEMBRYANTHEMUM CRYSTALINUM L. (syn.Cryo - plant (Jansen, 1981). phytum crystallinum (L.)N.E . Brown). Iceplant , Crystalline. 2n=18. S.Africa .Cultivate d as JUSTICIA INSULARIS T.And . 2n= .Africa . Cul­ salad vegetable or as a soil stabilizer. tivated inW . Africa for its edible leaves. MESEMBRYANTHEMUM EDULE L. (syn.Carpobrotu s Agavaceae edulis (L.)L . Bolus). Hottentot fig. 2n=18. S.Africa .A dune stabilizer, leaves used as F0URCR0YDES Lern.Heneque n agave.2n = forage and as a source of water. c. 140.Yucata n (p. 185).Secondar y centre possibly inAfrica .Cultivate d for fibre. Amaranthaceae

DRACAENA ARBOREA Link. (syn.D . mannii Baker). L. 2n=18. Trop.Africa ,Ma ­ Asparagus tree,Soa p tree;D . fragrans (L0) dagascar and Arabia.Cultivate d as avegeta ­ Carol; and D. smithii exHook.f. ,Cocke d hat, ble inAfrica . Cockade bush. 2n= .Thes e four species are native toAfrica .Cultivate d as living fences Annonaceae and live sticks. XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA (Dun.)A .Rich . African SANSEVERINIA GUINEENSIS (L.)Willd . Bowstring pepper,Guine a pepper, Ethiopian pepper, Spice hemp. 2n= .Africa .A fibre crop cultivated tree. 2n= .Trop .Africa . (Semi-)cultivated on asmal l scale inMexico . inW . Africa.

SANSEVERINIA LONGIFLORA Sims. Florida bowstring Apocynaceae hemp. 2n= .Africa .Cultivate d in Trinidad, S. Florida and S.Carolina . GRANDIFL0RA A.DC. Natal plum. 2n=22. S.Africa .Cultivate d for its fruits and as SANSEVERINIA THYRSIFLORA Thunb. 2n= .S . an ornamental. Africa.Cultivate d for its fibres inth e tro­ pics. FUNTUMIA ELASTICA (Preuss)Stapf .Lago s silk rubber. 2n=22. W.Africa .Larg e plantations of SANSEVERINIA TRIFASCIATA Prain.Africa n bow­ this tree were established inW . Africa, after string hemp. 2n= .Trop .W . Africa.Cultiva ­ the discovery that itwa s a source of rubber. ted (often as S. guineensis*) in the tropics. However, these plantations cannot compete with Var. laurentii (DeWildem. ) N.E.Brow n is cul­ Hevea rubber. tivated as an ornamental inZaïre . TABERNANTHE IBOGA Bâillon. Iboga. 2n=22. Gabon, Aizoaceae Congo and the NW. Zaïre.Cultivate d inGabon . The roots contain several indole alkaloids. MESEMBRYANTHEMUM ANGULATUM Thunb.Marigold . The most important is ibogaine which isa ACANTHACEAE -CRUCIFERAE 123

Ethiopia and Arabia for its leaves that contain a mild narcotic.Th e fresh leaves and twigs are used as a stimulant particularly inArabia ,So ­ malia, Ethiopia and Tanzania0 Leaves are either chewed, or a refreshing tea isbrewe d from thema InEthiopia , the leaf has been used as apro ­ tection against pestilence, and especially in Arabia against bubonic plague. InYemen , khat is an important item at birth, circumcision, and atmarriage s and funerals^ I nHarrar , twigs Tabernanthe iboga (Pope, 1969). of khat are placed on graves for seven days.

Cleomaceae stimulant and in large doses ahallucinogen . Roots of wild plants are collected which has GYNANDROPSIS GYNANDRA (L.) . (syn.G .pen - resulted in the almost extinction of this plant taphylla DC.). 's whiskers. 2n=30, 32,34 . in several districts inGabon . (Sub)trop.Afric a and Indiau Cultivated in Africa, in the and in Malaya.Use d ROSEA L. Madagascar periwinkle,Cap e as vegetable and as ornamental. periwinkle. 2n=16, (32).Probabl y Madagascar, A herb cultivated as amedicina l plant. Compositae

Bignoniaceae CRASSOCEPHALUM BIAFRAE S,Moore .2n = .W . Africa.Cultivate d as a vegetable. Several AFRICANA (Lam.)Benth . 2n=40. Sausage types are known (Terra, 1967). tree.Trop .W .Africa .Cultivate d for medicine and witchcraft. CRASSOCEPHALUM CREPIDIOIDES (Benth.) S. Moore, 2n=40.Vegetabl e of Nigeria. Bombacaceae GUIZOTIA ABYSSINICA (L.f.)Cass . Niger seed. Gaertn.Kapo k tree, Silk cotton 2n=30. Centre of diversity Ethiopia (Baagoe, tree. 2n=72, 80, 88.Som e authors believe in 1974) and spread southwards toMalaw i and to anAmerican/Africa n origin of the kapok tree India,wher e it has run wild. Used for oil­ (p. 187).I fAmeric a is the sole centre of seed, origin, then the African centre is secondary. The African kapok tree is divided in theCarib ­ GYNURA CERNUA Benth. 2n=20. W.Africa .A herb bean forest type and the Caribbean savanna cultivated for its leaves. type.Th e latter type,whic h has abroadl y spreading crown, isplante d in market places0 LACTUCA TARAXACIFOLIA (Willd.)Schum . (syn. It is possible that this type arose from cut­ Sonchus taraxacifolius Willd.)ü Wild lettuce, tings of plagiotropic branches (Zeven, 1969). Langue de vaches,2n = .Trop ,Afric aes ­ pecially in , ,S , Nigeria Burseraceae and Nile region.Cultivate d inW , Africa as a vegetable and as fodder, CANARIUM EDULE Hook.f. (syn.Pachylobu s edulis

G. Don,Dacryode s edulis (G,Don. )Lam) .Bus h LAUNAEA TARAXACIFOLIA (Willd.)Ami n exC a Jef­ butter tree,Nativ e pear. 2n= .Trop ,Africa . frey,Wil d lettuce.2n = ,Vegetabl e ofNi ­ Occasionally cultivated for its edible fruits. geria,

COMMIPHORA OPOBALSAMUM Engl. Mecca tree, SENECIO BIAFRAE Oliv. 2n= .Africa .Occa ­ Harobol myrrh. 2n= .Arabi a and .For ­ sionally cultivated inW ,Africa . merly (llth-17th Century) cultivated in Egypt and Palestine (Mansfeld, 1959). SENECIO GABONIÇUS Oliv. 2n= ,Trop .W .Af ­ rica,Occasionall y cultivatedo Cannaceae STRUCHIUM SPARGANOPHORA (L.)0 . Ktze. Water SPECIOSA Rose. 2n= .W . Africa. Cul­ bitterleaf. 2n= ,Vegetabl e of Nigeria, tivated in Sierra Leone. It is the source of African Turmeric. The tubers resemble those of Crassulaceae Curcuma longa*. BRYOPHYLLUM PINNATUM (Lam.)Oken , Never-die, Celastraceae Resurrection plant,2n = ,Africa . Cultivated there as amedicina l crop and elsewhere as an CATHA EDULIS Forsk.Khat ,Miraa . 2n= .Ethio ­ ornamental. pia and Somalia, south toNata l and Transvaal in , and inYeme n and Saudi Arabia Cruciferae where it probably was introduced.Cultivate d in 124 AFRICAN REGION

BRASSICA CARINATA A.Br.Abyssinia n mustard. not eaten. The tubers and fruits of thewil d

2n=34, genome formula BBCC0 Unknown wild0 Cul­ plants are inedible. tivated in Ethiopia as a vegetable and as an oil crop.A natural amphidiploid ofQ B.nigra * CUCUMEROPSIS EDULIS (Hook.f.). Cogn.2n = and d*B . oleracea* (Uchimiya &Wildman , 1978). W. Africa.Cultivate d in gardens and on roofs.

BRASSICA JUNCEA (L.)Czern .& Coss . (syn. CUCUMEROPSIS MANNII Naud. W. and C. Sinapsis juncea L.).Sarept a mustard, Brown Africa.Cultivate d there. mustard, Leaf mustard, Indian mustard. 2n=36, genome formula AABB. Africa.However , Heming­ CUCUMIS ACULEALUS Cogn. 2n=40. Wild perennial way (1976) suggested acentr e of domestication from Ethiopia. inC . Asia-Himalayas with secondary centres of diversity in India,Chin a and Caucasia. Spread CUCUMIS AFRICANUS L.f. 2n=24. Wild in S.Af ­ to E.Europ e andChina . Now distributed from rica, Resistant to cucumis green mottle mosaic Europe toE .Asia .Ofte n as aweed . It is cul­ and powdery mildew (Visser &d e Nijs, tivated for its oily seeds and as acondiment . 1980)„ This species originated from the natural am­ phidiploid of Ç B. campestris* and Çj B„ ni­ CUCUMIS ANGURIA L. 2n=24. Gherkin.Th e wild gra* (Uchimiya &Wildman , 1978). Through ar­ type is var. longipes A. Meeuse (syn.C . tificial amphiploidization of hybrids of the longipes Hook.)occurrin g inEthiopi a and S. parental species it has been possible to intro­ Africa. Introduced to the Caribbean,wher e the duce characteristics of both parents into Sa­ cultigen West Indian gherkin (var, auguria) repta mustard. developed (Meeuse, 1958). Esquinas-Alcazar (1978) found similar electrophoretic patterns ERUCA PINNATIFIDA (Desf.) Pomel. 2n= .Sa ­ for enzymes of both varieties,bu t Puchalski hara. Occasionally cultivated in oases as et al. (1979) did not.Som e accessions of both fodder. varieties resistant to cucumis squash mottle mosaic virus and powdery mildew (Visser & de LEPIDIUM SATIVUM L. ,Commo n cress. Nijs, 1980). 2n=16, 32.Wil d type var. silvestre Thell. From Sudan area to theHimalayas . Cultivated CUCUMIS DIPSACEUS Spach. Teasel gourd. 2n=24. in ancient times in Europe as avegetable . It Africa. An ornamental. may have reached Europe from the Levant asa flaxweed . InAfrica , there are red,whit e and CUCUMIS FICIFOLIUS A.Rich. 2n=24, (48).A per­ black varieties and seeds are used formedici ­ ennial from Ethiopia southwards. nal purposes,oi l production and as avegeta ­ ble. CUCUMIS FIGAREI Naudin. 2n=72. Wild inNigeria .

Cucurbitaceae CUCUMIS HEPTADACTYLUS Naudin. 2n=48e Africa. Perennial (Dane et al., 1980).

CITRULLUS LANATUS (Thunb.)Mansf 0 (syn.C . vul­ garis Schrad.). Water-melon. 2n=22. Tropical CUCUMIS MELO Lu Musk-melon, Melon,Canteloupe . and subtropical Africa,Th e wild race is com­ 2n=24.A s most Cucumis species come fromAf ­ monly eatenb y animals.A n edible wild race, rica, the species probably originates from the tsama occurs in the Kalahari Desert, where trop.Africa ,whenc e it spread to other regions, it is often the principal source of water for producing secondary gene centres in Iran (p. animals and the bushmen.Foo d is often cooked 89), China (p. 36),Ira n and S. USSR (p. 82) directly in the tsama.Cultivate d since ancient (Leppik, 1966). times inMediterranea n area and India.No w cul­ tivated inman y countries of the Old and New CUCUMIS METULIFERUS Naudin.Africa n horned Worlds so that secondary centres of diversity cucumber. 2n=24.Cultivate d as an ornamental have arisen.Var . citroides (Bailey)Mansf . is and in some parts of Africa for its fruitse found in Sudan.Cultivate d inUS A (Citron, Pre­ This self-compatible species is asourc e of serving melon) and USSR. resistance to southern root-knot nematode, The citron - a fodder melon - is adapted to and squash mosaic virus for C. sativa*. very dry areas. Itha s both weedy and cultiva­ ted races. CUCUMIS MYRIOCARPUS Naudin. 2n=24. S.Africa . The wild form, var, colocynthoides (syn.C . Wild. Closely related toC . africanus* and C. colocynthoides Pang.) is characterized by its leptodermis Schweik., 2n=24 (A.P.M. de Nijs, white or yellow flesh with bitter flavour or pers, coram,,1980) . Resistance to powdery mil­ not and the cultivated form var. edulis (syn. dew (Visser & de Nijs, 1980). C. edulis Pang.)ha s red or yellow flesh with sweet flavour (Shimotsuma, 1965). CUCUMIS ZEYHERI Sond. 2n=(24), 48u A perennial from S.Afric a (Dane et al., 1980). COCCINIA ABYSSINICA (W.& A. )Cogn .Anchoté . 2n= .Ethiopia . Sporadic cultivation inSW . LAGENARIA SICERARIA (Molina) Standi« (syn.L a of Ethiopia for its tubers but its fruits are vulgaris Ser.). Bottle gourd,White-flowere d CRUCIFERAE - DIOSCOREACEAE

Gilg) (2n= ),L . guineënsis (G. Don.)C . Jeffrey (syn.Bryoni a guineënsis G. Don., Ade­ nopus longiflorus Benth., A. guineënsis (G. Don.)Exell , A. pynaerti De Wild.) (2n= ) and L. rufa (Gilg)C .Jeffre y (syn. Adenopus rufus (Gilg) (2n= ) (Jeffrey, 1962).

TELFAIRIA OCCIDENTALIS Hook.f.Flute d pumpkin. 2n= .Trop .Africa . Cultivated there for its seeds.


JUNIPERUS PR0CERA Höchst. 2n= .E .Africa . Mainly a timber tree; also used for soil con­ servation and for medicinal purposes.


DIOSCOREA ABYSSINICA Höchst. 2n=40. Ethiopia, savanna of Africa. Cultivated to a limited ex­ tent as a food crop,especiall y in Uganda (Burkill, 1939;Coursey , 1967).

DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA L. (syn. D. latifolia Benth.). Potato yam, Aerial yam, Bulbil-bear­ ing yam. 2n=36, 40, 54, 60, 80, 100. Wild and cultivated in trop. Asia (p. 52) and Africa. It could have been domesticated in both re­ gions .

DIOSCOREA CAYENENSIS Lam. Yellow yam, Yellow Guinea yam,Twelve-mont h yam, Cut-and come yam. 2n=36,54 ,60 ,80 ,14 0 and aneuploids. W. Africa.Als o cultivated inW . Indies. Lagenaria siceraria DIOSCOREA COLOCASIIFOLIA Pax.Fals e water yam. 2n= .W . Africa.Cultivate d inE .Ghana , gourd, gourd. 2n=22. Widespread in andMayumb e area ofZaïre . Africa, now pantropic.Althoug h an extensive variation occurs inAfric a both subspecies DIOSCOREA DUMETORUM (Kunth)Pax .Bitte r yam, asiatica Kob.(foun d in Asia) and afrikana Cluster yam. 2n=36,40 ,45 ,54 .Cultivate d Kob. (found inAfrica ) also occur inPapu a New throughout Africa between 15°N and 15°S. Guinea,wher e the penis gourd developed Closely related toth e Asian D. hispida*. (Heiser, 1973a, 1973b). It now occurs subspontaneously and is culti­ DIOSCOREA ELEPHANTIDES (L'Hér.)Engl . Ele­ vated in trop.Africa ,Asi a andAmerica » It phant's foot.2n = .S .Africa , in the rocky, has been shown that float for a long semi-deserts. Collected and eatenb y Hotten­ time and seeds remain viableu This may explain tots. InEurop e and N.America , it isculti ­ very early spread to other continents by sea vated as a curiosity (Coursey, 1967). The tuber currents. Remains of plant material tentati­ can grow to 350kg . vely identified asbelongin g toLagenari a have been found in the Spirit Cave,Thailan d and have DIOSCOREA HIRTIFLORA Benth. 2n=40. Savanna of been dated 10000-6000B C (Gorman, 1970).Re ­ Africa. Cultivated inN . Nigeria. mains of the bottle gourd were found in Mexico dated 7000-5500 BC. (Whitaker & Cutler, 1971) DIOSCOREA LIEBRECHTSIANA DeWild . 2n= in Peru 4000-3000 BC., in the Egyptian tombs Africa. Cultivated. dated 3500-3000 BC. (Purseglove, 1968) and in China 500AD . (Li, 1969). Material found in DIOSCOREA 0VINALA Baker. Ovinala. 2n= .Ma ­ Mexico and dated 700-1300AD . appears tob e dagascar.Cultivate d there.Almos t replaced more closely related to the modern races puncta- by D. alata* and Manihot utllisslma* (Coursey, tum and latifolium than it is to other races 1967). (Whitaker &Cutler , 1971). Itmus t be the oldest crop cultivated in the DIOSCOREA PRAEHENSILIS Benth.Bus h yam,Fo ­ tropics (Purseglove, 1968). Related species rest yam. 2n=40, 80.W . Africa. Cultivated are: L. abyssinica (Hook.f.)C . Jeffrey (syn. there. Probably ancestor of D. rotundata*. Adenopus abyssinicus Hook.f.,A . reticulatus 126 AFRICAN REGION

EUPHORBIA DREGEANA E.Mey . 2n= .Namaqualand , S.Africa . Somethimes cultivated for rubber (Uphof, 1968).

EUPHORBIA KAMERUNICA Pax. Solo. 2n= .W . Africa. A tall xerophytic tree.Cultivate d for the latex used for tattooing and topoiso n ar­ rows (Uphof, 1968).

MANIHOT ESCULENTA Crantz.Cassava . 2n=36.S . andC . America (p. 170).Secondar y centre in Africa.

PLUKENETIA C0NOPH0RA Muell. Arg. (syn.Tetra - carpidum conophorum Hutch. & Dalz.). 2n= Awood y vine of trop. Africa. Cultivated asa source ofoil .

RICINODENDRON HEUDELOTII (Baill.)Pierr e ex Pax. 2n=22. W. Africa up toAngol a and Usam- bara Highlands (). Fruits and seeds are used as a source of oil.Als o cultivated inCameroons .

RICINUS COMMUNIS L. Castor bean, Castor-oil Dioscorea cayenensis and D. rotundata (—), D. plant. 2n=20, (21).Trop .E . Africa and India. dumetorum( *• • ) and D. bulbifera ( )(Harris, Now cultivated inmos t tropical countries where 1972). it runswil d in clearings, roadsides and dump- heaps. It probably originated as camp-follower, evolving into an oil plant, a drug and an DIOSCOREA ROTUNDATA Poir. White yam, White ornamental (Anderson, 1952). The only species Guinea yam, Guinea yam, Ibo yam. 2n=40,60 . of thisgenus . W.Africa . The most important yam cultivated there. Probably derived from D. praehensilis*. Flacourtiaceae Widely variable. Closey related to D. cayenen­ sis* and often included it. ONCOBA ECHINATA Oliver (syn.Caloncob a echina- ta (Oliver) Gilg.). 2n= .Trop .W .Africa . DIOSCOREA SANSIBARIENSIS Pax. (syn.D . ma- Cultivated inC . and S. America for medicinal crouraHarms ,D . welwitschii Renole). Africa. seed oil. Cultivated there. Geraniaceae DIOSCOREA SEMPERFLORENS Illine. 2n= Cul- tivated inCongo . XASPERU M Ehrh. exWilld . (syn.P . radula L'Hér. var. roseum Willd., Pelargonium DI0SC0REA SOSO Jun. & Perr. 2n= .Formerl y roseum Willd.). Rose geranium. 2n=77, 81.S . cultivated inMadagascar , but now replaced by Africa. Cultivated for its geranium oil.Th e Manihot utilissima*. plant ismale-sterile . Autetraploids (2n=4x= 154)ar e fertile.Crosse d with autotetraploid DIOSCOREA ZARA Baudon. 2n= .Cultivate d to P. denticulatum andbackcrosse d with 4xP . x some extent in C.Africa .Thi s name is applied asperum resulted inplant s with 40-55%mor e oil towha t is possibly a form of either D. sagitti- than P. roseum (Tamai & Tokumasu, 1968). P. x foliaPax . or D. lecardii De Wild. asperum isprobabl y ahybri d of P. radens x P. denticulatum* (Clifford, 1958) orP . graveolens* Ehretiaceae x P. radens (Moore, 1955). P. radensMoore . (2n= )i s aplan t of S.Africa . AFRICANA Lam. Sudan . 2n= .Trop . If the first parentage is correct, the new Africa, trop.Arabia . Occasionally cultivated oil-rich hybrids are a cross of a 4x hybrid inEthiopia , the leavesbein g used for medicinal (p. radens xP . denticulatum)wit h 4xP . denti­ purposes and the wood forbuildin g and furni­ culatum and ofbackcrossin g with the 4xorigi ­ ture (Jansen, 1981). nal hybrid. This species,P . quercifolium Ait. (2n=auto Euphorbiaceae 4x=44; Oak-leaved geranium) and P. crispum* have identical zymograms for esterase,peroxi ­ BRIDELIA MICRANTHA (Höchst.)Bâillon . 2n= dase and acid phosphatase (Tokumasu et al., Trop. Africa. Cultivated as food plant of the 1977), which points to aclos e relationship. African silk caterpillar. PELARGONIUM CRISPUM (L.)L'Hér . exAit . (syn. DIOSCOREACEAE -GRAMINEA E

P. rigidum Willd.). 2n=2x=22. S.Africa . Cul­ dispersal mechanisms inA . abyssinica arecon ­ tivated for its lemon-scented oil. It varies trolled by two independent loci that arehomo ­ considerably in the wild and there are several zygous recessive in the non-brittle, obligately forms. weedy race.Ethiopia n oats is derived from the Mediterranean tetraploid (AABB)A . barbata PELARGONIUM DENTICULATUM Jacq. 2n=90. S.Africa . Pott, ex Link. (Ladizinsky, 1975b; Ladizinsky Was cultivated as a fragrant pelargonium inJa ­ & Zohary, 1971). pan where it was replaced in 1954b y P. roseum*. Itha s apin e scent. AVENA STRIGOSA Schreb. abyssinica type.A - byssinian oat. 2n=28, genome formula AsAsBB. PELARGONIUM GRAVEOLENS L'Hér. (syn.P . tere- This type has alsobee n described asA . abys­ binthinaceum (Cav.) Small). Rose geranium. 2n:= sinica Höchst.Thi s is the non-brittle form 90. S. Africa.A pelargonium with rose-scen­ while the semi-brittle form (vaviloviana type, ted leaves.Cultivate d for it oil.Ther e are A. vaviloviana Malz.) is also found inEthio ­ many cultivars.P . capitatum Willd., is ade ­ pia. The abyssinian type isharveste d and rivative of P. graveolens (Moore, 1955). Cul­ threshed together with barley. Both types pro­ tivated inAlgeri a and Isle of Réunion. bably derive from introduced barbata type of A. strigosa* (Ladizinsky &Zohary , 1971). PELARGONIUM KAR00ENSE Kunth. 2n= . S.Africa . Cultivated for its geranol. BRACHIARIA BRIZANTHA (Höchst.)Stapf . Palisade grass. 2n=(x=9), 36,54 .Trop , and S.Africa , PELARGONIUM ODORATISSIMUM (L.)Ait . 2n=16. cultivated esp. in Sri Lanka andBrazil . Trop. Africa.Extensivel y cultivated for its apple-scented geranium oil. BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS Stapf. Signal grass.2n = 4x=36. Trop. Africa.Cultivate d throughout PELARGONIUM TOMENTOSUM Jacq. 2n= .S .Africa . the tropics for fodder. An obligate aposporous Cultivated for itspeppermint-scente d oil. It apomict. crosses readily with P. graveolens*. BRACHIARIA DEFLEXA (Schumach.)C.E . Hubbard. Gramineae Animal fonio. 2n=20. Guinea coast toYemen , and south to S.Afric a andBotswana . Var.sa - ACROCERAS AMPLECTANS Stapf, (syn. Panicum tiva Portères is cultivated as a cereal on zizanoides Hbk. var. angustatum Stapf). 2n= the Fouta Djalon Highlands of Guinea inW . . W. Africa.Cultivate d in Gambia as ave ­ Africa. Often invades cultivated fields asa getable (Terra, 1967). weed, and is frequently harvested as awil d cereal. InAngola , an aggressive colonizer ACROCERAS MACRUM Stapf.Nilegrass . 2n=36. S. race is a tolerated wild cereal in maize andE .Africa .Cultivate d as apastur e grass. fields (deWet , 1977). This species grades morphologically intoB . ramosa (L.)Stapf , ANDR0P0G0N GAYANUS Kunth. Gamba, 2n=20, 40.N . a species that is cultivated as a cereal in Nigeria. Itha sbee n divided into var. gayanus S. India. (syn. var. genuinus Hack.), var. squamulatus (Höchst.)Stapf. , var.bisquamulatu s (Höchst.) BRACHIARIA MUTICA (Forsk.) Stapf (syn.B . Hack., and var. tridentatus (Höchst.)Hack . purpurascens (Raddi) Henri). Para grass,Mau ­ The second and third varieties have been used ritius grass,Watergrass . 2n=36. Throughout for selection. The tetraploid plants found in tropics and subtropics. Grown as a fodder. var. tridentatus are perhaps hybrids ofA . ga­ yanus (2n=20)i n the farnort h ofNigeri a and BRACHIARIA RUZIZIENSIS Germain & C. Evrard. A.tectorura (2n=20)in the S. part of N. Nigeria. Congo signal grass,Ruz i grass.2n=18 . E. Africa. InAustrali a Kennedy ruzi grass is ARUNDINARIA ALPINA K. Schum.Alpin e bamboo. cultivated. Iti s self-incompatible. 2n= .Kenya ,Tanzania , Uganda, Sudan,Ethio ­ pia, and inmountai n forests at CENCHRUS BIFLORUS Roxb. (syn.C . barbatus an altitude of about 2400-3000 m. Its stems Schum., C. catharticus Del.)Cramcram . 2n= are used inpape r industry and asbuildin g 30, 34,36 .Aggressiv e colonizer of disturbed material. habitats inAfrica n savanna, extending toIn ­ dia. Widely harvested inW . Africa as acereal , AVENA ABYSSINICA Höchst.Ethiopia n oats, A- and important fodder in the arid savanna. byssinian oats. 2n=28, genome formulaAABB . Obligate weed inwhea t andbarle y fields above CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. Buffel grass,Africa n 2000m on theEthiopia n Plateau. It resembles foxtail,Rhodesia n foxtail.2n=mainl y 36. domesticated cereals in that itha s lost the Cultivated inAustralia . Obligate and facul­ ability of natural seed dispersal. Ethiopian tative apomixis and sexual propagation (Bray, oats are unintentionally harvested and sown 1972). Related toC . setigerus Vehl, Bird- with the crop it accompanies, as amimicti c wood grass,2n=34 , 36,37 . weed. A spontaneous race (A.vavilovian a (Malz.) Mordv.) also occurs inEthiopia . Natural seed CHLORIS GAYANA Kunth. Rhodes grass. 2n=20, 30, 128 AFRICAN REGION

40. E. Africa fromEthiopi a to South Africa. buted inth e tropics.Portère s (1976) recog­ Excellent natural forage. Cultivated widely nizes five races of fonio. However, these ra­ as a fodder in the tropics and subtropics. ces have no geographic unity and grade ­ logically into one another.Th e most primitive CHLORIS ROXBURGHIANA Schult. 2n=20. Kenya. is var.gracili s with two and spike- lets that are mostly grouped into threes along CYN0D0N DACTYLON (L.)Persoon .Kwee k grass, the rachis. In these traits, var. gracilis re­ Bermuda grass. 2n=18, 36.Afric a and Eurasia; semblesD . longiflora except that the spikelets introduced to the NewWorld . Several varieties are glabrous.Th e lower part of each is are recognized (Harlan et al., 1970). Selec­ devoid of spikelets in var. stricta.Th e other tions from var. dactylon arewidel y planted three varieties have usually more than two as -grasses.Coasta l Bermuda grass (Bur­ racemes per inflorescence. Var. densa ischa ­ ton, 1947), awidel y planted fodder inSE . racterized by crowded spikelets.Var . rustica USA reproduced vegetatively from ahybri dbe ­ and var.mixt a include robust plants that are tween var. dactylon (2n=36) and var. elegans late tomature . (2n=36). Var. coursii (2n=36) is an important natural fodder inMadagascar , as is var. ele­ gans inS . Africa. Var. aridus (2n=18) is drought-tolerant, and extends from the S. Karroo (S.Africa) , across the NearEas t to India. See p.73 .

CYNOD0N INCOMPLETUS Nées. var.hirsutu s (Stent) DeWe t &Harla n (syn.C . bradleyi Stent). 2n= 18. S.Africa .Widel y cultivated lawn-grass.

CYNODON XMAGENISI I Hurcombe. Magenis,Sun - turf. This triploid represents anatura l hy­ brid between C. dactylon var. dactylon (2n= 36) andC . transvaalensis (2n=18). Widely Digitaria exilis (- -)an d D. iburua ( )(Por- planted lawn-grass from a single hybrid clone teres, 1950). near Johannesburg in South Africa.

CYN0D0N NLEMFUENSIS Vanderyst. Giant star DIGITARIA IBURUA Stapf. Iburu,Blac k fonio, grass. 2n=18, 36.Ethiopia , Uganda and south Hungry rice. 2n=36.W . Africa.Cultivate d as toAngol a andZimbabwe .A n excellent natural a cereal by the Hausa of Nigeria between Jos fodder. Cultivated in trop. Africa.A cultivar and Zaria, and sporadically around Zinder in grown in SW. Nigeria was derived from a cross Niger, Azagive in the ,Kand e and between this species (2n=36) and C. dactylon* Atalote inTogo , and between Birni and Nati- var. coursii (2n=36). tingou in . It is often grown inbetwee n rows of sorghum orpear l millet, and frequent­ CYNODON PLECTOSTACHYUS (Schuroach.)Pilger . Star ly as amixtur e with D. exilis*.Th e closest grass. 2n=18. Ethiopia toZaïr e and .A n wild relative of black fonio isD . barbinodis excellent natural fodder,bu t cultivated in Henr., an aggressive natural colonizer inW . Kenya. Often confusedwit h C.nlemfuensis* , African savanna. but readily distinguished by its minute glumes. DIGITARIA PENTZII Stent.Taiwa n pangola grass. CYNODON TRANSVAALENSIS Burtt-Davy. Transvaal 2n=(18, 27),36 , (45),54 .S . Africa. Related Bermuda, African Bermuda grass (US).2n=18 . and perhaps identical with D. decumbens*. South Africa.A n excellent fine hardy lawn- Source of resistance to virus diseases. grass. DIGITARIA TRICOSTULATA (Hack.)Henr . 2n= DIGITARIA ABYSSINICA (Höchst.)Stapf .Abyssi ­ Africa. Related toD . iburua*. nian finger grass. 2n= .Trop .Africa . Used inS . Africa tocontro l erosion;usefu l fodder. DIGITARIA VALIDA Stent.Gian t pangola grass. 2n=24, 30,36 .S .Africa .A source of disease DIGITARIA DECUMBENS Stent.Digi t grass,Pan - resistant forD . decumbens*. Introduced in gola (finger) grass. 2n=27. S.Africa .A nex ­ Florida and Surinam. cellent natural fodder.A n introduction from S.Afric a is grown as a fodder in the Americas ECHINOCHLOA COLONA (L.)Link . 2n=54. Widely asPangol a grass. distributed in the tropics and subtropics. Formerly cultivated inEgyp t andTanzania . DIGITARIA EXILIS (Kippist)Stapf .Fonio ,Acha , Now cultivated as inferior cereal in India.A n Fundi. 2n=18, 36.W . Africa.Cultivate d asa important wild cereal and good fodder across cereal in the W. African savanna (Portères, the dry African savanna and as fodder inN . 1955). Its closest wild relative isD . longi­ America. flora (Retz.)Persoon , which iswidel y distri- GRAMINEAE - GRAMINEAE 129

EHRHARTA CALYCINA Smith. Perennial veldtgrass. 2n=24, 30, 48.S .Africa . Used as asoi l sta­ bilizer inW . ofUSA . Cv. California veldt­ grassha s an open panicle and sheds its caryop­ ses. Th e new cv.Missio n veldtgrass has a com­ pact panicle and is non-shedding.

ELEUSINE CORACANA (L.)Gaertn . ssp. africana (Kenn.-O'Bryan)Hil u& deWe t (syn.E . afri- cana Kennedy-0'Bryan).Wil d finger millet.2n = 36. Guinea coast ofW . Africa to Ethiopia and south to the Cape Province (S.Africa) . Dif­ fers from E. indica* inbein g tetraploid, not diploid, and in having more obviously sculp­ tured grains (Phillips, 1972).

ELEUSINE CORACANA (L.)ssp . coracana. (syn. E. coracana (L.)Gaertn), .Finge r millet.2n = 36. Widely cultivated as a cereal along the highlands of E.Afric a from Uganda andEthio ­ pia to South Africa.Mehr a (1963) recognizes anAfrica n highland race with open inflores­ cence.Hil u & deWe t (1976) show that the African highland race iswidel y cultivated on the E.Africa n highlands andwa s derived un­ der cultivation from ssp. africana.Thi s race Eleusine coracana inAfric a (grey)Africa n high­ gave rise to anAfrica n lowland race that was land race, (•) African lowland race. introduced to India,wher e it evolved into a morphologically distinct cereal complex. The south as theTransvaa l of South Africa by the oldest known domesticated fingermille t oc­ beginning of the Bantu IronAge . curs in the archaeological record of Ethiopia ELEUSINE INDICA (L.)Gaertn . Goosegrass. 2n= 18. Eurasia and Africa. Introduced to the New World, where it is an aggressive weed. Jame­ son (1970)propose d that the Indian races of finger millet were derived from E. indica while E. coracana* ssp. africana is the progenitor of domesticated African finger .Cyto ­ genetic evidence refutes this hypothesis.Ssp .

y£- > i **=•• * & y ^ v \/ ^O ^~^^~i~^'f '^"- ""-"^

y-,--"") V.V"""' -'V '-.-—4> /J ,;' ^ '--, / *^Ö><•'*-'• r;--7'''%* ':-

y -"-H '''A (->--, '• '';*/ Eleusine africana (Phillips, 1972). (J \ °* ' X- 13 dating back some 5000 years (Hilu et al., 1979). It never spread into the W. African savanna, probably because of competition with other millets such as the fonios (Digitaria sp.). However itbecam e widely cultivated as far Eleusine indica (Phillips, 1972). 130 AFRICAN REGION

africana (2n-36) crosses readily with both ORYZA BARTHII A. Chev. (syn.0 . breviligulata African and Indian finger millets to produce A.Chev. , 0. stapfii Roshev., 0. perennis fertile hybrids (Chennaveeraiah & Hiremath, Moench. ssp.barthi i (A.Chev. )A . Chev.). 2n= 1974). 24. From the Guinea coast of W. Africa across the savanna toZambia .Growin g inwater , often ENTER0P0G0N MACROSTACHYUS Schum. Bush rye.2n = as awee d inric efield s (Clayton, 1972). It 20. E.Africa . probably represents derivatives of hybrids between 0. longistaminata* and 0. glaberrima*. ERAGROSTIS CURVULA (Schrad.) Nees. Weeping lovegrass, Boer lovegrass. 2n=20, 30,40 ,50 , 60, 70,80 , 30-70, x=10.S .Africa . There isn o relation between region of provenance and 2n. Mostplant sbelon g to type robusta.Th e repro­ duction is sexual,obligat e and facultative apomixis. Used as sand stabilizer.

ERAGROSTIS SUPERBA Peyr. Tickgrass. 2n=40. E. Africa. Cultivated there.

ERAGROSTIS TEF (Zucc.)Trotter , (syn.E . abys- sinica (Jacq.) Link.). , Teffgrass. 2n= 40. The large andwidel y distributed genus Eragrostis includes this one domesticated ce­ real species.Tef f is an endemic cereal crop of theEthiopia n highlands (Tadessa, 1975). Widely grown inS . Africa as a fodder for live­ stock; introduced in USA. The wild progenitor of teff isno t certain. Its closest wild re­ lative E. pilosa (L.)Beauv . iswidel y distri­ buted across warm temperate parts of the world, and is harvested as awil d cereal in E. Africa (Rozhevicz, 1928).

Oryza barthii (Harlan, 1973).

ORYZA BRACHYANTHA A.Chev . &Roehr . (syn.0 . guineensis A. Chev.). 2n=24. From the Guinea coast ofW . Africa across N.Zair e to the S. Sudan.Thi s species usually occurs in shallow pools that dry out after the rainy season. In permanent pools itbehave s as aperennial .

ORYZA EICHINGERI A. Peter (syn.0 . latifolia Eragrostis tef (Portères, 1950). Hook.f. var . collina (Trimen)Hoo k.f. )2n=4 8. This slender species grows in damp places as a forest undergrowth and is distributed from HEMARTHRIA ALTISSIMA (Poir.) Stapf & CE. Hubb. the Ivory Coast toUgand a and Tanzania, and Limpograss. 2n=18, 36, (54).SE .Africa .Do ­ also occurs in Sri Lanka.Th e name 0. eichin- mesticated inFlorida , USA as aperennial ,ve - geri was also used for types now included in getatively propagated forage grass. 0. punctata*, and 0. schweinfurthiana non Prod. (Gopalakrishnan & Sampath, 1966). HYPARRHENIA RUFA (Nees) Stapf, (syn.Andropo - gon rufusKunth) . Jaragua grass.2n=20 , 30, 36, 40.Trop .Africa . Cultivated inN . and ORYZA GLABERRIMA Steud. African rice. 2n=24, S.America . genome formula ABAS. An indigenous cultivated rice grown in floodplain s of savanna. From MELINIS MINUTIFLORA Beauv. Molasses grass, Senegalt oLak e Chad. It is generally accepted (Brazilian) stink grass,Hone y grass. 2n=4x that this species evolved under cultivation =36. Africa. Cultivated as afodde rplant . from 0. longistaminata*, which iswidel y col­ Naturalized inBrazil . lected as awil d cereal in the African savanna. Nayar (1973)postulate d that African rice ori­ 0RE0BAMB0S BUCHWALDII K. Schum. 2n= The ginated as a derivative of introduced Asiatic mountains of trop.Africa . rice, 0. sativawhic h according tohi m reached GRAMINEAE -GRAMINEA E

which are used forboat s and rafts, as well as for paper-making.

PANICUM BULBOSUM HBK (syn.P . maximum var. gongylodes Doe11) . grass. 2n=6x=54,70 , 8x=72. Distributed inTexas ,Mexico ,C . and S. America. Forage grass.

PANICUM COL0RATUML . Smallbuffal o grass.2n = 18, 36,44 , (54).S .Africa . A good fodder. Closely allied toP . maximum*. Var.makari - kariense Goossens,makaraker i grass, 2n=44 is Oryza glaberrima (Portères, 1950). a native ofZimbabwe . It ismor e drought to­ lerant thanvar .coloratu m and cultivated in S.Afric a as a foragegrass . Egypt during the fourth century BC.Ther e is, however, nobotanica l or genetic evidence to PANICUM LAETUM Kunth (syn. albidulum Steud.). support this hypothesis.Variatio n is dis­ Haze. 2n= .A n important wild cereal and cussed by Portères (1956). good fodder forming large stands in the Sahel from to Eritrea.A potential cereal ORYZA LONGISTAMINATA A. Chev. & Roehr. African for arid regions. wild rice. 2n=24.Throughou t trop.Afric a in­ cluding N.Transvaa l of South Africa. This PANICUM MAXIMUM Jacq. Guinea grass,Panic . 2n perennial occurs in shallow pools and along =18, (32)-36 , (48).Trop , and S. Africa,Ma ­ the banks of rivers. It resembles 0. sativa* dagascar, Mascarene Islands and Yemen.Culti ­ (Asiatic rice) in having long ligules on the vated as apastur e grass inman y warm countries. lower leaves. PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.)Leek e ssp.america - num. (syn.P . typhoides (Brum.)Stap f & Hubb., P. spicatum (L.)Koern.) . Pearl millet. 2n=14. African savanna, also India and the NearEast . This subspecies is recognized to include all cultivated taxa ofpear lmille t grown primarily as cereals (Brunken, 1977). The cultivated types commonly recognized (Stapf &Hubbard , 1934) are divided among four races.Rac e ty­ phoides is characterized by obovate grains and includes the primitive pearl millets from which other races were derived. Grown across the A- frican savanna and in India.Rac e nigritarum has grains with angular cross-section and is an important cereal from Sudan to Senegal.Rac e globosum has spherical grains and is grown from Upper Volta toSudan . Race leonis is charac­ terized by acute oblanceolate grains. It is primarily apear lmille t of Sierra Leone,bu t is sporadically grown also in S. . Its wild ancestor is ssp.monodii* ; aweed y type is ssp.stenostachyum* .

PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.)Leek e ssp. monodii (Maire)Brunke n (syn.P . violaceum Lam.). 2n= 14. Wild pearl millet.W . Africa, Sahel from Dakar to C. Sudan, and the mountains of theC . Sahara. It is an aggressive colonizer of man Oryza longistaminata (Harlan, 1973). disturbed habitats, and is thewil d progenitor of pearlmille t (P.americanu m ssp. americanum*). Distribution suggests that pearl millet wasdo ­ ORYZA PUNCTATA Kotschy & Steud. (syn.0 . mesticated along the C. Saharan highlands at schweinfurthiana Prod.). 2n=24. Swampy stream- the onset of the present dry phase in N.Africa , sides from the Guinea coast to the Sudan, probably between 4000 and 5000 years ago. south toAngola .Als o inMadagasca r and S. Asia. PENNISETUM AMERICANUM (L.)Leek e ssp.steno ­ stachyum (Klotzsch exA.Br .& Bouche ) Brunken OXYTENANTHERA ABYSSINICA Munro (syn.Bambus a (syn.P . stenostachyum Klotzsch), Shibra,Wee d abyssinica Rich.). Woody bamboograss.2n=c.60 . pearl millet. 2n=14. The pearl millet gene pool Senegal toEthiopia . Cultivated for its stems includeswil d (ssp.monodii* ) and cultivated 132 AFRICAN REGION

Pennisetum sect.Pennisetu m americanum inAfrica . 1 subspecies americanum, 2 subspecies monodii, 3 subspecies stenostachyum, 4P . purpureum (Brunken, 1977). GRAMINEAE - GRAMINEAE

(ssp. americanum*) kinds, aswel l as numerous vated inAustralia . spontaneous, weedy plants that mimic the crop in vegetative and floral morphology. Until ma­ SETARIA SPHACELATA (Schum.)Stap f & Hubbard. turation, these weeds are often difficult to Setaria,Golde n timothy grass. 2n=18, 36,54 . distinguish from the race of pearl millet they Africa. Cultivated there,Australi a andelse ­ accompany as aweed . However, theirinflores ­ where. Some cultivars have ahig h oxalic acid cences disarticulates at maturity, and ssp. content which may result in the death ofcattle . stenostachyum is spontaneous in man-disturbed InAustralia , it is often called S. anceps habitats. Shibras originate from hybrids be­ Stapf ex Massey, which species is closely re­ tween cultivated races ofpear l millet and lated. Self-incompatible. subspecies monodii. SORGHUM BICOLOR (L.)Moenc h ssp.bicolo r (syn. PENNISETUM CLANDESTINUM Höchst, ex Chiov.Ki - vulgare Pers.). Sorghum. 2n=20. This subspe­ kuyu grass. 2n=36. Trop.E . Africa.A nexcel ­ cies is recognized to include the 28 cultivated lent natural fodder, and widely cultivated in taxa of Snowden (1936). It iswidel y cultiva­ the tropics and subtropics, as a soil stabi­ ted inAfrica ,wa s introduced to India at least lizer, lawn grass and fodder. Hermaphroditic 3000year s ago, andha s become an important and male-sterile. crop in the NewWorl d during the last century. It is not knownwhe n sorghum was first brought PENNISETUM PURPUREUM Schumach. Napier grass. into cultivation. Murdock (1959)propose s that 2n=14. Trop.Africa .Thi s species doespar ­ it is aW . African crop. Doggett (1965)pro ­ ticularly well in areas with an annual ­ poses that domestication took place somewhere fall exceeding 1000m mpe r year. It is an ag­ in the NE.quadran t ofAfrica . Distribution in­ gressive natural colonizer of wet disturbed dicated that sorghum must have been domestica­ sites. Napier grasswa s introduced during the ted in the savanna zone south of the Sahara, 20th Century toman y parts of the world asa and that the crop must have been cultivated for fodder, and has become naturalized in most of at least 3000year s (Harlan & Stemler, 1976). the world's wet tropics.Ban a grass inKeny a However, known identifiable archaeological re­ is ahybri d with P. americanum*. mains of cultivated sorghum inAfric a date back only to the early centuries of the Christian PENNISETUM SETACEUM (Forsk.)Chiov . Fountain Era (deWet , 1978). Cultivated kinds of grain grass. 2n=27. African savanna. Cultivated as sorghums are divided among racesbicolor ,ka ­ a fodder and in S.Afric a also as anornamental . fir, durra, guinea, caudatum and several inter­ mediated races (Harlan & deWet , 1972). PENNISETUM UNISETUM (Nees)Benth . Natal grass, Racebicolo r (subser.Bicolori a Snowden) is Drakenberg silky grass. 2n= .Africa n High­ characterized by open inflorescences and long lands.Cultivate d in S.Afric a as a forage grass clasping glumes that usually enclose the ellip­ tic grain at maturity. Bicolor sorghums re­ PENNISETUM VULPINUM Stapf & Hubbard. 2n= semble spontaneous weedy sorghums,bu t they Africa. Cultivated inSudan . lack the ability of natural seed dispersal. Members of racebicolor , particularly those far SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM L. Wild cane. 2n=104-128. removed from theirAfrica n centre of origin, From India (p.75 )plant s with 2n=54 spread to probably represent relics of ancient cultiva­ Africa. InUgand a and adjacent Tanzania it is ted kinds.Other s may have originated asselec ­ actually cultivated. InAfric a originally used tions from derivatives of hybrids betweenmo ­ as a source of salt by burning, later itbe ­ dern cultivated races and wild members of S. came used ashedges , forerosio n control and bicolor.Bicolo r sorghums are low yielding as forhousehold . Grassl (1964)suggeste d that the cereals. They are rarely an important crop, high number of chromosomes may derive from but are grown across the range of sorghum cul­ hybridization of the original S. spontaneum and tivation inAfric a and Asia. Some selections anAfrica n related species e.g. Sorghum bicolor* are grown strictly for their sweet stems,whil e inAfric a otherkind s are grown for their bit­ SECALE AFRICANUM Stapf. 2n=14. E.Karo o Plateau, ter grains that are used to flavor sorghum beer. S. Africa.Whethe r this species is aPleisto ­ The race ismorphologicall y heterogeneous. It cene immigrant to S. Africa or a derivative of includes S. dochna and S. bicolor of theBi ­ a relatively recent introduction of seeds of coloria,S . exsertum of Guineensia, and S. S. montanum from Spain or Italy as acontami ­ splendidum and S. nervosum of the subseries nant of wheat andbarle y isno t known(Khush , Nervosum Snowden. 1960). Itha sth e same chromosome arrangement Race kafir (subseries Caffra Snowden, excl. asS.montanum *an d must have derived from this S. caudatum). It is characterized by more or species(Stutz , 1972).Owin g to its separation less compact inflorescences that are often from the Secale-area, it adopted self-fertili­ cylindrical in outline.Sessil e spikelets are zation as amean s of perpetuation. Itha s a fra­ typically elliptic with the ripe glumes tightly gile rachis and aperennia l habit. clasping the usually much longer grain.Th e name is derived from 'kafir' the Arabic for SETARIA PORPHYRANTHA Stapf. 2n= .Purpl e unbeliever, referring to the Bantuwh o grow pigeon grass. .Perennia l grassculti ­ this race.Kafi r sorghums are important staples AFRICAN REGION

Cultivated for itstubers . NITIDA Lodd. Camwood. 2n=44. W.Africa . Formerly cultivated as a source of reddye , PLECTRANTHUS ESCULENTUS N.E.Br, (syn. Coleus now only as anornamental . dazoA . Chev., C. esculentus (N.E.Br.)Tayl. , C. langouasiensis A. Chev.). Dazo,Kaffi r po­ BAUHINIA ESCULENTA Burch. Gemsbuck bean,Ta - tato. 2n=24. Africa.Cultivate d there for many berry. 2n= .Ari d savanna of S.Africa , edible tuber. often abundant.Seed s are excellent toea t after roasting orboilin g as porridge. Young SOLENOSTEMON OCYMOIDES Schum. &Thonn . 2n= tubersmak e agoo d vegetable, and may be boiled . Trop.Africa . Cultivated as avegetable . orbaked . Although not cultivated, seeds and tubers are often for sale in native markets Leguminosae ofBotswana . A potential cultivated plant.

ACACIA KARROO Hayne. (syn.A . horrida Willd.). CAJANUS CAJAN (L.)Millsp . Pigeon pea. 2n=22, Mimosa ,Allthor n acacia, Sweet thorn. 44, 66.Nativ e to India (De, 1974;va n der 2n=52, 104.S ,Africa .Thi s tree is planted Maesen, 1980), where wild plants and related as an ornamental, inhedge s and as sandbinder. species occur. Its early introduction into Africa, itswid e variation and run wild plants ACACIA NILOTICA (L.)Willd . ex Del. (syn.A . there confused earlier authors who indicated arabica (Lam.) Willd.). Babul acacia. 2n=52, this area as itsnativ e region. A secondary 104. Trop.Afric a extending to India.Culti ­ centre of diversity developed in this region. vated there for itsbar k tannin. It also yields babul gum (Purseglove, 1968).

ACACIA SENEGAL (L.)Willd . (Sudan)gu m ara­ bic. 2n=26. Dry trop.Afric a extending to the Red Sea and NW. India.Th e gum ismainl y ob­ tained from wild and semi-cultivated trees in the Sudan (Purseglove, 1968).

ALYSICARPUS GLUMACEUS (Vahl.)DC . 2n=20. U- ganda, Kenya,Tanzani a andMozambique .Culti ­ vated there as fodder.

ALYSICARPUS RUGOSUS (Willd.) DC. (syn.A . violaceus (Forsk.) Schindler). 2n=16.Dr y trop. Africa. Used as a cover crop and fodder. Sometimes incl. inA . vaginalis*.

ALYSICARPUS VAGINALIS DC.Alyc e clover,One - leaved clover. 2n=16, 20.Trop .Africa . Cul­ tivated now in all tropics for soil improve­ ment, as a cover crop and as a fodder crop. Var. nummularifolius (A.nummularifoliu s DC.) developed in theWes t Indies. Itha s a low spreading habit with buds located in the root crown. This makes it an ideal pasture plant (Whyte et al., 1953).

ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L. Groundnut, . 2n= 40. S. America (p. 172).Introduce d into A- fricawher e it is cultivated widely. Bunting Cajanus cajan (1955, 1958)ha s described numerous varieties for trop.Africa , which points to a secondary centre in this region. CALPURNIA AUREA (Ait.)Bentham . 2n= .Angola , S.Africa , highlands of trop.E .Africa ,Ethio ­ ASPALATHUS CONTAMINATUS (Thunb.)Druce . Rooi- pia and S. India.Hedgeplan t inEthiopia .Shade - bos tea-bush. 2n= .S . Africa.Ther e are two tree in coffee plantations. Ornamental in S.Eu ­ forms: the prostrate one is found on the Cape rope and elsewhere (Jansen, 1981). Peninsula and the erect cultivated form (A. cedarbergensis Bolus) is observed in theCedar - CANAVALIA REGALIS Dunn. 2n=22. Probably an old bergs in the Clanwilliam and Citrusdal regions. African domesticate known only in cultivation. The latter is the cultivated type (Cheney & It is probably derived from C. virosa (Roxb.) Scholts, 1963). Wight &Am . (2n=22),whic h occurs in Africa south of the Sahara and also in India (Sauer, ASTRAGALUS VENOSUS (A. Rich.)Höchst . 2n=16. 1964). E. Africa. Cultivated ashors e fodder. LABIATAE -LEGUMINOSA E 137

CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA Vahl. Indian senna,Tinne - axillare (E.Mey. ) Verde). Cultivated inE . velly senna, 2n=(26), 28.Somal i andArabia . Africa. Cultivated in India for senna (laxative) (Pur- seglove, 1968). ERYTHRINA SENEGALENSIS DC.Cora l flower.2n = 42. W. Africa. Used as ahedg e plant, as an CASSIA SENNA L. (syn.C . acutifolia Del).Alex ­ ornamental and formedicina l purposes. andrian senna. 2n= .Egypt , Sudan region and Sahara. Leaves and pods are taken from wild and INDIGOFERA ARRECTA Höchst. Natal indigo.2n = cultivated plants (Purseglove, 1968). 16. E.Africa . Formerly cultivated fordye , andno w as a green manure. CLITORIA TERNATA L.Butterfl y pea,Kordofa n pea. 2n=16. Probably from Madagascar (Lowry & INDIGOFERA ENDECAPHYLLA Jacq.Winelea f indigo, Chew, 1974). It iswidesprea d in the tropics Creeping indigo. 2n=32, 36.Afric a andAsia . and cultivated as a fodder and soil cover crop. Cultivated as fodder crop, usually in pastures InMalaysia , actinomorphic flowers with bluer but poisons calves andhorses . than normal are used to colour rice cakes.Tha t type is not cultivated, but INDIGOFERA TINCTORIA L. (syn. I. indica Lam., is conserved if noticed (Lowry & Chew, 1974). I. sumatrana Gaertn.). True indigo plant.2n = 16. Probably W. Africa (Mansfeld, 1959). Cul­ CROTALARIA CANNABINA Schweinf. 2n= . Sudan. tivated as a dye plant.Als o used as a green A fibre crop. manure.

CROTALARIA GOREENSIS Gui11 . & Pur. Gambia LABLAB PURPUREUS (L.)Swee t (syn.Dolicho s lab- pea. 2n=16, (32).Trop .Africa . Cultivated in lab L., D. purpureus L., Lablab niger Medik.). Queensland as greenmanure . Hyacinth bean,Bonavi t bean, Lablab bean, Seins bean, Indian bean, Lubia bean,Egyptia nbean . CROTALARIA INTERMEDIA Kotschy. Slenderleaf 2n=22, 24.Wil d type (ssp. uncinatus Verde, crotalaria. 2n=16.Trop .Africa . Cultivated syn. Lablab uncinatus A. Rich.) in trop.Af ­ inN . America and elsewhere especially for rica from W. Africa to Sudan andEthiopi a and soil improvement, and also for , hay toS .Africa .Th e commonly cultivated forms and silage. belong in general to ssp.purpureu s unless they have linear kidney bean-like pods. Var. CROTALARIA SPECTABILIS Roth. (syn.C . seri- purpureus of this subspecies is a distinct due cea Retz., C. retzii A. Hitchc). 2n=16.Trop . toal l parts of the plant being purple. From Africa. A greenmanur e cultivated in (sub­ Kenya, the cultivated ssp.bengalensi s (Jacq.) tropical countries.Wil d in India andelse ­ Verde, (syn.Dolicho s bengalensis Jacq.) is where. reported (Verdcourt, 1970).

CROTALARIA USARAMOENSIS E.G. Baker f. (syn.C . L0T0N0NIS BAINESII Baker.Mile s lotononis. zanzibarica Benth.). 2n=(14), 16, (20).E . 2n=36. N. Transvaal and Zimbabwe.A perennial trop. Africa. A cover crop and greenmanure . cultivated in Queensland.

CYAMOPSIS SENEGALENSIS Guill. & Perr. 2n=14. MACROSTYLOMA GEOCARPUM (Harms)Marécha l & Semi-arid savanna zone south of the Sahara Baudet (syn.Kerstingiell a geocarpaHarms , from Senegal to Saudi Arabia.A n annual herb. Voandzeia poissonii Chev.). Geocarpa bean, Probably the parental species ofC . tetrago- Geocarpa groundnut, Ground bean,Harm s seeds, noloba* (Hymowitz, 1973). Valuable fodder in Kersting's groundnut. 2n=20, 22.W .Africa . Senegal. Wild plants are classified as var. tisserantii (Pellegrin)Heppe r (syn.Kerstingiell a tis­ CYAMOPSIS TETRAGONOLOBA (1.)Taub . (syn. C. serantii Pellegrin), 2n=20, and domesticated psoralioides DC.). Clusterbean , Guar. 2n=14. types as var.geocarpa , 2n=22. Purseglove (1968)suggeste d that its origin lies in India,bu t Anderson (1960) stated an NE0N0T0NIA WIGHTII (Arnott)Lacke y (syn.Gly ­ African domestication of this crop (see ­ cine wightii (Arnott)Verde .) . 2n= ;22, 44.Af ­ ther p. 76).Cultivate d in S. India. rica.A perennial relative of soya (Glycine max*). Cultivars inAustrali a originate from DESMODIUM SALICIFOLIUM (Poir.e x Lam.) DC.2 n Malawi, 2n=44. =20, 22.Trop .Africa . Used as greenmanure . PHYSOSTIGMA VENENOSUM Balf. Calabar bean,Or ­ DIP0G0N LIGNOSUS (L.)Verde , (syn.Dolicho s deal bean. 2n= .W . Africa. Cultivated for lignosus L., D. benthamii Meisn., D. gibbosum itsbean swhic h are used aspoiso n forordeals . Thunb., Verdcourtia lignosus (L.)Wilczek) . 2n=22. C. Africa. Cultivated inAfrica , S. PISUM SATIVUM ssp. abyssinicum (A.Braun )Ale f America and Australia where it has runwil d (syn. P. abyssinicum Braun). 2n=14. Ethiopia (Verdcourt, 1970). andYemen . Rarely foundwild . Closely related to ssp. jomardi (p.115) . DOLICHOS AXILLARIS E.Mey . (syn.Macrostylom a 138 AFRICAN REGION

mucronata Willd.). Wild lucerne. 2n= .Trop . Africa and SE.Asia .Cultivate d as a fodder crop inBrazi l and Australia. Also naturalized there.

STYLOSANTHES HUMILIS H.B. &K . Townsville lucerne,Townsvill e stylo.2n=20 . S.Africa . Cultivated inN .Australi a inpastures .

TAMARINDUS INDICA L. . 2n=24. The of trop.Africa . Introduced to India long ago and recently to other parts of the Pisum savitum spp. abyssinicum (Govorov, 1937). tropics.Th e tree and itspart shav e many uses (Purseglove, 1968).

PSOPHOCARPUS GRANDIFLORUS Wilczek. 2n= TEPHROSIA DENSIFLORA Hook.f. 2n= .W . Africa. Ethiopia toUgand a and Zaïre in uplands at Cultivated and usedt o stupefyfish . Closely alt. c. 1750m . Cultivated inEthiopi a (West- related toT . vogelii*. phal, 1974;Verdcour t &Halliday , 1978). Clo­ sely related to P. tetragonolobus*. TEPHROSIA VOGELII Hook.f. Vogel tephrosia.2n = 22. Trop. Africa. Cultivated for its rotenoids PSOPHOCARPUS PALUSTRIS Desv. 2n=16, 18,20 . which are used as insecticides andpiscicides . From Senegal to Sudan.Th e Ethiopian cultivar Also cultivated as agree nmanur e and a cover Wondo Surprise (Westphal, 1974)belong s to P. crop. grandiflorus* (Verdcourt &Halliday , 1978). Closely related toP . tetragonolobus*. TERAMNUSLABIALI S (Linn.f.)Spreng . 2n=20. Asia and Africa. Cultivated inE . Africa and PSOPHOCARPUS SCANDENS (Endl.)Verd . 2n=18. E. Australia. Africa. Cultivated in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Burma,Brazi l and for its fruits TERAMNUS REPENS (Taub.)Bak.f . 2n= .E . and Closely related toP . tetragonolobus*; it is S.Africa , and India.Cultivate d inE . Africa not its direct parent (Pickersgill, 1980). and Australia.

PSOPHOCARPUS TETRAGONOLOBUS (L.)DC .Go abean , TRIFOLIUM SEMIPILOSUM Fres. Kenya white clover, Asparagus bean,Winge d bean,Manill a bean. 2n= E. African white clover. 2n=16. Kenya.Domes ­ 18, (20).Th e origin of this species is much ticated inAustrali a as a forage crop. discussed and Hymowitz &Boy d (1977) concluded on 'meagre evidence' (as they call it)Papu a VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L.)Walp . (syn.V . sinen­ New Guinea.Howeve r likeBurkil l (1935), Smartt sis (L.) Savi). Cowpea, Black eye, Southern (1980) advocated E.Africa . Smartt based his pea. 2n=22, 24.Primar y centre W. and C.Af ­ conclusion on the absence of related species rica. Probably domesticated inW . Africa. In­ inAsi a and theirpresenc e inAfrica . Among troduced into the Indian subcontinent where ssp. the last, there is the closest related wild P. sesquipedalis (L.)Verde , (syn.V . sesquipeda- grandiflora* found in E.Afric a from Ethiopia lis (L.)Fruw. , Dolichos sesquipedalisL.) , through Uganda toZaïr e in upland areas at c. Asparagus pea,Yardlon g pea (2n=22,24) ,an d 1750m above sea level.Wil d material could ssp. cylindrica (L.)Va n Eseltine (syn.V . have been taken toAsi a and domesticated there cylindrica Skeels., V. catjang (Burm.f.) Walp.), (Smartt, 1980). Allpart s of this -rich catjang (2n=22), developed. Ssp. sesquipedalis vegetable are edible. It can alsob e used as has a long flabby pod, and is cultivated as a restorative intercrop and as a cover crop a snap bean while ssp. cylindrica is developed and the stalks canb e used as fodder. It is as a forage crop. Itha s small seeds (Faris, drought-sensitive (Hymowitz &Boyd , 1977). 1965) (p. 76).

SPHENOSTYLIS SCHWEINFURTHII Harms.Ya m bean. ? 1 -• ^ I 2n= .Trop .Africa .A . Cultiva­ \ f ted for seeds and tubers. J ' ~~- ^ ,""•*•*-'-^ Lf —, i s J i < ^, SPHENOSTYLIS STENOCARPA (Höchst, exA . Rich.) j Harms.Africa n yam bean, Yam bean. 2n=18. W. /--•-. / ' ' T " J andE .Africa . Cultivated inCentra l African y i Republic,Zaïre,Ethiopi a and along the Rift v -~ •• •!-.'-• , — *$ \\ J0-* Valley of E. Africa for its edible tubers and s-'' \ seeds. Probably domesticated independently at several places across its native range (Okigbo, 1973). rr ' - ' ' STYLOSANTHES FRUTICOSA (Retz.)Alsto n (syn.S . Vigna unguiculata (Harlan, 1973) LEGUMINOSAE - MALVACEAE

VIGNA VEXILLATA (L.)A . Rich. (syn.V . capen- hairs intermediate between lint hairs and the sis auctt. non (L.)Walp. , V. senegalensis A. hairs ofwil d species were found in goat dung. Chev.). Wild mung. 2n=22. Grows wild in trop. The form was probably cultivated by the people Asia, Africa andAustralia . Its tubers are of Meroë, an ancient Nubian , dated collected in the wild. Cultivated inE .Africa . about 500 BC.

VIGNA SUBTERRANEA (L.)Verde , (syn. Voandzeia GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE L. Egyptian cotton. 2n= subterranea (L.) DC.). Bambara groundnut, 52 genome formula (AADD)2. Peru (p.176). Congo coober. 2n=22.Wil d inW . Africa. Dis­ Spread toAfrica .A perennial type from S. tributed throughout Africa and later to the Nigeria made a '' of cotton Americas and Asia.Heppe r (1963) described growing in the Nile Delta possible after 1820. the wild type as var. spontanea (Harms) Hepper This lead to introduction of other cottons. and the cultivated ones as var. subterranea Only Sea Islands was successful. Vigourous and Hepper. fertile hybrids of these two types occurred from which Egyptian was developed. It combines Liliaceae the annual habit and some of the quality of Sea Islands and some of the vigour and cropping TUBAGHIA VIOLACEA Harv.Wil d garlic,Wil d knof­ characteristic of the perennial. It canb e look. 2n=12. S.Africa .Th e Zulu ofNata l of­ grown twice a year. tenplan t this species around their huts to keep snakes away, supposing that the odourre ­ GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM L. Short-staple cotton.2n = pels all vermin.Th e leaves are cooked asa 26, genome formula A^A^. Wild G. herbaceum spinach and thebul b is used as aemeti c love var. africanum (Watt)Hutch .& Chose isa medicine (Watt &Breyer-Brandwijk , 1962). perennial shrub found in the bushveldt across abel t from toAngol a and SW.Af ­ Linaceae rica. Hutchinson (1971) suggested a likely centre LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. Flax 2n=30, (32). For of domestication in S.Arabi a and Baluchistan. possible origin see p. 99. Ssp. indo-abyssini- As wild G. herbaceum plants were found on the cum Vav. & Ell. is cultivated in Ethiopia and coast of Sind near Karachi, domestication may Eritrea. Identical types are cultivated in In­ have taken place within the area of theHarap - dia and may formerly have been introduced pan culture atMohenjo-Dar o (Pakistan) about there from Africa. 2400 BC. However fragments of textile anda string found at that site and dated 2500-1700 Lythraceae BC. have been identified as G. arboreum*. Hutchinson (1962) suggested that cotton must LAWSONIA ALBA Lam. (syn.L . inermis L.). , have been brought from the area of present Camphire. 2n=24.A shrub from trop.Asi a and Zimbabwe by early traders toth e north. The Africa with several uses. earliest domesticants were probably selected between there andEthiopi a or Arabia. From Malvaceae that variety, the primitive cultivated race acerifolium was selected, which was formerly ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS (L.)Moench . (syn.Hi ­ found inEthiopia , S.Arabi a and Baluchistan. biscus esculentus L.). Okra, Lady's finger, Chowdhury & Buth (1970, 1971) found cotton Gombo. 2n=72-132. See for origin p.77 .Siemons - seed and hairs inEgyptia n Nubia with an age ma (1980)classifie d the gombo cultivars inW . of about 2500BC .The y suggested that the Africa into the true type which is cultivated cotton was used as sheep fodder, since notex ­ throughout the world, and the Guinean gombo. tile was found. The ancient Nubian cottonre ­ The first has 2n=c. 130 and the second 2n=c. sembles G. herbaceum var. africanum and G. 194. He suggested that the Guinean type, also arboreum race soudanensis*. calledWes t African gombo, is an amphiploid Race persicum*, racekuljianum * and G. ar­ ofA . esculentus (true type) and A. manihot*, boreum race indicum* derived from race aceri­ 2n=c.66 . folium. Either G. herbaceum reached S.Americ a from GOSSYPIUM ANOMALUM Wawr. & Peyr. 2n=26,genom e America orG . arboreum reached Peru from Asia formula BiBi. Along S. fringe of the Sahara, by way of the Pacific islands to form the am­ in SW. Africa and Angola. Itca n be crossed phiploid G. hirsutum* and G.barbadense* . with G. herbaceum* and G. arboreum*. Many varieties belonging toG . hirsutum and G. barbadense are grown inAfrica .G . hirsutum GOSSYPIUM ARBOREUM L. Tree cotton.2n=26 ,ge ­ varieties (Upland and Cambodia) are cultiva­ nome formula A2A2. Race soudanense. NE.an d ted inW . and C. Africa (racepunctanum ) in W. Africa.Hutchinso n (1962) suggested that it Congo and E.Africa , while G.barbadens e (Egyp­ was introduced from India,bu t Chowdhury and tian) is found inth e Nile Valley and Delta. Buth (1970, 1971) thought that it is native Var. africanum has a very simple protein- toAfrica . They found material dated about banding pattern (Cherry et al., 1970). 3000BC . at an early Neolithic site. Itwa s probably used as stock feed, because cotton GOSSYPIUM LONGIOCALYX Hutch. &Lee . 2n=26, ge- 140 AFRICAN REGION

Distribution of the Old World cottons in the 13th Century: Gossypium herbaceum var. africanum (1), G. herbaceum var. acerifolium (2),G . herbaceum var.persicu m (3),G . herbaceum var. kul- jianum (4)an d G. arboreum var. indicum (5)(Hutchinson, 1962)

J __(N 10 r& r o v\nr> ^_J gl" t?\_JL. 4' 3 ! (I 53" <ßf }ó

Distribution of annual cottons in the OldWorl d in 1960:Gossypiu m herbaceum var.persicu m(3) , G. herbaceum var. kuljianum (4),G . arboreum var. indicum (5),G . arboreum var.bengalens e(6) , G. arboreum var. sinense (7),G . herbareum var.wightianu m (8),G . barbarense Egyptians (9),G . hirsutum uplands andCambodia s (10)(Hutchinson, 1962) nome formula E5E5. Uganda and Tanzania. It has Red-leaved hibiscus,Bronz e hibiscus. 2n=72. anentir e leaf like the American G.klotzschi - Genome formula AABB. Tanzania,Zaïre ,Zimbab ­ anum*. we and Angola.Cultivate d inSW .Afric a asa vegetable. Introduced as H. eetveldeanus De GOSSYPIUM SOMALENSE (Guerke)Hutch . 2n=26,ge ­ Wild. & Dur. into Indonesia.Cultivate d in nome formula E2E2. Sudan,Somal i andKenya . the (sub)tropics as an ornamental. A variable species. The A genome is almost homologous to theA genome ofH . asper*.Th e B genome is from H. GOSSYPIUM TRIPHYLLUM (Harv. exHarv . & Sond.) surattensis* (Wilson & Menzel, 1964;Menze l Hochr. 2n=26,genom e forumuia B2B2. Desert of & Martin, 1970), which grows inW . trop.Af ­ SW.Afric a and S.Angola . It can be crossed rica. The closely related H. radiatus* comes with G. herbaceum* and G. arboreum*. from Asia. H. noldeae Baker f. is a spiny, inedible HIBISCUS ACETOSELLA Welw. exHiern . Azedas, (primitive?)wil d orweed y form ofH . aceto- MALVACEAE -MUSACEA E sella (Wilson &Menzel , 1964). sweetener.

HIBISCUS ASPER Hook.f. 2n=36, genome formula Melastomataceae AA, 72.Wil d inW . and C. trop.Africa .Wil d plants arecollecte dfo rbas t fibre.Occasion ­ SAKERSIA LAURENTIA Cogn. 2n= .Zaïre . Cul­ ally cultivated for this purpose. Its Age ­ tivated there for its leaves (Terra, 1967). nome is close to the A genome ofH . cannabinus*. It is one of the parents of H. sabdariffa* and Menispermaceae H. acetosella* (Menzel &Martin , 1970). The A genome is also found inth eAfrica n H. meeusei CISSAMPELOS OWARIENSIS Beauv. Velvet leaf. Exell (2n=72), genome formulaAAX X (Menzel & 2n= .W . Africa.Cultivate d near coast as Martin, 1971). a medicinal (Dalziel, 1937).

HIBISCUS CANNABINUS L. . 2n=36,genom e JATEORHIZA PALMATA (Lam.)Mier s (syn.J . co- formula AA. Probably (sub)trop. Africa. Also lumba (Roxb.)Miers ,J . miersii Oliv.). 2n= wild inAsi abu t these plants might derive from .Trop .Africa . Cultivated as amedicinal . naturalized plants. ItsA genome is related to that of H. asper*. Kenaf is the A-genome donor Moraceae ofH . radiatus*. CHLOROPHORA EXCELSA (Welw.)Benth . Iroko. 2n= HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. Rosella,Jamaic a sor­ . Africa.Cultivate d there for its timber. rel, Guinea ,Florid a , rozelle, sorrel, red sorrel, Indian sorrel, sour-sour, FICUS OVATA Vahl. 2n=26.Africa . Planted inS . Queensland jelly plant, jelly okra, lemonbush . Ethiopia as a sacred tree. 2n=(36), 72,genom e formulaAAYY .Africa .An ­ gola is apparently its primary centre of dis­ FICUS PALMATA Forsk. 2n=26.Ethiopia , Sudan, persal. Probably first domesticated as adoor - Egypt, Arabia,Yemen .Accordin g toAwek e (1979), yard orweed y plant for its seeds.Late r it this species could be the ancestor of F. became avegetabl e and finally a fibre crop carica (p.99) . (var. altissima Webster). It is a ruderal spe­ cies of Angola, SW. Africa,Zaïr e andTanzania . FICUSTILIAEFOLI A Bak. Voara. 2n= .Mada ­ ItsA genome is derived fromH . asper* (Men­ gascar. Cultivated there for its fibre. zel &Martin , 1970). Its Y genome donor is not yet known.Wilso n and Menzel (1964)note d the Moringaceae relationship of roselle and H. mechowii Garcke. Var. sabdariffa is used on Jamaica to produce MORINGA PEREGRINA (Forsk.)Fiori . 2n= a sorrel drink. Egypt and Somalia. Cultivated in the (sub)tro- pics for the seeds which are the source of HIBISCUS SCHIZOPETALUS Hook.f. 2n=45.E .Af ­ bennu oil.Thi s species is closely related to rica. Used there and elsewhere forhedge s and M. oleifera*. as an ornamental. Its uneven chromosome num­ ber suggests ahybri d origin,H . rosa-sinensis Musaceae L., 2n=36, 46, 72,92 ,c.144 , 168bein g one parent. Van Borssum Waalkes (1966) concluded ENSETE VENTRICOSUM (Welw.) Cheesm. (syn.E . that, asH . schizopetalus was first collected edule (Horan)Cheesm.) . Ensete, Inset,Abyssi ­ in E. Africa,H . rosa-sinensis might have an nian banana. 2n=18. Ethiopia, the mountains of African origin.However ,Negroi d people in Kordofan (Sudan) and the lower part of themon ­ general dono t cultivate ornamentals andthere ­ tane forest belt of Mount Ruwenzori (border of fore a domestication ofH . rosa-sinensis in Uganda and Zaïre). Cultivated for the flourob ­ Africa is unlikely. More probable is that H. tained from thepseudoste m and also for its schizopetalus arose inE .Afric a after intro­ fibres. It ispropagate d by offshoots andb y duction ofH . rosa-sinensis, probably from seeds from cultivated types or occasionally Asia. Judging from the variable number of this from wild plants.Th e cultivated plants are last species itmigh t have ahybri d origin too. grown at higher altitudes than thewil d plant. H. x archeri W. Watson is an artificial hy­ Several cultivated types are recognized. It is brid of H. rosa-sinensis and H. schizopetalus. suggested that there are about forty types of ensete. The back of the leaf of theKob a type HIBISCUS SURATTENSIS L. 2n=36,genom e formula is red to purple.Thi s variety has beende ­ BB, (72).Africa . It also occurs in India, scribed as var.montbeliard i D. Bois (Smeds, SE. Asia, Indonesia and Philippines.Th e B 1955). donor ofH . acetosella* and H. radiatus*. It is suggested that ensete is one of the oldest cultivated plants ofEthiopia . Marantaceae MUSA cultivars of the AAA group.Banana . 2n= THAUMATOCOCCUS DANIELLII Benth. 2n= .W . 33. Primary centre in theMalaya n region (p. African rainforest from Sierra Leone toZaïre . 59). Secondary centre in the uplands ofE .Af ­ Itproduce s proteinswhic h are a non-sugar rica. There it has long been cultivated. The 142 AFRICAN REGION

Hibiscus acetosella (Menzel &Wilson , 1969). Hibiscus asper (Menzel &Wilson , 1969).


" "f -~-K-

\>-'"\ ,'''_ \>-'~ —- 4 /" / y^f

-^ '..-.-"•'""-N-r\--7'"y

rV ' '' ' n*•7T tf

Hibiscus noldeae (Menzel &Wilson , 1969). Hibiscus meeusei (Menzel SiWilson , 1969). MALVACEAE 143

Hibiscus cannabinus (Menzel & Wilson, 1969). Hibiscus surattensis (Menzel &Wilson , 1969).

Hibiscus mechowii (Menzel &Wilson , 1969). AFRICAN REGION

AAB plantain also occurs inGhan a and probably elsewhere inW . Africa.

BORASSUS FLABELLIFER L. Lontar, palm. 2n=36. India andMala y Archipelago. Cultivated there. Unknown wild. Probably a cultigen of the African B. aethiopum Mart. (2n- ).

ELAEIS GUINEENSIS Jacq. Oil palm. 2n=32. The coastal belt from Sierra Leone toAngola . Pri­ mary centre in Africa. Large areas are covered by semi-wild palms.Th e oil palm was domesti­ cated only in a few areas before the establish­ dactylifera (Oudejans, 1969). ment of 'European' plantations and 'develop­ ment' 's plots (Zeven, 1967, 1972). Large plantations are found inAfrica , SE.Asi a Phoenix species easily hybridize.Thi s may and inC . America. have resulted in an increased variation.Per ­ haps allmentione d Phoenix* species should be included in one species.

PHOENIX HUMILIS Chev. 2n= .Cameroons . There palms are wild and semi-wild. Inth e latter case, they are protected, but not planted. They are in apre-domesticatio n stage.

PHOENIX RECLINATA Jacq. False datepalm . 2n= 36. W. Africa. Some reports refer to this palm asbein g cultivated as awin e palm. However these may refer toPh .humilis * (Portères, 1955b).

PHOENIX SYLVESTRIS Roxb.Wil d date palm. 2n= 36. Pakistan, India and S. Iran. Cultivated there as a source of sugar and wine.Closel y related toPh . dactylifera* andma y have been derived from it,o r they may have acommo n pro­ genitor.

RAPHIA HOOKERI Mann &Wendl . Wine palm. 2n= . The 100-250k m wide coastal belt of W. Africa (Russell, 1965). Highly valued for its wine and fibre, and therefore cultivated and cared for. InSE .Nigeria , pedlars sold germi­ nated fruits from the ImoRive rbank s to far­ mers up to 100k m away. Elaeis guineensis (Zeven, 1967).

PHOENIXATLANTIC A Chev. False date palm. 2n= PANDANUS UTLLISBory . 2n= .Africa . Intro­ 36.Africa . It closely resembles Ph.dactyli ­ duced elsewhere as an ornamental,whil e leaves fera*. Near Marrakesh inMorocc o var.maroca - are used forvariou s purposes.Cultivate d in na Chev. iscultivated . Itha s fairly tasty Mauritius formakin g sugar . fleshy fruits while those of this species are, ingeneral , of poor quality (Meunier, 1962). Pedaliaceae

PHOENIX CANARIENSIS hort. (syn.Ph . jubae CERATOTHECA SESAMOIDES Endl. Bungu. 2n=32. W. Christ.) 2n=36. The Canary Islands.Sprea d as Africa. Cultivated in some northern areas.I t anornamenta l toN.Afric a and S.France. Close­ yields leaves for and seeds foroil . ly related to Ph. dactylifera* and easily hy­ bridizes with this and other Phoenix species. SESAMUM ALATUM Thonn.Tacoutta . 2n=26.Trop . Africa or India.Occasionall y cultivated for PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.Dat e palm. 2n=28. Pri­ its seeds inW . Sudan zone. mary gene centre: probably N.Africa .On e of the oldest cultivated plants and cultivated for SESAMUM INDICUM L. (syn.S . orientalisL.) . a long time from the Atlantic toNW . India. Oriental sesame,Ben i seed. 2n=26, (52,58) . MUSACEAE - RUBIACEAE 145

Unknown wild. Secondary centre in India (p. 78) Portulacaceae and in China/Japan (p. 42).A n ancient crop, much cultivated, at present, in India, China, TALINUM CUNEIFOLIUM (Vahl)Willd . 2n^ Japan, Burma, NW. Africa, Americas and Europe. Africa and Arabia. Cultivated inE .Afric a as Asal l wild Sesamum species but one (S.prostra - a vegetable. tum Retz. (2n=32), wild in E. India) occur in Africa it is thought that its progenitor(s) are TALINUM PANICULATUM (Jacq.) Gaertn. 2n=24. African. Spontaneous tetraploids have been ob­ Vegetable ofNigeria . served. Nayar & Mehra (1970) considered S. indicum TALINUM PORTULACIFOLIUM (Forsk.)Aschers .2n = var. malabaricum (2n=26) as a possible 'com­ .Trop . Africa and Asia. Cultivated inAf ­ panion weed' of sesame. It may have originated rica as avegetable . from hybrids between sesame and some sympatric wild Sesamum species. TALINUM TRIANGULÄRE Willd. 2n=48, 72.Probabl y C. or S.Americ a or trop.Africa . Cultivated SESAMUM RADIATUM Schum. & Thonn. 2n=64. Trop. in Brazil (p. 178),Wes t Indies andW . Africa Africa. Cultivated in C. and W. Africa for as a vegetable. The cultivation in forest re­ its oil seeds. gions may indicate anAfrica n origin,bu t as species of this genus are native toAfric a and Perio p1o cac ea e to the New World further investigation is necessary. CRYPTOSTEGIA GRANDIFLORA Br. 2n=24. Trop. Af­ rica or India (p. 78). Occasionally cultiva­ Rosaceae ted for its Palay rubber and often as an orna­ mental. HAGENIA ABYSSINICA J.F. Gmel. (syn.Brayer a anthelmintica Kunth). 2n- .Ethiopia .Culti ­ Piperaceae vated there for its flowers used asmedicin e against tapeworm. PIPER CLUSII DC.2n = W. Africa. Cultivated as aspice . Rubiaceae

PIPER GUINEENSE Schum. &Thonn . Guinea pepper, L. Arabica coffee. 2n=22,44 , Ashanti pepper. 2n- .W . Africa. Cultivated (66, 88).Primar y centre: SW.Ethiopi a (Meyer, there as aspice . 1969). Secondary centre:Yeme n (p. 101).Tra ­ ditionally the arabica coffee has only been Polygalaceae known in cultivation. Cultivated now over large areas. POLYGALA BüTYRACEA Heck.Cheyi ,Numbuni . 2n= Arabica coffee is the only known Coffea spe­ . W. Africa.Thi s plant probably does not cies being allopolyploid and self-compatible. exist in the wild. It isprobabl y a relic of Itsparenta l species are not known,bu t closest an ancient tropical W. African culture.How ­ relatives occur inC . andW . Africa (Meyer, ever, more evidence isneeded . Cultivated in 1969). Kammacher & Capot (1972) suggested that W. Africa for its fibre and edible seed. one of the genomes has asimila r structure to the genome ofC . canephora*. Variousbotanica l and agricultural varieties areknow n and so areman y mutants.A n example / 1 is the mutant discovered on Réunion, formerly v 1 --. Bourbon, which became the highly productive 1 1 \- .-'' '; '~--v""" Bourbon coffee (Meyer, 1965). Icatu is ahy ­ 1 1 brid ofC . arabica and C. canephora*. •.--0 /' COFFEA CANEPHORA Pierre exFroehne r (syn.C . robusta Linden). Robusta coffee. 2n=22,44 . W. toC . (sub)trop.Africa , from Guinea and to Sudan and Uganda. Itha s the highest cafein content of the Coffea species (Charnier & Berthaud, 1975). Self-incompatible. Icatu is ahybri d of C. arabica* and C. canephora. Polygala butyracea (Portères, 1950). The greatest diversity hasbee n described for Zaire. Before the arrival of the Europeans inAf ­ Polygonaceae rica, it was already cultivated there.Culti ­ vated now especially in Indonesia and, because RUMEX ABYSSINICUS Jacq. Spanish rhubarb dock. it is used to prepare 'instant' coffee, its 2n= . Ethiopia. Cultivated in the Congo ba­ cultivation increased in other tropical Asian sin for its brick-red pigment. and African countries. It is a cross-fertilizer and hence very poly- AFRICAN REGION

morphic. Thisha sresulte d insevera l syno­ andharveste d forthei r fruits which area nyms. source ofarga n oil,use d like (G. . 'Congusta' coffee isprobabl y ahybri d ofC . Barbeau, pers. comm., 1979). This treei s canephora andC .congensis * althoughth elatte r suitable fordomestication . is considered tob ea for m ofC .canephora . Some botanical andagricultura l varietiesar e BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII (Don.)Kotsch y (syn.B . described, paradoxum (Gaertn.f.)Heppe r ssp.parki i (Don.) Hepper, Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn.f.). Karité, COFFEA CONGENSIS Froehner. 2n=22, (44).Con ­ Sheabutte rtree . 2n=24. Semiwild inth e sa­ go Basin. Itresemble sC .arabica* . Possibly vannaso fW .Africa , a formo fC .canephora* . 'Congusta' coffeei s a hybrid product ofC .congensi s andC .cane ­ CHRYSOPHYLLUM AFRICANUM A.DC .Africa n star phora. Form 'del aNana ' isa heterogeneou s apple. 2n=26. Trop. Africa. Cultivated forit s population most closely resembling this spe­ fruits. cies (Berthaud& Guillaumet , 1978). Solanaceae COFFEA EUGENIOIDES S. Moore. 2n=22. Wild in the Lake Kivu area of Zaïre, W. Uganda and Dunal. 2n=24. Trop. Afri­ W. Tanzania. Cultivated there. It resembles a ca.Thi s non-tuberous plant isuse d forhed ­ slender form of C. arabica*. ges.

COFFEA LIBERICA Hiern. Liberica coffee.2n = SOLANUM AETHIOPICUM L. 2n=24. Trop. Africa. 22,44 .Guine at oAngola . Cultivated tosom e This non-tuberous plant is cultivated for its extent inLiberia , Surinam anda fe wothe r edible leaves and fruits. countries. Iti sa cross-fertilize ran dhenc e very polymorphic. Itha sbee n crossed withC . SOLANUM ANOMALUM Thonn. Children's . 2n arabicat oproduc e hybrids which arecultiva ­ = . Trop. Africa. This non-tuberous plant is ted. sometimes cultivated for its red berries used This species includes theExcels a coffee as condiment. (C.excels a Chev., syn.C .liberic a var.dewe - vreiD eWild .& Dew. ,C .arnoldian aD eWild.) . SOLANUM BURBANKII Bitter. Wonderberry, Msoba. There isa possibilit y that inth eancestr y 2n=6x=72. Probably derived from S. African of this species some introgression withC .ca ­ msoba (Heiser, 1969). It is apparently not a nephora*ha soccurre d (Chinnappa, 1970). hybrid of S. sarrachoides (syn. S. villosum) (2n= ) and S. melanocerasura Allioni (syn. S. VANGUERIA MADAGASCARIENSIS J.F.Gmel .(syn . guineense Lam. non L.), Garden Shuckleberry V. edulis Vahl.). 2n= .Trop . Africaan d (2n=72), but a contaminant. Madagascar. Cultivated forit sedibl e fruits. SOLANUM DUPLOSINUATUM Klotsch.2n = .Trop , Rutaceae andS .Africa .Cultivate d forit sedibl e fruits and leaves. ADENANDRA FRAGRANS (Sims.)Roem . &Schult . 2n= .S .Africa . Cultivated there forit s SOLANUM GILO Raddi. 2n=24. Vegetable ofNigeria . leaves which areuse d todecoc ttea . SOLANUM INCANUML .2n=24 . Africa. Occasionally BAROSMA BETULINA (Berg)Bartl .& Wendl.f . cultivated. Hybridisation with S.melongena * Buchu.2n = .SW .an .Africa . Cultivated succeeded only whenS .incanu mwa stake na s ona smal l scale inth eClanwillia m district. mother.Th etw ospecie sar eclosel y related Leaves ofwil d andcultivate d crops areuse d (Baksh, 1979). for theirmedicina l properties (Gentry, 1961). SOLANUMMACROCARPO N L.Africa n . 2n=36. CITROPSIS GILLETIANA Swing.& Kell , andothe r Mascarene Islands.Cultivate d forit sleave s Citropsis species.Trop .Africa .Closel yre ­ and fruits (Ghana, Togo,Beni n andNigeria) . latedt oCitrus .The y canb euse d ascitru s The cultivartyp e isdescribe d asvar .calvu m rootstocks. Bitter. Itstriploi d number ofchromosome sma y point toa hybri d origin. Sapindaceae SOLANUM NIGRUML .Blac k nightshade. 2n=(x=12), BLIGHIA SAPIDA Koenig. Akee. 2n=32. Forests 24, (36,40 ,48) ,7 2genom e formula AAAASS, ofW .Africa .Cultivate d inJamaic a andW . (96, 144).Nativ e regionno tknown .Th e6 xi s Africa. InJamaica ,i ti snaturalized . amphidiploid ofS .americanu m Mill., 2n=2x=24 andS .villosu m Mill., 2n=4x=48, genome formu­ Sapotaceae laSSXX .Th eS genom e derives fromS .sarra ­ choides Sandtn., 2n=24 (Edmonds& Glidewel , ARGANIA SPINOSA (L.)Skeel s (syn.A .sideroxy - 1977). Thehybri dS .nigru m (2n=6x)x S . lonRom . &Schult.) . Argan,Arganier . 2n=20. sarrachoides isname d S.x procurren s Leslie SW. Morocco.A wil d tree,communall y owned (2n=4x=48). Iti ssterile . RUBIACEAE -ZINGIBERACEA E 147

J v IS" yb' 1 T? /& fï'^% tv V f i/h ••• vc? ^. ? \\ fïï 0 V (vanHarten , 1970).

SOLANUM NODIFLORUM Jacq. 2n=24, 72.Th e Sahara for fuel and as ornamental. andNigeria .Cultivate d for its leaves.Ma y have runwil d elsewhere. Tiliaceae

SOLANUM OLIVARE Paill. 2n= Cultivated in C0RCH0RUS TRILOCULARE L. Al Moulinouquia. 2n= Ivory Coast,Beni n andCongo . 14. Senegal to India. Sometimes cultivated as a vegetable, e.g. near Timbuktu (Mali) (Uphof, SOLANUM ROTUNDIFOLIUM Moric. ex Dun. (syn.S . 1968). nelsoni Dun.).Haus a potato. 2n= .Believe d to come from Ethiopia. Spread toW . Africa and Verbenaceae other parts ofAfrica . LIPPIA ADOENSIS Höchst. Gambian teabush. 2n= Sterculiaceae .Zaïre .A pot-herb cultivated there. InW . Africa it is used as a tea substitute. COLA ACUMINATA (P.Brenan )Schott . &Endl . Aba- takola . 2n=40. Nigeria toW . Gabon. Spread to VITEX CIENKOWSKII Kotschy & Peye. 2n=32.Trop . Zaïre and Angola, to theWes t Indies andelse ­ Africa. A tree planted on compounds or semi- where. Cultivated esp. inW . Nigeria,bu t is cultivated for its edible fruits. second in importance to C.nitida* . Zingiberaceae COLA ANOMELA K. Schum. Bamendakola .2n = Cameroon, esp. inBamenda . Cultivated there. AFRAMOMUM C0RR0RIMA (Braun)Jansen .Korarima . 2n= .Ethiopia .Als o cultivated there and COLA NITIDA (Vent.) Schott &Endl . Gbanjakola . elsewhere as a condiment and formedicin e (Jan- 2n=40. Sierra Leone toBenin ,wit h its highest sen, 1981). frequency in the forest area of Ivory Coast and Ghana.Th e genus Colaha s itsprimar y cen­ AFRAMOMUM MELEGUETA (Rose.)K . Schum. Melegueta tre inW . Africa (vanEijnatten , 1969, 1970). pepper. 2n= .W . African coastal belt from Fruits were taken to the Caribbean,wher e this Guinea toAngola , including Fernando Po and San kola already grew in 1630.Introduce d to other Thome (vanHarten , 1970). Probably not cultiva­ tropical countries.Thi s is the main kola of ted inW . Africa,Afte r its introduction into commerce. Subspecies refer to fruit colour, but S.America , cultivated in Surinam and . thisma yb e causedb y somegene s conditioning It is thehistoricall y known 'grainso fpara ­ these colours. dise', giving its name to theWes t African Pep­ per Coast, Grain Coast orMalaguet a Coast. COLA VERTICILLATA (Thonn.)Stap f exChev . Owe kola. 2n= .Fro m Ivory Coast to lowerCongo . Often found as stray individuals inplantings ^ ofC . nitida*.O n the Mambilla Plateau inN . Nigeria, it is the only kola found (van Eij­ natten, 1970).


TAMARIX ARTICULATA Vahl. 2n= .Th e Sahara, Arabia and Iran.Grea t numbers are found inS . Morocco andMauritania .Cultivate d as awind ­ break for orange cultivation, as asandbinder , 9 European-Siberian Region

TheEuropean-Siberia n Regionwa s not indicated by Vavilov. Darlington (1956) was the first torefe r toEurop e asa regio n of origin of crop plants.Zhu - kovskij (1968)recognize d it as amegacentr e of diversity ofa relatively small importance. Agriculture reached theregio n from theNea rEaster nRegio nan d arrived in NW.Europ e about 4000BC . Important cropshav ebee n developed in this region including fruit-trees, grasses,Brassic a sp.,Cannabi s sativa,Cichoriu m sp., Digitariasanguinalis , Fragaria sp.,Lactuc a sativa,Humulu s lupulus,Medicag o sp.,Ribe s sp.,Ru - bus sp.an dTrifoliu m sp.

Alliacéae to former cultivation as a culinary plant.Ac ­ cording toKuckuc k (1962), it is still culti­ ALLIUM AMPELOPRASUM L. Levant garlic.Peren ­ vated in USSR. nial sweet leek.2n=16 ,24 ,32 ,genom e formu­ laAAA'A" , 40, (48,genom e formula AAA'A^'A", Araceae AABBBB), (56).Europe ,Asi aMinor , Caucasia to Iran and N.Africa . Cultivated in S. France ACORUS CALAMUS L. Sweet flag, Sweet root,Cala ­ and around Nuremberg, Germany for its bulbs mus. 2n=18, 24, 36, (44,45 ,48 ,54) .N .Eu ­ (Kuckuck, 1962). Some cultivation also in rope, temperate Asia and E.Nort h America. Used Kashmir (p. 70) and Iran (p.87) . as amedicina l plant, as an ornamental and for the root that is used for various purposes such ALLIUM SCORODOPRASUM L. Giant garlic. 2n=16 + aspreparatio n of oil.Widel y cultivated now, 0-2B, 24,32 ,3 8+ IB, 40 + 0-4B, 48+ 0-1B. but roots of wild plants are still collected C. and S.Europ e andAsi a Minor. Tutin et al. and used. (1976)describ e 4 subspecies: ssp. rotundum (L.)Stear n (syn.A . rotundum L.), 2n=16 +0 - Aristolochiaceae 2B, 32,3 8 + IB, 40+ 1-4B, 48 + IB, ssp.wald - steinii (G.Don )Stear n (syn.A . waldsteinii G. ARIST0L0CHIA L. 2n=14. Probably E. Don), 2n=16, 32,40 ,48 ,ssp . jajlae (Vved.) and S. Europe.Formerl y cultivated as amedi ­ Stearn (syn.A . jajlae Vved.), 2n= and ssp. cinal herb inmos t ofEurop e and nownatural ­ scorodoprasum, 2n=16, 24.Th e last is probably ized. derived from ssp. rotundum and itswid e and scattered distribution are probably partly due Asclepiadaceae ALLIACEAE -COMPOSITA E 149

CYNANCHUMVINCETOXICU M (L.)Pers . Swallows- SPERGULA ARVENSIS L. (syn.Spergulari a arven- wort. 2n-22. Europe toHimalaya s and Altai, sis Cambess.). Corn spurrey. 2n~18. Europe.Var . and inN .Africa . A perennial herb cultivated sativa (Boenningh.)Mert . &Koc h (syn. S.sa ­ formerly in gardens as.amedicina l plant. tiva Boenningh.). Cultivated as a fodder crop or as agree n manure.Var . arvensis is awide ­ Berberidaceae spread weed, while var.maxim a (Weihe)Mert . & Koch, is awee d in flax fields. VULGARIS L.Europea n berberry. 2n=28. Most of Europe and Caucasia. Difficult toas ­ Chenopodiaceae sess its territory because itwa s formerly planted for its edible berries and now as an ATRIPLEX HORTENSIS L. Mountain spinach, Garden ornamental. Wood and bark were used to produce orach. 2n=18. Wild in temperate Europe and a yellow dye. It is an intermediate host of Asia. Formerly cultivated inEurop e as avege ­ stem rust (Puccinia graminisPers. ) and has table. therefore been eradicated inman y parts. BETA VULGARIS L. var. rapa.Fodde r beet.2n = Boraginaceae 18. Distribution of the wild type is given on p. 104.Probabl y developed in theNetherlands , LITHOSPERMUM OFFICINALE L. Gromwell. 2n=28. perhaps from types introduced from Spain.Se ­ Spp. officinale throughout Europe, W.Asia , condary centre inRegio n 5 (p.81) .Sprea d to Caucasia and Iran.Formerl y cultivated inBo ­ Germany and elsewhere. Itma y have played a hemia for preparing Bohemian orCroatia n tea. role in the development of sugar-beet,var . Spp. erythrorhizon is cultivated inChin a and saccharifera (syn.var . altissima). Sugar-beet Japan (p.34) . probably developed inSilesi a by hybridization of an old garden form and fodder beet.Th e Campanulaceae land variety "Weisser schlesischer Zückerrübe" is the parent of all sugar-beet varieties. RAPUNCULUS L. Rampion,Ramps . 2n=20, Fuelbeet s are sugar-beets suitable for alco­ 102. Europe,N . Africa, SW.Asi a and Siberia. hol productionbu t not for sugar extraction. Cultivated in the Middle Ages for its fleshy roots. CHENOPODIUM ALBUM L. Goosefoot,Fa t hen,Lambs - quarters. 2n=18, 36,54 .Probabl y cultivated Cannabidaceae inEurop e inNeolithi c times.No w it is aweed .

CANNABIS SATIVA L.Hemp . 2n=20. The wild form CHENOPODIUM BONUS-HENRICUS L. (syn.Ch . escu- is found inC . Asia. It ismarke d by ahorse ­ lentus Salisb.). Allgood, Good King Henry. 2n= shoe-shaped scar at thebas e of the . C. 36. Native to the temperate Old World. For­ sativa is one of the earliest cultivated crops. merly cultivated as apot-herb . Itha d reached Chinab y 2500BC .Cultivate d for its fibre and for its seeds, for food or as CHENOPODIUM F0LI0SUM Aschers. 2n=18. Europe and a source ofhem p seed oil. 'C. ruderalis Ja- the Orient. Formerly cultivated as a vegetable nisch' is aweed y non-toxic type.Th e Indian (Uphof, 1968). type, 'C. indica' (p. 71) is cultivated as a source of narcotics. Special cultivar groups Compositae have been developed for differentpurposes . Exceptionally tall types are found inNE . ANTHEMIS TINCTORIA L. (syn. Cota tinctoria (L.) China (p.33) . Gay). Dyer's chamomile, Golden chamomile.2n= 18. Europe and W. Asia. Cultivated as a dye HUMULUS LUPULUS L.Hop . 2n=2x=20wit h X-Y sex plant. chromosome system. Var. lupulus is cultivated inEurope ,Asi a and N. America. Itha s been do­ ARCTIUM LAPPA L. (syn. Lappa arctium Gaertn.). mesticated inEurop e and its present distribu­ Great burdoc, Cocklebur. 2n=32, 36. Europe and tion probably reflects dispersion by man.Ho p Asia. Cultivated in Europe as a medicinal is grown for its cones (female inflorescences) plant, and also in China and Japan (p. 34). which are used to flavour beer.A perennial mainly propagated by rhizomes. ARTEMISIA ABROTANUM L. Southern wood. 2n=18. Var. neomexicanus, var.pubescen s and var. S. Europe and temp. Asia. Cultivated as a me­ lupuloides occur in N. America (p. 199),whil e dicinal crop for flowers and as an ornamental. var. cordifolius is found in Japan and China (p. 34) (Small, 1978a). L. Absinthe. 2n=18. Eu­ rope, S. Siberia, Kashmir and Mediterranean Caryophyllaceae area. Cultivated in S. Europe, N. Africa and USA for the production of absinthe. SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS L. Soapwort,Soaproot . 2n=28. Europe and Asia. Occasionally cultiva­ ARTEMISIA LAXA Fritsch. 2n=18. C. and S. Eu­ ted inGerman y (Mansfeld, 1959). rope . Cultivated. EUROPEAN SIBERIAN REGION

ARTEMISIA MARITIMA L. 2n=18, 36,54 .Europ e to Vilm., L. sativa var. angustana Irish),As ­ Mongolia. Cultivated as amedicina l crop. paragus lettuce of Celtuce, forms asingl e thickened straight stem 90 cm ormor e long, ARTEMISIA VULGARIS L. . 2n=16, 18.Temp . which is eaten as salad when young. N.Hemisphere . Cultivated in Indonesia and L. saligna from Israel is asourc e ofre ­ elsewhere for several uses. sistance to downy mildew, Bremia lactucae Reg.

CHAMAEMELUM NOBILE (L.)All . (syn.Anthémi s TANACETUM VULGARE L. (syn.Chrysanthemu m vul­ nobilis L.). Noble chamomile. 2n=18. S. and gare (L.)Bernh . non (Lam.)Gaterau , C. tana- W. Europe. Cultivated as amedicina l and as an cetum Karsch. non Vis. incl. T. audibertii ornamental. (Req.)DC) .Commo n tansy. 2n=18. Almost through­ out Europe.Cultivate d as a pot-herb, medicinal CHAMOMILLA RECRUTICA (L.)Rauscher t (syn.Ma ­ and ornamental. tricaria chamomilla L.). Chamomile, German chamomile. 2n=18. Europe, Iran and Afghanistan. TARAXACUM HYBERNUM Steven.Kri m sagiz. 2n=32, Cultivated inEurop e as amedicina l and asa 40. Italy,Balkans ,Asi a Minor, Syria and Cri­ source of anessentia l oil used for flavouring mea. Cultivated in USSR as arubbe r crop. and perfumery. A substitute ofChamaemelu m nobile*. TARAXACUM OFFICINALE Weber. Dandelion,Lions - tooth, Milk-gowan, Puffball. 2n=8, 24 (and CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. Chicory, Succory, Brussels others). Europe andW . Asia. InFranc e andel ­ witloof, Sugar-loaf chicory. 2n=18. Europe,Si ­ sewhere, improved varieties are cultivated. beria, N. Africa and the NearEas t to Iran,Ba ­ These varieties "Pissenlit àcoeu r plein amé­ luchistan and LakeBaikal .Wil d type (var.in - lioré" and "Pissenlit vert deMontmagny " dif­ tybus)wa s used as a salad and for medicinal fer from wild plants (pissenlit ordinaire) as purposes. Var. sativum Lam. &DC . is cultivated they have lessbitte r leaves.Youn g etiolated inEurop e and elsewhere toproduc e a coffee leaves ofwil d plants covered by molehills are substitute while var. foliosum Hegi, the Brus­ collected as dandelion salad. selswitloof , was first developed around Brus­ sels since c. 1830 from var. sativum, whose Crassulaceae young leaves had already been traded as lettuce since c. 1800 and were known asbarb a decapu ­ REFLEXUM L. Jenny stonecrop. 2n=34, c. cin (Moens, 1974). 56, 68,c . 112.S .Europe .Cultivate d inW . and C. Europe and used to flavour soup and salad. HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. Sunflower. 2n=34.Wil d in N. America (p.200) .Secondar y centre in USSR. SEMPERVIVUM TECT0RUM L. Hen-and-Chickens, Roof Domesticated and cultivated in N.America . houseleek. 2n=(36), 72. Europe. Cultivated as Largeheaded forms introduced inEurope . amedicina l plant.

LACTUCA QUERCINA L. 2n=18. Europe, esp. in Cruciferae Germany, France to USSR and theBalkans .A biennal. Sometimes cultivated nearClermont - ARMORACIA RUSTICANA (Lam.)Gaertner .Me y & Ferrand (France) for its narcotic properties Schreb., (syn.Cochleari a armoracia L.). Horse­ (Uphof, 1968). radish. 2n=28, 32.Finland , toPoland , the Cas­ pian Sea and the deserts of Cuman and inTurkey . LACTUCA SATIVA L. Lettuce. 2n=18. Primary cen­ Primary centre in temperate E.Europ e (Counter tre: the Middle East.Lettuc e derives from L. 8sRhodes , 1969). Cultivated as condiment and serriola L., prickly lettuce.Thi s species hence naturalized. occurs inS . andC . Europe toDenmark ,Cau ­ casia, Transcaucasia, Iran, Iraq, Syria,Sau ­ PRAECOX R.Br. (syn.B . verna Asch.). diArabia , Siberia toAltai , and N.Afric a to Scurvy grass,Winter-cress , Upland cress.2n = the Canary Islands.However , Lindqvist (1960) 16.Europe .Cultivate d as avegetable . believed that lettuce probably derives by hy­ bridization of other Lactuca species including BARBAREA VULGARIS R.Br. Yellow rocket,Commo n L. saligna L. and that L. serriola arose from winter-cress, Upland cress.2n=16 .Temp .Europe , the same or subsequent hybridization. L. ser­ Asia andN . Africa. Spread throughout theworld . riola isno w aweed . L. saligna like L. ser­ Cultivated as apot-herb . riolaha s itsmai n distribution centre round the Mediterranean Sea (Lindqvist, 1960). BRASSICA CAMPESTRIS L.Turni p group. 2n=20,ge ­ The first record of lettuce dates from 2500 nome formulaAA . The wild form ssp. sylvestris BC.; a long-leaved form was depicted in the (L.)Jancke n grows as awee d and ruderal in Egyptian tombs. most ofEurope ,Asi a and N. Africa.Th e various The present marked variation of lettuce is oily (ssp.oleifer a (Metzg.) Sinsk., oil-seed probably aproduc t ofhybridizatio n with L. turnip) and fodder (ssp. rapifera (Metzg.) serriola,bu t may also have been induced by Sinsk., "stubble turnip", Dutch turnip) culti- some natural mutation (Whitaker, 1969). vars have developed independently. Var. asparagina Bailey (syn.L . angustana There are three main groups: the Asian (p. COMPOSITAE -GRAMINEA E 151

35), the Mediterranean and theWes t European. leafy stems are eaten as salad. The turnip-rape, var.oleifer a (Metzg.) Sinsk., It is also cooked as avegetable . InNe wZea ­ possibly developed inBelgium . Leafy types of land, i t is aseriou swee d of rivers.Th e al­ turnip are cultivated especially in Finland. most sterile hybrid (N.x sterile (Shaw)Oe - The A genome is also found in the diploid B. fel, 2n=3x=48) ofwatercres s andN . microphyl- chinensis* and the diploid B. japonica*. This lum (Boenn.)Rchb. , 2n=4x=64 is also cultiva­ genome is related to theA d genome ofB . ad- ted for salad (Purseglove, 1968). It is vege- pressa Boiss., the F genome of B. fruticulosa tatively propagated. Watercress and N. x ster­ Cyril, and the D or T genome of B. tournefor- ile have both runwil d inFlorida , USA. tii Gouan (Mizushima, 1969). B. campestris is one of the parents ofB . Cucurbitaceae juncea* andB . napus*, and also of the artifi­ cially made B.napocampestri s (2n=58, genome BRYONIA ALBA L.Whit e bryony. 2n=20. C.Europe , formulaA A AAC C) . USSR, the Balkans and N. Iran.Cultivate d for­ merly as amedicina l plant. BRASSICA NAPOBRASSICA (L.)Mill . (syn.B . napus L. var. napobrassica (L.)Rchb.) . Rutabaga, BRYONIA CRETICA L. Red berry bryony. 2n=20. S., Swedish turnip. 2n=38, Unknown wild. Primary SC. andW . Europe toGrea t Britain and N.Af ­ gene centre in the Mediterranean area (p.106) . rica. Cultivated formerly as amedicina l crop. Secondary gene centre inEurope . Probably ade ­ Spp. cretica is found in theAegea n region, rivative of B. oleracea* xB . napus*.Th e roots spp. dioica (Jacq.) Tutin (syn.B . dioica Jacq.) aremor e elongated and oval and larger than has awid e distribution, while spp. acuta Desf.) those of turnip. They are eaten as avegetable . Tutin (B.acut a Desf.) is found inTunesi a and Libya. (L.)Koch .Blac k mustard. 2n= 16, genome formula BB. Europe, especially in Cyperaceae C. and S. parts.However , Hemingway (1976)sug ­ gested a centre of domestication inAsi a Minor CAREX ARENARIA L. (syn.C . spadicea Gilib.). or Iran.Cultivate d since ancient times. Seeds 2n=58, 60-64. Europe, especially the littoral are pressed forblac k mustard seedoil.Th e B areas. Cultivated as a soil stabilizer. genome is related to the F genome ofB . fruti­ culosa (Mizushima, 1969). Black mustard is one SCIRPUS LACUSTRIS L. (syn.S . validus Vahl.). of the parents ofB . juncea* andB . carinata*. Great bulbrush. 2n=(38, 40),42 .A worl d wide An artificial amphiploid ofB . tournefortii* distribution. Cultivated in the Netherlands and this species is called B. amarifolia (2n- and Germany, topromot e land reclamation and 36), genome formula TTBB or DDBB). improve irapoldered land. InGerman y cultivated toclea n polluted water and so it is expected BRASSICA OLERACEA L.Wil d kale. 2n=18, genome that the planting will increase andbette r var­ formula CC. Atlantic coast ofEurope . Occurrence ieties of this plant willb e bred. Its culms onHeligolan d isprobabl y spontaneous. Itma y contain 80%ai r taken from the atmosphere. They have already been present there in medieval absorb air pollutant gases,sodium , , times. The wild kales of Atlantic Europe are and copper. closely related to thewil d kales of the Medi­ terranean (seeB . oleracea, p.106) . Gramineae

BRASSICA OLERACEA L. var. gemmiferaDC . Brus­ AGROPYRON CANINUM P.B. (syn.Roegneri a canina sels sprouts. 2n=18, genome formula CC.De ­ (L.)Nevski) . 2n=28, genome formula S'S'H'H'. veloped inBelgiu m probably from var. ramosa. Cultivated in theUSSR .

COCHLEARIA OFFICINALIS L. Spoonwort, Scorbute AGROPYRON CRISTATUM L. Gaertn. Crested wheat- grass, Scurvy grass. 2n=(14), 24,genom e for­ grass. 2n=14mainly , 28, (42).Europ e andAsia . mula AgAgAgAg, (28,36) .N . andW . Europe.Cul ­ Introduced intoN .America .Cultivate d there tivated formerly as amedicina l plant. as aha y crop.Thi s species includes anumbe r of other species likeA . desertorum (Fisch.) CRAMBE MARITIMA L. Sea kale. 2n=60. Sea coast Schult., A. pectiniforme Roem. & Schult.,A . of Europe. Cultivated in England as a ­ michnoi Roshev. and A. sibiricum (Willd.)P.B . ble. AGROPYRON INTERMEDIUM (Host) Beauv. (syn. A. HESPERIS MATRONALIS L. Damask. 2n=24. C. and glaucum, Elytrigea intermedia (Host) Nevski). S. Europe.Cultivate d for its seedswhic h are 2n=(28), 42, genome formula B2B2E1E1E2E2. In­ a source of oil and as an ornamental. Escapes termediate wheatgrass. S. and C. Europe to are common. Iran, Pakistan and Caucasia. Self-compatible.

NASTURTIUM OFFICINALIS R. Br. (syn.Roripp a AGROPYRON REPENS (L.)Beauv . (syn. Elytrigia nasturtium-aquaticum (L.)Hayek) . Watercress. repens (L.) Desv.). Couchgrass,Twitch , Quack- 2n=2x=32, (28,64) .W . Asia and S.Europ e and grass. 2n=18, 6x=42, genome formula S1S1S2S2XX, Great Britain, where it is cultivated. The (56). Temperate Eurasia. Aggressive weed with EUROPEAN SIBERIAN REGION wide adaptation. Spread to all continents. possibly cultivated for itstubers . Sometimes used aspalatabl e high-quality forage grass. It easily crosses with A. spi- AVENA SEPTENTRIOLANIS Malz. (syn. A. fatua catum*,whic h introgresses as theF- ^i s fertile spp. septentrionalis (Malz.) Malz.). 2n=42. N. (Dewey, 1976). and NE. European USSR to W. Siberia. There it usually grows in undisturbed habitats. Baum AGROSTIS CANINA L, 2n=14, 28, (35,42 ,56) . (1972) stated that is is probably the most Europe. Cultivated in theNetherlands . closely related taxon to A. sativa* and that it resembles the hypothetical ancestor of the AGROSTIS GIGANTEA Roth. (syn.A . alba auct. predomesticated oats. non L.). Fiorin, Red top. 2n=42, genome formula A1A1A2A2A3A3. Europe, Asia and N. America. Cul­ ERECTUS Huds. (syn.B . arvensis Poll.). tivated as apastur e grass and as aha y crop. 2n=(28, genome formulaAeAeAeAe) , 42,56 ,(70 , 84, 112).C . and S.Europe ,N . Africa,Ante - AGROSTIS TENUIS Sibth. (syn.A . vulgaris Asia up toCaucasia . Cultivated especially in With.). Rhode Island bent,Colonia l bent.2n = S. France, Switzerland, S. Germany and USSR. 28, genome formula A^A-^A2A2.Mos t ofEurope , Some people regard this species and its syno­ N. AsiaMinor ,Armenia , Caucasia, Siberia,N . nyms as two species. Africa and N. America.Hybrid s with A. gigan- tea*hav e been found inGerman y and called A. BROMUS INERMIS Leyss.Awnles s brome, Smooth intermedia C.A. Weber. brome, Hungarian brome. 2n=(28,genom e formula AiAiBiBi, 42,49) ,56 ,genom e formula AiAiAi ALOPECURUS PRATENSIS L. Meadow foxtail. 2n= AiBiBiBiBi, (54-58). N.,C , and SE.Europe , 28, (42).Mos t ofEurope ,N .Asi a and Caucasia. Caucasia, temperate Asia and China.Cultiva ­ Cultivated as ameado w grass. tion started at various places inEurope . In­ troduced to N. America. AMMOPHILA ARENARIA Link (syn.A . arundinacea Host.). Beachgrass. 2n=28. The coastal areas BROMUS SECALINUM L. Chess,Ry e brome. 2n=28. of Europe.A perennial cultivated as a sand A cultivated hulled cereal of prehistory grown binder. together with emmer (Triticum dicoccum*)an d einkorn T. monococcum*). Itha s a very high ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM L. Sweet scented vernal multiplication factor (2500 caryopses per grass, Spring grass.2n=10 , 20.Europe ,Asia , plant). It is now awee d mainly ofwinte r ce­ W. part of N.Africa .Cultivate d as a forage reals, but types with a spring habit are also grass. It has a low food value.Th e diploid found (Knörzer, 1965). is also described asA . alpinum Love & Löve. Autoploidy has played an important role in the CYNOSURUS CRISTATUS L. Crested dogtail, Dogs- genesis of the tetraploid (Hedberg, 1970). tail grass.2n=14 . Primary centre inC . and W. Teppner (1970) suggested the following genome Europe, Caucasia and Asia Minor. formula forA . alpinum and A. odoratum: DACTYLIS GLOMERATA L. Cocksfoot, grass. species genome region 2n=28. Stebbins (1956)suggeste d that D. glo- formula merata is a tetraploid derived from tworela ­ ted diploids.On e of them could be D. aschers- A. alpinum 2x AA general oniana Aschers.& Graebn. (2n=14). This spe­ A. alpinum 4x AAAA Cantal, France cies is distributed over C. Europe,Himalay a A. odoratum 2x CC Italy and W. China.Anothe r diploid is D. smithii A. odorarum 2x DD Italy,Yugo ­ Link which exists in the Canary Islands.I t slavia, Greece is likely that all diploids derive from one A. odoratum 2x DE Serbia common diploid. Hybridization of diploids and A. odoratum 4x BBDD Southern C. doubling of the number of chromosomes and a- andW . Europe gain hybridization within the tetraploid group A. odoratum 4x BBFF W. Europe andwit h the diploids has led to the very var­ iable D. glomerata. Cultivated as a pasture A comparison of Austrian, Swiss,Swedis h and and hay grass. Polish populations showed that diploids from Austria and Switzerland are morphological DIGITARIA SANGUINALIS Scop. 2n=18, 28, 36 (-48, closer to those from Poland than to those in 54, 76).Bluthirse , Millet sanguin.S .Europe , Scandinavia (Hedberg, 1969). Asia Minor, Central Asia,N . and S.America , in temperate zones.Ther e is agrea t variation ARRHENATHERUM AVENACEUM Beauv. (syn.A . elia- of the species.Th e cultivated type is var.es - torBeauv.) . Tallmeado w oatgrass. 2n=40.Eu ­ culenta (Gaudin)Caldesi .Amon g this variety rope. A valuable pasture grass. var. frumentaceaHenr . and spp. aegyptiaca (Retz)Henr . are found.Primar y centre is not ARRHENATHERUM TUBEROSUM Druce (syn.Aven a tu- known. Probably first cultivated in Illyria berosa Gilib., Arrhenatherum avenaceum Beauv.). preceeded by a long time of collection of wild Onion couchgrass. 2n=18. Inneolithi c times plants.Cultivate d formerly in a large area GRAMINEAE -GRAMINEA E 153

in Europe. Another area of cultivation is in LOLIUM MULTIFL0RUM Lam. var.westerwoldicu m India (p. 73). Whether the origin of cultiva­ Wittm, (syn. spp.multifloru m (Husnot)Becher - tion independently arose here, or whether this er). Westerwolds ryegrass. 2n=14. Annual types cereal spread to India•from Europe or the re­ derived from populations of spp. italicum were verse is not known (Portères, 1955a). Spp. selected at Westerwolde,NE .Netherlands . pectiniforrais Henr. of E. Europe, the Near East and NE. Africa. Not cultivated. Spp. aegyptia- LOLIUM PERENNE L. Perennial ryegrass. 2n=14. ca has an 'eastern' origin but it is probably Not know where and when itwa s domesticated, not in Egypt. From this subspecies the culti­ but probably in Europe.However , the parent vated var. frumentacea is derived. Spp. vulga­ plants may have come from the Mediterranean ris (Schrander) Henr. is very variable and area of SW.Asia .Th e first true grass sown in widely distributed. a pure, or relatively pure state. Cultivated now in the Old andNe w Worlds.Tetraploid s and ARUNDINACEA Schreb. 2n=(28), 42,(70) . amphiploids with Festuca pratensis*ar e culti­ Europe, N. Africa andAsi a (Syria, Siberia, vated. Natural hybrids between these two spe­ Japan)No t much cultivated, due to itscoarse ­ cies are described asFestuloliu m loliaceum ness although seeds have been commercially (Huds.) P. Fourn.Hybrid s of L. perenne and available for a long time. L.multiflorum * have been called,L. x hybridum According toBorril l (1972) the tetraploid Hausskn. These last two species are closely re­ andhexaploi d cytotypes have affinities with lated. F. pratensis*,whil e the octoploid and deca- ploid possess agenom epai r of F. scariosa L. Red canary grass.2n = Aschs. & Graebn. (2n=14). This species isen ­ 14, 28.Mos t ofEurope ,W., N. and E.Asia . demic in the Spanish SierraNevada . Cultivated in the Old and NewWorlds . F. arundinacea has been rather widely intro­ duced as ameado w and pasture grass in northern PHLEUM PRATENSE L.Timothy ,Herdsgrass . 2n= USA. mostly 42,genom e formula NNA1AXA2A2. Europe, N. Asia and N.Africa .A n amphiploid of P. FESTUCA OVINA L. Sheep's fescue. 2n=14,(21) , alpinum L. (Alpine timothy, 2n=28)an d P.no ­ 28, 42, (49),56 , 70.Europe , theCaucasus , dosum L. (syn.P . pratense var.nodosu m (L.) the Himalaya and N.America . Cultivated inEu ­ Richter) (2n=14, genome formula NN(?)).A tetra­ rope. An important grass ofAustrali a and S. ploid type similar to this species was developed Africa. Many 4x and 6x types have been des­ from the diploid Ph.nodosu m after doubling the cribed asFestuc a species. number of chromosomes.Ph . pratense is cultiva­ ted inEurop e and N. America as a forage and FESTUCA PRATENSIS Huds. (syn.F . elatiorL.) . hay crop. Fescue grass,Meado w fescue,Englis h bluegrass. 2n=14, FpFp, (28,42 ,70) .Europe ,Caucasia , PHRAGMITES COMMUNIS Trinius.Reedgrass .2n = Iran, the Urals and Siberia.Cultivate d inEu ­ (36), 48, (54,84 ,96) .A cosmopolite grass rope and N.America .Natura l hybrids with Lo- used for land reclamation andban k protection. lium perenne* are described asFestuloliu m Young sprouts are eaten,whil e the culms have loliaceum (Huds.)P . Fourn. (syn.Festuc a lo- many uses. liacea Huds.), 2n=2x=14, LpFp, loloid 3x=FpLp Lp, festucoid 3x=FpFpLp. POA BULBOSA* According to Jauhar (1975), F. pratensis and Lolium perenne are closely related and probably POA PALUSTRIS L. Fowl bluegrass. 2n=18,(42) . evolved from a common progenitor, as there is Arctic zone ofEurope ,Asi a and N.America . no effective intergeneric barrier to gene flow. Various varieties have been developed inEu ­ rope. L. Red fescue. 2n=14, (28), 42, 56, (70 and aneuploids). Europe, temperate A- POA PRATENSIS L. Bluegrass,Kentuck y bluegrass, sia, Africa and N. America. Much cultivated as Birdgrass. 2n=38-147.Europe ,Asia ,N . Africa a pasture grass. In New Zealand chewings fes­ and northern N. America.Th e great variation in cue is cultivated. It is a red fescue of the chromosome number owing to autoploidization has non-creeping type (spp. fallax). Var. genuina resulted inman y species descriptions,bu t they is creeping red fescue. canb e considered as synonyms.Furthermor e as apomixy of this species is not constant, types GLYCERIA FLUITANS R. Br.Mann a grass. 2n=(20), with different chromosome number may be selec­ 28, 40.Wa s collected ina large part ofE . ted. So itwa s possible to selectplant ssimila r Europe. toP . pratensis from P. trivialis*. Ifthi s pro­ ves that P. pratensis derives from P. trivialis HOLCUS LANATUS L. Soft meadow grass,Wooll y then P. pratensis must have originated in the soft grass,Yorkshir e fog,Velve t grass.2n = Old World. Various varieties have been bred in 14. Europe and temperate Asia. Cultivated for Europe and Canada (p.202 ) and elsewhere. pasture andhay . A secondary centre of diver­ sity is developing in New Zealand (p.65) . POA TRIVIALIS L.Roughis h meadow grass. 2n=14, (28). Europe and S. Siberia.No t much cultiva- EUROPEAN SIBERIAN REGION ted. Itmigh t be the parent species of P. pra- tensis*.

SPARTINA ANGLICA CE. Hubbard, Cordgrass. 2n= 122. Originated inW . Europe after introduction of the American S. alternifolia Lois. (2n= 62)an dhybridizatio n with theEuropea n S.ma ­ ritima (Curt.) Fern. (2n=60). The hybrid is named S. x townsendii H. &J . Groves (2n=62). From thishybri d the amphiploid S. anglica e- volved,whic h has ousted out its parent S.ma ­ ritima (Adema& Mennema, 1979). Cultivated for soil reclamation and stabilization.

TRISETUMFLAVESCEN S (L.)Beauv . (syn.T . pra- tense Bers.). Yellow catgrass,Golde n oatgrass. 2n=24, 28. Itprobabl y derives from T. sibiri- cumRupr . (2n=14,24) .Thi s species occurs in Kamtschatka, Siberia. From here it spread west­ wards.

TRITICUM AESTIVUM (L.)Thell . spp. compactus Host.). Clubwheat. 2n=42, genome formulaAAB - BDD. The clubwheats of the Austrian alpines, except for the research ofE .Mayr . are much neglected. They are probably derivatives of the wheat (T. antiquorum Heer) cultivated by the Swiss Lake Dwellers in the Neolithicum.The y arenearl y extinct.

TRITICUM AESTIVUM (L.)Thell .spp . spelta (L.) Thell. Spelt. 2n=42, genome formula AABBDD. Cultivated from the Belgian Ardennes toSwit ­ zerland and to Schwaben, Germany and inSpain . Formerly the spelt area inEurop e must have been much larger running from Sweden to Spain Ribes acicularis and may be up toAfric a (p.135). In Spain (Asturia) spelt is harvested in the same way as inTranscaucasia . It is remarkable that lated N. American Ribes-species R. oxyacanthoi- many German/Belgian spelts,th e relic Swedish des Mill. (2n=16), R. hirtellum Mix. (2n=16), spelt (from Gotland) and one from Africa carry R. divaricatum Dougl. (2n=16), R. cynosbati L.* anRf tim-gene (Zeven, 1971). (2n=16), R. pinetorum Greene (2n= )an d R. niveum Lindl. (2n=16) carry resistance to mil­ ZEAMAY S L. Maize. 2n=20. Secondary centres in dew, while R. niveum and R. divaricatum may be S.Europ e and the Mediterranean Region (p. 112) used as source of mildew resistance and to im­ in theEuropea n corn belt and the Atlantic and prove fruit characteristics.Resistanc e toNa - Continental maize growing regions (Brandolini, sononia ribisnigri Mosley is found in R. roezlii 1970). Domesticated inC . America (p.190) . Regel (2n=16) andR . sanguineumPurs h (2n=16), Flint maize - indurata Sturt.- is common in while the latter species and R. cereumDougl . all these areas. (2n=16)ar e sources of resistance toHypero - Siberian ecotypes are recognizedb y germina­ myzus lactucae L. (Keep &Briggs , 1971). tion at 5-6°C, cold resistance of seedlings to Hybrids between R. grossularia andR . sangui­ 4-5°C, rapid growth, earliness,hig h assimila­ neum are namedR . fontenayense Jancz. (2n= ). tion rate andprotogyn y (Gerasenkov, 1968). Spineless types are also found of R. oxyacan- thoides. Grossulariaceae RIBES NIGRUM L. (European)Blac k currant. 2n= RIBES ACICULARIS Smith. 2n= .Th e mountains 16. Eurasia and sporadically inN .America . of Siberia especially in theAltai .Th e most The cultivated type was derived from the wild precocious Ribes-species with ahig h winter- one. InN . Scandinavia very precocious,winter - hardiness and mildew resistance.Thes e charac­ hardy types are found. The American R. ameri- teristics are useful inRibes-breeding . canumMill . (2n= )an d theAsiati c R. di- kuscha Fish, are related to theblac k currant. RIBESGROSSULARI A L. (syn.R . uva-crispaL.) . They have breeding value. (European)Gooseberry . 2n=16. Eurasia and in Cultivars of var. sibiricum F.Wolf , of this the mountains ofW . Asia and the Mediterranean species and R. ussuriense* are sources ofre ­ countries.Cultivate d in temperate zones.Re - sistance to theblackcurran t gall mite.Phy - GRAMINEAE -LEGUMINOSA E 155

toptus ribis Nal. Canary Islands.Cultivated . Probably theparen ­ Spontaneous hybrids with R. procumbens (2n= tal formo fM .spicata *an don eo fth eparent s ) occur in the USSR. ofM .japonic a Mak.,M .arvensis *an dM .a - quatica* (Ikeda& Ono , 1969). This speciesi s RIBES PETRAEUM Wulfen. Rock red currant. 2n= related toM .longifolia *an dM .spicata* . 16. The Pyrena to the Carpates and N. Africa. Cultivated in the . One of the parents of MENTHA xSMITHIAN A R.A.Graha m (syn.M .rubr a the present-day red currant (R. sativum*). Sm.,no nMiller) . 2n=54, 120.Rarel y cultiva­ ted (Tutine tal. , 1972). Iti sa hybri d ofM . RIBES SATIVUM Syme (R. rubrum L., R. multi- aquatica*x M .arvensis *x M .spicata* .Usual ­ florum Kitt, and R. petraeum Wulf.). 2n=16. ly sterile, spreading vegetatively. The wild R. sativum grows in W. Europe. In N. America it has run wild. R. rubrum is found MENTHA SPICATA (L.)Hudso n (syn.M .viridi s wild in W. and C. Europe and N. Asia. R. pe­ L.). , Green mint, Lamb mint.2n=36 , traeum* grows in the mountains of Europe and 48, genome formula RRSS (48+2B,64) .Temp .Eu ­ Asia. R. sativum is probably the originally rope. I tmigh t derive froma nautotetraploi d cultivated species. Later it hybridized with plant ofM .rotundifolia * after which one ge­ the other two, so these three species are the nome pairR Rchange d into SS. Tutine tal . parents of the present-day red currant. (1972) suggested that this species arosei n cultivation asa segmenta l allopolyploido f RIBES SPICATUM Robson. 2n=16. NE. Europe. M. suaveolens (seeM .x rotundifolia* ) andM . Sometimes cultivated. longifolia*. Var, crispata Schrader (syn.M . crispaL. )ha sgenom e formula RRSCSC. This Guttiferae species ison eo fth eparent s ofM .x piperita* . Itmigh tb eon eo fth eparent so fM .x villosa* . HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L.Sain t Johns wort.2n = Murray etal . (1972) artificially crossedM . 32, (36).Cultivate d ona smal l scale inth e aquatica (2n=96)an dM .spicat a (2n=48). This Netherlands asa medicina l crop. resulted inver y variable Fidu et oth ehetero ­ zygosity ofth epolle n parent. Some hybridsre ­ Juglandaceae sembled thenatura l strains ofM .x piperita , others didnot . JUGLANS REGIA L.Walnut ,Persia n walnut,Eng ­ lish walnut. 2n=32, 36.Primar y centreo fdi ­ MENTHA SUAVEOLENS Ehrh. (syn.M .rotundifoli a versity inRegio n5 .Secondar y centre inSW . auct.,no n(L. )Hudson) . 2n=24. Cultivateda s Europe andMoldavia . apotherb . Almost allvarietie s inGerman y areapomic - tic. MENTHA xVILLOS A Hudson (syn.M .cordifoli a auct.,M .gratissim a Weber). 2n=36.Thi s Labiatae species isa hybri d ofM .spicata * andM .sua ­ veolens*. MENTHA CARDIACA Gerarde xBaker . Scotch mint, Scotch spearmint.2n = .Temp .Europe .Culti ­ vated forit svolatil e oil.Closel y relatedt o M. xgentili sL . (2n=54,60 ,84 ,96 ,108 , 120). NEPETA CATARIA L. (syn.Catari a vulgaris Iti sbelieve d that these twospecie s are hy­ Moench.). Catnip, Catmint. 2n=(32), 34, (36). bridso fM .arvensis *an dM .spicata* . Europe.A perennia l herb cultivated formedi ­ cinal purposes. MENTHA xGENTILI SL .(syn .M .sativ a var. gen­ tilis (L.)Reichenb.) . 2n=54,60 ,84 ,96 , 108, ORIGANUM VULGAREL .Wil d majoram. 2n=30.A n 120.A hybri d ofM .arvensis *an dM .spicata* . extremely variable species fromth eAzores , Usually sterile.Cultivate d frequently. Madeira,th eCanar y Islands,Europ e throughout the Mediterranean Region,W. ,C .an dE .Chin a MENTHA xPIPERIT A L. . 2n=(36,48 , toTaiwan . Itsgrea t variationha sresulte di n 54-69), 72,(84 ,108 ,122 ,144) .Probabl ya numerous synonyms (Ietswaart, 1980). Cultiva­ natural hybrido fM .aquatica *an dM .spicata* . ted asa medicina l plant. This hybridization probably took place inEng ­ land,f .piperit a (blackmint,blac k mitcham) Leguminosae iscultivate d inC .Europ e andGrea t Britain, while f.pallescen s Camus (white mint, white ANTHYLLIS VULNERARIA L. Kidney vetch, Spring mitcham)i scultivate d especially inFrance . vetch, Lady's fingers, Wound-wort, Amer, Tare. InUS Aexistin g Clones were replacedb yth e 2n=12. Temp. Europe, Caucasia, Ante-Asia, N. cultivar Mitcham in1890 .Thi s isstil lth e Africa and Ethiopia. Cultivated since 1858 main clone cultivated. (Mansfeld, 1959) and is now usually mixed with pasture grasses. MENTHA ROTUNDIFOLIA (L.)Huds . (syn.M .spi ­ cata var.rotundifoli a L.). Apple mint,Wooll y ASTRAGALUS CICER L. Milk vetch. 2n=64. Europe. mint. 2n=24, genome formulaRR .Europ ean d A perennial pasture plant well-adapted for grass 156 EUROPEAN SIBERIAN REGION

mixtures (Whyte et al., 1953).

ASTRAGALUS FALCATUS Lam. Sicklepod milk vetch. 2n=16.W . Asia.A forage plant cultivated in USSR and France. j ASTRAGALUS GLYCYPHYLLUS L. Milk vetch. 2n=16. rfb'' Europe and Siberia toAltai .A perennial herb l\ I { cultivated as a fodder. fa

CORONILLA VARIA L.Crow n vetch. 2n=24. C. and S. Europe extending to C. Russia. Cultivated \ \>V vX * as an ornamental, a fodder crop and a cover crop. Medicago falcata (Fischer, 1938).

GALEGA OFFICINALIS L. Galega,Europea n goat's rue. 2n=16.E. ,C . and S. Europe,Caucasia , InEurop e andAsi a from longitude 10° to 85° AsiaMino r and Iran.Cultivate d as a forage E. and latitude 42°t o60 °N. , and mountains crop and as an ornamental. near the S. limits.Th e 4x is commonwhil e 2x is rare but occurs in thewhol e area.Th e 2x GLYCYRRHIZAECHINAT A L. 2n=16.SE .Europ e to ssp. romanica (Prod.)Haye k possesses some rare Hungary and Italy. Cultivated to produce liquo­ characteristics andma y derive from an older 2x rice. stock (Lesins & Lesins, 1979).

GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA (syn.G . glandulifera MEDICAGO GLOMERATA Balbis.2n=16 , (32?). Mari­ Waldst. &Kit.) . Common licorice, . time Alps. Useful as gene source ofM . sativa*. 2n=16. Europe and the Mediterranean region.A perennial herb. Var. typica Regel &Herde r is MEDICAGO LUPULINA L. Hop clover,Blac kmedic . cultivated to produce Spanish or Italian li­ 2n=16, genome formula SS, 32, (64).Europe ,mos t corice and var. glandulifera Waldst. Russian ofAsi a and N.Africa . It is naturalized inN . licorice. America.Th e 4x type has been found inC .Si ­ beria. Occasionally included insee d mixtures HEDYSARUM HEDYSAROIDES (L.)Schinz .& Thell. forpastures .Cultivate d since 1659 in England (syn. H. alpinum Jacq.). 2n=14. S.Europe , and 1785 in France, and now in the Old and New Asia Minor,Americ a and Caucasia. Cultivated Worlds as agree n fodder,ha y crop and green as a fodder crop especially in the Alps. manure (Lesins & Lesins, 1979).

LATHYRUS SYLVESTRIS L. Flat pea,Woo d pea. MEDICAGO SATIVA L. Lucerne,Blu e alfalfa. 2n= 2n=14. Europe.Cultivate d for forage and as (16, genome formula SS), 32, (48,genom e for­ an . mula SSSSSS,64) .Transcaucasi a (p.97) .Tw o populations -on e from theBalkan s and one from LATHYRUS TUBEROSUS L. Groundnut peavine,Eart h France -"met "i nThuringia , Germany. This re­ chestnut. 2n=14. Europe and W. Asia.Cultiva ­ sulted in ahybri d swarm from which winterhardy ted for its tubers. In the 16th Century its types were introduced inMinnesota , USA in1857 . flowers were distilled forperfume s (Uphof, 1968). MELILOTUS ALBUS Medik.Whit e sweet clover,Bok ­ hara clover,Hone y clover,Whit e melilot.2n= = LOTUS CORNICULATUS L. Birds-foot trefoil.2n = 16. Europe andW .Asia .Cultivate d in the Old 12, 24.Europe ,moderat e Asia and N.Afric a to World and particularly in the USA as a fodder Ethiopia. Formerly and atpresen t inUS A in crop and green manure. use in seedmixture s for a ley crop and for It can be divided into two groups 1) the an­ pastures. Landolt (1970)an d Somarov & Grant nual wild type and 2) thebush y type.Th e latter (1971)suggeste d that thediploi d isa hybrid might be amutan t of group 1, or derive from a and the tetraploid an allotetraploid of L. al- natural cross ofM . albus.Fro m both groups cul- pinus Schleicher (2n=12) of the Alp and the tivars have been selected. submediterranean L. pilosus Jord. (2n=12). The very low variation of this species may The erect,broad-leave d type probably from point to only a few introductions. C.Europea n origin is spread now as aconta ­ minant of grass seed for road sides throughout MELILOTUS ALTISSIMUS Thuill. 2n=16. Europe and W.Eurèp e (Jones, 1973). temp.Asia .Sometime s cultivated forhors e fod­ der. LOTUS ULIGINOSUS Schkuhr. Greater birds-foot trefoil. 2n=12, (24).Europe ,N .Africa ,Ante - MELILOTUS DENTATUS (Waldst.& Kit. )Pers . 2n= Asia toTibet .Cultivate d inC .Europ e and 16. E. andC . Europe toN . Sweden.Coumari n de­ Great Britain as a fodder crop (Mansfeld, 1959). ficient and salt tolerant.Use d tobree d cou­ marin free cultivars ofM . albus*. MEDICAGO FALCATA L.Yello w lucerne. 2n=16,32 . LEGUMINOSAE -LILIACEA E 157

MELILOTUS MACRORHIZUS Pers. 2n=16.Asi a and praecox). Europe. Cultivated inChin a for its roots which Autotetraploid types are widely cultivated are eaten as a vegetable.Closel y related toM . now. Var. americanum CO. Hartz was cultivated altissimus*. between 1883 and c. 1910 inC . Europe. It ori­ ginated from aN .America n introduction. It is MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS Lam.Bienna l yellow sweet often erroneously described asT . expansum clover, Field melilot,Yello w melilot. 2n=16. Waldst. titKit .Var .maritimu m Zabel (var. vil- W. Europe toW . China.Cultivate d inEurop e losum Wahlberg) is found wild on the S. coast and also in the USA. It is abienna l with spo­ of theBalka n Peninsula and var. frigidum radically some annuals. Gaudin occurs wild in the Alps. Red clover is closely related to the annual ONOBRYCHIS VICIIFOLIA Scop. (syn.0 . sativa T. diffusum Ehrh., 2n=16, toth e annual T. s.l.Lam.). Esparcette, Sainfoin. 2n=18.Temp . pallidum Waldst. &Kit. ,2n=1 6 and the peren­ Europe, SW.Asi a toAlta i and Transbaikal. Cul­ nial T. noricum Wulf., 2n=16. tivation was probably started in S.Franc e re­ sulting in spp. sativa.Ther e are three sub­ TRIFOLIUM REPENS L.Whit e clover. 2n=32, (48, species: arenaria (Kit& Koch.)Thellung , sand 64). Wild type (var. sylvestre). Inmeadow s esparcette,montan a (Lam. & D.C.), the mountain throughout Eurasia and N.Africa . Cultivation esparcette and sativa (Lam.)Thellung , the cul­ started probably inN . Italy (p. 115)an d in tivated esparcette.Th e last name is confusing, theNetherlands . Very variable. because spp. arenaria (alsodescribe d as var. Brewbaker &Kei m (1953)sugges t that T.ni ­ transcaucasia, syn.0 . transcaucasia Grossh.)* grescens Viv., Ball clover (2n=16) is one of is cultivated too. the parents.Che n & Gibson (1970)believ e that it is an autotetraploid while T. nigrescens SAROTHAMNUS SCOPARIUS (L.)Wimm . ex Koch. Broom. andT . occidentale D. Coombe (2n=16) arere ­ 2n=(14), 46,48 .W . and C. Europe. Cultivated lated to it.T . uniflorum L. (2n=32)migh t al­ as asoi l stabilizer. sob e aparent .Thi s species is found inE . Mediterranean area to Sicily. It includes T. TRIFOLIUM HYBRIDUM L. (syn.T . fistulosum savianum Guss. of Sicily and Calabria, Italy. Gilib.). Alslike clover. 2n=16.Temp .Europe , It is probably an autotetraploid. Navalikhina SW. Asia and N. Africa.Possibl y first culti­ (1977) suggested thatwhit e clover is anal ­ vated in Sweden. Introduced to other European lopolyploid of T. nigrescens,T . occidentale countries and N.America .Ofte n found in fields and T. uniflorum. of red clover. Very likely not the ancestral form ofT . repens*.Th e cultivated type spp. TRIFOLIUM RESUPINATUM L. (syn.T . suaveolens hybridum isprobabl y derived from the wild Willd.). Persian clover. 2n=(14), 16.Th eMe ­ type spp.elegan s (Savi)Asch .& Graebn. In diterranean area to Iran,Afghanista n and In­ Anatolia spp. anatolicum (Boiss.)Hossai n is dia. Cultivated as a fodder crop.Var .maju s found. Boiss. is syn. toT . suaveolens Willd.

TRIFOLIUM PANNONICUM Jacq.Hungaria n clover. TRIGONELLA C0ERULEA (L.) Ser. Sweet trefoil. 2n=c. 96,98 ,c . 126,c . 130,c . 180.E. ,C 2n=16. Cultivated and also found as awee d or and S.Europe . Cultivated. ruderal. Itma y be derived from T. procumbens (Besser)Reichenb . (syn.T . besserana Ser., L. Red clover. 2n=14, ge­ T. coerulea spp.procumben s (Besser) Thell.). nome formula AA, (28).Europe ,W . andC . Asia This species is anativ e toEC . and SE.Europe . and N.Africa . Primary centre inRegio n 9. It was probably first cultivated in theNether ­ ULEX EUROPAEUS L. Common corse. 2n=96. W. Eu­ lands, in thebeginnin g of the 16th Century. rope to Italy. Cultivated formerly for fodder, The Classics already mentioned 2000 years ago bedding and as hedges. that local ecotypes were developed in SE.Eu ­ rope and Asia Minor.Sprea d to Germany and VICIA CRACCA L. Gerard vetch. 2n=12, 14,(21 , through Flanders to England. In the beginning 24), 28.W . Europe toKamtchaska ,E .Chin a and of the 17th Century seed of red cloverwa s ex­ Japan. Cultivated. ported from the Netherlands to the Scandina­ vian countries and France. From England red VICIA HIRSUTA (L.)S.F . Gray. Common tare, clover was spread toUSS R and N.America .The ^ Hairy tare. 2n=14. Europe,N . Africa and W. wild type hasmor e leaves and new shoots emerge Asia. Cultivated inW . of USSR together with from internodes at thebut t end,whil e the cul­ barley. tivated type has less leaves and new shoots emerge from the leaf rosett.Th e variable wild VICIA PANN0NICA Crantz.Hungaria n vetch.2n = type is described as var.pratens e Bobr. and 12. Primary centre inSW . Asia (p.98) .Se ­ the cultivated as var. sativum (Crome)Bobr . condary centre in Hungary. (syn.T . sativum (Sturm)Crome . Late red clover (var.serotinum ) may have de­ Liliaceae veloped from contaminants or spontaneous mu­ tants in USSR from introduced early types (var. ASPARAGUS OFFICINALIS L. Garden asparagus. 2n EUROPEAN SIBERIAN REGION

=20. Primary centre probably in the saltsteppes RUMEX SCUTATUS L. (R. alpestris Jacq.). French ofE .Europe .A . officinalis var. prostratus sorrel. 2n=20, (40).C . and S.Europe , Alpine Richter is a tetraploid (Braak &Zeilinga , regions,Caucasia , India. Cultivated as a 1957). vegetable (var.hortensi s Lam. &DC) .

CONVALLARIA MAJALIS L. Lily-of-the-valley. 2n Portulacaceae =32, 36, 38. Europe, temp. Asia and Japan. A perennial herb cultivated as a medicinal crop PORTULACA OLERACEA L. Purslane. 2n=2x=18,4x = and as an ornamental. 36, 6x=54. Purslane is a cosmopolitan weed whose origin is doubtful (Danine t al., 1978). Linaceae The cultivated type (ssp. sativa (Haw.)Celak. , 2n=54) is avegetable ,whic h probably developed LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. Flax,Linseed . 2n=30, inEurop e from the Eurasian weedy type ssp. (32). For origin £;eep . 99.Helbae k (1971) oleracea, 2n=54. The distribution of the 2x, supposed twoway s of introduction of flax. One 4x and 6x wild and weedy subspecies indicates through Greece and the Donau valley into C. that one of the centres of diversity is Mexi­ and W. Europe and the other west of the Black co (p. ) (Danin et al., 1978). Sea in anorther n direction intoRussia , The first was probably awinter-annua l which is Ranunculaceae the parent of "Winterlein" cultivated inGer ­ many. The other was probably asummer-annual . NAPELLUS L.Monkshood . 2n=24, 32.C . Inth e firstmilleniu m B.C. the latter was in­ Europe. Cultivated as amedicina l crop andal ­ troduced to C. andW . Europe. It is at present soa s anornamental . described as spp.eurasiaticu m Vav. & Ell. In NW. USSR there is acentr e of flax containing AQUILEGIA VULGARIS* some of the finest fibre flax varieties. InW . Europe and Ukraine thewee d rattle * flax, L. crepitans Dumort. (2n=30), now in­ cluded in L. usitatissimum isprobabl y the Resedaceae weedy type of flax. RESEDA LUTEOLA* Malvaceae Rhamnaceae ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS* RHAMNUS CATHARTICUS L. Buckthorn. 2n=24. Eu­ Paeoniaceae rope up to Transcaucasia and W. Siberia, and in Algeria. Formerly the fruits of this tree PAEONIA OFFICINALIS L. , Piney. 2n=20. were used as a source of yellow dye. S.Europe ,Asi aMino r and Armenia.A perennial herb cultivated for itsmedicina l merits. RHAMNUS FRANGULA L. Alderbuckthorn . 2n=20, 22, 26.Europe ,Asi a and N.Africa .A tree for­ Plantaginaceae merly cultivated.

PLANTAGO LACEOLATA L. Rib grass.2n=12 , (13, Rosaceae 12 + 2B). Cultivated on a small scale in the Netherlands and elsewhere as amedicina l crop. AGRIMONIA ODORATA (Gouan)Mill . 2n=56. It is included in A. eupatoria L., Agrimony.Culti ­ Polygonaceae vated as amedicina l crop.

RUMEX ACETOSA L. Garden sorrel. 2n=14Q ,1 5 AMYGDALUS BESSERIANA Schott, (syn.A . nana L., Cfan d other numbers.Temp .Europ e andAsia . Prunus nana (L.)Stokes ,P . tenella Batsch.). A perennial herb.Var .hortensi s Dierb. (syn. Dwarf almond, Dwarf Russian almond, Steppeal ­ R. ambiguus Gren.) is cultivated in the Old mond. 2n=16. Primary centre in E.Europ e and andNe w Worlds. Siberia.Als o wild in the Balkan, AsiaMinor , Causasus and China (p.42) .I t is the common­ RUMEX ALPINUS L. Alpine dock, Monk's rhubarb. est wild almond species and it is very frost 2n=20. C. Europe, the Balkans and Caucasia. resistant which makes itextremel y valuable Cultivated formerly in C. Europe as a vege­ as a rootstock ofA . communis. table. AMYGDALUS LEDEBOURIANA Schlecht, (syn. Prunus RUMEX OBTUSIFOLIUS L. Broad-leaved dock,Bit - ledebouriana Schlecht.) 2n= .A shrub from ter dock. 2n=40,(60) . Europe and temp.Asia . Tarbagatai andAltai . Cultivated. AMYGDALUS PERSIC A L. Peach. 2n=16. Primary RUMEX PATIENTIA L.Patienc e dock, Spinach dock, centre in China (p. 42). Secondary centre in Herb patience. 2n=(40), 60.Probabl y C. Europe Moldavia, USSR. toW .Asia .Cultivate d as avegetable . LILIACEAE

ARMENIACA BRIGANTINA (Vizl.)Pers . (syn.Pru ­ nus brigantina Vill.). Briançon apricot. 2n= . Originated in SE. France. The seeds are the source of the perfumed oil "Huile deMar ­ motte" (Uphof, 1968). Itmigh t be agen e source of late flowering. ~K. vu A y^ ARMENIACA SIBIRICA Pers. (syn. Prunus sibiri- ca L., P. armeniaca var. sibirica K. Koch.). Siberian apricot. 2n=16. Intern Mongolia to the Sowjet Far East and Lake Baikal. This spe­ JÉWt- cies has the largest distribution of all apri­ cot species (Zylka, 1970). It is very cold re­ sistant .

" y\ o^

Fragaria moschata

strawberry. 2n=14, genome formula AA. Europe, Asia andN . America (p.204) .Darro w (1955) stated that var. semperflorensDuch . is the parent of the cultivated strawberry. Itwa s domesticated N. of the Italian Alps. Cultiva­ ted from seed and vegetatively.

FRAGARIA VIRIDIS Duch. Polunitsa. 2n=14.Euro ­ pean part of Region 9. Cultivated formerly.

MALUS BACCATA (L.)Borkh . var.baccata .Si ­ berian crab apple. 2n=34. Wild in Transbaikal andAnte-Baika l territories. Primary gene cen­ Armeniaca sibirica tre in Siberia.Resistan t to frost.

MALUS PRUNIFOLIA (Willd.)Borkh . (syn.Pyru s FRAGARIA X ANANASSA Duch. (syn.F . grandiflora prunifolia (Willd.). Chinese crab apple.2n = Ehrh.). strawberry. 2n=56. Arose 34, (51,68) .Wil d and cultivated in theex ­ spontaneously inW . Europe (in agarde n near treme eastern sector of Region 9. Primary cen­ Haarlem, the Netherlands) after hybridization tre China. of F. virginiana* from N. America and F. chiloensis* from S. America. F. ovalis (Rydb.) MALUS PUMILA Mill. (syn.Pyru s malus L.) Lemm. from NW. USA is used as asourc e of Apple. 2n=34, 51,68 .Th e Balkans and SW.US ­ winterhardiness. SR (p.85) ,eastward s through Transcaucasia, Iran, Turkestan, and northwards to theAlta i FRAGARIA MOSCHATA Duch.Hautboi s strawberry. mountains. It occurs along the ancient and 2n=42.Europ e andEuropea n USSR. Cultivated mediaeval routes of commerce and migrationbe ­ formerly, and runwil d in other countries. tween Europe and E.Asia .Ma n has greatly pro­ moted its distribution (Wilcox, 1962). It L.Wil d strawberry, Alpine is considered as theprincipa l ancestor of the 160 EUROPEAN SIBERIAN REGION

spp. italica (Borkh.)Hegi) . Bullace plum, plum. 2n=48. S. and SE.Europ e and ad­ jacent parts of Asia. Occurs now throughout temp.Europ e and W. Asia. Probably only known as acultige n and naturalized. If so, it is obviously an allohexaploid. It is frostre ­ sistant.

PRUNUS MAHALEB L.Mahale b cherry, St.Luci e cherry. 2n=16.C . and S. Europe andW . Asia. Fruits are not edible. Used as rootstock for cultivated cherries.Mainl y self-incompatible.

PYRACANTHA COCCINEA M.J. Roemer. 2n=34. S. Europe andwestward s toNE .Spain . Cultivated as an ornamental and for its fruits.

PYRUS COMMUNIS L. (syn.P . domestica Med.). Common pear. 2n=34, (51).Europ e andW .Asia . Itha sbee ndivide d into spp.pyraste r L. (syn. P. pyraster Burgsd., P. communis var. achras Wallr.), spp.nivali s Jacq. (syn.P . nivalis Jacq.) and spp. salvifolia (syn.P . salvifolia DC.). Spp.pyraste r is themos t important one, it grows inC . Europe andW . Asia. Spp.nivalis , the pear grows inW . Switzerland and Malus baccata France. It is used as a rootstock. Spp.salvi ­ folia is found in the same areas.Th e cultivars are derived from these subspecies by selection cultivated apple.M . sylvestris* hybridizes and by crossing with P. serotina*, P. ussurien- with this species and hence may also have sis*, P. longipes, P. caucasica*, P. amygdali- played a small part as an ancestor. formls* and P. sallcifolia*. Pavlov (1969a, European USSR is the primary centre forman y 1969b) reported that types ofW . and S. Europe old cultivars as Antonovka, Aport, Borovinka. derive from crosses with P. nivalis*an d P. Inearl y 19th Century, Bolotov, described 600 amygdaliformis*,becaus e they have hairiness Russian cultivars; about 10 000 cultivars exist and ahig h number of stomatape r area like these in theworl d today.Thi s shows the very poly­ twospecies . morphic nature of this species which has also Some cultivars inCaucasu s show characteris­ arisen due to introgression with other species. tics obviously derived from P. caucasica*. The E. European cultivars show adirec t derivation PRUNUS CERASUS L. Sour cherry. 2n=32, genome from thewil d P. communis. formula CC. C. Asian centre (p. 101).Th e popu­ lation Vladimirskaya vishnia with large dark- PYRUS C0RDATA Desv. 2n= .W . Europe.Culti ­ scarlet fruits that are very palatable and aro­ vated inhedge s and for itswood . matic, originated in Region 9,extendin gwest ­ ward and southward to the Rhine andBalkans . ROSA xALB A L. French rose.2n=28 , 42.Culti ­ vated inBulgari a and S.Franc e for the per­ PRUNUS DOMESTICA L.Garde n plum, Domestic fumery industry.Probabl y ahybri d ofR . arven- plum. 2n=48, genome formula CCSSSS or CdCdSS sis* xR . gallica*, and awhit e flowered mem­ SJSJ^ orCdCdDiD 1D2D2. For origin see p.101 . ber of the Sect.Canina . Werneck (1958) considered UpperAustri a asa place where the garden plum has arisen.Bus h ROSA ARVENSIS Hudson. 2n=14. S., W. and C.Eu ­ seedling would have been transplanted to com­ rope. It is one of theparent s ofR . x alba*. pounds where further domestication may have occurred. The LakeBan k Dwellers of neolithic ROSA xBIFER A (Poiret) Pers. (syn.R . damas- Switzerland knew the garden plum. cena auct., non Miller). Damask rose. 2n=28. Probably ahybri d ofR .moschata * and R. gal­ PRUNUS FRUTIC0SA Pall. (syn.Cerasu s frutico- lica*. Cultivated inBulgaria , S.Franc e and sa Pall.). Dwarf Cherry, Bush Cherry, Ground Turkey. The petals are used toproduc e oil of Cherry, MongolianCherry , Steppe Cherry. 2n= roseswhic h isuse d in perfumery. 16, 32.Extende d overEurope . It occurs in great diversity beyond the Volga, in S. Ural, L.Brier , Dog rose,Doghip .2n=35 . SW. Siberia andBashkirskaya . One of the pa­ Europe, temperate Asia and N.Africa . It isa rents ofP . cerasus*. Itwithstand s -52°C. common rootstock of garden . The named selections are often less prickly than the wild PRUNUS INSITITIA L. (syn.P . domestica var. ones. insititia (L.)C.K . Schneider, P. domestica ROSACEAE -SALICACEA E 161

ROSA GALLICA L. French rose. 2n=28. S. and C. SORBUS AUCUPARIA L. (syn.Mespilu s aucuparia Europe up toBelgiu m andC . France and W.Asia . All.). tree,Europea n mountain ash.2n = Probably aparen t ofR .x bifera * and R. xal ­ 34. The "Mährische Eberesche" (var.moravica ) ba*. The petals are used in perfumery. was found in 1810 inCzechoslovakia . Itha s been improved and distributed. Before its domestica­ L. (syn.R . eglanteria auct.). tion var. rossica and var.rossica-majo r were Sweet briar. 2n=35.W . and C. Europe.Cultiva ­ already cultivated inUSSR . It is an important ted for its flowers and as rootstock. source of (Mueller-Stoll &Michael , 1949). ROSA VILLOSA L. Apple rose. 2n=28. Var. pomi- fera (Herrm.)Crép . Europe and SW.Asia . SORBUS DOMESTICA L. Service tree,Mountai n ash. 2n=34. S. Europe,N . Africa and W. Asia. Cul­ RUBUS ARCTICUS L. Arctic bramble, Nectarberry. tivated inEurop e for its fruits which are 2n=14. Europe and N.Asia . Used inbreedin g eaten ormad e intowin e and as an ornamental. work with R. idaeus*.Fruit s have a distinct Largefruited forms are found in forests in aroma and rich in Vit.C . A hardy, high Crimea (p. 101). yielding, disease resistant plant. Rubiaceae RUBUS CHAMAEMORUS L. Cloudberry, Yellowberry, Salmonberry, Bake apple.2n=56 .Europ e and N. L.Madder . 2n=44. S. Europe Asia used inbreedin g with R. idaeus*.Easil y and AsiaMinor .Cultivate d inEurop e as a dye domesticated (Larson, 1969). Seed and esp.sub ­ plant. terranean runners are used topropagat e this dioecious species. Salicaceae

RUBUS IDAEUS L. European red raspberry. 2n=14. SALIXACUTIFOLI A L. Caspic willow. 2n=38.A Spp. vulgatus wild inEurope . Itwa s domesti­ tree of USSR and Manchuria. Cultivated for twig cated. The present cultivars often are hybrids production. of this subspecies and its NE. American counter­ part spp.strigosus . SALIX ALBA L. (syn. S. aurea Salisb.). White The tetraploid subspecies:melanolasi s Focke willow. 2n=76. In large area of Europe and Asia from NW. America and Siberia, sachalinensis (p. 86) and N. Africa. Introduced into N. Léveillé from Sakhalin and sibiricus from Kam­ America. Cultivated in Europe for twig produc­ chatka, have been grouped as R. sachalinensis tion for dike building. Levi. Some cultivars derive from R. idaeus x R. chamaemorus*, cloudberry (2n=56). Crosses L. Goat willow, Common willow. have alsobee nmad e between this species and R. 2n=38, (57,76) .Europ e and N.Asia .Cultiva ­ R. xanthocarpus Bur. &Franc h from W. China, ted for its twigs. R. arcticus*L. , Arctic bramble (2n=14) and P. parviflorus L., Japanese raspberry (2n=14). L. Brittle willow, Crack willow. Other Rubus species have alsobee n used in 2n=(38), 76, (114). Europe,Asi a Minor, Syria, breeding work. Everbearin g types havebee nde ­ Iran and W. and C. Siberia.Ofte n planted for veloped. twig production. It ison e of the parents of S. x rubens Schrank. Willd.Evergree n . 2n=28. C. Europe.A cultivar was brought toN . SALIX PURPUREA L. Purple willow, Purple osier America where hybridization took place with willow. 2n=38. A large part of Europe, and in another European immigrant,R . procerus P.J. Asia toJapan , and inN .Africa . Cultivated Muell. (2n=14,28 ,49) ,Himalay a berry. In for twig production for dike works and basketry. 1925, amutan t was found inOrego n and named 'ThornlessEvergreen' .Thi s cultivar and its L. (syn.S . amygdalinaL.) . minormutant s are commonly grown in the USA. French willow, Almond-leaved willow. 2n=38, 44, (57,88) .Sprea d from W. Europe toE .Asia . RUBUS SAXATILIS L. Stoneberry. 2n=18. Europe Planted for twig production. One of the parental and N.Asia . InSwede n aspecie s hasbee n found species of the cultivated S. xmollissim a Ehrh. tob e resistant to rust and other diseases.Th e (2n=38). fruit has only a few drupelets and lacks fla­ vour (Larsson, 1969). SALIX VIMINALIS L. (syn.S . longifolia Lam.). Twiggy willow,Commo n osier,Baske t willow, SANGUISORBA MINOR Scop. 2n=18, (54,56) .Eu ­ Osier willow. 2n=38.C . Europe and a large part rope and temp.Asia . Sometimes cultivated to ofAsia .Muc h cultivated inN . and S. Europe flavour soup or for (Mansfeld, 1959). and elsewhere for twig production.Man y of the planted in the Netherlands for dike SANGUISORBA OFFICINALIS L. Great burnet,Gar ­ work belong to this species and to S. trian- denburnet . 2n=18, (42,56 , c. 70).Europe , dra*. They are often cultivated inmixe d stands Asia and N.'America. Sometimes cultivated asa which leads to cross fertilization and develop­ vegetable (Mansfeld, 1959). ment ofhybrids . 162 EUROPEAN SIBERIAN REGION

S. dasyclados Wimmer (2n=38,57 ,76 , 114) is archangelica includes the cultivated type, probably a complex hybrid of S. caprea x S. cinera x S. viminalis.S .heli x L. is ahybri d CEREFOLIUM (Waldst.& Kit. ) Sprengel, of S. purpurea* x S. viminalis. InGrea t Bri- Garden . 2n=18. Probably EC. and SE. tain, this willow is planted as awindbrea k Europe.Var . cerefolium has glabrous fruits, and to shelter cattle. It includes the cultivated type.

Sambucaceae L. (syn.Ligusticu m bul- bocastanum Crantz). 2n= .W . Europe.For ­ EBULUS L.Dwar f elder. 2n=36. From merly cultivated for its edible tubers. Netherlands and Ukraine southwards. Formerly cultivated as amedicina l plant. Naturalized CARUM CARVI L. (syn.Apiu m carvi Crantz). Cara­ elsewhere. way. 2n= 20,22 , (23,25) .Europ eÄi d W.Asia . Cultivated in temperate regions,N . India and L.Europea n elder. 2n=36.Eu ­ Sudan (seeC . roxburghianum*, C. copticum*). rope. Cultivated. Recently there has been a new interest in this tree because of the pro­ BULBOSUM L. Turnip-rooted cher­ cessing of alcohol-free beverage (Strauss & vil. 2n=22. Europe and W. Asia. Its cultiva­ Novak, 1971). tion as a vegetable is on the decline.

Saxiphragaceae DAUCUS CAROTA L.Whit e carrot,Orang e carrot. 2n=18. Afghanistan (p.86) .Th e origin of the CRASSIFOLIA (L.)Fritsch . 2n=34.Si ­ white type is not clear. Itprobabl y arose as beria, Altai and N.Mongolia . A perennial herb a mutant from ayello w type,mos t likely in cultivated since 1927 inUSS R as a tea plant France. The orange carrot probably originated (Mansfeld, 1959). in the Netherlands.Thi s type of carrot is now cultivated widely by peoples of European stock. Scrophulariaceae Itha s suppressed the growth of the purple car­ rot, which colours soups and food preparations DIGITALIS LANATA Ehrh. 2n=56. SE. Europe . El­ purple (Banga, 1957, 1963). The poor storage sewhere in Europe it may have run wild. Culti­ quality of the purple types (Small,1978b )ma y vated as a medicinal crop. also have encouraged their replacement by oth­ er types.Eve n before the introduction ofdo ­ DIGITALIS PURPUREA L. Purple fox-glove. 2n= mesticated carrots,wil d plantswer e grown in 56. S. (p. 118) and C. Europe. Cultivated as gardens asmedicina l crops (W.Brandenburg , a medicinal plant and as an ornamental. pers. comm., 1980).

VERBASCUM THAPSIFORME Schrad. 2n=32. Spread LEVISTICUM OFFICINALE Koch. (syn. Angelica throughout Europe. Cultivated for its medici­ levisticum Ball.). Garden ,Bladde r seed. nal properties and as an ornamental. 2n=22. Cultivated mainly for flavouring.

Solanaceae MYRRHIS ODORATA (L.)Scop .Garde n myrrh, Sweet scented myrrh. 2n=22.Europ e andCaucasia . L.Bel l pepper, ,Cay ­ Cultivated for flavouring and for fodder. enne pepper. 2n=24. Mexico (p. 196).Secondar y centre in Europe. PASTINACA SATIVA L. . 2n=22.Europe . Var. sativa is cultivated there and elsewhere PHYSALIS ALKEKENGI L. Strawberry tomato,Win ­ for its sweet, fresh tap-root.Th e wild type ter cherry. 2n=24. C. and S. Europe.A peren­ has a sourroot . nial herb cultivated for its fruits. PEUCEDANUM CERVARIA (L.)Lapeyr .Hart' s wort, SCOPOLIA CARNIOLICA Jacq. Scopalia.2n=46-48 , Much-good, Broad-leaved spignel. 2n=22. S. 48. Europe.Cultivate d as amedicina l crop. and C. Europe.Cultivate d formerly as amedi ­ cinal. SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. Potato. 2n=48.Domesti ­ cated in S. America. InEurop e spp. tuberosum (L.)Koch .Maste rwort . developed. Its geneticbasi s is very small. Pellitory of Spain,Hogfennel . 2n=22.Europe . This isprobabl y caused by only a few intro- Cultivated for its scenting root since the dutions, and afterwards by the selection for 16th Century, as amedicina l and asherb . Its short-day forms andb y mass killing during cultivation has almost disappeared now. blight epidemics in the 1840's. Valerianaceae Umbelliferae VALERIANA LOCUSTA (L.)Betcke . (syn.V . oli- L. Angelica. 2n=22. Tem­ toria Pollich). Corn salad, Lamb's lettuce. perate Europe,Himalaya , Siberia andKamtschat ­ 2n= .Europe ,N . Africa, Caucasia. Cultiva­ ka. Cultivated for its aromatic petioles.Spp . ted tob e used forsalads . SALICACEAE -VITIDACEA E

VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L. Valerian. 2n=2x=14, 4x=28, 8x=56. Most ofEurop e and temp.Asia . Subsp. officinalis (syn.V . exaltata Mikan f. ex Pohl), 2n=14, ssp. collins (Wallr.)Nyma n (syn.V . collina Wallr.), 2n=28, and ssp. sam- bucifolius (Mikan f.) Cecak (syn.V . sambuci- folius Mikan f., V. exelsa Poiret), 2n=56, are recognized, but other chromosomal numbers occur within a subspecies.Thes e ploidy levels and occasional hybrids have led toman y syno­ nyms (Schrantz, 1961). Cultivated for its rhizome which yields the drug valerian.

VALERIANA PROCUMBENS Wallr. 2n=56. Spain, Great Britain, France and Germany. Cultivated inGermany . This speciesmigh t be included in V. officinalis*.

VALERIANA SAMBUCIFOLIA Mikan f. ex Pohl. 2n= 56. Wild in N., C. and E.Europe . Cultivated inThuringia , Germany for its seeds.Thi s spe­ ciesmigh t be included in V. officinalis*.


VIOLA TRICOLOR L. 2n=26. Europe, Siberia up toAlta i and India. Spp. arvensis Gaud. (V. arvensis Murr., 2n=34) is acosmopolita n weed. This subspecies and spp. tricolor (2n=26) are cultivated for their medicinal and ornamental purposes.


VITISVINIFER A L. Common grape,Europea n grape. 2n~38, (57,76) .Fo r primary centres see p. 102). InEurope , thewil d grape played a role in the development of old and modern cultivars. The wild type is declining (Schumann, 1977). 10 South American Region

The South American Regionwa s restricted to theAnde s by Vavilov (1949/50) and recognized as theAndea nCentr ewhic h he divided into two areas:(1 ) Peru,Ecuado r and Bolivia; (2)th e island ofChilo e inChile .Th e areabe ­ tween the coasto fVenezuela ,Guyana ,Surina m andCayenne ,an dS .Brazi l and Paraguaywa s addedb y Darlington & JanakaAmma l (1945)a sa third centre. Zhukovskij recognized amegacentr e for thewhol e ofS .America ,an dHarla n (1971)demonstrate d the lack ofwel l defined centres oforigi n forcultiva ­ tedplant s in this region. Theoldes tknow n remains of cultivated plants inS .Americ a are Phaseolus vulgaris fromGuitarrer o Cave inPeru , datingbac k some 8000year s (Kaplan et al., 1973). This,however ,i sno tnecessaril y the centre oforigi no f agriculture inth eNe w World. Plantswer e domesticated on theAndea nHigh ­ lands aswel l as the tropicalLowland s (Reed, 1977), and aknowledg e of food production may have evolved independently in these regions.Tuberou s crops such asXanthosom awer e domesticated inth ehumi d tropicswhil e others such asOxalis, Solanu m and Ullucus are more typically cropso f theHig hAndes . S.Americ a provided theworl dwit h numerous fruits and vegetables,bu ta single cereal,Bromu s mango endemic toChilo e of Chile (Cruz, 1972). Maize (Zeamays )wa s introduced fromC .Americ a early in its evolution intoS . America,an d there evolved amajo r secondary centre of diversity. ACANTHACEAE -ANACARDIACEA E 165


JUSTICIA PECTORALIS Jacq. 2n= .Wes t Indies and trop.America . Var. stenophylla Leonard semi-cultivated inE .Colombi a to adjacent Ama­ zonian Brazil. It is asmalle r plant,ha s smaller and longer leaves, and has shorter in­ florescences than the common type.


FURCRAEA FOETIDA (L.)Haw . (syn.F . gigantea Venth.). Piteira, Piteira gigante. 2n=(18, 19, 34), 60.S . and C. America.Th e Mauritius hemp comes from var.willemettian a Roem. which is cultivated onMauritiu s and elsewhere.

FURCRAEA MACROPHYLLA (Hook.)Baker . . 2n = . .Cultivate d there on a small scale. Some varieties have developed. Fique fibre also comes from other Furcraea species such as F. andina Trel. (2n=60), awil d growing species from Equador and Peru, andT . humboldt- ianaTrel. , awil d growing species fromVene ­ zuela.


MESEMBRYANTHEMUM CHILENSE Mol. (syn.Carpo - brotus chilensis (Mol.)N.E .Brown) . Sea fig. 2n= .Chile .A shrub used inN .Americ a to stabilize dunes.


AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS L. Incawheat ,Quihuicha . (Sauer, 1976). 2n=32, 34.S . America,Asi a andpossibl y in Africa. Cultivated as agrai n crop. InAndea n region of Peru,Bolivi a and NE.Argentin a and AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS L.Thorn y pigweed. 2n=34. inChina , India,Nepa l and Afghanistan. Its S. and C.America .Widesprea d tropical noxious leaves are also eaten.A form with red flower- weed. Cultivated as avegetabl e (Mansfeld, 1959) spikes used as a garden ornamental ('love-lies in . Because of the spines it isun ­ -bleeding') should notb e confused with like any of the grain (Sauer, 1950). (Chenopodium quinoa*.Quino a is of S. American Where it grows together with A. dubius*steril e origin (Sauer, 1950)). Itresemble s A.edulis * hybrids easily arise:A . braunii Thell. and A. and thewil d S. American A. quitensis H.B.K., caracasamusH.B.K . Ingenera l A. spinosus is 2n=32. the female parent.Gran t (1959) supposed that A. spinosus is one of the parents of A.dubius , AMARANTHUS DUBIUS Mart, ex The11. 2n=64. Trop. but Pal (1972) does not support this. America. Cultivated there as apother b and for its grains. It also is a commonweed . It Anacardiacea e resembles A. cruentus*.Perhap s it is atetra - ploid from this latter species. See forhybri ­ ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. Cashew. 2n=42. Trop. dization with A. spinosus (p.165) . America from Mexico toPer u and Brazil and also theWes t Indies.Cultivate d now inman y tropical AMARANTHUS HYBRIDUS* countries which may form secondary centres of diversity. Thus Northwood (1966)showe d the AMARANTHUS MANTEGAZZIANUS Passer (syn.A . edu­ great variation in yield and nut size in the lis Spegazzini). 2n=32. Cultivated inArgenti ­ cashew populations inTanzania . na. The wild S. AmericanA .quitensi sH.B.K .(2n = 32)closel y resembles it.I ti s also included in SCHINUSMOLL E L. Californian pepper tree,Bra ­ A.caudata* asssp .mantegazzianu s(Passer)Hanelt . zilpeppe r tree. 2n=28, 30.Mexic o to Chile and Uruguay. Cultivated in the tropics as amedici ­ AMARANTHUS QUITENSIS H.B.K. Sangorache. 2n= nal plant, as a shade tree and as an ornamental. Cultivated inEcuado r for its brilliant red inflorescences,whic h are a source of dye.Se ­ SPONDIAS MOMBIM L. (syn. S. lutea L.). Yellow lection for bigger flowers (Heiser, 1964). mombim, Jobo, Hog plum. 2n=32. Trop. America. SOUTH AMERICAN REGION

A fruit tree now cultivated in the tropics. Araceae

SPONDIAS PURPUREA L. (syn.S . mombim L.). Red XANTHOSOMA ATROVIRENS C. Koch et Bouche (syn. mombim, Spanish plum. 2n= .Trop .America , C. X. peregrinum Griseb.). Yautia Amarilla, Nut America and Mexico. A small fruit tree. Edo., 2n= .Wil d in the llanos of . Widely cultivated for its tubers in theAn ­ SPONDIAS RADLKOFERI J. Donn. Sm. 2n= .Lowe r tilles and N. SouthAmerica . It is characterized C. America and .Derive d from S.mombin * by intensely dark green upper leaf-blades, and under selection for late fruiting. tubers with yellow flesh.A race grown inCub a has small tubers, and the race temba taia of Annonaceae Brazil ischaracterize d by soft tubers.A race grown inPuert o Ricowit h somewhat hairy leaves CHERIMOLA Mill. . 2n=14, 16. is known as jengibrilla. Wild in the Andean valleys ofEcuado r andPeru . There is its primary centre.A small tree.Cul ­ XANTHOSOMA BELOPHYLLUM (Willd.)Kunth . (syn. tivated now in the tropics. Itskaryotyp e is belophyllum Willd., X. versicolor Hort, similar to that ofA . reticulata* and A. squa­ ex Schott). Ocumo, Carouany. 2n= .Cultiva ­ mosa*. Several cultivars are known.Atemoy a is ted in the coastal mountains of Colombia and a hybrid with A. squamosa*. Venezuela, and east toGuyana .Th e tubers of this species is short and stocky,wit h white ROLLINIA DELICIOSA Safford. 2n= .Brazil .A flesh. A race, d'espinagas (spinach) is grown tree cultivated for itsfruits . in the mountains ofVenezuel a and adjacentCo ­ lombia for its edible leaves. ROLLINIA LONGIFOLIA St.Hil . (syn.R . dolabri- petala (Reddi)St.-Hil. ) 2n= .Brazil .A XANTHOSOMA BRASILIENSE Engler.Belember , Herbe tree cultivated for its fruits. a Calalou. 2n= .Wil d in S.Brazil .Culti ­ vated for its leaves that are cooked as avege ­ ROLLINIOPSIS DISCRETA Safford.2n = .Brazil . table inPuert o Rico and other Caribbeanis ­ A shrub cultivated for its fruits. lands.

Apocynaceae XANTHOSOMA CARACU C.Koc h et Bouche.Rolliza , Yautiablanc a (), Lampaza, Rejol- ACUTIFOLIA Poir. (syn.P . acuminata gar (Mexico), Manol a (Jamaica), Malang a (), Roxb., P. obtusa Lour.). 2n=36. Mexico and S. Ocumo (Venezuela). 2n= .Widel y grown, also America. Cultivated in the tropics as amedi ­ inAfrica .Tuber s are almost cylindrical with cinal tree. white or rarely orange flesh.

THEVETIA NEREIFOLIA Juss. (syn.T . peruviana XANTHOSOMA MAFAFFA Schott, (syn.X . blandum Schum.). Exile tree,Yello w oleander. 2n=20, Schott, X. poeppigii Schott). Mafaffa. 2n= 22. Trop.Americ a and West Indies.A shrub cul­ . Tropical forests of Colombia,Brazil , tivated in the tropics as amedicina l plant. Peru and Bolivia. This species is typically a crop of the wet tropics. It is grown for its Aquifoliaceae tubers in the Amazon Basin of Colombia.

ILEX PARAGUENSIS D. Don. (syn. I.paraguarien - XANTHOSOMA SAGITTIFOLIUM (Linn.)Schott , (syn. sis St.-Hil.). Paraguay tea,Yerb a maté.2n = X. edule (Mey.)Schott. , X. xanthorrhizon 40. S.America .Cultivate d for its leaves which (Jacq.)C . Koch,Aru m sagittaefolium Linn.). areuse d toprepar e tea. Yautia palma. 2n=24, 26.Mountain s ofVene ­ zuela.Widel y cultivated in the Antilles and S.America . Stem up to 1m tallbearin g tubers with white flesh. InJamaica , it is sometimes known asYauti apanama , although probably in­ troduced to theCaribbea n from S. rather than C. America.

XANTHOSOMA UNDIPES (C.Koc h etBouche ) C. Koch (X. jacquinii Schott.). Yautia palma,Malanga , Chau milon, Grande tayove.2n = .Thi s species resembles X. sagittifolium in developing and aerial stem. But, the leaves are purplish rather than green, and the tubers arewhit e or orange inside. Yautia palma is cultivated, and occurs Dispersion (—) and cultivation of Ilexpara - as awee d from C. Mexico throughout the Antilles guensis ( )(Patiîïo, 1968). toEquador . XANTHOSOMA VIOLACEUM Schott, (syn.X . nigrum Veil.). Jamaica tanier (Trinidad), Oto (Pana- ANACARDIACEAE - CACTACEAE 167 ma), Pica uncucha (Peru), Ocumo (Venezuela), V T— \ Yautia morada, Prieta (Puerto Rico), andMa - \ ^ ~~ ^ langa (Cuba). 2n=24, 26.Widel y grown in the (^ i """"'^ Antilles, C. and S. America.Th e species is characterized by its usually violet pink to \^ \ r purple leaves,an d tubers with white flesh but ) usually purplish outside. r~~i 1 ^ ]V — ,/• V-ï Basellaceae / v / ~~ ~* ( i r„ \ _ 1 f 1 N \ ' r BOUSSINGAULTIA CORDIFOLIA Ten. (syn.B .ba - I t >•} f selloides H.B.K.). Madeira vine,Mignonett e \ I ---iv vine. 2n=c. 20, 36.S . and C.America .Culti ­ \ 1 1 ' / vated as a leafy vegetable or for itstubers . ; y' / \\ • > - / ULLUCUS TUBEROSUS (Lindl.)Lozano . Ulloco (Pe­ , / ru, Bolivia), Chiqua (Colombia), Melloco (Equa- dor), Timbo (Venezuela), Papa lisa (Spanish). 1) ^~y 2n=24. Cultivated for its tubers from Vene­ Putative area of domestication of Ananas como- zuela toArgentina . Itswil d ancestor, U. a- sus (Pickersgill, 1976). borigineus Brücher 2n= is ahig h Andean species ofArgentin a and Chile.Tuber s are guazo discharges into theRi o Orinoco,Venezu ­ eaten fresh or dehydrated, and in some Andean ela. Brücher (1971) suggested that primitive villages ulloco ranks second as a staple only fibre and fruit cultivars have been selected. topotatoes . It isbeautifull y depicted on This selection work could have been carried pottery of the Tiawanako culture (Leon, 1964, out - independently of each other - in the re­ illustrations). Tubers are of various colours gion Guyana-Orinoco, andbetwee n Maranhao and and sizes, and numerous local races arere ­ Pernambuco. cognized. PSEUDANANAS MACRODONTES (Harms) Morr. 2n=c. Bixaceae 100. Argentina and Brazil.Ther e its primary centre is found. Cultivated on a large scale L. Annato. 2n=14, 16.Trop .A - onPolynesia n and Melanesian islands. merica and the West Indies. Introduced into many other tropical countries where itma y Cactaceae have runwild . It is a dye crop. CEREUS HEXAGONUS (L.)Mill . 2n= .Venezuela , Bombacaceae West Indies,N . . Cultivated there for its fruits and as ahedg e plant. QUARARIBEA CORDATA (H.& B. ) Garcia-Barriga & Hernandez (syn.Matisi a cordata H. &B. ) South CEREUS PERUVIANUS (L.) Mill. 2n=24. Probably American sapote.2n = .NW . South America. S. America (Hammer, 1976). Cultivated in the Within this region this fruit is cultivated. tropics as a hedge plant and ornamental. No superior strains have been developed yet. ERIOCEREUS MARTINII (Lab.)Riccob . 2n= .Cul ­ Bromeliaceae tivated inArgentin a as source of an alkaloid.

ANANAS C0M0SUS (L.)Merr . (syn.A . sativus HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS (Weber)Britt .& Rose . Schult.f., Bromelia comosa L.). Pineapple.2n - 2n= .Equador , ahedg e plant. =50, (75,100) .I t is suggested that the Tupi- Guarani domesticated pineapple in the Parana- OPUNTIA BOLDINGHII Britt. &Rose .2n = Paraguay river drainage area and that from NW. coast of Venezuela, Trinidad and Curacao. this region pineapple was spread to all (sub)- Cultivated inVenezuel a and onCuraca o asa tropics. However,Brüche r (1971) suggested hedge plant and for its fruits. that the domestication of pineapple might have taken place in the highlands of Guyana and a- OPUNTIA ELATIOR Mill. 2n= .Panama ,Colombia , longside the rivers there. In the first area Venezuela. Cultivated there and inMexico , In­ wild related species A. bracteatus (Lindl.) dia, Indonesia and Australia for its fruits. Schultes (2n= ),A . ananassoides (Bak.) The wild types bearman y long spines,wherea s L.B. Smith (2n= )an d Pseudananas sagena- in the domesticated types fruits are naked or rius (Arudda)Camarcq . (2n= )occur .A . bear a few short thorns (Hammer, 1976). bracteatus var.typicu s is occasionally culti­ vated for its fruits,whil e A. ananassoides OPUNTIA EXALTATA Berger.2n = .Peru .Culti ­ var. nanus is an ornamental. vated as ahedg e plant, and there and elsewhere as anornamental . ANANAS PARGUAZENSIS Card.-Cam. & Smith. 2n= . This species occurs where the RioPar - OPUNTIA VULGARIS Mill. 2n= 22,33 ,66 .Brazil , SOUTH AMERICAN REGION

Uruguay, Argentina and probably Paraguay, where (Gade, 1966). itma y have runwil d (Hammer, 1976). Cultivated as ahedg e plant in India, S.Afric a and Aus­ Caricaceae tralia. InAustrali a itha s run wild. Formerly cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and CARICA CANDAMARCENSISHook.f . (syn.C . pubescens E. Africa for cochenille. Lenne & Koch). Mountain . 2n= .Th eAn ­ des of Colombia and Ecuador. A tree cultivated Mill. Barbados cherry, Sweet there and also inE .Afric a for its fruits Mary,Wes t Indian gooseberry, Lemon vine.2n = (Mansfeld, 1959). 22. Trop. America.Cultivate d for its fruits and as ahedg e plant.Naturalize d inFlorida , CARICA CHRYSOPETALA Heilb. 2n= .Ecuador .A USA. tree cultivated for its fruits (Mansfeld, 1959). Badilla (1967) suggested that this species is PERESKIA BAHIENSIS Gurke. 2n= .Brazil . Cul­ a natural hybrid product ofC . candamarcensis* tivated in hedges. and C. stipulata Badilla from Ecuador.H e fur­ ther suggested that this species,C . pentago­ PERESKIA BLEO (H.B.K.)DC . 2n= .Colombia , na* andC . frutifragansGarci a & Hernandez Panama,Venezuel a andBrazil .Cultivate d there another hybrid of the same parents (fromCo ­ and elsewhere. lombia) should be grouped inC . x heilbornii Badilla. PERESKIA GUAMACHO Weber. 2n= .Venezuela , Marguerita Island.Cultivate d there and on CARICA PENTAGONA Heilb. 2n= .Ecuador .A tree Curacao forhedge s (Hammer, 1976). cultivated for its fruits (Mansfeld, 1959). Ba­ dilla (1967) suggested that this species is a PERESKIA SACHAROSA Griseb. 2n=22. Paraguay and natural hybrid product ofC . candamarcencis* Argentina. Cultivated there forhedges . andC . stipulata Badilla from Ecuador.

RITTEROCEREUS DEFICIENS (Otto &Dietr. ) Backeb. Caryocaraceae 2n= .Venezuel a and Curacao.Hedge s onCura ­ cao. NUCIFERUM L. 2n= .Brazi l andGu ­ yana. A tall tree cultivated in theWes t In­ RITTEROCEREUS GRISEUS (Haw.)Backeb . 2n= dies for its edible Suari nuts. Venezuela. Cultivated in trop.Americ a and Mexi­ co forhedge s and fruits. Chenopodiaceae

TRICHOCEREUS BRIDGESII (Salm-Dyck)Britt . & Aellen.Canihua . 2n= Rose. 2n= .Bolivia .Cultivate d there as 36. .Cultivate d on theAlt i Piano of hedge plant. Peru and Bolivia as amargina l grain crop (Dale, 1970). TRICHOCEREUS CUZCOENSIS Britt.& Rose.Peru . Cultivated there as ahedg e plant. CHENOPODIUM QUINOA Willd. Quinoa, Andean grain chenopod. 2n=allo 4x=36.Andes .Cultivate d in TRICHOCEREUS PACHANOI Britton & Rose.2n = theAnde s as agrai n crop.Thi s cultivation is Andean parts ofEcuado r and Peru. Apparently on its decline.Th eweed y C. hircinum Schrad. widely cultivated throughout theC . Andes (sensu Aellen), 2n=36 forms with quinoa aweed - (Schultes& Hofmann, 1973). cultigen complex (Wilson, 1976). Quinoa is closely related toC . nuttalliae*,whic h may Cannaceae derive from imported quinoa.

CANNA EDULIS Ker.Achira , Queensland arrowroot. Chrysobalanaceae 2n=18, (27).Probabl y NW. South America. Spread toMexico ,C . America, West Indies and N. South CHRYSOBALANUS ICACOL . Icacoplum, Coco plum. America.Achir a is cultivated in theWes t In­ 2n= .(Sub)trop .America .Cultivate d for its dies,Australia , S.America ,part s of Asia and fruits. Pacific Islands.Remain s of achira have been found atHuac a Prieta, N. Peru (Bird, 1948). Compositae They have been dated c. 2400BC . It could not be established whether they had been collected EUPATORIUM TRIPLINERVE Vahl. (syn.E . ayapana or cultivated. Vent.). 2n=51. Trop.America .A perennial herb Mukherjee &Khosho o (1971)suggeste d that introduced inJav awher e it is cultivated as a the triploid (2n=3x=27) isprobabl y an inter- medicinal plant. varietal hybrid involving genetically related varieties. It is vigorous and robust and has MADIA SATIVA Molina.Madia ,Tarweed . 2n=32. large rhizomes. Cultivated formerly inChil e as an oil-seed InS . America rhizomes of otherCann a species crop.Attempt s have beenmad e togro w itelse ­ (C. coccinea Mill., C. paniculata R. &C . and where, but without success.Th e culture isal ­ C. indica L.) have been collected and eaten most extinct now. CACTACEAE -EUPHORBIACEA E 169

POLYMNIA SONCHIFOLIA Poepp. &Endl . (syn. P. SCIRPUS CALIFORNICUS (C.A.Meyer )Steudel . edulis Weddell.)- Yacon strawberry. 2n=60.An ­ (syn. S. tatara Kunth). Totora. 2n=64, 68,70 . des. Cultivated there and elsewhere for its tu­ Widely distributed in the Americas, onEaste r bers. Island andHawaii .Materia l of wild plants are used forman y purposes like making rafts,hous e SPILANTHES OLERACEA L. (syn.S . acmella Murr.). and roofs, and as food forma n and animals. Para cress,Brazilia n cress.2n=14 , 24,52 . Sometimes cultivated inPer u (Heiser, 1978). Brazil, West Indies and also India. Cultivated as avegetabl e or salad. Dioseoreaceae

STEVIA REBAUDIANA Bertoni. 2n=22. N. Paraguay. DIOSCOREA PIPERIFOLIA Humb. &Bonpl . 2n= Annual andbiennial . The leaves contain stev- Brazil. Cultivated there. ioside,whic h is 300 times sweeter thancane - sugar. However it acts female sterilizing. DIOSCOREA TRIFIDA L.f. Cush-cush yam, Yampi. 2n=54, 72,81 .S . America and Antilles, cul­ L.Marigold . 2n= .Trop .A - tivated throughout Caribbean.A racewit h pur­ merica. Spread toman y other countries.Culti ­ ple tubers is grown on PuertoRico . vated for its medicinal properties (Neher, 1968). Itma y reach aheigh t of 3m ormor e when cared for.Ha s runwil d inFrance ,Yugo ­ slavia andGreece . e-i/ Convoivulaceae

MERREMIA MACROCARPA (L.)Roberty . 2n= .Bra ­ zil and West Indies.Cultivate d for its medi­ cinal tubers.

MERREMIA TUBEROSA (L.)Rendl e (syn. Ipomoea tuberosa L,). 2n=30. Brazil,Wes t Indies,trop . / N- ^^^v,- ^ " y \ Africa and India.Origi n isunknown .Cultiva ­ if.. ted as amedicina l and also as an ornamental. Itma y have spread from West Indies andBra ­ zilbecaus e in these areas M.macrocarpa * grows K wild and is cultivated. Dioscorea trifida (Coursey, 1967). Cruciferae

LEPIDIUM MEYENII Walp. Maca. 2n= .Per u and Erythroxylaceae Bolivia.Cultivate d inPer u for its root.A relic crop. ERYTHROXYLUM Lam. Coca,Guarigos . 2n=24. Unknown wild. Probably from high Andes ofPe ­ Cucurbitaceae ru andBolivia . Cultivated athig h altitudes inPeru ,Bolivia , Argentina, Colombia andBra ­ CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duch. ex Lam. Pumpkin, Winter zil. squash. 2n=40.Cultivate d all over theworld . Some taxonomists include E. novogratense*, Secondary gene centre in India and adjacent E. truxillense Rusby and E.bolivianu m Burck areas (p. 72).Whitake r & Davis (1962)sug ­ in this species. gested a common origin for C. maxima, C. fici- folia*,C . moschata* and possibly C. pepo* and ERYTHROXYLUM NOVOGRANATENSE (Morris)Hieron . C. mixta* fromC . lundelliana Bailey (2n=40). Truxillo coca.2n = .Andes .Cultivate d at a C. lundelliana grows inS .Mexico , lower altitude than E. coca*. Itwa s distri­ andHonduras .Fro m this parent,C .maxim a de­ buted to thetropics . veloped in N.Argentina ,Bolivi a and S.Peru . In this area the related species C. andreana Euphorbiaceae Naud. grows wild. It isprobabl y aweed y de­ rivative of the cultigen. HEVEA BENTHAMIANA Muell.-Arg. 2n=36.Th eAma ­ The wild C. ecuadorensis Cutler &Whitake r zone basin,Brazil ,Per u andBolivia .A tree (2n=40) is closely related to this species and cultivated for its rubber. C. andreana (Cutler &Whitaker , 1969). (Willd.) Muell.-Arg. Bra­ SICANA 0D0RIFERA (Veil.)Naud . Casabanana , zilian hevea, Para rubber tree. 2n==36. The Curaba. 2n= .Peru ,Brazi l toMexic o and West Amazon basin. This is the primary gene centre. Indies. This vine is cultivated in trop.Ameri ­ Secondary gene centre in Malaya (p. 52). Cul­ ca. tivated now in Malaya, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and in some other countries. In Africa rubber Cyperaceae has been cultivated as a farmer's crop and as



DESMODIUM DISCOLOR Vog. 2n=22. Brazil.A forage der tropical short-day conditions, that have plant. pods which do not open and soft-coated seeds rich inprotei n and of low alkaloid content DESMODIUM INTORTUM (Mill.) Urb. Greenleaf. 2n= (Brücher, 1970;Hackbart h &Pakendorf , 1970). 22. C. America and Brazil.Cultivate d in Aus­ Thebi g seeds are used toprepar e tarwi or ul- tralia (Hutton, 1970). lu. Other wild, but possible valuable Lupinus -species of the American continents should be DESMODIUM UNCINATUM (Jacq.)DC . Silverleaf. 2n domesticated. They are often shrubby and have =22. S. America.Cultivate d in Australia (Hut­ small seeds (Brücher, 1970). ton, 1970). MIMOSA INVISA* Willd. Tonka bean,Dutc h ton­ ka. 2n=32. Forests of trop.America ,Venezue ­ MYR0XYL0N BALSAMUM (L.)Harms .Balsa m ofPeru . la, theGuyana s and lower Amazonbasin . 2n=28. Var. pereira (Royle)Harm s is spread in The tree is cultivated now inVenezuela ,Ma ­ Guatemala and . It is a source of laya,Wes t Indies and some other tropical balsam. Itwa s cultivated in the imperial gar­ countries (Cobley, 1963). dens of the Aztecs inMexic o (Mansfeld, 1959).

ERYTHRINA GLAUCA Willd. 2n=42. S. America.A PACHYRHIZUS APIHA (Wedd.) Parodi. 2n=22. Pro­ shade tree in cacao plantations. bably acultige n developed by the indians in Bolivia and N. Argentina. ERYTHRINA MICROPHERYX Poepp. Anauca. 2n= Peru.A shade tree in cacaoplantations . PACHYRHIZUS TUBEROSUS (Lam.) Spreng. Yam bean, Potatobean , Jicama. 2n=22. The headwaters of GLIRICIDIA SEPIUM (Jacq.) Steud. (syn.G . macu- the Amazon.Fro m there itwa s distributed to lataBenth.) . 2n=20, 22.Mexico ,C . America otherpart s of S. America and parts of the West and N. South America.A shade tree,gree nma ­ Indies. The young pods and tubers are eaten. nure and fodder crop. PHASEOLUS ABORIGINEUS Burk. 2n=22.Forest s of INDIGOFERA ANIL L.(syn.I . suffruticosa Mill.). NW. Argentina Andes.Probabl y extended through Indigo plant. 2n=12.S.America . Once much cul­ Bolivia, Peru,Ecuado r up toHondura s (Burk- tivated in the tropics for its dye (indigo) art &Bücher , 1953). Itmigh t be theprogeni ­ (Heiser, 1965). tor ofP . vulgaris* inPer u (Heiser, 1965).

INGA FEUILLEI DC. (syn. I. reticulata Spr.). PHASEOLUS LUNATUS L. bean, Sievabean , 2n= .Peru . This tree is cultivated there Butter bean,Madagasca r bean,Burm a bean. 2n= for sweet fruit pulp (Uphof, 1968). 22. C. America, and in the Andes from Peru to Argentina. Kaplan (1965) showed that the big INGA PREUSSII Harms, 2n= El Salvador. Used limabea n of Peru was first domesticated in as ashad e tree. theAndea n highlands and that the small lima bean ofMexic oma y have arisen in the Pacific INGA PUNCTATA Willd. 2n= S. and C. America. coastal foothills of Mexico (p. 193).A small- Used as ashad e tree. seeded subspecies (ssp. microsperma, Sieva or Small Lima)originate d by . LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA* It spread to theAntilles .

LONCHOCARPUS UTILIS Smith. 2n=44. Peru.Culti ­ PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. Common bean. 2n=22. For vated as asourc e of rotenone. origin see p. 194.Th e earliest remains of cul­ tivated commonbean s have been found in the LUPINUS B0G0TENSIS Benth. 2n= .Bolivia . Cul­ Guitarrero Cave inPeru . It dates from about tivated there. 6000BC .Th e 'domesticated' characters are especially dark red brown and dark red beans LUPINUS MONTANUS H.B.K. 2n= .Peru ,Bolivia , (Kaplan et al., 1973). Guatemala and Mexico. Cultivated inBolivia . PITHECELLOBIUM SAMAN Benth.Rai n tree,Saman , LUPINUS MUTABILIS-TAURIS-CUNNINGHAMII-CRUCK- Cow tamarind. 2n=26. Trop.America . It is used SHANKSII species group. 2n=48. Andes region as ashad e tree in cacao and coffee plantation. between Bolivia and Venezuela. This group of species, also named L.mutabili s Sweet/L. CHILENSIS (Molina) Stuntz emend.Burk - tauris Hook, is not yet well described. For­ art. 2n= .Fro m Peru and Bolivia toC . Chile merly widely cultivated in its native centre. and NW. Argentina. An unarmed tree suitable Still cultivated inBolivia .Apparentl y far­ for domestication as a shade, timber and fuel mers have not tried toselec t for sweet types. tree, and for its sweet pulpy fruits eatenb y At present this species is used as 'bitter pro­ man and cattle (Burkart, 1976). tection rows' around fields of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum tosto p animals entering fields. PROSOPIS JULIFLORA DC.Mesquite . 2n=28, 52,56 . Types have been developed that grow well un- Cultivated inBrazil , India and elsewhere as a LEGUMINOSAE -MALVACEA E shade and timber tree,an d for forage. The shrubby type is an aggressive invader inHis - paniola and Pakistan (Burkart, 1976).

PROSOPIS STROMBULIFERA'(Lam.) Bentham. 2n=28. W. Argentina and N. Chile.A t one timeculti ­ vated inChil e for its fruits,whic h ease toothache.Wil d fruits are gathered for this purpose. Var. ruiziana Burkart, perhaps a tetraploid (2n=4x=56) (Burkart, 1976), has fruits twice the size of var. strombulifera.

PROPOSIS TAMARUGO T. Philippi. Tamarugotree . 2n= .Tre e for desert forestation and for raising Merino sheep and Angora goat,whic h feed on falling leaves and legumes.Th e leaves absorb atmospheric moisture (Burkart, 1976).

RHYNCHOSIA MINIMA (L.)DC . 2n=22. S.America . Cultivated inAustrali a and elsewhere as a fodder and pasture crop.

STYLOSANTHUSGUIANENSI S SW. (syn. S. surinam- Distribution of the New World cottons in the ensis Miq.). 2n=20. Guyana. Used as a food 13th century: Gossypium barbadense (11),G . plant for and as asoi l conservator. hirsutum var.marie-galant e (12) and G. hirsu­ tismpunctatu m (13)(Hutchinson,1962). VICIA GRAMINEA Smith. 2n=14.Argentin a and Chile. Occasionally cultivated for its seeds atHuac a Prieta,Per uwhic h was dated 2400BC . as asourc e of anti-N-lecitin (Nijenhuis et the introduction of the African Gossypium spe­ al., 1969). This is used as a test serum for cies and its amphidiploidization with G. rai­ thehuma nN-bloo d group. mondii must have taken place long before that time. Themai n point isho w thisAfrica n spe­ Malpighiaceae cies reached Peru. However, the centre of origin N. Peru is in ( ex Griseb.)Mor ­ the aridmountainou s interior of the prov. ton. 2n=20. S.America . Awood y vine cultiva­ Tumbes. The ssp. darwinii is closely related ted in theAmazo n region as a drug and narcotic. and is endemic in the Galapagos Islands.A t present it is 'contaminated' by hybridization ARMENIACA (Cav.)DC . 2n= .Th e with exotic introductions. Secondary centre Andean region.A shrub cultivated in Ecuador inPeru . for its fruits. In S. America G. barbadense spread south and eastwards toNW . Argentina. Some other forms GLABRA L. (syn.M . punicifoliaL.) . are found inS .America .Th e Tanguis variety Barbado cherry, West Indian cherry. 2n= is aselectio n from Tumbes. InChil e andPe ­ West Indies and N. South America. Cultivated ru the Pacific assemblage is found, characte­ there and elsewhere for its fruits. It also rized by broad leaves and intense hairiness makes agoo d hedge, like M. coccigera L. of theundersid e of the leaf.Thi s character (Purseglove, 1968). induces resistance to jassids,Empoasc a ssp. The lint of G.barbadens e is usually coarse Malvaceae with a length up to 34.5mm . The lint of an Ecuador type, of Sea Islands and Egyptian is ABUTILON OXYCARPUM F. VonMuell . 2n=14. South , fine and silky with a length up to 37.5mm . It America and Australia. Cultivated for its is possible that the Ecuador type is the parent fibres. of the Sea Islands/Egyptian complex (p.84 , 139) (Harlan, 1970). The Atlantic assemblages GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE L. (syn.G . vitifolium include thekidne y cottons (seeds fused ina Lam., G. peruvianum Cav.). Sea island cotton. kidney-shaped cross). They have awid e distri­ 2n=52,genom e formula (AADD)2. Itha sbee n pro­ bution inN .Sout h America and the islands of posed that G.barbadens e arose from a cross C. America. They have been taken to Africa, and amphidiploidization of G. arboreum* and India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and elsewhere. G. raimondii*. G. arboreum could have been in­ Secondary centres in Egypt (p. 139) and in troduced into Peru by way of Asia and thePa ­ - Tadjikistan -S . Uzbekistan, cific islands.Anothe r hypothesis is that an USSR (p.84) . African diploid reached S.Americ ab y way of On theSe a Islands of S. Carolina, USA the Atlantic.Thi s diploid would probably have been Sea Island cottons developed after cottons G. herbaceum*. fromBahama s or Jamaica (p. 194)wer e intro­ AsBir d (1948) found G. barbadense material duced (Hutchinson, 1962). SOUTH AMERICAN REGION

It is a source of resistance to Verticillium. A second important perennial is race puncta- tum, which is found around the coast of the Gulf of Mexico from Yucatan to Florida and and some other islands (p. 199). At present G. hirsutum Cambodia (a latifolium V\ 14 ~D) type) is cultivated in S. India. Their way of spread was probably S. America-Philippines- Cambodia-S. India.

GOSSYPIUM KLOTZSCHIANUM Andersson. 2n=26,ge ­ D nome formula 3_ifD3_K.Galapago s Islands.Var . davidsonii is found on the shores of Gulf of California and the Revilla Gigedo islands (p. 139). 15 (u ^ GOSSYPIUM MUSTELINUM Miers exWatt . (syn.G . caicoense Aranha, Leitao & Gridi-Papp). 2n= 52, genome formula AADD.NE .Brazil .A wild species distinct from G. hirsutum* and G.bar ­ badense*, and not derived from either of them (Pickersgill et al., 1975).

« y GOSSYPIUM RAIMONDII Ulbr. 2n=26,genom e for­ mula DgDg.Formerl y N.Peru .No w extinct in \ \ *** its originalhabita t and only found in col­ lections (Harland, 1970). This species is a source ofhairines s gene Hg conditioning re­ Distribution of annual cottons in the New World sistance to jassid, Empoasca ssp.Probabl y one at 1960:Gossypiu m hirsutum var. uplands(14) , of the parental species of G.barbadense * and G. barbadense var.Egyptian s (15) and G. bar- G. hirsutum. badense var. Sea Islands (16)(Hutchinson, 1962). G. mustelinum (17) and G. raimondii (18)(Pickers- gill et al., 1975).

GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. Upland cotton. 2n=52, genome formula (AADD)^. The common theory is that G. hirsutum arose from an amphiploidiza- tion of the Old World G. arboreum* or G. herba- ceum* and G. raimondii.G . raimondii is the parent of the D genome and one of the first two the donor of theD genome. It is not known when this amphiploidization took place, but material collected from Tehuacan Valley in Mexi­ co and dated 3500-2300 BC. appears tob e fully domesticated (Smith & Stephens, 1971). It is alsono t knownwhethe r G.barbadens e reached Perub y way of Asia or whether G. herbaceum reached eastern S.Americ a from W. Africa.Har - land (1970)observe d wild plants of an exceed­ ingly primitive perennial race marie galante in the state Rio Grande doNorte ,N .Brazil . He suggested that this area is almost certainly the centre of origin of the whole Upland group. From here this cotton dispersed first north­ ward to theAmazon , then along theAmazo n and across theAnde s intoEcuador ,W . Colombia and possibly still further north. In another di­ Gossypium raimondii rection this cotton dispersed northward through the passing theWes t Indies toE .Co ­ GOSSYPIUM T0MENT0SUM Nutt.e x Seem (syn.G . lombia and further northward intoC . America sandvicense Pari.). 2n=52, genome formula (AA viaYucatan . C. America must be considered as DD)i. Hawaii.A fuzzy-seeded but not limited a secondary centre of diversity (p. 194).Wil d species.A t one time itwa s believed that if and semi-wild marie galante cotton were obser­ the origin and relationship of this species ved in Florida until some years ago. Upland were elucidated the problem of the origin of cotton also dispersed southward toE .Brazil . G. barbadense* and G. hirsutum* could be sol­ At present this race is also grown inGhana . ved.Howeve r it appears that its origin isin - MALVACEAE 177 dependent of those of the New World species 2n=22. Brazil.Cultivate d in the tropics and (Hutchinson, 1962). subtropics.

WISSADULA CONTRACTA (Link.)R.E .Fries .2n = EUGENIA UVALHA Camb. Uvalha. 2n= S.Brazil . 14. Trop.America . Cultivated inW . Java for Cultivated for its fruits. fibre (vanBorssu m Waalkes, 1966). FEIJOA SELLOWIANA Berg. Feijoa. 2n=22. S.Bra ­ WISSADULA PERIPLOCIFOLIA (L.)Pres l ex Thw. zil, Uruguay, Paraguay and N.Argentina . Also 2n=14. Probably introduced in Sri Lanka as a itsprimar y centre of diversity. Sometimes cul­ source of fibre for which purpose it is still tivated for its fruit inho t countries e.g. the used (vanBorssu m Waalkes, 1966). The degree Caucasian coast of the Black Seawher e it grows of variability of this species is very small well. inMalaysia . Some varieties and forms have been described forAmerica n representatives. MYRCIARIA CAULIFLORA Berg. (syn.Eugeni a cauli- This may point to anAmerica n origin.A pan- flora (Berg.) DC). Jabotica.2n = .Brazil . tropical weed. Cultivated for its fruits (Purseglove, 1968).

Marantaceae MYRCIARIA JABOTICABA Berg. 2n= .Brazil . Cul­ tivated in the tropics for itsfruits . CALATHEA ALLOUIA (Aubl.)Lindb .Swee t corn root, Leren.2n = .Nativ e toHispaniola , PSIDIUM GUINEENSE SW. 2n= .Th eWes t Indies Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles, theGuyanas , and trop.America . Occasionally cultivated. Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador andPeru . Introduced intoAsia .A mino r tuber crop. PSIDIUM LITTORALE Raddi (syn.P . cattleianum Sabine). Strawberry . 2n=88. Brazil.A L.Arrowroot ,Bermud a ar­ small tree introduced in the tropics and sub- rowroot. 2n=18, 48.N . South America and the tropics. Var. lucidum Degener, Chinese straw­ Lesser Antilles.Cultivate d in the tropics for berry guave yields fruits of improved quality its rhizomes containing starch and as amedi ­ (Uphof, 1968). cinal crop. Nyctaginaceae Musaceae L. Marvel ofPeru , Four MUSA cultivars. 2n=22, 33.No t much is known o'clock, False jalap. 2n=(54), 58.S . America. yet about the distribution of the clones of Spread over thewhol e world and inW . Africa the various genome groups. InVenezuela , the as a fetish plant. Cultivated as anornamental . relative frequency of these groups isA A 1, Tuberous roots were used as jalap. Elsewhere AAA 8,AA B c. 10 and ABB c. 3 (Borges, 1972). a subtropical weed. Trop.Americ a is a secondary centre for the Plantain subgroup French Plantain orHor n Onagraceae Plantain, 2n=33, AAB. MAGELLANICA Lam. Fuchsia. 2n=22,44 . Myrtaceae S.America .Plante d as hedges inAzores , Ire­ land andW . Britain. ABBEVILLEA FENZLIANA Berg. 2n= .Brazil .A small tree cultivated for its edible fruits. Oxalidaceae

BRITOA ACIDA Berg. Para guava. 2n= .Brazil . Mol.Oca . 2n=(14), 60,63-64 , A shrub cultivated for its fruits. 68-70. Cultivated in the Andes from Colombia toBolivi a for an extremely long time.Intro ­ CAMPOMANESIA GUAVIROBA Benth. &Hook . 2n= duced also inEurop e where itwa s cultivated S.Brazil .Cultivate d for itsedibl e fruits. like theMexica n O. deppei Lodd. (2n=14,56 ) as avegetabl e by amateurs (Uphof, 1968).Se ­ CAMPOMANESIA LINEATIFOLIA Ruiz. & Pav. (syn. veral colours of the tubers have been obser­ C. cornifolia H.B.K.). 2n= .E .Andes .Cul ­ ved. Itshoul d not be confused with Tropaeolum tivated as a fruit tree inPer u (Mansfeld, tuberosum*. 1959). Palmae EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS Dehn.Longbea k euca­ lyptus. 2n=22. Primary centre:Australi a (p. COPERNICIA PRUNIFERA Moore.Carnaub a wax palm. 66). Secondary centres:Brazil ,Argentin a and 2n=36. Brazil.Mostl y semi-wild; someplanta ­ the Mediterranean area (p.117) . tions forwa x production.

EUGENIA DOMBEYANA DC.Grumichama . 2n= .Per u C0R0Z0OLEIFER A (H.B.K.)Bailey , (syn.Elaei s and S.Brazil .A tree cultivated for its fruits melanococca Gaertn.). Nolipalm. 2n=32. C. A- merica toColombi a andAmazo n area. Cultivated L. Pitange, Surinam cherry. for its oily fruits. Itca nb e crossed with 178 SOUTH AMERICAN REGION theAfrica n oil palm, Elaeis guineensis* pro- America.A vine cultivated for its fruits. ducing fertilehybrids . MIXTA L.f. 2n=18.Venezuela , Colom­ GUILIELMA GASIPAES (H.B.K.)L.H .Bailey . Peach bia, Ecuador, S.Peru ,P . x rosea (Karst.)Kil - palm, Peribaye. 2n= .S . and C.America . Cul­ lip, 2n= .Derive s from P. mollissima* x P. tivated in S.America . mixta.

OENOCARPUS BACABA Martius. 2n= .Amazo n a- PASSIFLORA MOLLISSIMA (H.B.K.)Bailey . Banana rea to Surinam and Guyana.A palm cultivated passion fruit, Tasco,Carub a de Castilla. 2n= on compounds for its oily fruits. 18. The Andes.Especiall y cultivated inEcua ­ dor and Bolivia. Introduced in other countries. Passifloraceae PASSIFLORA PINNATISTIPULA Cav. 2n= .Andes . PASSIFLORA ALATA Dryand. Winged passion flower, Cultivated Colombia, Chile and Peru. Ithybri ­ Maracuja. 2n= .Per u and Brazil.A woody vine dizes with P. mollissima*. cultivated inBrazi l for its fruits. PASSIFLORA P0PEN0VII Killip. 2n= .Ande s PASSIFLORA ANTIOQUIENSIS Karst, (syn.P . van- (Ecuador). Resembles P. laurifolla* (Ohle, volxemii (Lem.)Trian a & Planch.). 2n= .Ba ­ 1975). nana passion fruit.Colombia .A woody vine cultivated e.g. inNe w Zealand for its fruits. PASSIFLORA PSILANTHA (Sodiro) Killip. Gullan. P. xmilitari s hort. derives from P. antio- 2n= .Ecuador .A hybrid of P. mollissima* x quiensis x P. manicata (Juss.) Pers.,2n=18 , P. partita* (Ohle, 1975). A vine cultivated and P. x exoniensis Bailey derives from P. an- for its fruits. tioquiensis x P. mollissima* (Ohle, 1975). PASSIFLORA QUADRANGULARISL . Giant granadilla, L. 2n=18.Blu e passion Barbadine. 2n=18.Trop .S . America. Cultivated flower. Brazil,Argentina , Paraguay.Cultiva ­ since 18th Century for its fruits.No w widely ted for its fruits and as an ornamental. distributed in the tropics.Possibl y ahybri d (Ohle, 1975). PASSIFLORA COCCINEA Aubl. 2n= Brazil,Bo - livia, Amazon district ofPeru . PASSIFLORA SERRATO-DIGITATA L. (syn. P. cearen- sis Barb.). 2n= . Trop. S. America, Amazon Sims.Passio n fruit, Purple Basin. granadilla. 2n=18.S . Brazil.Widel y distri­ buted throughout the tropics and subtropics. PASSIFLORA TRIPARTITA (Juss.)Poir .Tasco .2n = The fruits are especially used for juicepre ­ 18. Ecuador. Cultivated there. paration.Th emountai n form. f. edulis occurs from Brazil toN .Argentin a and in the tropics. Peperomiaceae Itha s run wild inAssam . The lowland form fla- vicarpa Degener is amutan t of it (Ohle, 1975). PEPEROMIA PELLUCIDA H.B.K. 2n= .S .America . InAfric a this pantropical weed is cultivated PASSIFLORA FOETIDA L. Stinking passion flower, as avegetabl e andmedicina l crop. Love-in-a-mist. 2n=18,20 ,22 .Wes t Indies and S.America .Weedy . Distributed toman y tropical Phytolaccaceae countries inAfric a and Asia,wher e it hasna ­ turalized. Its fruits are sometimes eaten. In CHILENSIS Miers.2n = .Chile .A Malaya and E.Afric a it has been used as a perennial herb cultivated for itsberrie s which cover crop. are asourc e of red dye.

PASSIFLORA LAURIFOLIA L.Water-lemon , Golden PHYTOLACCA DIOICA L. 2n=36.Temp , and subtrop. apple, Yellow grandilla, Jamaica , S. America.Cultivate d as an ornamental and Belle apple,Pomm e de liane.2n=18 . s shade plant. and forest fringes in the West Indies and NE. South America. Cultivated for its fruits in L. Rouge plant. 2n=108.Th e tro­ the 17th Century. Spread throughout the tro­ pics of the Old and New Worlds.Cultivate d in pics (Purseglove, 1968). Cultivated on Java Colombia for itsberrie s which are asourc e of and in India as an ornamental and as amedici ­ red dye. nalplant . Piperaceae PASSIFLORA LIGULARIS Juss. Sweet granadilla. 2n=18. Trop. America. Spread toC . America. Its PIPER ADUNCUM L. 2n= .Trop .America . Used sweet fruits aremuc h used in the mountainous as asoi l conservant. regions ofMexic o and C. America (Purseglove, 1968). Portulacaceae


Rharanaceae SAPINDUS SAPONARIA L. Soap wood tree,Soa p tree, Soap berry tree. 2n- .Trop .America . COLUBRINA RUFA Reiss.2n = .Brazil .Cultiva ­ Cultivated there and elsewhere for itsfruits . ted for its medicinal bark and otherpurposes . Sapotaceae Rosaceae LUCUMA NERVOSA A. DC. (syn.L . rivicoa Gaertn. FRAGARIA CHILOENSIS L. Chiloe strawberry, Beach f., Pouteria campechiana (H.B.K.) Baenhi). Egg strawberry, Ambato strawberry. 2n=56, genome fruit, Canistel. 2n= .NE . South America. formula AAA'A'BBBB. The Pacific coastal region Cultivated in trop.Americ a for its fruits. ofN . and S. America and Hawaii.Dioecious ; polygamodioecious orhermaphroditi c types are LUCUMA OBOVATA H.B.K. (syn.Pouteri a lucuma occasionally found. Formerly cultivated there. (Ruiz &Pav. )0 . Kuntze). Lucumo. 2n= ,Chil e It is one of the parents ofF .x ananassa*. and Peru. This tree is cultivated for its fruits. RUBUSBRASILIENSI S Mart. 2n= .Brazil .A shrub cultivated for its fruits. LUCUMA PROCERA Mart. (syn. Urbanella procera Pierre). Macarandiba .2n := . This fruit tree RUBUS GLAUCUS Benth. 2n= .Cost a Rica to is cultivated inBrazil . Ecuador. Cultivated in theAndes . (A.DC. )Chev . (syn.Mi ­ RUBUS MACROCARPUS Benth. Colombian berry. 2n= niu so balat a Pierre). Balata, Bully,Bullet , . Colombia and Ecuador. Cultivated for its Purgio, Quinilla. 2n= .S .Americ a and Tri­ very large fruits (5 cm long). nidad.Th e wild trees are tapped for latex (balata). Rubiaceae POUTERIA CAIMITA (Ruiz& Pav.) Radlk. 2n= CEPHAËLIS IPECACUANHA (Stokes)Ba i11 . Ipecac, Peru toE .Ecuado r and Guyanas. A tree culti­ Ipecacuanha. 2n=22. Brazil. Introduced into vated for its fruits. India and Malaya.Ther e small plantings were established. Roots ofwil d and cultivated Simaroubaceae plants are the source of ipecac or ipecacuanha used to treat amoebic dysentery. QUASSIA AMARA L. Surinam quassis,Bitte r wood. 2n= .N . South America. Cultivated for its CINCHONA LEDGERIANA Moens ex Tremen (syn.C . wood which is usedmedicinally , and also as an calisaya var. ledgeriana How., C. officinalis ornamental tree. L., C. calisayaWedd . and C. succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch.). . 2n=34 (all species). Solanaceae These species are taken together. They all come from the same centre of diversity: Andes CAPSICUM BACCATUM H.B.K. (syn.C . angulosum mountains of S. Peru,Bolivi a and S.Ecuador . Miller). Pepper. 2n=24. The wild type is var. Here many Cinchona species are found and the great diversity of botanical varieties is caused by natural hybridization between the species and varieties.Plantation s in Indone­ sia and Sri Lanka and recently inE .Africa . The original introductions in the Asian coun­ tries were very probably amixtur e of true species and their hybrids.Fro m this material C. ledgeriana was derived but it is thought to be a variety of C, calisaya, and is alsocon ­ sidered ahybri d of C. calisaya, C. succirubra and C. lancifoliaMutis .C . succirubra which is used as rootstock isprobabl y avariet y of C. pubescens Vahl. (vanHarten , 1969).


MELIOCOCCUS BIJUGATUS Jacq. Kanappy tree,Kin - nup tree,Bullac e plum, berry, Spanish lime, Geneps. 2n=32.Trop .America . Cultivated there for its edible fruits (Mansfeld, 1959).

PAULLINIA CUPANA (H.B.K.) Guarana. 2n= .S . America.Cultivate d inBrazi l for itsseeds , Capsicum bacatum var. baccatun (o) and var. used as acoffee . pendulum (•)(Eshbough, 1975). 180 SOUTH AMERICAN REGION

V-' * Ruiz & Pavon. 2n=24. Culti­ \ l~'~1 ') vated in thehighland s of S. and C. America. \ [T"" \ It is related to thewil d self-incompatibleC . ^ cardenasii Heiser & Smith, 2n=24, and the wild \ ] pseudo-self-compatible C. eximium Hunziker, 2n =24; these species together with C. tovari, 2n V^ * * n =24, form the purple-flowered group ofCapsi ­ N r • • "•. * *. ) 1 cum (Jensen et al., 1979). C. cardenasii is an I ' ••• ( \ endemic of the La Paz district ofBolivia ; C. i. eximium iswidel y distributed from N. Argen­ V/ / \ tina toC .Bolivi a (Eshbaugh, 1977, 1980). Both species hybridize naturally and the hy­ brids are fully fertile.The y also cross to f / . 1 / j I J a lesser extent with C. pubescens andma y form • / one species complex deriving from acommo n wild l ( ,< ancestor (McLeod et al., 1979). 1 i Capsicum eximium (•) and C. cardenasii (*) (Eshbough, 1980) baccatum (syn,C . microcarpum Cav.). It occurs inPeru ,Bolivia ,Paraguay , N.Argentin a and S.Brazil . It is the parental type of the cul­ tivated type var.pendulu m (Willd.)Eshbaug h (syn. C. pendulum Willd.). This cultigen was originally found in the same area as var.bac ­ catum and in S. Colombia, Ecuador and inChile . Now it is also cultivated elsewhere (Eshbaugh, 1970).

CAPSICUM CHINENSE Jacq. (syn.C . sinense Jacq.). 2n=24. This pepper was originally cultivated in theWes t Indies and lowland S.America , from S.Bolivi a to S.Brazil .Closel y related to C. frutescens*. Itma y have originated from it (Pickersgill, 1969).

\^0 \

~^^ "OC !j •o • *• Capsicum pubescens (Eshbough, 1975).

CYPHOMANDRA BETACEA (Cav.) Sendt. (syn.C . crassifolia). Tree tomato. 2n=24. Peru.Un ­ known wild. Cultivated inth eAndea n region ir-. especially inEcuador . Other species of this genus are found in S.Americ a and partly in C. America.On e of them, is C. hartwegi Sendt.; its fruits areharveste d inColombia , Chile and Argentina.

\* • 1 LYCOPERSICON CHEESMANII Riley (syn.L . escu- lentum Mill. ssp.mino r Rick, L.minutu m Rick). Galapagos tomato.2n=24 . Coasts of Galapagos 'l/-*-- Islands. Characterized by aver y dense pube­ 1 '' • *r •°* scence, compound yellow-green leaves, yellow / '' ~ '/' or orange fruit (rich inbeta-carotens) , a } calyx that expands after fertilization and seedswit h adee p dormancy. The plants are Capsicum frutescens (o)an d C. chinense (•) drought and salt tolerant.The y are eatenb y (Eshbough, 1975) the Galapagos tortoises and seeds cangermi ­ nate after passing through their digestive tracts (Rick &Bowman , 1961). SOLANACEAE -SOLANACEA E 181

LYCOPERSICON CHILENSE Dun. 2n= .Th e coastal tabaci Holmes). strip ofPer u and N. Chile.A wil d tomato of­ ten found growing together with L.peruvianura . LYCOPERSICON PARVIFLORUM Rick,Kesicki , Fobes They dono t cross.Thi s species is character­ & Holle. 2n= .C . and N.Peruvia n Andes. ized as asourc e for resistance to all tomato Compatric with its ancestor L. chmielewskii*. diseases except . Formerly classed with this species to 'L.mi ­ nutum'. Stric t self-fertilizer (Ricke t al., LYCOPERSICON CHMIELEWSKII Rick, Kesicki, Fobes 1976). & Holle. 2n= .C . and N. PeruvianAndes . Sympatricwit h its derivative L. parviflorum*. LYCOPERSICON PERUVIANUM (L.) Mill. 2n=24. Chile Formerly belonging with this species to 'L. andPeru .A green, small-fruited wild species. minutum'. Cross-fertilizer (Rick et al., 1976). Most plants are gametophytic self-incompatible, although some plants have been found tob e self- LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM Mill. Tomato. 2n=24. compatible (Hogenboom, 1968). It is asourc e The centre of the genus Lycopersicon is anar ­ of tomatomosai c virus tolerance. row belt of the S. American west coast limited by the equator and 30°S and the Andes and the LYCOPERSICON PIMPINELLIFOLIUM Mill. (syn.L . Galapagos Islands.Th e greatest variation of esculentum ssp. pimpinellifolium (Mill.) the tomato is however outside this area, in Brezhn.). Currant tomato. 2n=24. Primary centre: the Veracruz-Puebla area inMexic o (Jenkins, coastalEcuado ran d Peru.Thi s red-fruited spe­ 1948). This areawa s very likely the source cies crosseswit h L. esculentum* and its genes of the cultivated tomatoes of the Old World. introgress into tomato (Rick & Fobes, 1975). The putative ancestor of the tomato isproba ­ Because of the high frequency of , bly var. cerasiforme (Dun.)Alef . This variety it is highly heterogenous (Rick et al., 1977). was originally confined to the Peru andEcua ­ It is cultivated and occurs as aweed . A source dor area from where it spread in pre-Columbian of tolerance for tomato. times as awee d of fields and compound yards throughout much of trop.America , either with METHYSTICODENDRON AMESIANUM R.E. Schultes. 2n orwithou t man's active co-operation. InMexi ­ = .S . America.Cultivate d as amedicina l co itbecam e cultivated because of its simi­ andwitchcraf t plant. larity to another food plant, Physalis ixo- carpa*. NICOTIANA RUSTICA L. Aztec Tobacco,Makhorka , Outside itsprimar y gene centre the tomato Nicotine Tobacco. 2n=48. Unknownwild , with a plant is self-compatible. InPer u and Ecuador possible exception of var.pavoni i (Dunal)Good - it spontaneously crosses with L.pimpinelli - speed. This variety occurs as arudera l in the folium*.Tomat o flowers pollinated by pollen Andes. Aztec Tobacco is a tetraploid having pro­ of L. peruvianum* result in the induction of bably originated inPer ub y amphiploidization parthenocarpic fruits.Som e Fi seeds may be of apparently N. paniculata L. (2n=24) andN . set resulting inhybri d plants with varying undulata Ruiz &Pavo n (2n=24). Both species oc­ degree of fertility. curwil d inPeru . Its cultivation is limited Rick (1971) studied the geographical distri­ to some areas such as the USSR and India. In bution of the alleles Gec, GeP, and Gen. He most other areas it is replaced by N. tabacum* found thatmos t European and US cultivars have which has a low nicotine content. the genotype GenGen, only a fewhav e GecGec or GePGeP. The C. American varieties have GenGen NICOTIANA TABACUM L.Tobacco . 2n=48, genome and occasionally GecGec. InEcuado r Ge11 isal ­ formula SSTT.Clause n (1932)showe d that tobac­ so common among the cultivars.Th e C. American co is anatura l amphitetraploid of N. syl- sources of var. cerasiforme have GenGen, and vestri Speg. &Comes , 2n=24,genom e formula anEcuado r source has Gec. So inEcuado r the S*S' and N. tomentosiformis Goodsp., 2n=24, cultivars differ from thewil d type,bu t more genome formula T'T'. Isozymic (Sheen, 1972) sources should be investigated. Sources of L. and cytoplasmic (Gray et al., 1974;Kawashim a pimpinellifolium* ex Ecuador carried Ge11. This et al., 1976)evidenc e supports his view.Th e would suggest gene exchange between L. pimpi­ occasional wild plants are escapes of cultiva­ nellifolium and the cultivars.Th e Peruvian tion. cultivars carry GeP; the same allele is found Interspecific crosses have beenmad e toin ­ inPeruvia n sources of L. pimpinellifolium. troduce male-sterilizing cytoplasma and genes This suggests gene exchange too.Ric k conclu­ conditioning resistance to diseases. ded that the European and US tomato cultivars are qualitatively closer related to theculti ­ L. Cape gooseberry. 2n=24, vars of Peru, and quantitatively to those from 48. Andes.Cultivate d in some S. American C.Americ a andMexico . countries for itsberries .Ofte n observed as awee d or semi-wild. LYCOPERSICON HIRSUTUM Humb. &Bonpl . 2n=24. The western slopes of the Andes inPeru .A SOLANUM ABANCAYENSE Ochoa.2n = Peru. green-fruited species.Th e glabratum isself - Tubers are very small andwhite . compatible. It is characterized by disease re­ sistance, e.g. tomato mosaic virus (Marmon SOLANUM ACAULE Bitt.2n=48 , genome formula 182 SOUTH AMERICAN REGION

A2A2A3A3- wild tetraploid from C. Peru, Boli­ epczukii (Hawkes, 1962b). via and NW. Argentina. A parent of S. x ju- zepczukii*. Frost resistant and resistant to SOLANUM xFLAVOVIRIDEN S Ochoa. 2n= .Humi d X-virus disease, nematodes and the trop. Bolivia. Its glandular hairs provide re­ . Very susceptible to Phytophthora. sistance to virus-spreading aphids. Its parents areno t yet fully known. SOLANUM AJANHUIRI Juz. & Buk. 2n=2x=24. Culti­ vated in N. Bolivia (dept. La Paz) and S. Peru. SOLANUM GONIOCALYX Juz. & Buk. 2n=24. This po­ It derives from S. tuberosum* group stenotomum tato is cultivated in C. Peru (dept. Junin). x S. megistacrolobum Bitt., 2n=24 (Huaman et It is a northern derivative of S. tuberosum* al., 1976). It is frost resistant, the tubers group Stenotomum. It may be included in this are long and irregularly shaped. Also resis­ species as an extreme variant (Hawkes, 1958). tant to virus diseases. Bukasov (1970) suggested that it was a deri­ vative of S. multi-interruptum. The tubers SOLANUM CHACOENSE Bitt. 2n=24, (36).N . and C. have a pale-yellow flesh owing to their rich­ Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and S.Brazil .A ness in Carotinoids. They have an excellent very polymorphic wild species.Onl y once an flavour. autotriploid was observed. This triploid has been described as 'S. calvescens Bitter'. 'S. SOLANUM HUMECTOPHILUM Ochoa. 2n= . Peru. muelleri Bitter' alsobelong s toS . chacoense With white-hyaline tubers of 8-12 mm length. (Brücher, 1975). Rich in tomatine alkaloid which ispoisonou s to the Colorado beetle. SOLANUM IMPROVIDUM Brücher. 2n=24. La Rioja Introgression between this species and S. and Catamarca, W. Argentina.Wil d potato of microdontum exists inArgentin a and possibly deserts (Brücher, 1979). elsewhere.Thi s resulted in an extension of this originally low altitude species of open SOLANUM xJUZEPCZUKI I Buk. 2n=36.Hig h Andes places of the Argentinean plain to mountainous ofBolivi a toMendoz a Prov. ofW .Argentina . region (Hawkes, 1962a). Used as a source ofre ­ Wild potato of deserts. Self-incompatible. sistance to common scab, virus diseases and Source of resistance to nematode and tolerance Colorado beetle. to frost (Brücher, 1979).

SOLANUM xCHAUCH A Juz.& Buk . (syn.S .tube ­ SOLANUM KURTZIANUM Bitter &Wittmack . 2n= rosum group chaucha). 2n=3x=36. This species S.Bolivi a toMendoz a Prov. of W. Argentina. is ahybri d of S. tuberosum* group Andigena x Wild potato of deserts. Self-incompatible. group Stenotomum orgrou p Phureja, but Bukasov Source of resistance to nematode,an d tolerance (1970) suggested that it is atriploi d deriva­ to frost (Brücher, 1979). tive of group Phureja.Th e hybridization may have occurred several times andbecaus e of the SOLANUMMACULA E Bukasov. 2n=24.Mendoz a Prov. variation of the parents this species is very ofW . Argentina. Wild potato of deserts,wit h polymorphic. Cultivated from C. Peru toN .Bo ­ high content of solanin in tubers (Brücher, livia. Itha s arathe r low yield (Jackson et 1979). al., 1976). This species has run wild in Simla hills, SOLANUM MAGLIA Molina 2n=24, 36.Th e 2x 'an- India. Initially it was established by vege­ dinum' occurs wild in the Cordillera Foothills tative propagation. The older the population ofMendoza ,W . Argentina, and the 3x 'pacifi- the more plants flower and the more self-in­ cum' grows wild on the Pacific coast between compatibility breaks down (Nayar & Gohal, Valpraiso and Loquimbo. Both are partially 1970). male-sterile (Brücher, 1979).

SOLANUM COMMERSONII Dun. 2n=24, 36. E. Central SOLANUM MURICATUM Ait.Pepin o morado. 2n=24. Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and S. Brazil, Unknown wild. Probably domesticated in theAn ­ 'S. acroleucon Bitter' belongs to this spe­ des. Cultivated inC . and S. America.Extre ­ cies (Brücher, 1975). A source of resistance mely variable and many types of fruits arere ­ to potato cancer and Colorado beetle. It with­ cognized. There are two closely related spe­ stands frost of -6°C. cies, either ofwhic h couldb e the parental species. These are S. caripense Humb. & Bonpl. SOLANUM CONTUMAZAENSE Ochoa. 2n= . N. Peru. (2n=24) and S. tabanoense Correll (2n=24). Both With white-yellow tubers of 15-25 mm length. occur inEcuado r and Colombia. Pepino is cul­ tivated for its fruits (Heiser, 1964). SOLANUM x CURTILOBUM Juz. & Buk. 2n=60. The high Andes of Bolivia and Peru, where it has SOLANUM NUBICOLA Ochoa. 2n=48. TheHuânuc o been cultivated. Probably a hybrid of S. x region, Peru.A tetraploid species of theTu ­ juzepczukii* and x S. tuberosum group Andi­ berosum group. gena. It reproduces itself vegetatively, al­ though it is moderately fertile. It crosses SOLANUM OCEANICUM Brücher. 2n=36.A weedy po­ readily with S. tuberosum group Tuberosum. tato of the Pacific coast ofChilo e Island, Less frost resistant than its parent S. x juz­ Chile. SOLANACEAE - SOLANACEAE

SOLANUM PELOQUINIANUM Ochoa. 2n=24.Wil d po­ Brazil) (von der Pahlen, 1977). Self and cross tato species from thePeruvia nAndes . compatible. Artificial intervarietal hybrids have been SOLANUM PENNELLII Corr. 2n= .Closel y rela­ made. Itha s been suggested that in nature ted to S. lycopersicoides Dunal. (2n= ). such hybrids also occur (Heiser, 1971). Both species are representatives of atransi ­ tion between Solanum and Lycopersicon. Itca n SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. Potato. 2n=24, 48.Ther e be crossed with L. esculentum* and it is a are two geographical regions where the largest source of resistance toTomat o Mosaic Virus. number of thewil d and cultivated potatoes grow; 1.C . Mexico (p. 197, 198) and 2. Andes of C. SOLANUM PHUREJA see S. tuberosum. Peru, Bolivia and NW. Argentina. The greatest number of tuberous Solanum species is found in SOLANUM QUITOENSE Lam. Naranjillo, Lulo. 2n= Peru where thepotat owa s probably firstdo ­ 24. Unknown wild.Cultivate d for its fruits in mesticated. Colombia and Ecuador. Var. septentrionale R.E. This species is divided into 4 groups: Schultes & Cautrecasan is spineless (Heiser, 1. group Stenotomum (syn.S . stenotomum Juz. & 1971). Closely related toS . pectinatum Dun. Buk.), 2n=24, acultivate d type of very high (syn. S. hirsutissimum Standi.), 2n=24. altitudes from Peru toN .Bolivia . It is the parent of groups Andigena and Phureja, S. x SOLANUM RAPHANIFOLIUM Card. &Hawkes . 2n=24. chauca* and S. x juzepczukii*. Some provenances The dept. of Cuzco, Peru. There it occurs as aweed . A stabilized hybrid of S.megistacro - lobum Bitt. (2n=24), and S. canasense Hawkes (2n=24) (Ugent, 1970a).

SOLANUM RUIZ-LEALII Brücher. 2n=24. Mendoza Prov. ofW .Argentina . Wild and self-incompa­ tible. Source of resistance to nematode and tolerance todrought .Brüche r (1979) concluded that it is not ahybri d of S. chacoense* and S. kurtzianum*.

SOLANUM SPARSIPILUM Bitt. 2n=24. Peru andBo ­ livia.A weedy species.Probabl y a clonalmix ­ ture of diploid hybrids of S. tuberosum groups Stenotomum and Phureja* and diploid related species like S. canasense Hawkes,S .raphani - folium Card. &Hawkes , and others which Ugent Solanum tuberosum group Andigena (Ugent, 1968) (1970a) grouped in one complex species S.bre - vicaule*Bitt . This weedy species may form a bridge for agen e flow from S.brevicaul e s.1. are frost-resistant, have ahig h yield of good toS . tuberosum* and vice versa (Ugent, 1970a) quality. If introduced intoEurope , its self- incompatibility may have hindered itssmall - SOLANUM STENOTOMUM see S. tuberosum. scale propagation at that time (Zeven, 1980a). 2. group Phureja (syn.S . phureja Juz.& Buk.), SOLANUM SUCRENSE Hawkes. 2n=48. Bolivia.A criollo potato, 2n=24, genome formula A^A^, weedy potato inpotat o crops. It is ahybri d cultivated inmos t lowlands ofVenezuela ,Co ­ of S. tuberosum ssp. andigena and S. oplo- lombia, Ecuador, Peru and N.Bolivia . The tu­ cense, 2n=48. Source of resistance to several bers are the largest of the diploid species. pathotypes of Globodera nematodes (Astley & Dormancy is very short (1-13days ) andma y have Hawkes, 1979). prevented its introduction into Europe in the 16th Century and later (Zeven, 1980). Itma ­ SOLANUM TOPIRO Humbolt &Bonplan d exDunal . tures early. It is aselectio n of groupSteno ­ Jibara, Uvilla, Cocona. 2n=24. S.America .Var . tomum with ashor t dormancy. topiro is commonly cultivated for its fruits 3.grou p Andigena (S.tuberosu m ssp. andigena, in the Upper Amazon valley. There are two S. andigena Juz.& Buk.), 2n=48, found in the fruit forms: ovoid named jibara and globose Andes ofVenezuela , Colombia,Ecuador ,Peru , called uvilla.Th e latter has been described Bolivia and NW.Argentina . Itevolve d from as S. alibile R.E.Schultes .A common weed in group Stenotomum inC .Andes .Parenta l type of Ecuador isvar . georgicum (R.E.Schultes ) group Tuberosum. Heiser (syn.S . georgicum R.E. Schultes). Var. 4. group Tuberosum (syn.S . tuberosum ssp.tu ­ topiro has no spines and big fruits,whil e var. berosum, S. tuberosum sensu stricto), derived georgicum has spines and small fruits. It is from group Andigena introduced into the coastal believed that these differences are a result region of S.Centra l Chile (Island of Chiloe of domestication. Thegreates t variation in and adjacent coastalmainland ) (Brücher,1971 ; size, shape and content of anthocyanins of the Glendinning, 1975)an d into Europe and N.A - fruits is found in theW . Amazon Basin (W. merica (Hawkes, 1958). Naturalized and culti- SOUTH AMERICAN REGION vated Tuberosum from Chile and elsewhere have peus, 1969) and inAfric a where it is known as identical cytoplasmic factors (Grun, 1979).Th e theWes t African amelonado. evolution ofAndigen a into Tuberosum was simu­ The Trinitario is arecentl y originated hy­ lated by Simmonds(1968 ). Th e distinctionbe ­ brid swarm of Criollo from C. America and A- tween Andigena and Tuberosum is that Tuberosum melonado. has less dissected leaves with wider leaflets, generally arched and set at awide r angle to THE0BR0MA MICROCARPA Mart. 2n= .Brazil . the stem. The tubers form with long days, or Cultivated inBahia . in the tropics with short days only at lower altitudes. Thymelaeaceae In theCanar y Islands, cultivar Negra has been cultivated. It is a triploid (2n=36) (Zu- FUNIFERA BRASILIENSIS (Raddi)Mansf . 2n= beldia et al., 1955). Sanudo (1970) suggested Brazil. Cultivated in theWes t Indies for its that it is ahybri d of group Stenotomum and fibres. group Andigena. Zubeldia L. et al. (1955)be ­ lieved that itwa s introduced from Peru in the Tropaeolaceae early part of the 17th Century together with tetraploid material. TROPAEOLUM LEPTOPHYLLUM G. Don. 2n= .Ecua ­ Naturalized potatoes grow in theKilimandjar o dor and Peru.Cultivate d for its tubers. Mountains of Tanzania, in Lesotho and . They probably derive from cultivars introduced TROPAEOLUM MAJUS L.Nasturtium . 2n=28. S. A- from Europe (Brücher, 1966). He described 30 merica. A herbaceous vine cultivated as an types. ornamental plant.Th e flower buds and young Andigena is asourc e of resistance to potato fruits are used for flavouring . They virus Y. Some plants have tubers with aver y are also used ascapers . black flesh,whic h canb e used as asourc e of pigments. TROPAEOLUM TUBEROSUM Ruiz & Pav. Tuber nastur­ tium. 2n=42. A very old cultivated food plant SOLANUM VIARUM Dunal. (syn.S .khasianu m C.B. unknown wild inPeru ,Chil e andBolivia . In Clarke var. chatterjeeanum Sen Gupta). 2n=24. Bolivia it is still cultivated in themoun ­ S. America.Fruit s are source of solanidin. tains above Lake Titicaca. Related species are S. myriacanthum Dunal (syn. S. khasianum C.B. Clarke), 2n=24, naturalized Umbelliferae in theKhasi a Mountains of Assam; S. retro­ flexionSchrank , 2n=48; and S. platanifolium XANTHORRHIZA Bancr. (syn.A . escu- Hook., 2n=24, which is rare.S . viarum isna ­ lenta DC). ,Api o arracacia. 2n= turalized in several places introp .Asi a (Babu Unknown wild. Cultivated mainly in Venezuela & Hepper, 1977). A shrub. and Colombia, also inBolivi a and Peru, and introduced intoBrazil ,C .America ,E . Africa Sterculiaceae and India.

GUAZUMA GRANDIFLORA G. Don. (syn.Theobrom a Verbenaceae grandiflora Schum.). 2n= .Brazilia n Amazon basin.A tree cultivated for its fruits. LIPPIA CITRIODORA H.B.K. (syn.L . triphylla (L. 'Hér.)Kuntze) . Lemon verbena. 2n=36. S. THEOBROMA BIC0L0R* America.Formerl y much cultivated for itsver ­ bena oil,no w as anornamental . THEOBROMA CACAO L. Cacao.2n=16 , 20,26 .Pri ­ mary gene centre: the area of the 'Upperwa ­ ters of the Amazon'. Spread by man. Only in Mexicowa s the domestication of the cacao com­ pleted by theMaya .Elsewher e cacaowa s wild or semidomesticated. Cuatrecasas (1964)de ­ scribed 22Theobrom a species,whic h all are found in trop.S . and C. America. Relative isolation of cacao populations and their ori­ ginal parentage resulted inth edevelopmen t of twomor e or less uniform groups distinguished asCrioll o (T.caca o ssp.cacao ) and Forastero (ssp. sphaerocarpum). TheCrioll o is located inC . America (Cen­ tralAmerica n Criollo) and inN . Colombia (South American Criollo). The Forastero can be divided into the UpperAmazonia n Forastero, indigenous to the Upper Amazon basin and the lowerAmazonia n Forastero, alsoname d and found in the Guyanas (Cheesman, 1944;Toxo - 11 CentralAmerican and Mexican Region

TheCentra lAmerica n andMexica n Regionha sbee n described by Vavilov asth e CentralAmerica n andSout h MexicanCentr e ofOrigin .Darlingto n &Janak i Ammal (1945)name dMexic o as acentr e of origin,whil e Darlington (1956)ad ­ ded C.Americ a toMexico . Inthi s region agriculture developed since the 7th Millenium BC.Harla n (1971)calle d itcentr e CIMesoamerica ncentre . Old farming siteshav ebee n discovered atTamaulipa s and inth eTehuacâ n Valley ofMexico .T o theearlies tplan t remainsbelon g Amaranthus sp.,Avo ­ cadopersica ,Capsicu m annuum,Cucurbit a pepo,C .mixta ,Gossypiu mhirsutu m and Lagenaria siceraria. Relatively afe wbu t important cropshav ebee n domesticated in this region e.g. fruit trees,Agav e sp.,Capsicu m sp., Cucurbita sp.,Gossypiu m sp., Ipomoeabatatas ,Phaseolu s sp.,Ze amay setc .

Agavaceae AGAVE DEWEANA Trel. Zapupe verde,Zapup e de Tantoyuca. 2n= .Cultivate d for a long time AGAVE AMERICANA L. Century plant,Magvey . 2n= by the Tantoyuca Indians inMexico . 60, 120, (180,24 0 and aneuplolds).Mexico . Cultivated inMexico ,Europe ,Afric a and N. AGAVE FOURCROYDES Lem.Heneque n agave. 2n=c. America as an ornamental, foliage plant,a 140.Yucatan , Mexico. Primary centre also there. hedge plant and forpulp . Secondary centre probably inE . Africa (p.122) . Cultivated in many countries for its excellent AGAVE ATBOVIRENS Salm-Dyck (syn.A . latlssima fibre. Jacobi). . 2n=150, 180.Mexico .Extensi ­ vely cultivated inMexico .Th e inflorescence AGAVE HETERACANTHA Zucc. (syn.A . funkiana is cut off and the sweet juices that collect Koch &Bouche) . Ixtle de Juamava. 2n= in the cavity produced are allowed to ferment Arid NE.Mexico .Cultivate d for its fine fibre, to produce the pulque ormex - used tomak e cordage andbrushes . cal depulque . AGAVE LECHEGUILLA Torr. Lechuguilla, Tula AGAVE CANTALA (Haw.). Roxb. (syn.A . candela­ Istle. 2n= .Texa s and N.Mexico . Cultivated brum Tod.). Cantala. 2n=90. Probably Mexico. for fibre, used tomak e rugs,mat s andbrushes . There awil d form occurs on thewester n coast. Smaller than the cultivated types. Itwa s ta­ AGAVE LETONAE F.W. Taylor.Letona , Salvador ken to the Philippines and later to Indonesia henequen. ElSalvador . Cultivated there for where it is cultivated for its fibre. In India centuries. cultivated as ahedg e and anti-erosion plant (Purseglove, 1972). AGAVE LOPHANTA Schiede.Lechuguilla . 2n= Mexico. Cultivated by natives for its fibre. AGAVE COMPULVIATA Trel. Pulque. 2n= .Mexico . Cultivated around Comitân inMexico .Comiteca , AGAVE SCHOTTII Engllm. Amole. 2n= .Sonor a a fine liquor, is distilled from amixtur e of ofMexic o and arid Arizona. Cultivated by A- fermented sugar-cane juice and amas h made from merindians. Dried pulp of leaves used as soap. the stems and leaves of thisspecies . AGAVE SISALANA Perr. (syn.A . rigida Mill.): AGAVE CRASSISPINA Trel.Mague y manso. 2n= agave.2n=(c . 138, 147,149) ,150 .Me ­ Mexico. Cultivated there. xico and C.America .Primar y centre inYucatan , 188 CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN REGION

OPUNTIA CRYSTALENIA Griff. 2n= .Mexico . Cul­ PERESKIOPSISCHAPISTL E (Weber)Britt . &Rose . tivated there for its edible fruits. 2n= .Mexico . Cultivated as ahedg e plant.

OPUNTIA DILLENIA (Ker-Gawler)Haw . Pest pear. PERESKIOPSIS SPATHULATA (Otto)Britt . &Rose . 2n=22, 66.S . USA,Bermuda , West Indies,N . 2n- .S .Mexico .Hedg e plant. South America.Cultivate d there and onTene - rife (Canaries), Italy,W . Africa, India,E . RITTEROCEREUS PRUINOSUS (Otto)Backeb . 2n= Asia and Australia for its edible fruits. It C. and S.Mexico .Cultivate d as ahedg e plant has often run wild. and for its edible fruits.

OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA (L.)Miller . Indian fig, SELENICEREUS GRANDIFLORUS (L.)Britt .& Rose Nopal, 2n=22, 88.Probabl y Mexico (Hammer, (syn. Cereus grandifloru s Mill.). 2n=22. Ja­ 1976). Cultivated in (sub)tropics for its edi­ maica, Cuba,Mexico .Cultivate d as asourc e of ble fruits, and as a forage and hedge plant. drug, and widespread as anornamental .

OPUNTIA FUSICAULIS Griff, 2n= .No t known STENOCEREUS STELLATUS (Pfeiff.)Riccob . 2n= wild. Thornless species cultivated in Mexico . Mexico. Cultivated forit sedibl efruit s and S.US A as forage. and as ahedg e plant.

OPUNTIA HYPTIACANTHA Weber. 2n= . Mexico. Caricaceae Cultivated for its fruits. CARICA PAPAYA L. Papaya, Pawpaw. 2n=18. Low­ OPUNTIA LANCEOLATA (Haw.)Haw . 2n=88..Mexico . lands ofC . America somewhere in the region Occasionally cultivated in the (sub)trop. between S. Mexico and . Unknown wild. Americas for its fruits. The history of its domestication is not known. Papaya has now spread to all tropical countries OPUNTIA LEUCOTRICHA DC. 2n=44. Mexico.Culti ­ andma y have runwil d aswa s observed in the vated there and around the Mediterranean area forest fringes inN . trop.Argentina . Closely for its fruits, and as an ornamental and hedge related toC . peltaHook . &Arn. , which also plant. occurs in this area.Thi s species may have con­ tributed by hybridization (Purseglove, 1968). OPUNTIA LINDHEIMERI Eng. 2n= .SW . Louisiana, SE. Texas (USA), andNE .Mexico .Cultivate d for Chenopodiaceae its fruits and as aforage . CHENOPODIUM NUTTALLIAE Safford. 2n=allo 4x=36. OPUNTIA MAXIMA Mill. 2n= .Probabl y Mexico. This self-compatible species isgrow n as a Occasionally cultivated in the (sub)trop.A - vegetable (inflorescence) and agrai n crop in mericas and Asia.No t known wild. C. Mexico. It is closely related toC . quinoa* andma y derive from it.Th e weedy C.berlan - OPUNTIA MEGACANTHA Salm-Dyck (syn.0 . castillae dieri Moq., 2n=36, forms aweed-cultige n com­ Griffith). Tuna,Nopal .2n = .Mexico .Culti ­ plex with C. nuttalliae.C . berlandieri occurs vated there and in Jamaica, S. California and from C. Mexico toW . USA where it isver y poly­ Hawaii. Thornless strains cultivated as forage. morphic (Wilson, 1976). See for additional in­ Naturalized onHawai i (Hammer, 1976). formation Wilson & Heiser (1979) and Wilson (1981). OPUNTIA ROBUSTA Wendl. 2n= Mexico. Culti- vated there for its fruits. Compositae

OPUNTIA STREPTACANTHA Lem. 2n= .Mexico .Cul ­ VARIABILIS Desf. (syn.D . rosea Cav.). tivated there.Var . streptacantha is thorny Dahlia. 2n=64.Mexico .A tuberous amphiploid and isuse d as an animal déterrant,wherea s of D. pinnata, 2n=32 and D. coccineaCav. , 2n var. pachona (Griff.)Hamme r (syn.0 . pachona =32, 64.Probabl y domesticated as a food crop Griff.) is thornless and is cultivated for its but now grown as an ornamental. fruits. PARTHENIUM ARGENTATUM A. Gray. Guayule. 2n= OPUNTIA TOMENTOSA Salm-Dyck. 2n=44. Mexico. 36, 54, 72,10 8an d many aneuploids. Mexico Cultivated there.Formerl y used as feed for and Texas,USA . Cultivated as a rubberprodu ­ cochenilla. cer.

OPUNTIA UNDULATA Griff. 2n= .Mexico .Culti ­ TAGETES ERECTA L.Bi g marigold. 2n=24, genome vated there for its edible fruits. formula AeAe. Mexico. Cultivated as anorna ­ mental and for itsmedicina l properties. Also PACHYCEREUS PECTEN-ABORIGINUM (Eng.)Britt . & used in religious rituals and celebrations Rose. 2n= .Mexico .Hedg e plant. (Neher, 1968). Probablya paren to fT . patula*. The genusTagete s extends from SW. USA into PACHYCEREUS PRINGLEI (S.Wats. )Britt . &Rose . Argentina and the area of thegreates tdiversit y 2n= .Mexico . Cultivated as ahedg e plant. is in S. Central Mexico (Neher, 1968). CACTACEAE -EUPHORBIACEA E

TAGETES PATULA L Marigold, Flor del muerto. CUCURBITA MOSCHATA Duch. Cushaw, China squash, 2n=48, genome fo rmulaApApBpBp . Mexico.Pro - Pumpkin, Winter squash. 2n=(24), 40.Fro m Mex­ bably originated by hybridization of T. erecta* ico to Peru. Domesticated in 1800-1400 BC. and T. tenuifoli aCav .,(2n-24 , genome formula (Willey, 1962). Cultivated throughout the BtBt) or closely related species. Cultivated world. Whitaker & Davis (1962) suggested it to as an ornamental and for its medicinal proper- be aderivativ e of C. lundelliana*. ties. Spread thr oughout theworld .A t one time itwa s thought t o have an Old World originbe - CUCURBITA PEPO L.Marrow , ,Pumpkin . cause of the sac red role in theHind u religion 2n=(24, 28),40 , (40-42, 44-46). Whitaker & (Anderson, 1952) However, its role might have Davis (1962) suggested that his species is a been promoted by the sacredness of the yellow possible derivative of C. lundelliana Bailey, colour in India. wild gourd, 2n=40, spreading into N.Mexic o and SW. USA. InTexa s the related wild C. texana Convoivulaceae Gray is found. This species is either aweed y offspring of C. pepo orma y have been involved IPOMOEA BATATAS (L.)Poir . inLam . Sweet po­ in the latter's formation.Whitake r & Cutler tato. 2n=6x=90, genome formulaBBBBBB . Unknown (1969)observe d one seed in a layer dated c. wild.Wit h long cultivation,mutatio n andhy ­ 8750-7840 BC. in acav e inMexico . bridization, is very variable and Var. ovifera (L.)Alef . is cultivated for many types have been classed as separate spe­ its ornamental fruits. cies, like I. tiliacea (Willd.)Chois y and I. triloba L. So descriptions of Ipomoea species CYCLANTHERA PEDATA Schrad. 2n=32. Cultivated before Austin (1977, 1978) should be treated inMexic o for its young fruits and shoots. with care.Nishiyama' s I. trifida is a feral I.batatas ;Nishiyama' s K233, Jones* 67.50 POLAKOWSKIA TACACCO Pitt.Tacaco .2n = Costa both from Mexico and Jones' 71.3 from Colombia Rica. Semi-cultivated for its fruits. and Jones' 73.1 from Ecuador are 4x derivatives of I.batata s x I. trifida* (Austin, 1977). SECHIUM EDULE Schwartz (syn.Chayot e edulis Sweet potato was already cultivated in Poly­ Jacq.). , Guisquil,Christophine . 2n= nesia inpre-Columbia n times.Whethe r it was 24. Mountanous America and Mexico.Centr e of brought there as tubers by man or reached it variation is from Guatemala toPanama . Itwa s as capsules or on drifting material by sea- a common crop among the Aztecs before Spanish currents (Purseglove, 1968) is not yetknown . conquest. A perennial vine now grown insub - Sweet potato is cultivated inman y tropical trop. N.America , Africa and Europe. Insect countries. , resulting in selfing, crossing and vivipary. IPOMOEA PURGA (Wender.)Hayn e (syn.Exogoniu m purga (Wender.) Benth.). Jalap. 2n=24-28.E . Dioscoreaceae Mexico, S. Mexico and C. Panama.Cultivate d in Mexico, the West Indies and later India for its DI0SC0REA FLORIBUNDA Mart. &Gal . 2n=36,54 . medicinal tubers. S.Mexic o and adjacent areas of C. America. Cultivated inAmeric a to yield sapogenin IPOMOEA TRIFIDA (H.B.K.). G. Don.2n=2x=30 . (Coursey, 1967). Mexico and Caribbean toN . Colombia and Vene­ zuela. Common weed. Many chromosome counts Ebenaceae attributed to this species refer to I.bata ­ tas*. According toAusti n (1977), Nishiyama's DIOSPYROS EBENASTER Retz. Black sapote,Zapo - I. trifida is a feral I.batatas . te negro. 2n= .Probabl y Mexico. Cultivated for its fruits. Cucurbitaceae Ehretiaceae CUCURBITA FICIFOLIA Bouché.Malaba r gourd, Fig-leaf gourd. 2n=40, (42).Highland s ofMex ­ CORDIA DODECANDRA DC.Copte , Siricote. 2n= ico andAmerica . This speciesmigh t be ade ­ Mexico. A tall tree cultivated for its fruits. rivative ofC . lundelliana* (Whitaker &Davis , 1962). Elaeocarpaceae

CUCURBITA MIXTA Pang. Pumpkin,Winte r squash, MUNTINGIA CALCABURA L. Panama berry, Capulin. Walnut squash. 2n=40. Itprobabl y derives from 2n= .Widel y cultivated for its sweet edible C. lundelliana Baily in C. America and S. fruits. Mexico. It appears that itwa s widely distri­ buted inN .Mexic o and SW. USA inpre-Colom - Euphorbiaceae bian times (Purseglove, 1968). It is aprimi ­ tivehorticultura l crop with little fruit flesh. JATR0PHA AC0NITIF0LIA Mill. (syn. Cnidoscolus It crosses with C.moschata * and hasbee nde ­ chayamansaMcVaugh.) . 2n= .A shrub.Culti ­ scribed asbelongin g to this species. Itde ­ vated in theYucata n area,Mexico .Youn g shoots veloped later than C. maxima* and C.pepo* . and leaves are eaten as apo t herb.Durin g do- 190 CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN REGION mestication, formswit h fewer stinging hairs 1970; deWe t & Harlan, 1974). were selected for (Dressier, 1953). TRIPSACUM LANCEOLATUM Rupr. ex Fourn. (syn.T . MANIHOT ESCULENTA Crantz.Cassava ,Manioc , lemmoni Vasey). 2n~72. Mountains of arid S. Manihot, . 2n=36. Schmidt (1951, cited Arizona and adjacent Sonora. Excellent fodder. by Nassar, 1978) stated that cassava was taken by Amer-indians from the N. Amazon to Mexico TRIPSACUM LATIFOLIUM Hitchc. 2n=36, 72.C . some100 0year s ago.Bu tRoge r(1963 ) mentioned America.Excellen t trop, fodder. that cassava could have been domesticated in Mexico too,becaus e there is no reason toex ­ clude domestication of roots in the Mexican seed-type agriculture. If so,on e would expect wild ancestral species there. Cassava is cultivated inW . and S.Mexico , C. America including parts of Guatemala. There are only sweet cultivars inMexico ,wher e they have been developed and whence they have spread. However sweet types inBrazi l could have devel­ oped locally.Mor e research is needed.


AXONOPUS COMPRESSUS (Swartz)Beauv . Carpet grass. 2n=40, 50,60 .C . America and theWes t Indies. A perennial tropical grass suitable Tripsacum latifolium (•••), T. lanceolatum for and permanent pasture. (—) and T. laxum ( )(Randolph, 1970).


ORYZA LATIFOLIA* TRIPSACUM LAXUM Nash. 2n=36, 72.Veracru z Oaxaca Mexico. Excellent fodder, for the wet tropics. ORYZA PERENNIS Moénch. 2n=24, genome formula AA. For distribution see p. 74. In America var. TRIPSACUM MAIZAR Hern. & Randolph. 2n=36,72 . cubensis (0. cubensis Ekman), the American race C.Mexico . Robust species,widel y grazed when (2n=24, genome formula AA) of this species de­ young. veloped. Gopalakrishnan & Sampat (1966) sug­ gested that 0. perennis entered America as a TRIPSACUM PILOSUM Scribn. &Merr . 2n=36,72 . weed of 0. sativa in post-Columbian times. C. America.Excellen t fodder.

PANICUM SONORUM Beal. Sauwi. 2n= .Sonor a of TRIPSACUM Z0PIL0TENSE Hern,fe Randolph . 2n=72, ofMexic o and adjacent Arizona.Cultivate d by 76. Arid W. Central Mexico.Th e only Tripsacum Guarijio Indians as acerea l (Dressier, 1953; species without rhizomes.Extensivel y grazed. Gentry, 1942). ZEA DIPLOPERENNIS litis,Doeble y &Guzman .Di ­ L. Switch grass. 2n=36, 72 ploid perennial teosinte. 2n=20. Jalisco,Mex ­ and aneuploids.N . and C. America. Cultivated ico.Crosse swit h maize to produce fertile hy­ as cattle food. brids (litis et al., 1979).

SETARIA GENICULATA (Lam.) Beauv. 2n=36, 72. An ZEA LUSURIANS (Durieu &Ascherson )Bird .Guate ­ early crop in Tehuacan Valley, Mexico; now re­ mala teosinte. 2n=20. Guatemala andHonduras . placed by maize and European food crops. Crosses readily with maize to produce fertile hybrids. SETARIA MACROSTACHYA HBK. 2n=54, 72.A n early crop inTehuaca n Valley,Mexico ;no w replaced ZEA MAYS L. ssp.mays . Maize,Corn .2n=20 . The by maize and European food crops. 'origin* ofmaiz e has been subject tomuc h dis­ cussion and research. The present conclusion TRIPSACUM ANDERSONII Gray. Guatemala grass. is that teosinte (Z.mexican a ) is the wild 2n=64. C. and S. America.Thi s species com­ parent ofmaiz e (deWe t et al., 1971;d eWe t bines 54Tripsacu m and 10Ze a chromosomes in & Harlan, 1972;Galinat , 1971;J.G . Waines, its genome. It iswidel y cultivated introp . see Galinat, 1971). Other theories were that America as a fodder, and to indicate property maize derived from hybridization of primitive boundaries (deWe t et al., 1976). maize, teosinte andTripsacu m ssp.whe n the first reached C. America from S. America. If TRIPSACUM DACTYLOIDES (L.)L . Gamma grass.2n = sowil d maize -a podcor n - tunicata Sturt. - 36, 72.C . USA toParaguay . Excellent culti­ shouldhav ebee n extinct by now. This complete vated fodder grass,ofte n irrigated. Gene ex­ disappearance ofwil d maize would have been change with Zeamay s ispossibl e (Randolph, causedb y anumbe r of factors such as intro- EUPHORBIACEAE - GRAMINEAE 191

gressiono fgene so fdomesticate dmaize ,th e use lets in the tassel branches and the other in­ of the habitats ofwil d maize formaiz e culti­ creases tassel branching. If the first allele vation and the grazing of Old World animals. is absent the expression of the second is com­ The earliest finds of maize were tiny cobs plete resulting inprofus e branching like the (2-3 cm) in the Bat Cave ofTehuacan ,Mexico . mutant ramosa. Some cultivars of the southern They have been dated about 3600BC . Two types dent and 'bear paw' popcorn appear tohav e this have been observed: 1. apodcor n and 2.a high condensation-ramosa type of thick cob.Th e popcorn - everata Sturt. (syn. praecox) (Mac- degree of fasciation with which this type of Neish, 1964;Mangelsdor f et al., 1964). In thick cob may be asociated seems tohav e been another cave,earl y Bat Cave-like maize and modified by teosinte introgression, teosinte teosints have been identified. The material gene(s) suppressing fasciation. It is suspected dates from about 2200BC .Earl y tripsacoid that theCor n Belt dents obtained these two maize dates from 2300-1500 BC.MacNeis h pairs of recessive alleles from the southern (1964a, b) supposed that about 5000BC .wil d dents (Galinat, 1969). maize i.e. teosinte was cultivated. Other morphological changes due todomesti ­ From C. America maize reached S. America cation are a development of acomplet e where its development became more advanced coverage of thematur e ear, the development of (p. 171).Advance d varieties were returned to female inflorescense, a reduction of the glumes C. America. For Mexico they have been descri­ of the female inflorescense, an arrangement of bed as Pre-Columbian Exotic Races comprising spikelets in ahighe r row number, a development of 4 varieties:Cacahuacinthe , Harinoso de of the cupules and an increase of the length Ocho,Olotó nan d Maize Dulce (Wellhausen et al., of the styles (silk). Some cultivars have an 1952).Wher e theyhybridize d with primitiveMex ­ ear length up to 45 cm.Hybri d maize varieties ican Ancient Indigenous Races:Palomer o Tolu- may produce more than 1000kernel s per cob queno, Arrocillo Amarillo, Chapalote and Nal- while the Tehuacan maize has about 40 kernels Tel. This resulted in ane w group of varieties per cob. called: Prehistoric Mestizos. Introgression The terminal inflorescense becomes entirely with teosinte most likely has taken place too. staminate being a lax plumewit h waving branches Wellhausen et al. (1952) described 13races . (Galinat, 1969). Modern incipient Races have developed since A flow of teosinte genes tomaiz e still theConquest .Wellhause n et al. (1952)de ­ exists where maize cultivation is primitive scribed four of them. Some being very recently and teosinte ispresent .Maiz e x teosinte hy­ developed. The same development took place in brids are actually cultivated. Maize may show Guatemala (Wellhausen et al., 1957). pronounced signs of 'tripsacoid' i.e. teosinte From C. America maize also spread to N. A- germ plasm such as induration of the lower glume merica (p. 203). and a straight rigid ear. De Wet et al. (1972)suggeste d that the 'trip­ Less genes flow from maize to teosinte since sacoid' races ofmaiz e in S.Americ a were origi­ the genetic incorporation of amaize-lik e rachis nally introduced from Mexico orC . America results in the inability to disperse seed and where they inherited their 'tripsacoid' charac­ so to the extinction of teosinte introgressed teristics through introgression with teosinte. with maize (Wilkes, 1970). Extensive gene ex­ It is also possible that these races represent change inbot h directions is evident around relics which retain some original teosinte-like Chalco, S. ofMexic o City,wher e the weedy teo­ characteristics inherited from themaiz e pro­ sinte race mimics the local race ofmaiz e in genitor. size, colour and pubescence.Thes e weedsre ­ The oldest domesticated maize varieties had main teosintoid with respect to female in- a string (slender) cob.Thi s primitive charac­ florescense structure. Inman y other areas of teristic is still found in some relic culti- Mexico, particular the Rio Balsas Valley on the vars like Confite Morocho,whic h is themos t W. escarpment,W . of MexicoCity , teosintebe ­ primitive living cultivar (Galinat, 1969). I t haves essentially as awil d grass,bu t modern comes from Peru.Th e domesticated recessive development leads to an increased infiltration character thick cob is conditioned in the Corn ofmaiz e genes into teosinte. Belt dentb y 3majo r loci. One allele derives Several types of maize are cultivated. An from northern flintwhic h obtained it from Maize improved popcorn isbein g cultivated in USA, deOcho . It is possible that this allele intro- Mexico and elsewhere. Softcorn - amylacea gressed from Tripsacum sp.probabl y T. dacty- Sturt. -predominate s in the Andean region. loides*. Perhaps this introgression could be Flint maize, flint corn - indurata Sturt.- traced toS .Americ a by way of the cultivars predominates inN .Colombi a and E. S. America. Cabuya and Sabanero (Galinat, 1969). However, Sweet corn - saccharata Sturt. (syn. rugosa deWe t et al. (1972)believe d that no intro­ Bonof.)- was cultivated for the preparation gression exists between maize and Tripsacum of South American and Mexican beer'.A t present species. So cv. Chococena is not ahybri d of it ismainl y cultivated in USA.Wax y maize - cv. Confite (ex Peru) and aColumbia n Tripsa­ ceritina Kulesh. - cultivated in the Americas cum as hasbee n suggested. and inE .Asia .Den t maize -indent aSturt . is The source(s) of other two recessive alleles themai n type of the Corn Belt of USA andN . is not fully understood. One of these alleles Mexico. A hybrid of a late-maturing dent Gourd produces high condensation of staminate spike- Slide cultivated in the south, and an early ma- CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN REGION turing flint maize, mainly cultivated in the seed, 1970). north. The latter derives from MaizOcho . From C. and S. America maize was taken to Juglandaceae Europe (p. 135),Asi a (p. 33) and Africa (p. 117), where secondary centres of diversity CARYA (Marsch.) Engl. & Graebn. Pecan. developed. 2n=32. N. Mexico. Cultivated there. It resem­ At present flintmaize , flint corn - indura­ bles the walnut, Juglans regia* but the seed ta Sturt. - is quite common inC . America. has a better taste. Derivatives of Z. mays /2*Z .mexican a are used for fodder. These are called maisinte JUGLANS MOLLIS Engelm. Guatemala walnut. 2n= (Prasad &Chaudhuri , 1968). . Mexico and Guatemala. Similar to the walnut (J. regia*). ZEA MAYS ssp.mexican a (Schrader) litis (syn. Z.mexican a (Schrader) Kunze, Euchlaena mexi­ Labiatae cana Schrader). Mexican teosinte.2n=20 . C. Plateau and Valley of Mexico.MacNeis h (1964a, HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS Poit.2n=28 , 32.Cultivate d b) suggested that about 5000 BC. wild maize i. mainly inMexico .A variable andweed y plant teosinte was cultivated. It is the ancestor now occurring inman y parts of the tropics. of maize, Zea mays*. Owing tonatura lhybridi ­ zation between maize and teosinte there is a SALVIA CHIA Fern.Chia . 2n= .Mexico . Seeds gene flow from teosinte tomaize , while that are used toprepar e abeverag e and forpain ­ ting ormedicine .

SALVIA DIVINORUM Epling & Jativa-M. 2n= Wild unknown.Cultivate d inNE .Oaxaca ,Mexico . Vegetatively propagated (Schultes &Hofmann , 1973). Perhaps one clone.Closel y related to S. cyanca Lindl. (2n= )o f C.Mexico .


PERSEA AMERICANA Miller. . 2n=24, (36, 48). Mexico and C. America.Ther e are three geographical races: (1)Mexica n (also named P. americana var. drymifolia Mez. syn. P. drymifolia Cham. & Schlecht.) from theMexica n highlands where wild progenitors have been found. Its anisescented leaves,hardines s and small fruits are characteristics. (2)Guate ­ Zea mexicana (Wilkes, 1967). malan, from the Guatemalan highlands.Wil d progenitors have been found in this area. (3) gene flow from teosinte tomaize ,whil e that West Indian, from the Guatemalan lowlands which ofmaiz e to teosinte is very small (see p. has only spread to theWes t Indies inpost - 190). This may happen between the earliest Columbian times (Purseglove, 1968). Where these flowering teosinte plants and the latest of races grow together -eithe r in their native maize. Teosinte plants may grow unnoticed in region or elsewhere -hybrid s originate (Bergh, amaiz e field and may be harvested together 1969). Electrophoretic studies showed that the with its leader crop.Seed sma y be spread ei­ Guatemalan race is themos t ancient form (Gar­ ther during the transport or storage of the cia &Tsunewaki , 1977). The Mexican and West crop or inmanur e (Wilkes, 1967). Attempts Indian races havebee n described as var.ameri - havebee nmad e tocultivat e teosinte as afod ­ canum. der,bu t ityield s less than sorghum. This subspecies is often found as awee d in fields FLOCCOSA. 2n=24. Semi-cultivated in ofmaize , and introgresses naturally with do­ Puebla-Veracruz area ofMexico . mesticated maize. See alsoZ .may s ssp.par - viglumis*. PERSEA SCHIEDEANA Ness. Coyo avocado. 2n=24. From Guatemala toMexico . Semi-cultivated Iridaceae chiefly inOrizaba , Mexico for its edible fruits (Bergh, 1969). TRIGIDIA PAVONIA (L.f.)DC .Cacomite , Tiger flower. 2n=26,28 .Mexico .Naturalize d inmos t Leguminosae ofC . America, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru andBra ­ zil.Easil y cultivated. Soon escapes into maize CAL0P0G0NIUM MUCUNOIDES Desv. 2n= .Trop . A- fields etc. as aweed .Th e Aztecs cultivated merica. A cover crop and greenmanure .Culti ­ this species for almost a 1000 years.Cultiva ­ vated in the tropicswher e itha s naturalized. ted now as an ornamental which resulted in spontaneous variations in colour and size (Mol- CANAVALIA CAMYL0CARPA Piper.Babrico n bean. GRAMINEAE -LEGUMINOSA E 193

2n= .Th e West Indies.Cultivate d as agree n seolus atropurpureus DC).Siratro . 2n=22. S. manure. Texas, New Mexico (USA), Mexico,C .America , Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Argentina. Material CROTALARIA LONGIROSTRATA Hook. & Arn.Muc h of from Mexicoha s recently been domesticated in Mexico and C. America (Dressier, 1953). A large Australia for tropical pasture. herb cultivated inGuatemal a as apotherb . MIMOSA INVISA Mart. 2n=24, 26. C. and S.Ameri ­ DESMODIUM TORTUOSUM (Sw.)DC . (syn.Meibomi a ca. InJav a and elsewhere it is used as acove r purpurea (Mill.)Vail.) . Florida clover, Giant and greenmanure . The spiny stem is adisadvan ­ beggarsweed. 2n-22. C. America, Florida,Wes t tage. Var. inermis Adelb. is ausefu l selection. Indies and N. South America.A perennial herb used as agree nmanur e and forage crop. PACHYRHIZUS EROSUS (L.)Urban , (syn.P . angula- tus Rich, exDC , P. bulbosus (L.) Kurz.). Yam DESMODIUM UNCINATUM* bean, Jicama. 2n=22. Mexico and N.Centra l A- merica. Cultivated there inpre-Columbia n times. (Jacq.)Griseb . 2n= Taken toAsi a and cultivated there. In S. China 26. Mexico,C .America , N. South America and and Thailand itha s run wild (Clausen, 1944). West Indies.Cultivate d as ashad e tree. Var. palmatilobus (DC.)Clause n is probably P. palmatilobus Benth. &Hook . INGA DULCIS. 2n= .Mexico . Used as a shade tree and hedge plant. PHASEOLUS ACUTIFOLIUS Gray. Tepary bean. 2n= 2x=22. From N. Central Arizona (USA) toGuate ­ INGAEDULI S Mart.Foo d inga. 2n=26. Mexico mala. Found inMexic o in layers dating from and C America. Used as ashad e tree. 3000BC .A very polymorphic species with drought resistance,hig h protein content and high pro­ INGA GOLDMANII Pittier. 2n= C.America . ductivity. Wild specimens are annualswit h in­ Used as ashad e tree. determinate climbing habit and cleistogamous flowers. They belong to var. tenuifolius Gray; INGA LAURINA (Sw.)Willd . Sackysac. 2n= cultivated types belong to var. latifolius C. America and the West Indies. Itha s edible Freeman (Baudet, 1977b). However Nabham &Fei ­ fruits. Used as a shade tree in coffeeplanta ­ ger (1978) stated that some wild types belong tions in theNe wWorl d (Purseglove, 1968). to the latter variety.

INGA LEPT0L0BA Schlecht, 2n= .Mexico ,C . PHASE0LUS COCCINEUS L. Scarlet Runner, Runner and S.America . Used as ishad e tree. bean. 2n=22.Mexic o and Guatemala. Domesticated there before 300BC , perhaps for its thick INGA PITTIERI Micheli. 2n= . C. America. Used roots. The cultivated form is var.coccineus , as a shade tree. thewil d form has not yetbee n described. Cul­ tivated in the Americas and Eurasia for food, LEUCAENA LEUCOCEPHALA (Lam.)d eWi t (syn.L . for fodder and as an ornamental. For Ph. vul­ glauca (Willd.)Benth. , L. latisiliqua (L.) garis* it is a source of halo blight resistance, Gillis. Leucaena. 2n=104.C . America, spread absence of parchment and string. Smartt (1973) to the Caribbean islands,th e Philippines,SE . suggested that the cultigen ssp. darwinianus Asia and elsewhere. Var. glabrata isL . gla- Hdz. X. &Mirand a C may have an independent brata Rose. domestication of a yet unknown ancestral form. Three types are recognized: (1)Hawaiia n type, He stated that a special taxonomie treatment a shortbus h with year round flowering causing may be necessary. Baudet (1977b) suggested that a high seed production and easily becoming a this subspecies is also described as Ph. poly­ pest weed. (2)Salvado r type, a tall tree of anthus Greenm.bu t Smartt (1973) stated that the inland forests of C. America.Mexica nma ­ this latter species is related toPh . vul­ terial coming through the Philippines to Hawaii garis*. It sometimes crosses with Ph. vul­ was the source of the Hawaiian Giants cultivar garis*. group bred for timber. (3)Per u type,a nex ­ tensively branching tree extremely rich info ­ PHASEOLUS LUNATUS L. Sievabean , Limabean . liage. Forage cultivars derive from this type; 2n=22. C America and in theAnde s from Peru forage cultivar Cunningham is ahybri d of Sal­ toArgentine .Kapla n (1965)showe d that the vador type and Peru type.Cultivar s poor inmi - small limabea n ofMexic o may have arisen in mosin are bred for. the Pacific coastal foothills of Mexico and Leucaena is autogamous. Since 1900 hybrids that the big lima bean of Peru was firstdomes ­ (2n=80) ofL . leucocephala and L. pulverulenta ticated in the Andean highlands (p.174) . (Schlecht.)Benth. , 2n=56, have developed in Baudet (1977a) divided the species into a Indonesia and shade trees and forage cultivars wild form var. Silvester Baudet and theculti ­ low inmimosin . They are partially sterile and vated form var. lunatus,whic h is subdivided cannot become apes t weed (Vietmeyer &Cottons . into three cultivar groups: (1)Lim a (Big Lima/ (1977). True Lima)wit h large flat seeds corresponding toPh . inamoenus L.; (2)Siev a (Small Lima)wit h MACROPTILUM ATROPURPUREUM (DC)Urb . (syn.Pha - medium-sized seeds corresponding toPh . lunatus CENTRAL AMERICAN ANDMEXICA N REGION

L. sensu stricto; and (3)Potat owit h small glo- PITHECELLOBIUM DULCE Benth.Manil a tamarind, bular seeds corresponding toPh .bipunctatu s 2n=26. Mexico toN . South America. The arillus Jacq. is edible.A tree planted inhedges .

PHASEOLUS RETUSUS Benth. Metcalf bean. 2n= SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA (Ort.)Lagasc a exD e Can- Texas, Arizona and New Mexico,USA . Occasionally dolle. Mescal bean, Redbean , Coral bean. 2n= cultivated. 18. N.Mexic o toTexa s and New Mexico.Use d as hallucinogen. Often planted as anornamental . PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. Common bean. 2n=22.Kap ­ lan (1981)suggeste d amultipl e domestication TEPHROSIA SINGAP0U (Buc'hoz)A . Cheval, (syn. within C.Americ a from awidesprea d and poly- T. toxicaria (Sw.)Pers. ) 2n=22. Mexico and C. morphus species. Itha s been suggested that America toPer u and N.Brazil .Cultivate d as this domestication may have taken place between a fish poison. 5000 and 3000 BC. From C. America itwoul d have spread to other parts of America (Kaplan, 1965). Malpighiaceae However, Heiser (1965)believe d in an indepen­ dent domestication from the closely related Ph. BUNCH0SIA COSTARICENSIS Rose. 2n= Costa aborigineus Burk. (syn.Ph .vulgari s L.var . Rica. Cultivated for itsfruits . aborigineus (Burk.) Baudet), 2n=22, which occurs wild in N.Argentina , Bolivia, Peru,Ecuador , MALPIGHIA URENS L. Barbados cherry. 2n= Colombia and Venezuela. InArgentin a andVene ­ The West Indies.Cultivate d for its fruits. zuela, the wild plant isharveste d (Berglund- Brücher &Brücher , 1976). When Ph. vulgaris Malvaceae reached the area of Ph. aborigineus, aborigineus genes may have introgressed into vulgaris. How­ GOSSYPIUM ARIDUM (Rose & Standley) Skovsted. ever,Gentr y(1969 )an dBaude t(1977b )suggeste d 2n=26, genome formula DD Mexico. thatPh .aborigineu s could bea naturalize d type. Gentry (1969)pointe d out that awil d type of GOSSYPIUM ARMOURIANUM Kearney. 2n=26, genome Ph. vulgaris grows inC . America and is thepa ­ formula D2_iD2-l. SanMarco s Islands,Gul f of rent of the cultivated forms. From this wild California. type the cultivated forms derive. Ph. arborigineus was reduced by Burkart & GOSSYPIUM G0SSYPI0IDES (Ulb.)Standley . 2n=26, Bücher (1953) to asubspecie s level of Ph. vul­ genome formula DgDg.Mexico . It crosses poorly garis. They suggested that this subspecies was with most of the species of the D genome. Its not taken toS . America.A study of the wild seed-protein pattern is different from the D and cultivated beans of this area should cla­ genome species.However , it is similar to the rify whether this is so orwhethe r ssp.arbori ­ pattern of G. klotzschianum* (Cherry et al., gineus is an escape of early cultivated forms 1970). (Gentry, 1969). Its primary centre of diversity is inMexico . Here introgression between culti­ GOSSYPIUM HARKNESSII Brandg. 2n=26,genom e for­ vated and wild Ph. vulgaris and P. coccineus* mula D2_2^2_2•Th e i-slanas ana coasts of the occurs (Wall, 1970). The purple-marbled culti- Gulf ofCalifornia .Var . davidsonii is,ac ­ cording toBahavandos s & Jayaraman (1973), the progenitor of the D genome found in 4x species.

GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. Upland cotton. 2n=52,ge ­ nome formula (AADD). The current theory is that this species originated inC . America. Harland (1970) suggested that its centre of origin is in S. America (p. 176),whil e C. America is an important secondary centre of diversity. Upland cotton is cultivated inUSA , in Africa except for theNil e Delta (p. 176),i n C.Asia , India (Cambodia type,p . 59),S . America, SE.China , Indochina and elsewhere. InC .Americ a and the West Indian islands racemari e galante is found while race punctatum is found around the coasts of theGul f ofMexic o from Florida to Yucatan in the Bahamas and on some West Indian islands. Phaseolus vulgaris (Gentry, 1969). Itwa s taken toW . Africa where it spread in the zone south of the Sahara, toRéunion , theMala ­ bar Coast of India,Polynesia , theMarquesas , vars like Kievitsboon in the Netherlands may Fiji andN . Australia. A great diversity was derive from such introgression. Secondary cen­ found inN . Australia. tres inEurasi a (p.40) . Race yucatense is probably a cotton that has runwil d and is now naturalized into natural vegetation of the coastal sand dunes of the LEGUMINOSAE- PORTULACACEA E 195

Progeso area,Mexico . Mexico and C. America. Cultivated for its fruits. Race morilli is found in Oaxaca, Peubla and Morelos, C. Mexico. A perennial cotton with a PSIDIUM SARTORIANUM (Berg.)Nied . Pichlché, bushy form and broad, intensely hairy leaves. Arrayan, Guayabillo. 2n= .Mexico . Cultivated Race palmeri in the state Guerrero,Mexico . there. Itha s deeply dissected leaves and strong an- thocyanin pigmentation. Onagraceae Race latifolium is found inChiapas ,Mexic o and neighbouring regions of Guatemala. An an­ OENOTHERA BIENNIS L. (syn.Onagr a biennis Scop.). nual cotton.Throughou t its territory asmall - Evening primrose. 2n=14. N.Americ a toMexico . fruited form is found. A large-fruited form Run wild over a large part of the world. Cul­ grows in the vicinity ofAcala , Chiapas.Thi s tivated as a fodder crop. race appears tob e the foundation stock of all the annual G. hirsutum cottons (Hutchinson, Orchidaceae 1962). FRAGRANS (Salisb.)Ames . (syn.V . plani- GOSSYPIUM KLOTZSCHIANUM Andersson var. david- folia Andrews). Vanilla. 2n=(28-32), 32.C . A- sonii (Kellogs) Saunders.2n=26 ,genom e formu­ merica, SE.Mexic o and theAntilles .A perenni ­ la D3_DD3_D. Shores of the Gulf of California al vine cultivated in the tropics and S. Mexico and the Revilla Gigedo islands.Relate d to the for its aromatic fruits. plants of this species foundo n the Galapagos Islands (p.176) . VANILLA POMPONA Schiede (syn.V . grandiflora Lindl.). West Indian vanilla. 2n=32. SE.Mexico , GOSSYPIUM LOBATUM Gentry. 2n=26, genome formu­ C. America and N. South America.A perennial laDyDy . Mexico. vine onTahiti ,Martiniqu e and for its aromatic fruits. GOSSYPIUM THURBERI Todaro. 2n=26, genome formu­ laDjD^ . Arizona, USA and Sonora and SW. Chi­ Palmae huahua, Mexico.A t one time itwa s thought to be theAmerica n parent ofG . herbaceum* and G. CHAMAEDOREA TEPEJILOTE Liebm. 2n=32. Ch. barbadense*. wendlandiana (Oerst.)Hemsl . 2n= .A t least one, and probably several, species of thisge ­ GOSSYPIUM TRILOBUM (Sess. &Moc . ex DC.) Skov- nus are cultivated in S.Mexic o and C.America . sted. (syn. Ingenhouzia triloba Moc.& Sess. The young staminate flower clusters are used exDC) .2n=26 . C. Mexico (Fryxell &Parks , as a vegetable (Dressier, 1953). 1967). GUILIELMA GASIPAES* Moraceae Papaveraceae Swartz.Ramon ,Ramo nbread - nut tree. 2n=26. Trop.Araerica . Seeds are edible ARGEMONE MEXICANA L. Mexican prickly poppy. when roasted. Probably planted by the Maya 2n=28. SW. USA and Mexico.Cultivate d inMali . (Lundell, 1937). Seeds are used to prepare oil.Als o an ornamen­ tal. CASTILLA ELASTICA Cerv. Arbol delHule . 2n=28. S.Mexic o and C. America.Cultivate d in C. A- Passifloraceae merica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Java at the end of the 19th Century. Now replaced by hevea PASSIFLORA SEEMANNII Griseb. 2n=18. Panama rubber. and Andes of Colombia.

Myrtaceae Polygonaceae

PIMENTA DIOICA (L.)Merr . (syn.P . officinalis COCCOLOBA UNIFERA L. Seaside grape.2n = Lindl.). ,Pimento . 2n=22. The West In­ Trop. America.A shrub or tree cultivated for dies and C. America. Spread toothe r countries. its edible fruits.

PSIDIUM FRIEDRICHSTHALIANUM (Berg.)Nied . Costa RUMESHYMENOSEPALU S Torr. Canaigre,Wil d rhu­ Rican guava. 2n= .C .America .A small tree barb, Pie dock, Sour dock, Tanner's dock. 2n= cultivated for its acid fruits. 100. SW. USA and adjacent Mexico.A perennial herb occasionally cultivated. PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L. Guava. 2n=22, 4x=44. Trop. America. Cultivated there. In 1526 Oviedore ­ Portulacaceae ported that improved forms were cultivated in the West Indies.Sprea d through the tropics, Donn. exWilld . (syn. where guava may be found naturalized. Montia perfoliata How.). Winter purslane,Mi ­ ner's lettuce. 2n=36. N.Americ a andMexico . PSIDIUM MOLLE Bertol. Guisare. 2n=5x=55. S. Cultivated as avegetable . 196 CENTRAL AMERICAN AND MEXICAN REGION

PORTULACA OLERACEA L. Purslane. 2n=2x=18, 4x= Simaroubaceae 36, 6x=54. Widespread. The distribution of the 2x, 4x and 6xwil d and weedy subspecies shows SIMAROUBA GLAUCA DC.Aceituno . 2n= .S . Flo­ that Mexico is one of the centres of diversity rida toCost aRica . InE l Salvador andelse ­ (Danin et al., 1978). The cultivated type pro­ where attempts are made to cultivate it as an bably developed inEurop e (p.158) . oil crop.

Rosaceae Simmondsiaceae

CRATAEGUS PUBESCENS (H.B.K.) Steud. (syn. C. SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS (Link)Nutt . (syn.S . stipulosa (H.B.K.) Steud.). 2n=34. A treewi ­ californica Nutt). Jojoba, Pignut, Goatnut. dely cultivated inMexic o and Guatemala for its 2n=56, c. 100.Californi a and adjacent Mexico. fruits. Dioecious. It isno w being domesticated in California. Ityield s a stable liquidwax ,jo ­ Rutaceae joba oil.

CASIMIROA EDULIS La Llave &Lex . , Zapote Blanco. 2n=36. Highlands of Mexico and C. America.A fruit tree introduced to other subtropical countries.

CITRUS PARADISI Macf. Grapefruit. 2n=18. Un­ known wild. Closely related toC . grandis and it probably is abu d mutation or ahybri d pro­ duct of C. grandis and sweet orange (C.sinen ­ sis*).Thi s must have occurred in the West In­ dies some time before 1750 (Purseglove, 1968). It iswidel y cultivated in the (sub)tropics. Hybrids with other Citrus-species have been obtained, Sopomaldin is ahybri d with C. mitis (Calamondin), Siamelo with C. reticulata* (King Orange), Tangelowit h the same species var.de - liciosa (Tangerine), Satsumelowit h the same species (Satsuma) and Chironja with C. sinen­ Simmondsia chinensis (Gentry, 1958). sis* (Sweet Orange). Tangelolo is ahybri d of grapefruit with Tangelo. Solanaceae Sapotaceae CAPSICUM ANNUUML . Bell pepper, , CALOCARPUM SAPOTA (Jacq.) Merr. (syn.C . mam- Mexican chili. 2n=24. Wild variety in S. USA, mosum Pierre,Achra smammos a L.). Mamey sapote, West Indies,Mexico ,C . America and Colombia. Sapote, Marmelade plum, Mamey Colorado. 2n= Primary centre inMexico . Secondary centres C. America. A tree cultivated in the tropics in Europe (p. 162) and Asia (p. 79).Originall y for its fruits. the cultivars were limited toC . America. The wild type is the bird pepper, var, aviculare CALOCARPUM VIRIDE Pitt.Gree n sapote.2n = (Dierbach)D'Arc y &Eshb . (syn. glabriusculum Guatemala toCost a Rica. A tree cultivated for (Dunal)Heise r &Pickersgill) . The domesticated its fruits. type is var. annuum.

CHRYSOPHYLLIUMCAINIT O L. Star apple. 2n=52. CAPSICUM FRUTESCENS L. Tobasco pepper. 2n=24. West Indies and C. America.Th e pulp isedible . This species consists ofwil d types andde ­ Also an ornamental. rived cultivars, like theTobasc o peppers.Wide ­ spread as awee d and as cultivars inMexico , LUCUMA BIFERA Mol.Eg g fruit. 2n= .Chil e and C. America and lowland S.America . Itmigh t be Peru. Cultivated there for its fruits. the parental species of C. chinense*.

LUCUMA SALICIFOLIA H.B.K. (syn.Pouteri a cam- PHYSALIS IXOCARPA Brot. Tomatl, Miltomate, Husk pechiana (H.B.K.) Baenhi). Yellow sapote,Za ­ tomato, Tomatillo. 2n=24. Mexico. There and pote amarillo. 2n= .Mexic o and C.America . in Guatemala this vegetable is cultivated. Cultivated for its fruits. SOLANUM AGRIMONIFOLIUM Rydb. 2n=48. From C. MANILKARA ACHRAS (Mill.) Fosberg (syn.Achra s Mexico toBolivia . zapotaL. , M. zapotilla (Jacq.) Gilly). Sapo- dilla, Chiku. 2n=26.Mexic o andC . America. SOLANUM BRACHISTOTRICHUM (Bitt.)Rydb . 2n=24. Cultivated now in the tropics for its fruits NW. Mexico, in open pine and juniper forests and gum (chickle) for chewing-gum production. and amongst bushes and rocks.Resistan t to the green peach , Myrus persicae Sulzer. PORTULACACEAE -SOLANACEA E 197

SOLANUM BREVICAULE Bitt. 2n=24. Ugent (1970a) may have come from S. verrucosum*. grouped in this species wild diploid species as S. canasense Hawkes, S.brevicaul e Bitt. SOLANUM HJERTINGII Hawk. 2n= .NE .Mexico , s.S., S. raphanifolium Card. &Hawkes ,S . lep- in pinon scrub and cultivated fields.Ver y si­ tophyes Bitt., S. soukupii Hawkes,S . multi- milar to S. fendleri*.A source of resistance interruptum Bitt., S. abbottianum Juz., S. li- to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae riunianum Card. &Hawkes ,S . spegazzinii Bitt. Thomas. and S. vidaurrei Cardenas. It is likely that from this complex species the diploid S. steno- SOLANUM HOUGASII Corr. 2n=72, genome formula tomum* arose. A.A.AA BB.W . Central Mexico. The Ai genome may have come from S. verrucosum*. Source of SOLANUM BULBOCASTANUM Dun. 2n=24, genome for­ resistance topotat o Y-virus. mula BB, (36,BBB) .A t medium altitudes from C. Mexico toGuatemal a ingrassland , waste SOLANUM IOPETALUM (Bitt.) Hawk. 2n=72, genome places and forest glades and clearings. There formula A1A1A4A4BB. W. and S. Mexico. It in­ are three subspecies (Hawkes, 1966): cludes S. brachycarpum Corr. The Ai genome may Ssp. Bulbocastanum (2n-24, 36) is found in have come from S. verrucosum*. S,Mexico , ssp. dolichophyllum (2n=24) in the Mexican statesMorelo s and Guerrero and ssp. SOLANUM JUGLANDIFOLIUM Dunn. 2n=24. . partitum (2n=24) in S.Mexic o and Guatemala. Little value topotat o breeders because it This B genome also constitutes two of thege ­ does notbea r ortubers . nomes of S. polytrichon*A4A4BB . The B genome is related to the A4 genome and to theA ige ­ SOLANUM LEPTOSEPALUM Correll.2n = .NE . Mexi­ nome of S. phureja*. S.bulbocastanu m crosses co and possibly in USA. with S. tuberosum* and is used as a source of resistance toPhytophthora , X-virus,Y-virus , SOLANUM LESTERI Hawkes &Hjerting . 2n=24. Oaxa- Colorado beetle and several aphids (vectors of ca, Mexico. virus diseases). SOLANUM MICHOACANUM (Bitt.) Rydb. (syn.S .tri - SOLANUM CARDIOPHYLLUM Lindl. 2n=24, 36.S . fida Corr.). 2n=24. Michoacan and Jalisco, Mexi­ Mexico. In dry stony grassy and wasteplaces , co. In the pine forests and fields.Resistan t often as awee d inmaiz e and bean fields.Ssp . to the green peach aphid, Myrus persicae Sulzer. ehrenbergii is found inN . Central toW . Mexi­ co, ssp. cardiophyllum occurs inC . Mexico and SOLANUM MORELLIFORME Bitt.& Muench . 2n=24. C. ssp. lanceolatum in SE. to S. Mexico. Triploid Mexico, southwards to Guatemala. forms are frequent in ssp. cardiophyllum. Ssp. ehrenbergii is one parent of S. sambucinum*. SOLANUM OXYCARPUM Schiede. 2n=48. E. Central Mexico, ,Cost a Rica and adjacent Pana­ SOLANUM CLARUM Corr. 2n=24. Guatemala, in the ma. high mountains.Probabl y a link between Bul- bocastana and Morelliformia series. SOLANUM PAPITA Rydb. 2n= Similar toS . fendleri*. SOLANUM DEMISSUM Lindl. 2n=(36, 48),72 ,ge ­ nome formula A1A1A4A4BB. Nw. Mexico toGuate ­ SOLANUM PINNATISECTUM Dun. 2n=24. N. Central mala. An important source of disease resis­ Mexico. Amaiz e field weed.A source ofresis ­ tance (Phytophthora, X-virus, Y-virus). The tance toPhytophthora , Y-virus and Colorado A^-genomema y have come from S. verrucosum*. beetle. A parent of S. sambucinum*. One of the parental species of S. xedinense * and S. X semidemissum. SOLANUM POLYADENIUM Greenm. 2n=24. C.Mexico . A source of Phytophthora resistance and, owing SOLANUM XEDINENS E Berthault.Mexica n weed po­ to its glandular hairs, of resistance to tarso- tato, Paparaorado. 2n=60 . Clones occur in and nemid mite (Polyphago tarsonemus latus Banks). along the edges of cultivated field, irrigation ditches, roadsides thickets and forest fringes SOLANUM POLYTRICHON Rydb. 2n=48, genome formu­ in the Central Volcani Cordillera of Mexico laA4A4BB . NW. toN . Central Mexico. Inwast e between 2000 and 3500m . A source ofPhytoph ­ places, and cultivated fields. Its thora and frost resistance.Thi s 5xhybri d is genomes are related and also to theA i genome of a cross between S. tuberosum (group Andigena, S. phureja*. S.bulbocastanum * has the genome 2n=4x=48)an d S. demissum Lindl. (2n=6x=72) formula BB. S. polytrichon is used as a source (Hawkes, 1966). S. demissum genesma y intro- or resistance toPhytophthor a and potato aphid. gress in the cultivated potato by backcrossing. Harvest of potato may contain tubers of S.X SOLANUM X SAMBUCINUM Rydb. 2n=24. Inmaiz e edinense andb y trading the potato this weedy fields inN .Centra l Mexico.A natural hybrid potato is also spread (Ugent, 1967). of S. pinnatisectum* x S. cardiophyllum* ssp. ehrenbergii* (2n=24) and S. pinnatisectum* SOLANUM GUERREROENSE Correll. 2n=72, genome (2n=24) (Hawkes, 1966). formula A1A1A4A4BB. SW. Mexico.Th e Al genome MrvTr'AM Dtmmw


ATRIPLEX CANESCENS (Pursh.)Nutt . American HELIANTHUS TUBEROSUS L. Jerusalem artichoke. shad scale,Hoar y saltbush,Win g scale,Four - 2n=102, genome formula At-,At- ,AtoAtoBt-jBt- ,. wing saltbush. 2n= .W . North America up to N. America.Ru nwil d in S. Ukraine and N.Cau ­ Mexico. Cultivated as a fodder plant on saline casus. A perennial species introduced to Mexi­ soils and as ahedg e plant (Mansfeld, 1959). co and Eurasia. A. gardnesi (Moq.)Standi . (2n= ) is from The Bti genome is related to the Ba^ genome the same area and A. truncata (Torr.) A. Gray ofH . annuus*.H . tuberosus is probably an (2n= ) is from Utah, USA. amphiploid of a species with genome formula AtiAt]At2At2 and aB genome donor.Thi s might CHENOPODIUM NUTTALLIAE Safford. 2n=4x=36. This be H. annuus or else a closely related spe­ species is named nowCh . berlandieri Moq. ssp. cies. nuttalliae (Safford)Wilso n &Heiser . It is H. x laetiflorus Pers. (2n=102), awil d per­ cultivated in the highlands of C.Mexic o and ennial species of USA is probably ahybri d Arkansas andMissour i (USA). Theweed y Ch. of H. subrhomboidus Rydb. (2n=102) andH . tu­ bushianum Aellen of E.Nort h America is closely berosus. The first parent is also native to related (Wilson &Heiser , 1979;Wilson , 1981). USA (Clevenger &Heiser , 1963).

Compositae IVA ANNUA L. (syn. I. ciliata Willd.). Sump weed, Marsh elder. 3n=34. A large-*seeded' HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. Sunflower. 2n=14, genome type (var.macrocarpa )i s an extinct oil-crop formula Ba^Bai. N.America . It is difficult to cultivated from the early 1st Millenium BC. to bemor e specific because of its spread as a the first half of the 2nd Millenium AD. (Yar- food plant and weed. The wild typema y have nell, 1972). resembled ssp. jaegeri, a small-headed type found in SW. Utah andNE .Arizon a toS . Cali­ STOKESIA LAEVIS (Hill) Green. Stokes aster. fornia in USA. Inne w areas the sunflower has 2n= . A perennial native to Georgia, Flori­ introgressed with related species sotha t the da, , Mississippi and Louisiana (USA), morphological variationha s increased.A n im­ grown as an ornamental. A possible oil-crop? portant species isH . bolanderi A. Gray (2n= 34) of C. and N.California . Itma y derive from Cucurbitaceae crosses ofH . annuus with H. exilus Gray, 2n= .Othe r species H. agrophyllus Torr.& A. CUCURBITA FOETIDISSIMA HBK. Feral buffala Gray (2n=34) ofTexas ,H . debilis Nutt.ssp . gourd, Fetid gourd, Missouri gourd, Calabazilla. cucumerifolius (2n=34) ofTexa s andH . petio- 2n= .Wil l probably be domesticated (Bemis larisNutt . (2n=34)o fW . of N.Americ a have et al., 1978). alsohybridize d with the sunflower. Various subspecies and varieties are recog­ Cupressaceae nized: ssp. lenticularis (Dougl.)Ckll , which is near to the original wild type and is found L. Eastern red cedar. 2n from W. Canada toN .Mexico . Ssp. texanus = .E . North America.Muc h variation is due growsmainl y in Texas. Itma y have arisen by to introgressive hybridization with other Ju- hybridization of ssp. lenticularis and H. de­ niperus species (Hemmerly, 1970). bilis. Ssp. annuus L. is a ruderalweed , awee d Ebenaceae sunflower, found in the settlements in the Midwest. Itpossibl y derives from ssp.lenti ­ DIOSPYROS VIRGINIANA L. Common persimmon. 2n= cularis. Var.macrocarpu s (DC.)Ckl l is pro­ .E . NorthAmerica .Cultivate d for its bably the parental form of the cultivated fruits. Also used as arootstoc k ofD . kaki*. types. Itgrow s inNE .US A and Canada. It pro­ bably originated from ssp. annuus or this sub­ Ericaceae species and var.macrocarpu s developed to­ gether from ssp. lenticularis. ASHEI Reade.Rabbiteye . 2n=72. N. Aweed y sunflower may have reached the Middle America.Cultivate d there. Wild plants are West where no other annual Helianthus species also harvested. According toCam p (1945) the are found. Here the giant, large-headed sun­ wild types derive from hybridization of the flowerma y have developed (Heiser, 1955, 1965). tetraploid species V. arkansanum, V. australe From N.Americ a the sunflower was introduced Small, Southeastern highbush , V. into Europe where in USSR a secondary centre darrowi-4x and V.myrsinite s Lam., Ground blue­ of diversity arose (p.130) . berry.

HELIANTHUS EXILIS A. Gray. Serpentine sun­ VACCINIUM C0RYMBOSUM L.Highbus h berry. 2n= flower. 2n= .Mois t serpentine soils of In­ 72. N.America . Cultivars have developed from ner Coastal Range in California, USA. Almost thewil d typewhic h arose from hybridization extinct.H .bolander i A. Gray, 2n=34, resulted of the tetraploid species V. lamarckii Camp from introgression ofH . exilis genes intoH . (syn.V . angustifolium Ait.), V. alto-montanum annuus* (Jain et al., 1977). Cold-tolerant. Asche, V. simulatum and V. australe Small, Southeastern highbush blueberry. COMPOSITAE 201

Distribution of Helianthus spp. in pre-human (above), pre-colurabian (middle)an d modern(below) times. (H. annuus ( ),H . petiolaris (speckled), H. exilis (A),H . argophyllus (B),H . debilis var. cucumerifolius (•••), H. debilis var. debilis (C),H . bolanderi ( ),cultivate d sunflower (1), campflower (2),Grea t plains annuus (3),wee d petiolaris (4)an dwee d cucumerifolius(5) (Anderson, 1956; based on Heiser's research). NORTH AMERICAN REGION

crop and green manure. Moraceae

ROBINIA HISPIDA L. 2n=30. SE.Nort h America. (Rafin.)CK . Schneider (syn. Cultivated as an ornamental and inhedges . M. aurantiaca Nuttall). Osage orange.Texas , Oklahoma and Arkansas,USA . Widely planted as ROBINIA PSEUDACACIA L. Locust,Blac k locust. living fence in USA from 1850-1875.Naturalized . 2n=20, c. 20,22 .C . and E. North America. This Also used as a source of bows, yellow dye and tree is planted as an ornamental and as asoi l building material. Dioecious,wind-pollinated . stabilizer. Macludrania hybrida André is anatura l hybrid ofCudrani a trisuspidata x Maclurapomifer a SESBANIA EXALTATA (Raf.) Rydb. 2n=12. USA. var. inermis (Smith &Perino , 1981). Cultivated there as a greenmanure . Passifloraceae SESBANIA MACROCARPA Muhl. 2n=12. USA. Cultiva­ ted there.Closel y related to S. exaltata*o r L. May-Pop,Yellow-fruite d is asynony m of this species. Virginian passion flower,Apricot-Vine . 2n=18, 36. E.Nort h America, Florida and Texas. It VICIA LEAVENWORTHII Torr. &Gray . Leavenworth was cultivated by indians inVirginia . Resem­ vetch. 2n=14.Missour i and Arkansas toTexa s bles P.edulis* . inUSA . Occasionally cultivated. Phytolaccaceae Liliaceae L. 2n=36. USA. It has run CAMASSIA LEICHTLINII (Baker) S. Wats.Camas . wild in S.Europe .Cultivate d as ady e plant 2n=30. E.Nort h America. Uncultivated bulb (berries) and ornamental. The berries are also beds are divided into family plots,whic h have used to colourwine . been passed down from generation to generation. These plots are not farmed,bu t stones,weed s Rosaceae and are removed every year. In most cases theplant s aremarke d inbloo m so that AMYGDALUS PERSICA L. Peach. 2n=16. Primary cen­ the bulb canb e harvested when it is fully tre: Chin a (p.42) .Secondar y centre: Califor ­ grown (Chapman Turner &Bell , 1971). nia, USA. The camas is semi-domesticated i.e. the wild plant is protected and the growing circum­ FRAGARIA CHILOENSIS* stances are improved. The latter may result in more sites for the plant to grow. FRAGARIA OVALIS Lehm. 2n=8x=56. W. NorthAmeri ­ ca. Used inbreedin g F. x ananassa*. CAMASSIA QUAMASH (Pursh) Greene.Blu e camas. 2n= .E .Nort h America. See further C. FRAGARIA VESCA L.Wil d strawberry. 2n=14, ge­ leichtlinii*. nome formula AA. Europe (p. 159),Asi a and N. America. In California, it is found in abroa d Limnanthaceae range of environments from the coastal fog belt to the SierraNevad a and Cascade Mountains LIMNANTHES ALBA Benth.Meado w foam. 2n=10. and from San JacintoMountain s near the Mexican NW. Pacific states of USA. Potential oil-crop. border toOregon . Hermaphroditic, self-compa­ Erect types have been developed for cultivation. tible, reproducing sexually and asexually by Self- and cross-compatible. runners.Ther e are many ecotypes,whic h aid survival under thiswid e range of environments Malvaceae (Hancock & Bringhurst, 1978). Some clones are used to test forviruse s inF . x ananassa*. GOSSYPIUM BARBADENSE L. Sea Islands cotton. 2n=52, genome formula (AADD)2. Peru (p.176) . FRAGARIA VIRGINIANA Duch. Virginian strawberry. Sea Islands cotton developed on the SeaIs ­ 2n=56. N.America , especially in the eastern lands of S. Carolina, USA after introduction part.Cultivated . One of theparent s of F. x from Bahamas orJamaica .Cultivate d inE . USA ananassa* Duch. (syn.F . grandiflora Ehrh.), and some Caribbean islands.Mayb e similar types the pineapple strawberry (2n=56). inEcuado r are its parental material (Harlan, 1970). PRUNUS. The American Prunus species are valuable because of their longevity and winterhardiness. Martyniaceae PRUNUS AMERICANA Marsh. American Plum. 2n=16. PROBOSCIDEA LOUISIANICA (Mill.) Thell. (syn. A large territory ofN . Americabetwee n Mani­ Martynia proboscidea Glox.). Unicorn plant, toba and Texas.Thi s small tree usually grows Ram's , Double claw, Proboscis flower. 2n slowly.Cultivated . Valuable because of its = . N. America. A herb cultivated for its longevity andwinterhardiness . Cultivars have fruits and as an ornamental. been developed from interspecific crosses. LEGUMINOSAE - SOLANACEAE 205

PRUNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA Marsh. (syn. P. chicasa could be one parent of R. stellatus*. Also Mich.). Chickasaw plum, Florida sand plum, named ssp. acaulis ofR . arcticus. Mountain cherry. 2n-16. S. Delaware to Florida and westward to theTexa s and S. Oklahoma.A Willd. (syn. R. villosus small tree with a dense crown.Th e cultivated Ait.). Northern dewberry. 2n=63. E.Nort h A- species lack hardiness. Ithybridize s easily merica. Cultivated for its fruits.Var . rori- with P. munsoniana*. baccus Bailey is the Lucretia dewberry (Up- hof, 1968). PRUNUS BESSYI Bailey.Wester n sand cherry. 2n =16. N.Americ a on sandy and saline soils. L. (syn.R . strigosus Michx.). This perennial shrub is characterized by a American red raspberry. 2n=14. The NE.Ameri ­ good longevity, frost resistance and sweet, can counterpart of this species.Presen t culti­ edible fruits. A source of abush-typ e habit vars are often hybrids between this subspecies foreas e ofmechanica l harvesting.lt hybridi­ and ssp.vulgatus* , the European red raspberry. zeswit h Armeniaca vulgaris*an d Prunus ssp. Natural hybrids betweenssp .strigosu s and R. occidentalis*hav e been described as R. neglec- PRUNUS HORTULANA Bailey.Hortula n plum.2n=16 . tusPeck. , Purple cane raspberry (2n=14). They C. USA. This tree is very cold resistant and have been occasionally cultivated. InN .Ameri ­ has good fruits. It flowers late (Zylka, 1970). ca such hybridization has led to introgression Ithybridize s easily with otherAmerica n Prunus between the two parental species.Se e for other species. According toBaile y (1898) it is a hybrids p. 141.Cultivar s are often unarmed or hybrid ofP . angustifolia* and P. americana*. have simple leaves.Th e loganberry (2n=42), genome formula V-jViV^V^H, is derived from the Marsh, (syn.P . maritima Wangh., cross of a tetraploid form R. ursinus Cham. & P. acuminata Michx.). Beach plum, Sand plum. Echt. (2n=28), genome formula V1V1V2V2 and R. 2n=16. E. USA and adjacent Canada. Some culti- idaeus (2n=14). Mayberry is ahybri d product vars have been selected (Zylka, 1970) in the ofR . palmatus Thunb. x ssp. strigosus and USA.Als ouse d as asourc e of late flowering, Youngberry (2n=42,49 ) of loganberry x Mayes cold resistance and very high fertility in dewberry (R.baileyanu s x R. argutus). Other the breeding of other cultivars. It is an or­ Rubus species like R. arcticus*hav e also been namental. used inbreedin g work.

PRUNUS MUNSONIANA Wight &Hedrick .Wil d Goose L. Black raspberry. 2n=14. Plum. 2n=16. N. Texas,E . Oklahoma and Mis­ NE. North America, Colorado and British Colum­ souri. It flowers late and the fruits are of bia. It iscultivated . Present cultivars often good quality. Itha s agoo d longevity andwin - derive from hybridswit h R. idaeus*. Natural terhardiness. Ithybridize s easily with P. an­ hybrids with the N. American ssp. strigosus of gustifolia* and other species.Cultivar s were R. idaeus have been named R. neglectus Peck., bred from such interspecificcrosses . purple cane raspberry (2n=14). This hybridiza­ tion has led to introgression between these Ait.Canad a plum. 2n=16.Th e ter­ twoparenta l species. It is forR . idaeus*a ritory between S.Ne w Foundland to the Strait source of resistance to the rubus aphid, Am- ofMackina c and southward to Lansing,Michi ­ phorophora rubi Kalt. gan. Cultivated there to some extent. This species is valuable because of its longevity RUBUS STELLATUS Sm. 2n=14.Wil d from Alaska, and winterhardiness.Cultivar s have been de­ Aleutian Islands andKamchatka . Closely re­ veloped from interspecific crosses. lated to R. arcticus*an d has been described as ssp. stellatus of this latter species.I t PRUNUS PENSYLVANICA L. (syn.P . persicifolia could be ahybri d of R. arcticus and R. acau­ Desf.). Bird cherry, Pigeon cherry, Pin cherry, lis* (Larsson, 1969). Wild red cherry. 2n=16.N . America, from New Foundland toBritis h Columbia andColorado . Salicaceae A source of late flowering and cold resistance. SALIX RIGIDA Mühlenberg (syn.S . cordata Miihl.) PRUNUS SEROTINA Ehrh.Blac k cherry, Run cherry. American willow. 2n=44. N. America. Introduced 2n=32. N. America from Ontario and North Dako­ inEurop e for twig production. ta toTexa s and Florida.Th e fruits are un­ palatable. It could be a source of late flow­ Solanaceae ering and frost resistance. DATURA STRAMONIUM L. Thorn-apple, Jimson weed. PRUNUS VIRGINIANA L.Commo n choke cherry, 2n=24. N. America. Pantropical now. A poisonous Eastern choke cherry,Chok e cherry. 2n=30,32 . plant cultivated as a medicinal plant yielding W. North America.Micuri n selected Vinogradna- stramonium. ja from this species (Zylka, 1971b). NICOTIANA QUADRIVALVIS Pursh. 2n=48. SW. USA RUBUSACAULI S Michx. 2n=14.Th e Canadian coun­ along rivers and in rocky soils.Th e Indians terpar t of R. articus (Larsson, 1969). It cultivated it for smoking leaves and flowers. NORTH AMERICAN REGION

An annual, frost-resistant, early maturing species. Ithybridize s easily with N. tabacum*.

PHYSALIS PUBESCENS L. Strawberry tomato, Dwarf Cape gooseberry. 2n=24. N. America. Cultivated in Ukraine and elsewhere.

SOLANUM FENDLERI A. Gray.Navaj o potato. 2n= 48, genome formula A4A4BB. Arizona, New Mexi­ co andW .Texas ,US A and NW.Mexico .Ver y si­ milar to S.hjertingii * and similar to S.pa - pita*. Iti s resistant toY virus.

SOLANUM JAMESII Torr. 2n=24, 36.Arizona ,Ne w Mexico andColorad o (USA) and in Mexico near the Arizona boundary.


VALERINA EDULIS Nutt.2n = .N . America. This perennial herb is cultivated for its roots.


VITISBERLANDIER I Planch. 2n=38. SE.US A to Texas. Used as a rootstock. Rootstocks of V. riparia*x V.berlandier i are also used. It canb e crossedwit h V. vinifera*.

VITIS CINEREA Engelm. Downy grape, Sweet win­ ter grape. 2n=38. SE.USA . Resistant to fungal diseases and tophylloxera . Viteus vitifolii Shimer, but it cannot be crossed with V. vini­ fera*.

VITIS CORDIFOLIA Michx. 2n=30, 38.SE .USA . It canb e crossed with V. vinifera* to introduce resistance to fungal diseases.

VITIS LABRUSCA L. Fox grape. 2n=38. E. North America. It appears tohav e runwil d inGeor ­ gia,USS R (p. 102).Introduce d into the Old World. It is cultivated. Itha s been crossed with V. vinifera* to improve it and for this species it is used as a rootstock.

VITIS RIPARIA Michx. (syn.V . vulpinaL.) . 2n=38.E . and C. USA and inOntario ,Canada . Used as a rootstock. It canb e crossed with V. vinifera* to introduce resistance to phylloxera, Viteus vitifolii Shimer. Such hybrids occur wild in USA andhav e been described asV .bour - quina. Rootstocks of V. riparia xV . berland­ ieri* are also used.

VITIS ROTUNDIFOLIA Michx. Muscadine grape, Southern fox grape. 2n=40. Florida, the south­ ern coast of USA and the east coast of Mexico. Dioecious, but hermaphrodite cultivars have been developed. Cv. Scuppernong was developed in 1584 from wild material in NE. North Caro­ lina.

VITIS RUPESTRIS Scheele.2n = .SW . USA. Used as a rootstock. Itca n be crossed with V.vi ­ nifera* to introduce resistance to phylloxera, Viteus vitifolii Shimer. Species withoutan identified region

Some species could notb e listed inon eo f theRegions .The y have aver y wide geographical distribution.Eithe r their locality of cultivation hasno t been reported or they arecultivate d atsevera l places.Thu s it isno tknow n whetherthei rwid e distribution occurred before their domestication ornot , i.e. it isno t mentioned whether thewil d species grew in alarg e areawher e itha sbee n domesticated atsevera l places,o rwhethe rwil d plantswer edo ­ mesticated on one site after they hadbee n spread byman .

Agavaceae largekernel s canb e eaten after removing the poisonous karakin by heating.Therefor e they YUCCA L. 2n=50. Cultivated inGeorgia , were taken toNe wZealan d (Stevenson, 1978) (USSR). where the species ranwil d andbecam e semi- domesticated. Amaranthaceae Cruciferae GOMPHRENA GLOBOSA L. Batchelor's button. 2n= 32, 40-44, 44-48. The tropics.Cultivate d in CRAMBE ABYSSINICA Höchst, ex.R.E . Vries.2n = some villages of mainly coastal districts in 90. Itswil d distribution is obscure,bu t it W. Africa as a curiosity and as a fetishplant . may have developed inTurkey . Cultivars have InEurop e and elsewhere it is anornamental . been released in USA. See p.89 .

Anacardiaceae Cucurbitaceae

SPONDIAS CYTHEREA Sonner (syn.S . dulcis MOMORDICA BALSAMINA L.Bitte r gourd, Bitter Forst.f.). Otaheita apple,Ambarella ,Ho g plum. cucumber,Balsa m pear,Balsa m apple. 2n=22. 2n= .Cultivate d for its fruits. Mansfeld Tropics of theOl dWorld , especially India and (1959) reported the presence of var. cytherea SE. India. Leaves and stem are used for fodder. on the Society Islands,Tahiti ,Fidji , Samoa andMadagascar , var.mucroniserrat a (Engl.) MOMORDICA CHARANTIA L. Bitter gourd, Bitter Mansf. inMexico , var.macrocarp a (Engl.) cucumber, Balsam pear. 2n=22. Tropics of the Mansf. inBrazil , var.acid a (BL.)Mansf . in OldWorld . Naturalized in nearly all tropics Malaysia and var. intégra (Engl.)Mansf . in and subtropics.A n edible,medicina l and toxic Amboina. plant (Morton, 1967).

Apocynaceae Cyperaceae

APOCYNUM VENETUM L. (syn.A . sibiricum Pall, CYPERUS ARTICULATUS L. 2n= .Cultivate d for exRoem . & Schult.). Kendyr. 2n=16,22 . Italy its sweet scented roots. toE .Asia .A perennial fibre cropbrough t in­ tocultivatio n in USSR. MARISCUS UMBELLATUS Vahl. 2n= .Th e tropics of the Old World. Cultivated for itsrhizomes . Chenopodiacea e Euphorbiaceae CHENOPODIUM BOTRYS L. Jerusalem oak. 2n=18. S.Europe ,Orien t and C. Asia. Occasionally EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI L. 2n=20. Trials at Ari­ cultivated (Mansfeld, 1959). zona (USA) togro w thisplan t for its as a rawmateria l forpetrol . Corynocarpaceae Gramineae CORYNOCARPUS LAEVIGATUS J.F. Forst.& G.Forst . Kopi, karaka. 2n=44. This species occurs wild EREMOCHLOA OPHIUROIDES (Munro)Hack . 2n=28. on theNe w Hebrides and New Caledonia as C. Some cultivation onPuert o Rico. similis and C. dissimilis respectively. The 208 SPECIES OF A NOT IDENTIFIED REGION

HETEROPOGON HIRTUS Pers. (syn.H . contortus found in the savanna of Venezuela and Colombia, Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.,Andropogo n contor­ and it iswidel y used as fish poison and or­ tus L.).Spearhead ,Tangl e grass. 2n=20,40 , namental, and in fetish. InPanama , it is cul­ (42-44, 50),60 , (80,c . 70-80). The Old and tivated as a fish poison (Nee, 1979). New World, subtropics and tropics. Cultivated as a fodder for live stock. Plants with 2n=20 Umbelliferae come from India,wit h 2n=40 from Java, India, Madagascar, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe C0NIUM MACULATUM L.Hemlock , Poison hemlock. and Zaïre,an d with 2n=60 from S. Africa,Mexi ­ 2n=16, 22.Europe ,Asia ,N .Afric a andEthio ­ co and N. America. pia. Occasionally cultivated. Often occurring as a ruderal. Used as apoiso n and medicinal Leguminoseae plant.

CROTALARIA MUCRONATA Desv. (syn.C . striata Urticaceae DC.). 2n=16. Distributed intropic s and sub- tropics as a cover crop and greenmanure . BOEHMERIA STIPULARIS Wedd. Hawaian false nettle, Akola. 2n= .Probabl y from theMascaren eis ­ CROTALARIA RETUSA L. 2n=16.Thi s fibre crop is lands. According to Uphof (1968) this fibre widespread throughout the tropics. InE . Afri­ crop grows wild onHawaii ,wher e itwa s for­ ca it is used for itspigment s and in Florida merly cultivated. This has resulted inman y as an ornamental. varieties.

DESMODIUM ADSCENDENS DC. 2n=22. Tropics. Cul­ TOUCHARDIA LATIFOLIA Gaudich. Olona. 2n= tivated in many regions as a cover crop and The Hawaian Islands.A t one time cultivated for green manure. its fibre (Hutchinson, 1962).

DESMODIUM GANGATICUM DC.2n = .Trop . Asia and Australia. Cultivated as a fodder plant and green manure.

INDIGOFERA HIRSUTA L. (syn. I. schimperi Jaub. & Spach.). Hairy indigo. 2n=16. Many tropical countries. It is cultivated.

TEPHROSIA PURPUREA Pers. Purple tephrosia. 2n =22, (24,44) .Th e tropics.Cultivate d as a green manure and cover crop. Grows wild inN . India onwast e places and road sites.


ABUTILON GRAVEOLENS Sweet. 2n=14, 36.Th e tro­ pics of the OldWorld . Cultivated especially inUSS R for its oily seeds.

MALACHRA CAPITATA L. 2n=56. The tropics.A herb cultivated for its fibre.

URENA LOBATA L. Aramina fibre,Cong o jute. 2n=28, 56.Wil d ornaturalize d in the tropics and subtropics.Centr e of origin very likely in the Old World (Purseglove, 1968).


EVODIA HORTENSIS J.R. &G . Forst, (syn. Fagara euoda L.f., F. evoda L.f., Zanthoxylum varians Benth.). 2n= .A widespread shrub.Culti ­ vated inman y parts of thePacific . Leaves are used formedicina l purposes.


SOLANUM MAMMOSUM L. 2n= .I t spread as a campfollower over C. and S. America. Itsna ­ tive habitat isno t clearbu t it appears to be wild in the Caribbean. Primitive types are References

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wild ancestors.Econ .Bot .29:233-235 . Zohary, D. & Ü. Plitmann, 1979,Chromosom e polymorphism, hybrixation and colonization in the Vicia sativa group (). PI Syst. Evol. 131:143-156. Zohary, D. & P. Spiegel-Roy, 1975.Beginning s of fruit growing in the Old World. Science, N.Y. 187:319-327. Zubeldia Lizarduy, A., G. LopezCampo s & A. Sanudo Palazuelos, 1955.Estudio , descrip- cióny clasificación de un grupo deva - riedades primitivas de patata cultivadas en los isles Canarias.Bot . Inst. Invest, agron.,Madri d 15:287-325. PI. Breed. Abstr. 26 (2587). Zylka, D., 1970.Di eVerwendun g von Wildarten der Gattung Prunus in der Sortenzüchtung und als Unterlage. Giessen. 223p . Zylka, D., 1971a.Di e Verwendung von wilden Kirscharten in der Sortenzüchtung und als Unterlagen. I.Prunusarte n der SektionEu - cerasus. Gartenbauwissenschaft 2:261-291. Zylka, D., 1971b.Di e Verwendung von wilden Kirschenarten in der Sortenzüchtung und als Unterlage. III.Prunusarte n der Sektion Mahaleb und des Subgenus Padus. Gartenbau­ wissenschaft 3:557-572. Index of botanical names

ABBEVILLEA fenzliana 177 (10) raria 125 (8) ABELMOSCHUS esculentus 77,13 9 (4, 8) - guineensis, see Lagenaria siceraria 124 - manihot 41, 77, 139 (1,4 , 8) (8) - moschatus 77 (4) - longiflorus, see Lagenaria siceraria 124 - tuberculatus, seeA . esculentus 77 (4) (8) ABERIA gardneri, seeDoryali s hebecarpa 73 - pynaerti, see Lagenaria siceraria 124 (8) (4) - reticulatus,se e Lagenaria siceraria 124 ABUTILON avicennae 41 (1) (8) - graveolens 208 (?) - rufus, see Lagenaria siceraria 124 (8) - indicum 59, 77 (2,4 ) ADHATODA schimperiana 122 (8) - oxyearpum 175 (10) AEGILOPS aucheri,se e A. speltoides 79 (6) - theophrasti, see A. avicennae 41 (1) - bicornis, see A. speltoides,Triticu m ACACIA arabica, see A. nilotlca 136 (8) turgidum 90,10 8 (6,7 ) - cavenla 172 (10) - biuncialis, see A. lorentii 90 (6) - cibaria, see A. longifolia 65 (3) - bushirica, see A. triaristata 91 (6) - cyanophylla 65 (3) - caudata, see also A. crassa,A.tri - - dealbata 65 (3) uncialis 82,89 ,90 ,9 1 (5,6 ) - decurrens, see A. mearnsii 65 (3) - columnaris 89 (6) - farnesiana, see alsoA . cavenia 172 (10) - comosa 90,10 8 (6,7 ) - horrida, see A. karroo 136 (8) - crassa 90 (6) - karroo 136 (8) - cylindrica, see also A. triuncialis - longifolia 65 (3) 82, 90,91 ,10 9 (5,6 , 7) - mearnsii 65 (3) - juvenalis 82,9 0 (5,6 ) - mollissima, see A. mearnsii 65 (3) - kotschyi 82,9 0 109 (5,6 , 7) - nilotica 136 (8) - ligustica, see A. speltoides 90 (6) - pycnantha 65 (3) - longissima, see A. speltoides 90 (6) - Senegal 136 (8) - lorentii 82,9 0 109 (5,6 , 7) , see A. saccharum 199 (12) - macrochaeta, see A. lorentii 90 (6) - saccharum 199 (12) - mutica 90 (6) ACHRAS mammosa, seeCalocarpu m sapota 196 - ovata 82,90 ,10 9 (5,6 , 7) (11) - peregrina, see A. variabilis 109 (7) - sapota, seeManilkar a achras 196 (11) - recta, see A. triaristata 90 (6) AC0LANTHUS pubescens 135 (8) - searsii, see A. speltoides 90 (6) ACONITUM carmichaeli 42 (1) - sharonensis,se e A. speltoides 90 (6) - napellus 158 (9) - speltoides,se e alsoTriticu m timopheevi, - wilsonii, see A. carmichaeli 42 (1) T. turgidum 90 (6) ACORUS calamus 148,19 9 (9,12 ) - squarrosa, see also A. crassa,Triticu m ACROCERAS amplectans 127 (8) aestivum 82,90 ,9 3 (5,6 ) - macrum 127 (8) - tauschii, see A. squarrosa 82 (5) ACTINIDIA ARGUTA 32 (1) - triaristata, see also A. columnaris - chinensis 32 (1) 83, 89,90 ,10 9 (5,6 , 7) - kolomicta 32 (1) - triuncialis, see also A. kotschyi 83,90 , - polygama 32 (1) 91, 109 (5,6 , 7) ADENANDRA fragrans 146 (8) - turcomanica, see also A. juvenalis 90 (6) ADEN0PSUS abyssinicus,se e Lagenaria sice- - umbellulata, see alsoA . ovata,A . INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 229

triuncialls 91 (6) - montana 56 (2) - uniaristata 109 (7) - stipulata 75 (4) - variabilis 90,91 ,10 9 (6,7 ) - sumatrana 56 (2) - ventricosa 109 (7) ALEURITES cordata 37 (1) AEGILOTHICUM, seeAegllop s ventricosa 96 (7) - fordii 37,20 2 (1,12 ) AEGLE marmelos 62 (2) - moluccana 52 (2) AESCHYNOMENE americana 172 (10) - montana 37,5 2 (1,2 ) - glandulosa, see A. americana 172 (10) - trisperma 52 (2) AESCULUS carnea, see A. hippocastanum 104 (7) 112 (7) ALLAEANTHUS luzonicus 59 (2) - hippocastanum 83,11 2 (5,7 ) ALLIUM altaicum, see A. chinense,A . - pavia, see A. hippocastanum 112 (7) fistulosum 32 (1) 147 (8) - ampeloprasum, see also A. kurrat,A . - melegueta 147 (8) porrum 70,87 ,8 8 148 AGAVE americana 185 (11) - aobanum, seeA . cepa 81 (5) - atrovirens 185 (11) - ascolinum 87 (6) - candelabrum, see A. cantala 185 (11) - babingtonii, seeA . ampeloprasum 87 (6) - cantala 185 (11) - bakeri, see A. chinense 32 (1) - compulviata 185 (11) - bouddbae, see A. fistulosum 32 (1) - crassispina 185 (11) - cepa, see also A. ascolinum 81,87 ,10 3 - deweana 185 (11) (5, 6, 7) - fourcroydes 122, 185 (8,11 ) - chinense 32 (1) - funkiana, see A. heteracantha 185 (11) - cornutum, seeA . cepa 81 (5) - heteracantha 185 (11) - deserti-syriaca, see A. ascolinum 87 (6) - latissima, seeA . atrovirens 185 (11) - fistulosum, see also A. cepa,A . chinense - lechegullla 185 (11) 31, 81 (1,81 ) - letonae 185 (11) - jajlae, see A. scorodoprasum 148 (9) - lophanta 185 (11) - kurrat 70,8 7 (4,6 ) - rigida, see A. sisalana 185 (11) - ledebourianum 33 (1) - schottii 185 (11) - longicuspus, see A. sativum 81 (5) - sisalana 185 (11) - macrostemon 33 (1) , see A. odorata 158 (9) - microbulbum, see A. chinense 32 (1) - odorata 158 (9) - nipponicum 33 (1) AGR0PYR0N caninum 151 (9) - odoratum, see A. tuberosum 33 (1) - cristatum 151 (9) - oschaninii,se eA . cepa 81 (5) - dasystachum 202 (12) - porrum, seeA . ampeloprasum, A. ramosum - desertorum, seeA . cristatum 151 (9) 70, 88 (4,6 ) - glaucum, see A. intermedium 91,15 1 (6,9 ) - proliferum, see also A. cepa 81 (5) - intermedium 91,15 1 (6,9 ) - pskemense, seeA . cepa 81 (5) - junceum 109 (7) - ramosum 33 (1) - latiglume, see A. spicatum 202 (12) - rotundum, seeA . scorodoprasum 148 (9) - michnoi,se e A. cristatum 151 (9) - sativum, see also A. ampeloprasum 33,81 , - pauciflorum 202 (12) 88, 103 (1,5 ,6 , 7) - pectiniforme, see A. cristatum 151 (9) - schoenoprasum 3 (1) - podgerae, see A. intermedium 91 (6) - scorodoprasum, see alsoA . ampeloprasum - repens 151,20 2 (9,12 ) 70, 148 (4,9 ) - scribneri,se eA . spicatum 202 (12) - tuberosum 33 (1) - sibiricum, seeA . cristatum 151 (9) - vavilovii 81 (5) - smithii,se e also A. dasystachum 202 (12) - wakegii, see A. chinense 32,8 1 (1,5 ) - spicatum, see also A. repens 151,20 2 ALOCASIA cucullata 71 (4) (9, 12) - indica, see also A. macrorrhiza 49,7 1 - subsecundes,se e A. pauciflorum 202 (12) (2, 4) - trachycaulum, see A. pauciflorum, A. - macrorrhiza, see alsoA . indica 49,7 1 spicatum 202 (12) (2, 4) AGR0STIS alba,se e A. gigantea 152 (9) ALOE barbadensis 116 (7) - canina 152 (9) - vera, seeA . barbadensis 116 (7) - gigantea, see also A. tenuis 152,20 2 ALOPECURUS pratensis 152 (9) (9, 12) ALOPHOTROPIS formosum 96,9 8 (6) - intermedia, see A. tenuis 152 (9) ALPINIA chinensis 47 (1) - tenuis 91,109 ,152 ,20 2 (6,7 , 9, 12) - conchigera 64 (2) - vulgaris, see A. tenuis 152 (9) - galanga 64 (2) AILANTHUS vilmoriniana 46 (1) - malaccensis 64 (2) ALBIZIA carbonaria 172 (10) - magnifica, see Phaeomeria magnifica 56 (2) - chinensis, seeA . stipulata 75 (4) - officinarum 47 (1) - falcata, see A. moluccana 56 (2) - speciosa, see Phaeomeria magnifica 56 (2) - lebbeck 56 (2) ALTHAEA officinalis 99, 116 (6,7 , 9) - moluccana 56 (2) - rosea 99,11 6 (6,7 ) 230 INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

ALYSICARPUS glumaceus 136 (8) - persica, 42,44 ,84 ,100 ,118 ,158 ,204 - nummularifolius, see A. vaginalis 136 (8) (1, 5, 6, 7,9 , 12) - rugosus 136 (8) - petunnikowii 84 (5) - vaginalis 136 (8) - pumila, see A. persica 42 (1) - violaceus, seeA . rugosus 136 (8) - scoparia, see A. communis 84 (5) AMARANTHUS angustifolius 70 (4) - spinosissima, see also A. vavilovii - braunii, seeA . spinosus 165 (10) 84, 85 (5) - caracasaraus, see A. spinosus 165 (10) - tangutica 85 (5) - caudatus, see also A. mantegazzianus - turcomanica, see A. communis 84 (5) 165 (10) - ulmifolia 85 (5) - cruentus, see A. dubius,A . hybridus, - urartu, seeA . communis,A . fenzliana A. paniculatus 49, 165, 186 (2, 10, 12) 84 (5,6 ) - dubius,se e also S. spinosus 165 (10) - vavilovii 85 (5) - edulis,se e A. caudatus,A . mantegazzianus ANACARDIUM occidentale 165,18 6 (10,11 ) 165 (10) - orientale, see Semecarpus anacardium 43 (2) - gangeticus 33,4 9 (1,2 ) ANACYCLUS officinarum 105 (7) - hybridus, see alsoA . cruentus,A . hypochon- - pyrethrum 105 (7) driacus 165,186 , 199 (10,11 ,12 ) ANANAS ananassoides, seeA . comosus 167 (10) - hypochondriacus 186,19 9 (11,12 ) - bracteatus, see A. comosus 167 (10) - leucocarpus,se eA . hypochondriacus 186 (11) - comosus 167 (10) - lividus 103 (7) - erectifolius, seeA . comosus 167 (10) - mangostanus 49 (2) - parguazensis 167 (10) - mantegazzianus 165 (10) - sativus,se e A. comosus 167 (10) - melancholicus, seeA . mangostanus 49 (2) ANDR0P0G0N aciculatus 53 (2) - oleraceus, see A. lividus 103 (7) - citratus,se e Cymbogon citratus 53 (2) - paniculatus 49 (2) - contortus, see Heteropogon hirtus 208 (?) - powellii, see A. hypochondriacus,A . - flexuosus, see Cymbogon flexuosus 73 (4) leucocarpus 186,19 9 (11,12 ) - gayanus 127 (8) - quitensis, see A. caudatus,A .mante ­ - gryllus,se eChrysopogo n gryllus 111 (7) gazzianus 165 (10) - muricatus., seeVetiveri a zizanioides 56 (2) - spinosus,se e alsoA . dubius 165,19 9 - nardus,se eCymbogo n nardus 53 (2) (10, 12) - rufus, see Hyparrhenia rufa 130 (8) - tricolor, see A. mangostanus 49 (2) - tectorum, see A. gayanus 127 (8) - viridus, see A. lividus 103 (7) ANEMARRHENA asphodeloides 40 (1) AMMADAUCUS leucotrichus 118 (7) ANETHUM graveolens 79,11 8 (4,7 ) AMMI majus 118 (7) - sowa, see A. graveolens 79, 118 AMM0PHILA arenaria 152 (9) (4, 7) - arundinacea, seeA . arenaria 152 (9) ANGELICA archangelica 162 (9) AMOMUM aromaticum 79 (4) - kiusiana 47 (1) - cardamomum 64 (2) - levisticum, see Levisticum officinale - globosum 47 (1) 162 (9) - kepulaga 64 (2) - polymorpha 47 (1) - krervanh 64 (2) ANISUM officinarum, see Pimpinella anisum - magnificum, seePhaeomeri a magnifica 102 (6) 64 (2) - vulgare, see Pimpinella anisum 102 (6) - maximum 64 (2) ANN0NA cherimoia, seeA . squamosa 166 (10,11 ) - xanthioides 79 (4) - diversifolia 186 (11) AMORPHOPHALLUS campanulatus 49,7 1 (2,4 ) - montan a 186 (11) - harmandii 49 (2) - muricata 186 (11) - rivieri 49 (2) - purpurea 186 (11) AMPHICARPAEA monoica 203 (12) - reticulata, see alsoA . cherimoia 166,18 6 AMYGDALUS besseriana 42,100 ,15 8 (1,6 , 9) (10, 11) - browiczii 84 (5) - scleroderma 186 (11) - bucharica 84 (5) - squamosa 166,18 6 (10,11 ) - communis, see alsoA . besseriana,A . ANTHEMIS nobilis,se eChamaemelu m nobile vavilovii and Prunus ferganica 84,10 0 150 (9) (5, 6, 9) - tinctoria 149 (9) - divaricata, seeA . fenzliana 100 (6) ANTHOXANTHUM alpinum, seeA . odoratum 152 (9) - fenzliana, see alsoA . communis 84,10 0 - odoratum 152 (9) (5, 6) ANTHRISCUS cerefolium 162 (9) - georgica, see A. communis 84 (5) ANTHYLLIS vulneraria 155 (9) - kansuensis 42 (1) bunius 64 (2) - korshinskyi, see A. browiczii 84 (5) APIOS americana, see A. tuberosa 203 (12) - ledebouriana 158 (9) - tuberosa 203 (12) - mira 42 (1) APIUM ammi, see Ammi majus 118 (7) - nairica, see A. communis 84 (5) - carvi,se e Carum carvi 162 (9) - nana, seeA . besseriana 42,15 8 (1,9 ) - graveolens 118 (7) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 231

APOCYNUM sibiricum, seeA . venetum 207 (?) - amabllis 37 (1) - venetum 207 (?) 109 (7) AQUILEGIA vulgaris 117,15 8 (7,9 ) ASCLEPIAS cornuti, see A. syriaca 199 (12) ARACHIS africana, seeA . hypogaea 172 (10) - syriaca 199 (12) - asiatica, see A. hypogaea 172 (10) ASPALATHUS cedarbergensis, seeA . contami- - glabrata 172 (10) natus 136 (8) - hypogaea, see also A. villosulicarpa - contaminatus 136 (8) 136, 172 (8, 10) ASPARAGUS officinalis 157 (9) - monticola, see A. hypogaea 172 (10) ASTRAGALUS boëticus 113 (7) - nambyquarae, see A. hypogaea 172 (10) - cicer 155 (9) - villosa, see A. hypogaea 172 (10) - falcatus 156 (9) - villosulicarpa, see also A. hypogaea - glycyphyllus 156 (9) 172 (10) - lotoides,se eA . sinicus 39 (1) ARALIA cordata 33 (1) - sinicus 39 (1) - guilfoylei, see Nothopanax guilfoylei 50 (2) - venosus 136 (8) - repens, see Panax repens 33 (1) ATRIPLEX canescens 200 (12) ARBUTUS unedo 108 (7) - gardnesi,se eA . canescens 200 (12) ARCTIUM lappa 34,14 9 (1,9 ) - hortensis 149 (9) ARECA catechu, see also Piper betle 61,6 2 - semibaccata 65 (3) (2) - truncata, see A. canescens 200 (12) ARENGA pinnata 61,7 8 (2,4 ) ATROPA acuminata, seeA . belladonna 79 (4) ARGANIA sideroxylon, see A. spinosa 146 (8) - baetica, see A. belladonna 118 (7) - spinosa 146 (8) - belladonna 79,11 8 (4, 7) ARGEMONE mexicana 195 (11) - martiana, see A. belladonna 118 (7) ARIST0L0CHIA clematis 148 (9) AVENA abyssinica, seeA . strigosa 110,12 7 ARMENIACA ansu, seeA . vulgaris 43 (1) (7, 8) - atropurpurea, see A, dasycarpa 85 (5) - athenathera, see A. sterilis 109 (7) - brigantea 159 (9) - barbata, seeA . strigosa 101,12 7 (7,8 ) - dasycarpa 85 (5) - bruhnsiana, seeA . ventricosa 110 (7) - mandshurica 42 (1) - byzantina, see A. sativa 97 (7) - mume 42 (1) - canariensis 109 (7) - sibirica 159 (9) - clauda, see alsoA . sativa 109 (7) - vulgaris, see also Prunus bessyi 42, 85, - damascena 109 (7) 100, 205 (1,5 ,6 , 12) - eriantha, see A. clauda 109 (7) ARM0RACIA rusticana 150 (9) - fatua, seeA . sativa, alsoA . septentrio- ARRACACIA esculenta, see A. xanthorhiza nalis,A . sterilis 109,15 2 (7,9 ) 184 (10) - hirtula, see A. strigosa 110 (7) - xanthorhiza 184 (10) - hybrida, see A. sterilis 109 (7) ARRHENATHERUM avenaceum 152 (9) - longiglumis,se e also A. sativa 109 (7) - eliator, see A. avenaceum - magna, seeA . maroccana 109 (7) 152 (9) - maroccana, see also A. canariensis 109 (7) - tuberosum 152 (9) - murphyi, see also A. sativa 109 (7) ARTEMISIA abrotanum 149 (9) - nuda, see A. sativa 97 (7) - absinthium 149 (9) ^ - occidentalis, see A. sterilis 109 (7) - capillaris 34 (1) - pilosa, see A. clauda 109 (7) - cina 82 (5) - prostrata, see also A. damascena 109 (7) - dracunculoides, seeA . dracunculus 82 (5) - sativa, see also A. canariensis,A . clauda - dracunculus 82 (5) 37, 109,15 2 (1,6 , 7) - judaica 105 (7) - septentrionalis 152 (9) - laxa 149 (9) - sterilis,se e also A. canariensis,A . - maritima 150 (9) sativa 109 (7) - vulgaris 150 (9) - strigosa, see also A. clauda,A . damascena, ARTOCARPUS altilis 59 (2) A. prostrata,A . sativa 109,110 ,12 7 - blancoi, see A. altilis 59 (2) (7, 8) - camansi 59 (2) - trichophylla, see A. sterilis 109 (7) - champeden 5,9 (2) - tuberosa, seeArrhenatheru m tuberosum 152 - communis, see A. altilis 59 (2) (9) - dimorphophylla, seeA . rigidus 52 (2) - vaviloviana, see A. abyssinica,A . stri­ - heterophyllus 77 (4) gosa 110,12 7 (7,8 ) - intégra, see A. heterophyllus 77 (4) - ventricosa, see also A. sativa,A . stri­ - integrifolia, seeA . heterophyllus 77 (4) gosa 110 (7) - lakoocha 59 (2) - wiestii,se e A. strigosa 110 (7) - mariannensis, seeA . altilis 59 (2) AVERRHOEA bilimbi 50 (2) - rigidus 59 (2) - carambola 50 (2) ARUM sagittaefolium, see Xanthosoma AX0N0PUS compressus 190 (11) sagittifolium 166 (10) , seeMeli a azadirachta ARUNDINARIA alpina 127 (8) 59 (2) 232 INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

AZOLLA pinnata 33,5 0 (1,2 ) - utilis,se e B. nivea 47 (1) BOESENBERGIA pandurata 64 (2) BOMAREA edulis 186 (11) BACCAUREA dulcis 52 (2) BORAGO officinalis, see also Coleus amboi- - sapida 73 (4) nicus 56,104 (2,7 ) - motleyana 52 (2) B0RASSUS aethiopum, seeB . flabellifer - racemosa 52 (2) 144 (8) BALANITES aegyptiaca 103 (7) - flabellifer 61,78 ,14 4 (2,4 , 8) BAMBUSA abyssinica, seeOxytenanther a abys- B0UEA macrophylla 49 (2) sinica 131 (8) BOUSSINGAULTIA baselloides, seeB . cordi­ - arundinacea, see also B. sinospinosa 37, folia 167 (10) 53, 73 (1,2 , 4) - cordifolia 167,18 7 (10,11 ) - asper, see Dendrocalamus asper 54 (2) B0UTEL0UA curtipentula 202 (12) - cornuta 53 (2) - eriopoda 202 (12) - glaucescens 37 (1) - filiformis 202 (12) - multiplex 37 (1) - gracilis 202 (12) - nana, see B. glaucescens 37 (1) BRACHIARIA brizantha 127 (8) - polymorphs 73 (4) - decumbens 127 (8) - spinosa 53 (2) - deflexa 127 (8) - strictus 37,53 ,7 3 (1,2 ,4 ) - mutica 127 (8) - textllis 37 (1) - purpurascens, seeB . mutica 127 (8) - tulda 53,7 3 (2,4 ) - ramosa, see B. deflexa 127 (8) - tuldoides 37 (1) - ruziziensis 127 (8) - vulgaris 53 (2) BRASENIA schreberi 34 (1) BANISTERIOPSIS caapi 175 (10) BRASILOCALAMUS pubescens 170 (10) BAPHIA nitida 136 (8) BRASSICA, see alsoRaphanu s sativus 107 (7) BARBAREA praecox 150 (9) - adpressa, see B. campestris,B . chinensis - verna, see B. praecox 150 (9) 35, 150 (1,9 ) - vulgaris 150 (9) - alba,se e Sinapis alba 108 (7) BARLERIA prionitis 70 (4) - alboglabra, seeB . oleracea 35,10 6 (1,7 ) BAR0SMA betulina 146 (8) - amarifolia, see B. nigra 151 (9) BASELLA alba, seeB . rubra 50 (2) - atlantica, seeB . oleracea 106 (7) - cordifolia, seeB . rubra 50 (2) - balearica, see B. oleracea 106 (7) - rubra 50 (2) - botteri, seeB . oleracea 106 (7) BAUHINIA esculenta 136 (8) - campestris, see also B. chinensis,B . jun­ - purpurea 75 (4) cea,B . napus, B. narinosa,B . oleracea BELAMCANDA chlnensis 39 (1) 35, 72,106 ,124 ,15 0 (1,4 , 7,8 , 9) BENINCASA cerifera, see B. hispida 51 (2) - carinata, see alsoB . nigra,B . - hispida 51 (2) oleracea 106,124 ,15 1 (7,8 , 9) 149 (9) - cassae, see B. oleracea 106 (7) BERGENIA crassifolia 162 (9) - chinensis, see also B. campestris andB . BERTHOLLETIA excelsa 172 (10) narinosa 35,15 0 (1,9 ) BETA atriplicifolia, see B. vulgaris 104 (7) - cretica, see alsoB . oleracea 35,10 6 - corolliflora 88 (6) (1, 7) - intermedia, see alsoB . lomatogona8 8 (6) - drepaneus, see B. oleracea 106 (7) - lomatogona, see alsoB . intermedia 88 (6) - fruticulosa, seeB . campestris,B . chi­ - macrocarpa, seeB . vulgaris 104 (7) nensis,B . juncea 35,15 0 (1,9 ) - macrorrhiza 88 (6) - hilarionis,se e B. oleracea 106 (7) - maritima, seeB . vulgaris 104 (7) - incana,se e B. oleracea 106 (7) - palongu, seeB . vulgaris 71 (4) - insularis,se eB . oleracea 106 (7) - patellarls 104 (7) - japonica, see B. campestris and B. chinen­ - patula, seeB . vulgaris 92 (7) sis 35,15 0 (1,9 ) - procumbens 104 (7) - juncea,se e alsoB . campestris,B . nigra - trigyna, see alsoB . intermedia,B . 124, 150 (8,9 ) lomatogona 88 (6) - linei, seeB . oleracea 106 (7) - vulgaris, see alsoB . patellaris,B . pro­ - macrocarpa, see B. oleracea 106 (7) cumbens, B. webbiana 71,81 ,104 ,105 , - mollis,se e B. oleracea 106 (7) 149 (4,5 , 9) - montana, seeB . oleracea 106 (7) - webbiana 105 (7) - napobrassica, see alsoB . napus 106,15 1 BIXA orellana 167 (10) (7, 9) BLIGHIA sapida 146 (8) - napocampestris, seeB . campestris,B . BLUMEA balsamifera 51 (2) napus 106, 150,15 1 (7,9 ) - myriocephala 51 (2) - napus,se e B. campestris,B . napobrassica, BOEHMERIA nivea 47 (1) B. oleracea 106,150 ,15 1 (7,9 ) - puya, seeMaouti a paya 79 (4) - narinosa 35 (1) - stipularis 208 (?) - nigra, see also B. campestris,B . carinata, - tenacissima, seeB . nivea 47 (1) B. juncea 124,15 1 (8,9 ) INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES 23 3

- oleracea, see B. carinata,B . cretica,B . CALPURNIA aurea 136 (8) napobrassica,B . napus 35, 106, 124,15 1 CALYSTEGIA sepium 35 (1) (1, 7,8 , 9) CAMASSIA leichtinii, see also C. quamash 204 - parachinensis, seeB. ,chinensi s 35 (1) (12) - pekinensis, see B. campestris,B . chinen­ - quamash 204 (12) sis 35 (1) CAMELINA alyssum, see C. sativa 89 (6) - rapa, see B. campestris 35 (1) - pilosa, see C. sativa 89 (6) - robertiana, see B. oleracea 106 (7) - sativa 89 (6) - rupestris, see B. oleracea 106 (7) CAMELLIA assamica, see C. sinensis 46 (1) - scopularum, see B. oleracea 106 (7) - irrawadiensis, seeC . sinensis 46 (1) - spinescens, see B. oleracea 106 (7) - japonica, see also C. wabiske 46 (1) - sylvestris, see B. oleracea 106 (7) - oleifera 46 (1) - tournefortii, seeB . campestris,B . chinen­ - sasanqua, see C. oleifera 46 (1) sis, B. oleracea 35,106 , 150,15 1 - sinensis,se e also C. japonica and C. (1, 7, 9) wabiske 46,7 9 (1,4 ) - villosa, see B. oleracea 106 (7) - taliensis, see C. sinensis 46 (1) BRAYERA anthelmintica, see Hagenia abyssi- - thea,se e C. sinensis 46 (1,4 ) nica 145 (8) - wabiske, see also C. japonica and C. BRIDELIA micrantha 126 (8) sinensis 46,4 7 (1) BRITIA acida 177 (10) CAMPANULA rapunculus 149 (9) BROMAREA edulis 163 (11) CAMPOMANESIA cornifolia, seeC . lineatifolia BROMELIA comosa, see Ananas comosus 146 (10) 177 (10) - pinguin 187 (11) - guaviroba 177 (10) BR0MUS arvensis,se e B. erectus 152 (9) - lineatifolia 177 (10) - catharticum, see B. unioloides 171 (10) CANANGA odoratum 50 (2) - erectus 152 (9) CANARIUM album 34 (1) - haenkeanus, seeB . willdenowii 171 (10) - commune 51 (2) - inermis 152 (9) - edule 123 (8) - mango 170 (10) - moluccanum 51 (2) - marginatus 202 (12) - ovatum 51 (2) - schraderi,se e B. unioloides 171 (10) - pimela 51 (2) - secalinum 152 (9) CANAVALIA boliviana, seeC . ensiformis 173 - unioloides,se e also B. willdenowii 171 (10) (10) - brasiliensis,se eC . ensiformis 173 (10) - willdenowii 171 (10) - campylocarpa 192 (11) BROSIMUM alicastrum 195 (11) - dictyota, see C. ensiformis 173 (10) BROUSSONETIA kazinoki 41 (1) - ensiformis, see also C. gladiata,C . pla- - papyrifera 41 (1) giosperma 40,76 , 173 (1,4 , 10) BRYONIA acuta, see B. cretica 151 (9) - gladiata 40, 57 (1,2 ) - alba 151 (9) - gladiolata, seeC , gladiata 57 (2) - cretica 108,15 1 (7,9 ) - maritima, seeC . ensiformis 173 (10) - dioica, see B. cretica 151 (9) - piperi, see C. ensiformis,C . plagiosperma - guineënsis, see Lagenaria siceraria 124 (8) 173 (10) BRYOPHYLLUM pinnatum 123 (8) - plagiosperma 173 (10) BUNCH0SIA armeniaca 175 (10) - polystacha, see C. gladiata 57 (2) - costaricensis 194 (11) - regalis 136 (8) BUNIUM bulbocastanum 162 (9) - virosa, see C. regalis 136 (8) BUTYROSPERMUM paradoxum, seeB . parkii 146 CANNA coccinea, seeC . edulis 168 (10) (8) - edulis 168 (10) - parkii 146 (8) - indica, see C. edulis 168 (10) - paniculata, see C. edulis 168 (10) - speciosa 123 (8) CAESALPINIA arborea, seePeltophoru m phero- CANNABIS indica,se e C. sativa 149 (9) carpum 58 (2) - ruderalis, seeC , sativa 71,14 9 (4,9 ) CAJANUS cajan 76,13 6 (4,8 ) - sativa 33,71,14 9 (1,4 , 9) CALADIUM belophyllum, seeXanthosom a belo- CAPPARIS ovata, see C. spinosa 104 (7) phyllum 166 (10) - spinosa 104 (7) CALAMUS caesius 61 (2) CAPSELLA bursa-pastoris 107 (7) CALATHEA allounia 177 (10) CAPSICUM angulosum, see C. baccatum 179 (10) CALENDULA officinalis 104 (7) - annuum 79,162 ,19 6 (4,9 , 11) CALOCARPUM mammosum, seeC . sapota 196 (11) - baccatum 179 (10) - sapota 196 (11) - cardenasii,se e C. pubescens 180 (10) - viride 196 (11) - chinense, see also C. frutescens 180 (10) CAL0NC0BA echinata, see Oncoba echinata 126 - eximium, see C. pubescens 180 (10) (8) - frutescens,se e also C. chinense 180,19 6 CAL0PHYLLUM inophyllum 56 (2) (10, 11) CALOPOGONIUM mucunoides 192 (11) - microcarpum, see C. baccatum 179 (10) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAHES

COLEUS rotundifolius 135 (8) - cannablna 137 (8) - tuberosus, see C. edulis,C . parviflorus 56, - goreensis 137 (8) 135 (2,8 ) - intermedia 137 (8) COLOCASIA antiquorum, see C. esculenta 33 (1) - juncea 76 (4) - esculenta 33,49 ,7 1 (1,2 ,4 ) - longirostrata 193 (11) COLUBRINA rufa 179 (10) - mucronata 208 (?) COMMIPHORA opobalsamum 123 (8) - retusa 208 (?) CONIUM maculatum 208 (?) - retzii, see C. spectabilis 137 (8) CONVALLARIA majalls 158 (9) - sericea, seeC . spectabilis 137 (8) CONVOLVULUS seammonia 106 (7) - spectabilis 137 (8) - sinuata, seeMerremi a tuberosa 169 (10) - striata, see C. mucronata 208 (?) COPERNICIA prunifera 177 (10) - usaramoensis 137 (8) COPTIS chinensis 42 (1) - zanzibarica, seeC . usaramoensis 137 (8) CORCHORUS capsularis 79 (4) CROTON tiglium 73 (4) - olitorius 47 (1) CRYOPHYTUM cristallinum, seeMesembryanthemu m - trilocularis 147 (8) cristallinum 122 (8) C0RDIA africana 126 (8) CRYPTOSTEGIA grandiflora 78,14 5 (4,8 ) - dodecandra 189 (11) japonlca 47 (1) CORDYLINE terminalis 49 (1) CUCUMEROPSIS edulis 124 (8) CORIANDRUM savitum 119 (7) - mannii 124 (8) CORNUS mas 89 (6) CUCUMIS aculealus 124 (8) - mascula, seeC . mas 89 (6) - africanus 124 (8) CORONILLA varia 156 (9) - anguria, see also C. longipes 124 (8) COROZ0oleifer a 177 (10) - conomon, see C. melo 36 (1) CORTADERIA argentea 171 (10) - dipsaceus 124 (8) CORYLUS avellana, seeC . tubulosa 89 (6,7 ) - ficifolius 124 (8) - cervorum, see C. avellana 89 (6) - figarei 124 (8) - chinense 35 (1) - hardwickii, see C. sativus 72 (4) - colchica, see C. avellana 89 (6) - heptadactylus 124 (8) - colurna, see alsoC . avellana 89 (6) - longipes, see also C. auguria 124 (8) - heterophylla 35 (1) - melo 36,82 ,89 , 124 (1,5 , 6, 8) - iberica, seeC . avellana 89 (6) - metuliferus 124 (8) - imoretica, see C. avellana 89 (6) - myriocarpus 124 (8) - manshurica 35 (1) - sativus 36,72 ,89 ,12 4 (1,4 ,6 , 8) - maxima, see also C. avellana 89 (6) - zeyheri 124 (8) - pontica, see C. avellana 89 (6) CUCURBITA andreana, seeC . maxima 169 (10) - sieboldiana 35 (1) - ecuadorensis, see C. maxima 169 (10) - tubulosa 106 (7) - ficifolia, see C. maxima 169, 189 (10,11 ) CORYNOCARPUS dissimilus, seeC . laevigatus - foetidissima 200 (12) 207 (?) - lundelliana, seeC . ficifolia,C . maxima,C. - laevigatus 207 (?) mixta, C. moschata,C . pepo 169,18 9 - similis,se eC . laevigatus 207 (?) (10, 11) COTA tinctoria, seeAnthémi s tinctoria 149 - maxima, see also C. mixta 72,169 ,18 9 (9) (10, 11) CRAMBE abyssinica 89 (6) - mixta, see C. maxima 169, 189 (10,11 ) - cordifolia 89 (6) - moschata, see also C. maxima,C . mixta - hispanica 107 (7) 169, 189 (10,11 ) - maritima 151 (9) - pepo,se e also C. maxima,C . mixta 169, - tatarica, see C. cordifolia 89 (6) 189 (10,11 ) CRASSOCEPHALUM biafrae 123 (8) - texana, see C. pepo 189 (11) - crepidioides 123 (8) CUDRANIA trisuspidata, see Maclura pomifera CRATAEGUS aronia, seeC . azarolus 85,11 8 204 (12) (5, 7) CUMINUM cyminum 86,101 ,11 9 (5,6 , 7) - azarolus 85,11 8 (5,7 ) 80 (4) - hupehensis 43 (1) - angustifolia 80 (4) - oxyacantha, seeMespilu s germanica 100 (6) - aromatica, see C. domestica 80 (4) - pentagyna 43 (1) - caesia 80 (4) - pinnatifida, seeC . pentagyna 43 - domestica 80 (4) (1) - heyeana 64 (2) - pubescens 196 (11) - longa,se e alsoC . domestica,Cann a speci- - stipulosa, seeC . pubescens 196 (11) osa 80,12 3 (4,8 ) cujeta 187 (11) - pierreana 64 (2) CRITHMUM maritimum 119 (7) - xanthorrhiza 64 (2) CROCUS sativus 95,11 2 (6,7 ) - zedoaria 80 (4) CROTALARIA alata 57 (2) CYAMOPSIS psoralioides, seeC . tetragonoloba - anagyroides 173 (10) 76, 137 (4,8 ) - burhia 76 (4) - senegalensis 76, 137 (4,8 ) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 237

- tetragonoloba 76,13 7 (4,8 ) (2) CYCLANTHERA pedata 189 (11) - longispathus 73 (4) CYDONIA oblonga 100 (6) - merrillianus 54 (2) CYMBOGON citratus 53 (2) DERRIS dalbergioides 57 (2) - flexuosus 73 (4) - elliptica, see alsoD . malaccensis 57 (2) - martini 73 (4) - malaccensis 57 (2) - motia, see C. martini 73 (4) - microphylla 57 (2) - nardus 53 (2) - robusta 57 (2) - pendulus 73 (4) DESCHAMPSIA caespitosa, seeD . insignis 202 - winterianus, see C. nardus 53 (2) (12) CYMBOPETALUM penduliflorum 187 (11) - danthonioides, see D. insignis 202 (12) CYNANCHUM vincetoxicum 103, 149 (7,9 ) - elongata, see D. insignis 202 (12) CYNARA cardunculus 105 (7) - holciformis, see D. insignis 202 (12) - scolymus 105 (7) - insignis 202 (12) - sibthropiana 105 (7) DESMODIUM adscendens 208 (?) - syrlaca, see alsoC . cardunculus 105 (7) - discolor 174 (10) CYNODON aethiopicus,se e C. transvaalensis - gangeticum 208 (?) 128 (8) - gyroides 57 (2) - bradleyi, seeC . incompletus 128 (8) - intortum 174 (10) - coursii,se eC . plectostachyus 128 (8) - salicifolium 137 (8) - dactylon 73, 128 (4,8 ) - tortuosum 193 (11) - incompletus 128 (8) - uncinatum 174,19 3 (10,11 ) - x magenissii 128 (8) DIANTHUS caryophyllus 104 (7) - nlemfuensis 128 (8) DIGITALIS lanata 162 (9) - plectostachyus 128 (8) - purpurea 118,16 2 (7,9 ) - transvaalensis 128 (8) DIGITARIA abyssinica 128 (8) CYNOSURUS cristatus 91,15 2 (6,9 ) - adscendens 202 (12) CYPERUS alopecuroides 108 (7) - barbinodis, seeD . exilis,D . iburua 128 - articulatus 207 (?) (8) CYPERUS cephalotus 36 (1) - cruciata 73 (4) - esculentus 108 (7) - decumbens, see also D. pentzii,D . valida - glomeratus 36 (1) 128 (8) - iwasakii 36 (1) - exilis 128 (8) - natans,se e C. cephalotus 36 (1) - iburua, see alsoD . tricostulata 128 (8) - papyrus 108 (7) - longiflora, see D. exilis 128 (8) CYPHOMANDRA betacea 180 (10) - pentzii 128 (8) - crassifolia, see C. betacea 180 (10) - sanguinalis,se e also D. adscendens 73,152 , - hartwegi, seeC . betacea 180 (10) 202 (4,9 , 12) CYRTOCARPA procera 186 (11) - tricostulata 128 (8) CYRTOSPERMA chamlssonis 50 (2) - valida 128 (8) - edule, seeC . chamissonis 50 (2) DINOCHLOA gigantea 54 (2) - merkusii, seeC . chamissonis 50 (2) - maclellandia 54 (2) CYTISUS canariensis 113 (7) - pendulus 54 (2) - pallidus 113 (7) DIOSCOREA abyssinica 125 (8) - prolifer 113 (7) - alata, see also D. ovinala 52,12 5 (2,8 ) - pullilans, see C. prolifer 113 (7) - atropurpurea, seeD . alata 52 (2) - batatas,se eD . opposita 36, 125 (1,8 ) - bulbifera 52,12 5 (2,8 ) DACRYODES edulis,se e Canarium edule 123 (8) - cayenensis,se e alsoD . nummularia,D . ro- DACTYLIS aschersoniana, seeD . glomerata 152 tundata 52,125 ,12 6 (2,8 ) (9) - colocasiifolia, see also D. hispida 52,12 5 - glomerata 152 (9) (2, 8) - smithii, see D. glomerata 152 (9) - dumcntorum 52,12 5 (2,8 ) DAHLIA coccinea, seeD . variabilis 188 (11) - elephantides 125 (8) - rosea,se e D. variabilis 188 (11) - esculenta 52 (2) - variabilis 188 (11) - flabellifolia 52 (2) odorata 47 (1) - floribunda 189 (11) - papyrifera, seeEdgeworthi a papyrifera 47 - hamiltonii, see D. alata 52 (2) (1) - heterophylla, seeD . bulbifera 52 (2) DATISCA cannabina 82 (5) - hirsuta, see D. hispida 52 (2) DATURA metel 79 (4) - hirtiflora 125 (8) - stramonium 204 (12) - hispida 52,7 3 (2,4 ) DAUCUS carota 86,101 ,119 , 162 (5 ,6 , 7, 9) - japonica 36 (1) DENDROCALAMUS asper 53 (2) - latifolia, seeD . bulbifera 52,12 5 (2,8 ) - brandisii 54 (2) - lecardii,se e D. zara 126 (8) - hamiltonii 73 (4) - liebrechtsiana 125 (8) - latifolius, see Sinocalamus latiflorus 56 - macroura, seeD . sansibariensis 111 (8) 238 INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

- nummularia 52 (2) ECHINOCHLOA colona, see also E. frumentacea - opposita 36 (1) 37, 74,12 8 (1, 4, 8) - ovinala 125 (8) - crus-galli, see alsoE . frumentacea 37 (1) - pentaphylla 52 (2) - crus-pavonis 37 (1) - persimilis, see D. alata 52 (2) - frumentacea, see alsoE . colona,E . crus- - piperifolia 169 (10) galli 37,7 4 (1,4 ) - praehensilis, see alsoD . rotundata 125, - oryzicola,se e E. crus-galli 37 (1) 126 (8) - utilis,se e E. crus-galli and E. frumenta­ - purpurea, seeD . alata 52 (2) cea 37 (1) - quartiniana 52 (2) EDGEWORTHIA papyrifera 47 (1) - rotundata, see alsoD . praehensilis 125, EHRHARTA calycina 129 (8) 126 (8) ELAEAGNUS angustifolia 82 (5) - sagittifolia, seeD . zara 126 (8) - argentea, seeE . angustifolia 82 (5) - sansibariensis 126 (8) - multiflora 36 (1) - semperflorens 126 (8) - orientalis, see E. angustifolia 82 (5) - soso 126 (8) - pungens 36 (1) - trifida 169 (10) - umbellata 36 (1) - triphylla, see D. hispida 52 (2) ELAEIS guineensis,se e also Corozo oleifera - welwitschii, seeD . sansibariensis 126 (8) 141, 177 (8,10 ) - zara 126 (8) - melanococca, see Corozo oleifera 177 (10) DIOSPYROS andersonii, seeD . major 36 (1) ELAEOCARPUS floribundus 52 (2) - blancoi,se eD . discolor 52 (2) ELEOCHRAIS dulcis 36 (1) - chinensis, see D, kaki 36 (1) - plantaginea, seeE . dulcis 36 (1) - discolor 52 (2) ELYTRIGIA intermedia, see Agropyron interme­ - ebenaster 189 (11) dium 151 (9) - kaki, seeD . virginiana 36,20 0 (1,12 ) - repens, see Agropyron repens 151 (9) - lotus 36,8 2 (1,5 ) ENHYDRA fluctuans 51 (2) - major 36 (1) - helonchu, see E. fluctuans 51 (2) - virginiana 200 (12) ENSETE edule, seeE . ventricosum 141 (8) DIPOGON lignosus 137 (8) - ventricosum 141 (8) DIPSACUS ferox, seeD . sativus 89 (6) ENTEROLOBIUM cyclocarpum 193 (11) - fullonum, seeD . sativus 89 (6) ENTEROPOGON macrostachyus 130 (8) - sativus 89 (6) ERAGROSTIS abessinica, seeE . tef 130 (8) - sylvestris, seeD . sativus 89 (6) - curvula 130 (8) DIPTERYX odorata 174 (10) - pilosa, seeE . tef 130 (8) DOLICHOS axillaris 137 (8) - superba 130 (8) - bengalensis, see Lablab purpureus 137 (8) - tef 130 (8) - benthamii, seeDipogo n lignosus 137 (8) EREMOCHLOA ophiuroides 207 (?) - biflorus,se e D. uniflorus 76 (4) EREMOCITRUS glaucus 69 (3) - lablab,se e Lablab purpureus 137 (8) ERIANTHUS MAXIMUS, seeSaccharu m officinarum - gibbosum, seeDipogo n lignosus 137 (8) 54 (2) - lignosus, seeDipogo n lignosus 137 (8) - pedicelare, see Saccharum officinarum 54 (2) - purpureus,se e Lablab purpureus 137 (8) ERIOBOTRYA japonica 43 (1) - sesquipedalis, seeVign a unguiculata 76, ER1CEREUS martini 167 (10) 138, (4,8 ) ERIOCHLOA polystachya 171 (10) - sinensis, see Vigna unguiculata 76,13 8 ERIOGLOSSUM edule, seeE . rubiginosum 63 (2) (4, 8) ERIOGLOSSUM rubiginosum 63 (2) - uniflorus 76 (4) ERODIUM cicutarium 108 (7) DORYALIS hebecarpa 73 (4) - moschatum 108 (7) , seeDoryali s hebecarpa ERUCA pinnatifida 124 (8) 73 (4) - sativa, seeE . vesicaria 72,10 7 (4,7 ) arborea 122 (8) - vesicaria 72,10 7 (4,7 ) - fragrans, see D. arborea 122 (8) ERVATAMIA coronaria 49 (2) - mannii, see D. arborea 122 (8) ERVUM lens, see Lens esculenta 96 (6) - smithii,se eD . arborea 122 (8) ERYTHRINA glauca 174 (10) DUBOISIA hopwoodii 69 (3) - micropheryx 174 (10) - leichhardtii 69 (3) - senegalensis 137 (8) - myoporoides 69 (3) ERYTHROXYLUM bolivianum, seeE . coca 169 (10) DUCHESNEA filipendula 43 (1) - coca 169 (10) DURI0 dulcis,se eD . oxleyanus 51 (2) - novogratense, see also E. coca 169 (10) - grandiflorus, seeD . oxleyanus 51 (2) - truxillense, seeE . coca 169 (10) - graveolens,se eD . oxleyanus 51 (2) ESCONTRIA chiotillo 187 (11) - kutejensis 51 (2) EUCALYPTUS alba 66 (3) - oxleyanus 51 (2) - amygdalina, see alsoE . regnans 66,6 8 (3) - zibethlnus 51 (2) - astringens 66 (3) - botryoides, see also E. camaldulensis 66 (3) ECBALLIUM elaterium 108 (7) - brockwayi 66 (3) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAHES 239

- camaldulensis, see also E. botryoides and EUPATORIUM ayapana, see E. triplinerve 168 E. trabuti 66,117 ,17 7 (3,7 , 10) (10) - cinerea 66 (3) - stoechadosum 51 (2) - citriodora 66 (3) - triplinerve 168 (10) - cladocalyx 67 (3) EUPHORBIA dregeana 126 (8) - coccifera 67 (3) - kamerunica 126 (8) - conoidea, see E. leucoxylon 67 (3) - lathyrus 108 (7) - corynocalyx, seeE . cladocalyx 67 (3) - tirucalli 207 (?) - crebra 67 (3) EUPHORIA longana, seeNepheliu m longena 46 - cypellocarpa 67 (3) (1) - dalrympleana 67 (3) EURYALE ferox 37 (1) - delegatensis 67 (3) EUTREMA wasabi 36 (1) - diversicolor 67 (3) EVODIA hortensls 208 (?) - eugenioides 67 (3) EXOGONIUM purga, see Ipomoea purga 189 (11) - fergusoni, see E. paniculata 68 (3) - gigantea, seeE . delegatensis 67 (3) - glaucescens 67 (3) FABA vulgaris,se e Vicia faba 83, 116 (5,7 ) - globulus 67,11 7 (3,7 ) FAGARA euoda, see Evodia hortensis 208 (?) - gomphocephala6 7 (3) - evoda,se eEvodi a hortensis 208 (?) - goniocalyx, seeE . cypellacarpa 67 (3) FAGOPYRUM esculentum 100 (6) - grandis 67 (3) - sagittatum, see F. esculentum 100 (6) - gunnii 67 (3) - tataricum 42 (1) - hemilampra, seeE . resinifera 68 (3) - vulgare,se e F. esculentum 100 (6) - leucoxylon 67 (3) FALCATA comosa, see Amphicarpaeamonoic a - macarthuri 68 (3) 203 (12) - maculata 68 (3) FEDIA cornucopiae 119 (7) - maidenii 68 (3) FEIJOA sellowiana 177 (10) - mannifera, see E. viminalis 68 (3) FERONIA limonia 79 (4) - melllodora 68 (3) FESTUCA arundinacea 153 (9) - microcorys 68 (3) - elatior, see F. pratensis 153 (9) - niphophila 68 (3) - loliacea, see F. pratensis 153 (9) - paniculata 68 (3) - ovlna 153 (9) - pauciflora 68 (3) - pratensis,se e also F. arundinacea, Lolium - perreniana 68 (3) perenne 153 (9) - persicifolia, see E. viminalis 68 (3) - rubra 153 (9) - regnans, see also E. amygdalina 68 (3) - scariosa, seeF . arundinacea 153 (9) - resinifera 68 (3) - unioloides,se eBromu s willdenowii 171 (10) - robusta 68 (3) FESTULOLIUM loliaceum, see Festuca pratensis, - salicifolia, seeE . amygdalina 66 (3) Lolium perenne 153 (9) - saligna, see also E. globulus 67 (3) FICUS carica 99 (6) - scabra,se eE . eugenioides 67 (3) - elastica 77 (4) - sideroxylon 68 (3) - ovata 141 (8) - spectabilis, see E. resinifera 68 (3) - palmata, see also F. carica 99,14 1 (6,8 ) - subalatum, seeE . tereticornis 68 (3) - religiosa 77 (4) - tereticornis 68 (3) - roxburghii 78 (4) - trabutii,se eE .botryoide s 66 (3) - sycomorus 99,11 6 (6,7 ) - variegata, seeE . maculata 68 (3) - tlliaefolia 141 (8) - viminalis 68 (3) FIMBRISTYLIS globulosa 51 (2) EUCHLAENA mexicana, seeZe a mexicana 192 (11) FLACOURTIA ramontchi 53 (2) ulmoides 37 (1) - rukam 53 (2) EUGENIA aquea 60 (2) FLEMINGIA vestita, seeMoghani a vestita 83 - caryophyllus 60 (2) (4) - cumini,se e E. jambolana 61 (2) FOENICULUM azoricum, see F. vulgare 119 (7) - cauliflora, seeMyrciari a cauliflora 177 - dulce, see F. vulgare 119 (7) (10) - officinale, see F. vulgare 119 (7) - dombeyana 177 (10) - piperitum, see F. vulgare 119 (7) - formosa 60 (2) - vulgare 119 (7) - jambolana 61,7 8 (2,4 ) FORTUNELLA crassifolia 45 (1) - jambos 61 (2) - hindsii 45 (1) - javanica 61 (2) - japonica 45 (1) - malaccensis 61 (2) - margarita, seel also Citrus aurahtifolia, - obtusifolia, see E.caryophyllu s and E. jam­ Poncirus trifoliata 45,6 2 (1,2 ) bolana 60, 61 (2) FRAGARIA x ananassa, see alsoF . chiloensis - uniflora 177 (10) F. virginiana 159,179 ,20 4 (9,10 ,12 ) - uvalha 177 (10) - bucharica 85 (5) EUONYMUS japonicus 34 (1) - chiloensis,se e also F. x ananassa 159, - pulchellus, see E. japonicus 34 (1) 179, 204, (9, 10, 12) INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES

- filipendula, see Duchesnea filipendula 43 - ussuriensis 40 (1) (1) - wightii, see Neonotonia wightii 137 (8) - grandiflora, see F. x ananassa,F . virgini- GLYCYRRHIZA echinata 156 (9) ana 159,204 (9, 12) - glabra 113, 156 (7,9 ) - iturupensis 43 (1 ) - glandulifera, seeG . glabra 156 (9) - moschata 159 (9) GNETUM gnemon 53 (2) - ovalis,se e F. ananassa 159,204 (9,12 ) GOMPHRENA globosa 207 (?) - vesca 159,204 (9 , 12) GOSSYPIUM anomalum 139 (8) - virginiana, see a lsoF . x ananassa 159,204 - arboreum, see also G. anomalum, G. barba- (9, 12) dense,G . herbaceum,G . triphyllum41 , - viridus 159 (9) 59, 77,139 , 175, 176 (1,2 ,4 ,8 , 10) FRAXINUS chinensis 41 (1) - areysianum 99 (6) - koehneana, see F. chinensis 41 (1) - aridum 194 (11) - ornus 117 (7) - armourianum 194 (11) FRITILLARIA imperal is8 4 (5) - australe 66 (3) - verticillata 40( 1) - barbadense, see also G. herbaceum, G. hir- FUCHSIA magellanica 177 (10) sutum, G. raimondii,G . tomentosum, G. FUNIFERA braslliens is 184 (10) thurberi 84,139 ,175 , 176,195 ,20 4 FUNTUMIA elastica 1 22 (8) (5, 8, 10,11 ,12 ) ,s e e F. macrophylla 165 (10) - bickii 66 (3) - foetlda 165,18 6 (10, 11) - gossypioides 194 (11) - gigantea, see F. foetlda 165 (10) - harknessii 194 (11) - humboldtiana, see F. macrophylla 165 (10) - herbaceum, see also G. anomalum,G . arbo- - macrophylla 165( 10) reum,G . barbadense, G. hirsutum, G. thurberi,G . triphyllum 77,84 ,99 ,13 9 175, 176,19 5 (4,5 ,6 , 8, 10,11 ) GALEGA officinalis 156 (9) - hirsutum, see also G. herbaceum, G. raimon­ - orientalis 96 (6) dii, G. tomentosum 59, 139, 176,194 GARBERIA benedicta, seeCnicu s benedicta 105 (2, 8 10,11 ) (7) - incanum 99 (6) GARCINIA atrovirides 56 (2) - klotzschianum, see also G. gossypioides, - cochinchinensis 56 (2) G. longiocalyx 139,149 , 194, 195 (8, - dulcis 56 (2) 10, 11) - indica 56,7 5 (2, 4) - lobatum 195 (11) - mangostana, see also G. silvestris 56,7 5 - longiocalyx 139 (8) (2, 4) - mustelinum 176 (10) - multiflora 56 (2) - peruvianum, see G. barbadense 175 (10) - pedunculata 56 (2) - raimondii, see also G. barbadense, G. hir- - silvestris, see also G. mangostana 56,7 5 sutum 175, 176 (10) (2, 4) - robinsonii 66 (3) - tinctoria 56,7 5 (2,4 ) - sandvicense, see G. tomentosum 176 (10) - tonkinensis, see G. multiflora 56 (2) - somalense 140 (8) GARDENIA florida, see G. jasminoides 45 (1) - stocksii 77,9 9 (4, 6) - jasminoides4 5 (1) - sturtianum 66 (3) GASTROCHILUS pandurata, see Boesenbergia pan- - sturtii 66 (3) durata 64 (2) - thurberi 195 (11) GIGANTOCHLOA apus 54 (2) - tomentosum 176 (10) - ligulata 54 (2) - trilobum 195 (11) - maxima 54 (2) - triphyllum 140 (8) - scortechinii 54 (2) - vitifolium, see G. barbadense 175 (10) - scribneriana 54 (2) GREWIA asiatica 79 (4) - verticillata 54 (2) GUADUA angustifolia 171 (10) GINKGO biloba 37 (1) GUAZUMA grandiflora 184 (10) GIRARDINIA heterophylla 79 (4) GUILIELMA gasipaes 178,195 , (10,11 ) GLEDITSIA japonica 40 (1) GUIZOTIA abyssinica 123 (8) - triacanthos 203 (12) GYMNEMA syringifolium 50 (2) GLEHNIA litoralis 47 (1) GYNANDROPSIS gynandra 123 (8) GLIRICIDIA maculata, see G. sepium 174 (10) - pentaphylla, see G. gynandra 123 (8) - sepium 174 (10) GYNERIUM argenteum, seeCortaderi a argentea GLOCHIDION blancoi 52 (2) 171 (10) GLYCERIA fluitans 153 (9) - sagittatum 171 (10) GLYCINE apios,se e Apios tuberosa 203 (12) GYNURA cernua 123 (8) - gracilis, seeG . max 40 (1) - japonica, seeG . pinnatifida 34 (1) - hispida, see G. max 40 (1) - pinnatifida 34 (1) - javanica, see G. max 40 (1) GYPSOPHILA paniculata 104 (7) - max 40 (1) - soja 40 (1) INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES 241

HAGENIA abysssinica 145 (8) HOVENIA dulcis 42 (1) HAKEA saliclfolia 69 (3) HUMULUS amerlcanum, see H. lupulus 199 (12) - sericea 69 (3) - cordifolius, see H. lupulus 34 (1) HALOGETON sativus 105 (7) - japonicus 34 (1) HEDYSARUM alpium, see H. hedysaroides 156 (9) - lupulus 34,149 , 199, (1,9 , 12) - coronarium 113 (7) - neomexicanus, see H. lupulus 199 (12) - hedysaroides 156 (9) - yunnansis 34 (1) HELENIUM grandiflorum, see Inula helenium 82 HYACINTHUS orientalis 98 (6) (5) HYDN0CARPUS alcalae 53 (2) HELIANTHUS agrophyllus, see H. annuus 200 (12) - anthelminthicus 53 (2) - annuus,se e also H. exilis,H . tuberosus - kurzil 53 (2) 150, 200 (9, 12) - laurifolius 73 (4) - bolanderi, seeH . annuus 200 (12) - wightianus, seeH . laurifolius 73 (4) - debilis, see H. annuus 200 (12) HYDRASTIS canadensis 203 (12) - exilis, see also H. annuus 200 (12) HYDROLEA zeylanica 56 (2) - x laetiflorus, see H. tuberosus 200 (12) HYLOCEREUS napoleoni 187 (11) - petiolaris,se e H. annuus 200 (12) - ocamponis 187 (11) - subrhomboideus, see H. tuberosus 200 (12) - polyrhizus 167 (10) - tuberosus, see also H. annuus 200 (12) - undatus 187 (11) HEMARTHRIA altissima 130 (8) HYOSCYAMUS niger 118 (7) HESPERIS matronalis 151 (9) HYPARRHENIA rufa 130 (8) HESPEROYUCCA funifera 186 (11) HYPTIS spicigera 135 (8) HETEROPOGON contortus, see H. hirtus 208 (?) - suaveolens 192 (11) - hirtus 208 (?) 112 (7) HEVEA benthamiana 169 (10) - brasiliensis 52,16 9 (2,10 ) HIBISCUS acetosella, see also H. asper,H . ILEX intégra 33 (1) surattensis 140,14 1 (8) - paraguariensis, see I.paraguensi s 166 - x archeri,se e H. schizopetalus 141 (8) (10) - asper,se e also H. acetosella,H . cannabinus, - paraguensis 166 (10) H. sabdariffa 140,14 1 (8) ILLICIUM anisatum 39 (1) - cannabinus, see also H. asper,H . radiatus - religiosum, see I. verum 39 (1) 77, 141 (4,8 ) - verum 39 (1) - eetveldeanus, see H. acetosella 140 (8) IMPATIENS balsamina 33 (1) - esculentus, see Abelmoschus esculentus77 , INDIGOFERA anil 174 (10) 139 (4,8 ) - arrecta 137 (8) - furcatus,se eH . radiatus 77 (4) - endecaphylla 137 (8) - manihot,se eAbelmoschu s manihot 77 (4) - hirsuta 208 (?) - mechowii, seeH . sabdariffa 141 (8) - indica, see I. tinctoria 137 (8) - meeusei, see H. asper 141 (8) - pilosa 76 (4) - moschatus, seeAbelmoschu s moschatus 77 (4) - schimperi, see I. hirsuta 208 (12) - noldeae, see H. acetosella 140 (8) - suffruticosa, see I. anil 174 (10) - radiatus, see also H. acetosella,H . canna­ - sumatrana, see I. tinctoria 137 (8) binus,H . surattensis 77,140 ,14 1(4 , - teysmannii 57 (2) 8) - tinctoria 137 (8) - rosa-sinensis, see H. schizopetalus 141 (8) INGA dulcis 193 (11) - sabdariffa, see also H. radiatus 77,14 1 - edulis 193 (11) (4, 8) - feuillei 174 (10) - schizopetalus 141 (8) - goldmanii 193 (11) - surattensis, see also H. radiatus 77,140 , - laurina 193 (11) 141 (4,8 ) - leptoloba 193 (11) - syriacus 41 (1) - pittieri 193 (11) - tetraphyllus, see Abelmoschus manihot 77 - preussii 174 (10) (4) - pterocarpa, see 58 HINGTSHA repens,se eEnhydr a fluctuans 51 (2) (2) heteroclita, see H. macrocarpa 36 - punctata 174 (10) (1) - reticulata, see I. feuillei 174 (10) - macrocarpa 36 (1) INGENHOUZIA triloba, seeGossypiu m trilobum HOLCUS lanatus 65,15 3 (3,9 ) 195 (11) HORDEUM agriocrithon, see H. vulgare 91 (6) INOCARPUS edulis 57 (2) - distichon, see H. vulgare 91 (6) INULA helenium 82 (5) - hexastichon, see H. vulgare 91 (6) - racemosa 71 (4) - intermedium, see H. vulgare 91 (6) IPHIGENIA stellata 77 (11) - lagunculiforme, see H. vulgare 91 (6) IPOMOEA aquatica 35 (1) - spontaneum, see H. vulgare 91 (6) - batatas,se e also I. tiliacea,Puerari a - vulgare 38,91 ,11 1 (1,6 , 7) thunbergiana 58,8 9 (2,11 ) HOUTTUYNIA cordata 63 (2) - eriocarpa 72 (4) 242 INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

- mammosa 51 (2) - taraxacifolia 123 (8) - purga 189 (11) - virosa 105 (7) - reptans, see I. aquatica 35 (1) LAGENARIA abyssinica, see L. siceraria 124 - tiliacea, see I.batata s 189 (11) (8) - trifida, see I. batatas 189 (11) - guineënsis, see L. siceraria 124 (8) - triloba, see I. batatas 189 (11) - rufa,se eL . siceraria 124 (8) - tuberosa, seeMerremi a tuberosa 169 (10) - siceraria, see alsoCrescenti a cujeta124 , IRATIS canescens, see I. tinctoria 89 (6) 186 (8,11 ) - littoralis, see I. tinctoria 89 (6) - vulgaris,se e L. siceraria 124 (8) - taurica, see I. tinctoria 89 (6) LALLEMANTIA iberica 95 (6) - tinctoria 89 (6) - royleana 83 (5) IRIS ensata 39 (1) LANGUAS conchigera, see Alpinia conchigera - germanica 112 (7) 64 (2) ISCHAENUM indicum 54 (2) LANSIUM domesticum 59 (2) IVA annua 200 (12) LAPORTEA decumana 64 (2) - ciliata, see I. annua 200 (12) LAPPA arctium, see Arctium lappa 149 (9) LATHYRUS alatus,se e L. clymenum 114 (7) - annuus 113 (7) 78 (4) - cicera 114 (7) - officinale 84 (5) - clymenum 114 (7) - sambac 78 (4) - hirsutus 114 (7) JATEORHIZA raiersii, see J. palmata 141 (8) - ochrus 114 (7) - palmata 141 (8) - odoratus 114 (7) JATROPHA aconitlfolia 189 (11) - purpureus, see L. clymenum 114 (7) - curcas 170 (10) - sativus 83, 114 (5,7 ) - multifida 170 (10) - sylvestris 156 (9) - urens 170 (10) - tingitanus 114 (7) JUGLANS ailantifolla 39 (1) - tuberosus 156 (9) - cordiformis, seeJ . ailantifolia 39 (1) LAUNAEA taraxacifolia 123 (8) - duclouxiana 39 (1) 113 (7) - hindsii 203 (12) , see L. officinalis - honorei 172 (10) 112 (7) - mandshurica 39 (1) - latifolia, see also L. officinalis 112 (7) - mollis 192 (11) - officinalis,se e also L. latifolia 112 (7) - nigra 203 (12) - spica,se e L. officinalis 112 (7) ~ regia,se eCary a pecan,J . hindsii,J . hono­ LAWS0NIA alba 139 (8) rei, J. mollis,Malu s kirghizorum, M. sie- - inermis,se e L. alba 139 (8) versii 83,85 ,155 , 192,20 3 (5,9 , 11, zabucajo 172 (10) 12) LENS culinarus, see L. esculenta 96 (6) - sieboldiana, see J. ailantifolia 39 (1) - esculenta 96 (6) 125 (8) - nigricans,se e L. esculenta 96 (6) - virginiana 200 (12) - orientalis, see L. esculenta 96 (6) JUSTICIA insularis 122 (8) LEPIDIUM latifolium 107 (7) - pectolaris 162 (10) - meyenii 169 (10) - sativum 124 (8) LEPIRONIA articulata 52 (2) 64 (2) - mucronata, see L. articulata 52 (2) - rotunda 64 (2) LEPTOSPERMUM laevigatum 69 (3) KERSTINGIELLA geocarpa, seeMacrostylom a geo LESPEDEZA cuneata 40 (1) carpum 137 (8) - sericea, see L. cuneata 40 (1) - tisserantii, seeMacrostylom a geocarpum 13' - stipulacea 40 (1) (8) - striata 40 (1) KIGELIA africana 123 (8) LEUCAENA glauca, see L. leucocephala 193 (11) KOCHIA indica 71 (4) - latisiliqua, see L. leucocephala 193 (11) - scoparia 34 (1) - leucocephala 174,19 3 (10,11 ) - pulverulenta, see L. leucocephala 193 (11) LEUCANTHEMUM parthenium, see Tanacetum LABLAB niger, see L. purpureus 137 (8) parthenium 105 (7) - purpureus 137 (8) LEVISTICUM officinale 162 (9) - uncinatus, see L. purpureus 137 (8) LIGUSTICUM bulbocastanum, see Bunium bulbo- LACTUCA angustana, seeL . sativa 150( S castanum 162 (9) - denticulata 34 (1) - monnieri 64 (2) - indica 34 (1) LIGUSTRUM japonicum 41 (1) ~ quercina 150 (9) - lucidum 41 (1) - saligna, see L. sativa 150 (9) - ovalifolium 41 (1) - sativa 150 (9) LILIUM auratum 40 (1) - serriola, see L. sativa 150 (9) - candidum 116 (7) INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES 243

- cordifolium 40 (1) - luteus 114 (7) - lancifolium 41 (1) - montanus 174 (10) - maximowiczii 41 (1) - mutabilis 174 (10) - tigrinura4 1 (1) - perennis 203 (12) LIMNANTHES alba 204 (12) - pilosus,se e also L. cosentini 114 (7) LIMNOCHARIS flava 59 (2) - polyphyllus 203 (12) , see Feronia limonia 79 - reticulatus, see L. angustifolius 114 (7) (4) - rothmaleri, see L. luteus 114 (7) LINGNANIA chungii 38 (1) - sativus,se e L. albus 114 (7) LINUM angustifolium, seeL . usitatissimum - taurus,se eL . mutabilis 174 (10) 99 (6) - termis,se e also L. albus 114 (7) - bienne, see L. usitatissimum 99 (6) - varius,se e L. angustifoltus, L. cosentini - crepitans, see L. usitatissimum 158 (9) L. pilosus 65,11 4 (3,7 ) - usitatissimum 76,84 ,99 ,116 , 139, 158 LYCINUM chlnense 63 (2) (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) LYCOPERSICUM cheesmanii, see L. esculentum LIPPIA adoensis 147 (8) 180 (10) - citriodora 184 (10) - chilense 181 (10) - triphylla, see L. citriodora 184 (10) - chmielewskii 191 (10) LITCHI chinensis, see Nephelum litchi 45 (1) - esculentum, see also L. cheesmanii,L . LITHOSPERMUM erythrorhiza, see L. officinale pimpinellifolium, Solanum pennelli 34 (1) 180, 181,18 3 (10) - murasaki, see L. officinale 34 (1) - hirsutum 181 (10) - officinale 34,14 9 (1, 9) - minutum, see L. cheesmanii,L . esculentum, LITSEA calophylla 56 (2) L. parviflorum 180,18 1 (10) - sebifera, see L. calophylla 56 (2) - parviflorum, see also L. chmielewskii - tetranthera, see L. calophylla 56 (2) 181 (10) LOBELIA inflata 199 (12) - peruvianum, see also L. chilense,L . escu­ LOLIUM x hybridum, see L. perenne 153 (9) lentum 181 (10) - multiflorum, see also L. perenne 111, 153 - pimpinellifolium, see alsoL . esculentum (7, 9) 181 (10) - perenne,se e also Festuca pratensis 111, MABA major 52 (2) 153 (7,9 ) integrifolia 69 (3) LONCHOCARPUS utilis 174 (10) - ternifolia, seeM . integrifolia 69 (3) LOPHOCEREUS schottii 187 (11) - tetraphylla, seeM . integrifolia 69 (3) L0T0N0NIS bainesii 137 (8) MACLUDRANIA hybrida, see Madura pomifera LOTUS alpinus,se e L. corniculatus 156 (9) 204 (12) - corniculatus 156 (9) MACLURA aurantiaca, seeM . pomifera 204 (12) - edulis 114 (7) - pomifera 204 (12) - pilosus, see L. corniculatus 156 (9) MACROPTILUM atropurpureum 193 (11) - uliginosus 156 (9) MACR0STYL0MA axillare, see Dolichos LUCUMA bifera 196 (11) axillaris 137 (8) - nervosa 179 (10) - geocarpum 137 (8) - obovata 179 (10) MADHUCA indica, see also M. longifolia - procera 179 (10) 79 (4) - rivicoa, see L. nervosa 179 (10) - latifolia, seeM . indica 79 (4) - salicifolia 196 (11) - longifolia 79 (4) LUFFA acutangula, see also L. hermaphrodita MADIA sativa 168 (10) 72, 73 (4) MAJORANA hortensis,se e Origanum majorana - aegyptiaca, see also L. acutangula 72,7 3 113 (7) (4) MALABAILA secacul 102 (6) - cylindrica, see L. aegyptiaca 72,7 3 (4) MALACHRA capitata 208 (?) - echinata, see L. acutangula 72 (4) , seeM . glabra 175 (10) - graveolens, see L. acutangula 72 (4) - glabra 175 (10) - hermaphrodita, see also L. aegyptiaca - punicifolia, see M. glabra 175 (10) 72, 73 (4) - urens 194 (11) - racemosa, see L. aegyptiaca 72,7 3 (4) MALUS asiatica 43 (1) LUPINUS albus 114 (7) - baccata, see also M. micromalus,43 ,15 9 - angustifolius 114 (7) (1, 9) - bogotensis 174 (7) - halliana 43 (1) - cosentini 66, 114 (3,7 ) - hupehensis 43 (1) - cruckshanksii, see L. mutabilis 174 (10) - kirghizorum 85 (5) - cunninghamii, see L. mutabilis 174 (10) - micromalus, see also M. spectabilis 43 (1) - digitatus, see L. cosentini 114 (7) - orientalis 100 (6) - graecum, see L. albus,L . termis 114 (7) - praecox, see M. sylvestris 85 (5) - hispanicum see L. luteus 114 (7) - prunifolia, 43, 100,15 9 (1,6 , 9) - jugoslavicus, see L. albus 114 (7) - pumila, see also M. orientalis,M . kirghi­ - linifolius,se e L. angustifolius 114 (7) zorum,M . sylvestris 43,85 ,100 ,15 9(1 , INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES


OCIMUM americanum, seeO . basilicum 56 (2) - cubensis, seeO . perennis 190 (11) - asperum, see Coleus forsskahlii 135 (8) - eichingeri,se e also 0. minuta 54,13 0 - basilicum 56 (2) (2, 8) - grandiflorum, seeOrthosipho n stamineus - fatua, see0 . nivara and0 . rufipogon 54 56 (2) (2) - gratissimum 56 (2) - glaberrima, see also0 . barthii,0 .brevi ­ - kilimandscharicum 135 (8) ligulata and 0. sativa 74,13 0 (4,8 ) - sanctum 56 (2) - grandiglumis 171 (10) OENANTHE javanica 64 (2) - granulata 54 (2) - stolonifera, see0 . javanica 64 (2) - guineensis, see0 . brachyantha 130 (8) OENOCARPUS bacaba 178 (10) - latifolia, see also 0. eichingeri 130,17 1 OENOTHERA biennis 195 (11) 190 (8,10 ,11 ) OLDENLANDIA umbellata 62 (2) - longiglumis 54 (2) OLEA chrysophylla 117 (7) - longistaminata, see also0 . barthii,0 . - europaea 117 (7) glaberrima 130,13 1 (8) OMPHALEA megacarpa 170 (10) - malampuzhaensis 73 (4) ONAGRA biennis, seeOenother a biennis 195 - meyeriana, see 0. granulata 54 (2) (11) - minuta, see also0 . eichingeri 54 (2) ONCOBA echinata 126 (8) - montana, see0 . rufipogon 54 (2) ONOBRYCHIS altissima 96 (6) - nivara, see also 0. rufipogon,0 . sativa - sativa, seeO . viciifolia 157 (9) 54, 74 (2,4 ) - transcaucasia, see O. viciifolia 96, 157 - officinalis 54 (2) (6, 9) - perennis, see also 0. barthii,0 . rufipo­ - viciifolia 96,15 7 (6,9 ) gon,0 . sativa 54,130 ,19 0 (2,8 , 11) 0PHI0P0G0N spicatus 41 (1) - punctata, see also 0. eichingeri 130,13 1 OPUNTIA amyclaea 187 (11) (8) - boldinghii 167 (10) - ridleyi 54 (2) - castillae, see 0. megacantha 188 (11) - rufipogon, see also0 . nivara,O . perennis, - crassa 187 (11) 0. sativa 54,7 4 (2,4 ) - crystalenia 188 (11) - sativa, see also 0. glaberrima,0 . nivara, - dillenia 188 (11) O. perennis,0 . rufipogon 38,54 ,74 ,130 , - eliator 167 (10) 190 (1,2 ,4 , 8, 11) - exaltata 167 (10) - schlechten 54 (2) - ficus-indica 188 (11) - schweinfurthiana, see0 . eichingeri,0 . - fusicaulis 188 (11) punctata 130,13 1 (8) - hyptiacantha 188 (11) OSMANTHUS fragrans 41 (1) - lanceolata 188 (11) 0XALIS deppei,se e 0. tuberosa 177 (10) - leucotricha 188 (11) - tuberosa 177 (10) - lindheimeri 188 (11) OXYTENANTHERA abyssinica 131 (8) - maxima 188 (11) - megacantha 188 (11) PACHYCEREUS pecten-aboriginum 188 (11) - pachona, see 0. streptacantha 188 (11) - pringlei 188 (11) - robusta 188 (11) PACHYLOBUS edulis,se e Canarium edule 123 (8) - streptacantha 188 (11) PACHYRHIZUS angulatus,se e P. erosus 193 (11) - tomentosa 188 (11) - apiha 174 (10) - undulata 188 (11) - bulbosus,se eP . erosus 193 (11) - vulgaris 167 (10) - erosus 193 (11) 0RE0BAMB0S buchwaldii 130 (8) - palmatilobus, see P. erosus 193 (11) ORIGANUM applii,se e0 . majorana 113 (7) - tuberosus 174 (10) - majorana, see Majorana hortensis 113 (7) PAE0NIA officinalis 158 (9) - majoricum, seeO . majorana 113 (7) PALAQUIUM gutta 63 (2) - vulgare,se e also0 . majorana 113,15 5 PANAX fruticosum, seeNothopana x fruticosum (7, 9) 50 (2) 0RNITH0PUS compressus 115 (7) - ginseng 33 (1) - isthmocarpus, see0 . sativus 115 (7) - guilfoylei, seeNothopana x guilfoylei 50 - macrorrhynchus, see0 . sativus 115 (7) (2) - roseus, see0 . sativus 115 (7) - obtusum, see Nothopanax obtusum 50 (2) - sativus,se e also 0. compressus 115 (7) - pinnatum, see Nothopanax pinnatum 50 (2) 0R0BUS lathyroides,se e Vicia unijuga 40 (1) - pseudo-ginseng 33 (1) ORTHOSIPHON rubicundus 135 (8) - quinquefolia 199 (12) - stamineus 56 (2) - repens 33 (1) 0RYZA alta, see also0 . grandiglumis 171, 61 (2) 190 (10,11 ) - brosimas 61 (2) - australiensis 65 (3) - inermis,se e P. spurius 61 (2) - barthii, see also0 . glaberrima 130 (8) - laevis,se e P. spurius 61 (2) - brachyantha 130 (8) - moschatus, see P. spurius 61 (2) - breviligulata, see 0. barthii 130 (8) - odoratissimus, see P. spurius 61 (2) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 247

- odorus, see P. amaryllifolius 61 (2) PELARGONIUM x asperum 126 (8) - spurius 61 (2) - capitatum, see P. graveolens 127 (8) - tectorius, see P. spurius 61 (2) - crispum 126 (8) - utllis 144 (8) - denticulatum, see alsoP . x asperum 126, - whitmeeanus 61 (2) 127 (8) PANGIUM edule 53 (2) - graveolens, see also P. x asperum, P. PANICUM antidotale 75 (4) tomentosum 126, 127 (8) - bulbosum 131 (8) - karooense 127 (8) - coloratum 131 (8) - odoratissimum 127 (8) - frumentacea, see Echinochloa frumentacea - quercifolium, see P. x asperum 126 (8) 37 (1) - radens,se e P. x asperum 126 (8) - italicum, see Setaria italica 36 (1) - radula, see P. x asperum 126 (8) - laetum 131 (8) - rigidum, see P. crispum 126 (8) - maximum, see also P. bulbosum 131 (8) - roseum, see P. x asperum, P. denticulatum - miliaceum 38 (1) 126, 127 (8) - miliare, see P. sumatrense 75 (4) - terebinthinaceum, see P. graveolens 127 - psilopodium, see P. sumatrense 75 (4) (8) - sonorum 190 (11) - tomentosum 127 (8) - spontaneum, see P. miliaceum 38 (1) PELTOPHORUM pterocarpum 58 (2) - sumatrense 75 (4) PENNISETUM americanum, see also P. purpureum - virgatum 190,20 2 (11,12 ) 131, 133 (8) - zizanoides, see Acroceras amplectans 127 - clandestinum 133 (8) (8) - purpureum, see also P. typhoides 133 (8) PAPAVER setigerum, seeP . somniferum 117 (7) - setaceum 133 (8) - somniferum 100,11 7 (6, 7) - spicatum, see also P. americanum 131,13 3 PARMENTIERA cereifera 187 (11) (8) - edulis 187 (11) - stenostachyum, see P. americanum 131 (8) PARKIA speciosa 58 (2) - typhoides, see also P. americanum 131, PARTHENIUM argentatum 188 (11) 133 (8) PASPALUM dilatum 171 (10) - unisetum 133 (8) - dlstlchum 38,20 2 (1,12 ) - violaceum, see P. americanum 131 (8) - juergensii, see P. dilatum 171 (10) - vulpinum 133 (8) - notatum 171 (10) PENTAPHRAGMA begoniaefolium 61 (2) - orbiculare, see P. scrobiculatum 75 (4) PEPEROMIA pellucida 178 (10) - plicatum 171 (10) PERILLA arguta 40 (1) - scrobiculatum 54,7 5 (2,4 ) - crispa, see P. frutescens 40 (1) PASSIFLORA alata 178 (10) - frutescens 40 (1) - antioquiensis 178 (10) - ocymoides, see P. frutescens 40 (1) - caerulea 178 (10) PERESKIA aculeata 168 (10) - cearensis, see P. serrato-digitata 178 (10) - bleo 168 (10) - coccinea 178 (10) - guamacho 168 (10) - edulis,se e also P. incarnata 178,20 4 - sacharosa 168 (19) (10, 12) PERESKI0PSIS chapistle 188 (11) - exoniensis, see P. antioquiensis 178 (10) - spathulata 188 (11) - foetida 178 (10) PERSEA americana 192 (11) - incarnata 204 (12) - drymifolia, see P. americana 192 (11) - laurifolia, see alsoP . popenovii 178 (10) - floccosa 192 (11) - ligularis 178 (10) - leiogyna 172 (10) - maliformis 178 (10) - schiedeana 192 (11) - manicata, see P. antioquiensis 178 (10) PERSICA davidiana, see Prunus davidiana 44 - mixta 178 (10) (1) - mollissima, see alsoP . antioquiensis,P . - kansuensis,se e Amygdalus kansiensis 42 mixta, P. pinnatistipula, P. psilantha (1) 178 (10) - vulgaris,se e Amygdalus persica 41 (1) - partita, see also P. psilantha 178 (10) PETASITES japonicus 34 (1) - pinnatistipula 178 (10) PETROSELINUM crispum 119 (7) - popenovii 178 (10) PEUCEDANUM cervarla 162 (9) - psilantha 178 (10) - graveolens, see Anethum graveolens 79 (4) - quandrangularis 178 (10) - ostruthium 162 (9) - seemannii 195 (11) PHACELIA tanacetifolia 203 (12) - serrato-digitata 178 (10) PHAEOMERIA magnifica 64 (2) - tripartita 178 (10) PHALARIS aquatica, see P. tuberosa 111 (7) - van-volxemii, see P. antioquiensis 178 - arundinacea 153 (9) (10) - canariensis 111 (7) PASTINACA sativa 162 (9) - tuberosa 111 (7) PAULLINIA cupana 179 (10) PHASEOLUS aborigineus,se e also P. vulgaris PAYENA leertii6 3 (2) 174, 194 (10,11 ) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

- aconitifolius , see Vigna aconitifolia 76 PIPER aduncum 178 (10) (4) - betle 62 (2) - acutifolius 193 (11) - clusii 145 (8) - angularis 40 (1) - cuceba 62 (2) - atropurpureus, see Macroptilum atropur- - guineense 145 (8) pureum 193 (11) - lohot, see P. saigonense 62 (2) - aureus,se e Vigna radiata 58 (2) - longum, see P. retrofractum 62,7 8 (2,4 ) - bipunctatus, see P. lunatus 193 (11) - methysticum 62 (2) - calcaratus, see Vigna umbellata 58 (2) - nigrum 78 (4) - chinensis, see P. vulgaris 40 (1) - officinarum, see P. retrofractum 62 (2) - coccineus, see alsoP . vulgaris 193, 194 - retrofractum, see also P. longum 62,7 8 (11) (2, 4) - inamoenus, see P. lunatus 193 (11) - saigonense 62 (2) - lathyroides 66 (3) PISONIA alba 61 (2) - lunatus 174,19 3 (10,11 ) - grandis,se eP . alba 61 (2) - mungo, see Vigna mungo 76 (4) - sylvestris, see P. alba 61 (2) - radiatus, seeVign a radiata 58 (2) PISTACIA lentiscus 117 (7) - retusus 194 (11) - terebinthus 117 (7) - sublobatus, see Vigna radiata,V . mungo - vera 81 (5) 58, 76 (2,4 ) PISTIA stratiotes 50 (2) - trilobus, see Vigna aconitifolius 76 (4) PISUM abyssinicum, seeP . sativum 137 (8) - vulgaris, see also P. aborigineus, - arvense, see P. sativum 97 (6) P. coccineus 40,174 ,194 (1,10 ,11 ) - elatius, see P. sativum 97,11 5 (6,7 ) PHELLOPTERUS littoralis 47 (1) - formosum, see Alophotropis formosum 96 (6) pertusum, see deli- - humile, see P. sativum 97 (8) ciosa 187 (11) - jomardi, see P. sativum 115 (7) PHLEUM alpinum, see P. pratense 153 (9) - sativum, see also Alophotropis formosum, - nodosum, see P. pratense 153 (9) Lupinus mutabilis 96,97 ,115 , 137,17 4 - pratense 153 (9) (6, 7, 8, 10) PHOENIX atlantica 144 (8) - syriacum, see P. sativum 97 (6) - canariensis 144 (8) - transcaucasium 102 (7) - dactylifera, see also P. atlantica, P. PITHECELLOBIUM bigeminum 58 (2) canariensis,P . sylvestris 144 (8) - dulce 194 (11) - humilis,se e alsoP . reclinata 144 (8) - jiringa5 8 (2) - jubae, see P. canariensis 144 (8) - lolatum 58 (2) - reclinata 144 (8) - saman 174 (10) - sylvestris 144 (8) PLANTAGO decumbens, seeP . ovata 78 (4) PHORMIUM tenax 65 (3) - indica 117 (7) PHRAGMITES communis 153 (9) - lanceolata 158 (9) PHYLLANTHUS acides,se e P. distichus 53 (2) - major 42 (1) - distichus 53 (2) - ovata 78 (4) - emblica 53 (2) - psyllium 117 (7) PHYLLOSTACHYS bambusoldes 38 (1) PLATYCODON grandiflorum 34 (1) - dulcis 38 (1) PLECTRANTHUS esculentus 136 (8) - henonis 38 (1) - rotundifolius, see Coleus rotundifolius - maklnoi 38 (1) 135 (8) - meyeri 38 (1) - tuberosus, see Orthosiphon rubicundus - nigra, see P. henonis 38 (1) 135 (8) - pubescens 38 (1) PLUCHEA indica 51 (2) - viridis 38 (1) PLUKENETIA conophora 126 (8) PHYSALIS alkekengi 162 (9) - corniculata 53 (2) - ixocarpa, see also Lycopersicon esculentum - peruviana, see P. volubilis 170 (10) 181, 196 (10,11 ) - volubilis 170 (10) - peruviana 181 (10) PLUMERIA acuminata, seeP . acutifolia 166 - pubescens 206 (12) (10) PHYSOSTIGMA venenosum 137 (8) - acutifolia 166 (10) PHYTOLACCA acinosa 42 (1) - obtusa, see P. acutifolia 166 (10) - americana 204 (12) POA ampla, see P. pratensis 202 (12) - chilensis 178 (10) - bulbosa 91,15 3 (6,9 ) - dioica 178 (10) - compressa 202 (12) PIMENTA acris 61 (2) - nemoralis 202 (12) - dioica 198 (11) - palustris 153 (9) - officinalis,se e P. dioica 195 (11) - pratensis, see also P. trivialis 153,20 2 PIMPINELLA anisum 102 (6) (9, 12) PINUSmerkusiana , see P. merkusli 61 (2) - trivialis, see alsoP . pratensis 153 (9) - merkusii 61 (2) pellatum 199 (12) - pinea 117 (7) P0GOSTEM0N cablin 56 (2) INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES 249

POLAKOWSKIA tacacco 189 (11) - hortulana 205 (12) POLIANTHES gracilis,se e P. tuberosa 186 (11) - insititia 160 (9) - tuberosa 186 (11) - kansuensis, see Amygdalus kansuensis 41 (1) POLYGALA butyracea 145 (8) - ledebouriana, see Amygdalus ledebouriana POLYGONUM fagopyrum, see Fagopyrum esculen- 158 (9) tum 100 (6) - mahaleb 160 (9) - hydropiper 42 (1) - mandshurica, see Armeniaca mandshurica 42 - maximowiczii 42 (1) (1) - odoratum 62 (2) - maritima 205 (12) - tinctorium 42 (1) - mira, see Amygdalus mira 42 (1) POLYMNIA edulis,se e P. sonchifolia 169 (10) - mume, see Armeniaca mume 42 (1) - sonchifolia 169 (10) - munsoniana, see also P. angustifolia 205 POLYSCIAS fruticosa, see Nothopanax fruti- (12) cosum 50 (2) - nana,se e Amygdalus besseriana 158 (9) - obtusa, seeNothopana x obtusum 50 (2) - nigra 205 (12) - rumphiana, see Nothopanax pinnatum 50 (2) - paniculata, see P. pseudocerasus 44 (1) POMETIA pinnata 63 (2) - pensylvanica 205 (12) PONCIRUS trifoliata, see Citrus sinensis 45, - persica, see Amygdalus persica,P . davi­ 63 (1,2 ) diana 44 (1) PORTULACA oleracea 158,19 6 (9,11 ) - persicifolia, see P. pensylvanica 205 (12) POUTERIA caimita 179 (10) - petunnikowii, see Amygdalus petunnikowii - campechiana, see Lucuma nervosa,L . salici- 84 (5) folia 179, 196 (10 ,11 ) - pseudocerasus, see also P. cantabrigiensis - lucuma, see Lucuma obovata 179 (10) 43 (1) PRITCHARDIA gaudichaudii 61 (2) - salicina 44 (1) - pacifica 61 (2) - sargentii 44 (1) PROBOSCIDEA louisianica 204 (12) - scoparia, seeAmygdalu s communis 84 (5) PROSOPIS juliflora 174 (10) - serotlna 205 (12) - strombulifera 175 (10) - sibirica, see Armeniaca sibirica 159 (9) - tamarugo 175 (10) - simonii 44 (1) PRUNUS 43,85 ,20 4 (1,5 , 12) - spinosa, see also P. domestica 101 (6) - acuminata, see P. maritima 205 (12) - spinosissima, seeAmygdalu s spinosissima - americana, see also P. hortulana 204,20 5 84 (5) (12) - tenella, see Amygdalus besseriana 158 (9) - amygdalis, see Amygdalis communis 84,10 0 - tiliaefolia, see Armeniaca vulgaris42 , (5, 6) 85 (1,5 ) - angustifolia, see also P. hortulana, P. - tomentosa 44 (1) munsoniana 205 (12) - trichocarpa, see P. tomentosa 44 (1) - ansu,se eArmeniac a vulgaris 43 (1) - triflora, seeP . simonii,P . ussuriensis - armeniaca, see Armeniaca mandshurica, A. 44 (1) sibirica,A . vulgaris 42,43 ,15 9 (1,9 ) - triloba, see Amygdalus ulmifolia 85 (5) - avium, see also P. cerasus 100,10 1 (6) - ussuriensis 44 (1) - bessyi 205 (12) - vavilovii, see Amygdalus vavilovii - brigantina, see Armenica brigantina 159 85 (5) (9) - virginiana 205 (12) - bucharica, see Amygdalis bucharica 84 (5) PSEUDANANAS macrodontes 167 (10) - cantabrigiensis 43 (1) - sagenarius,se e Ananas comosus 167 (10) - cerasifera, see also P. domestica,P . fer- PSIDIUM cattleianum, seeP . littorale 177 ganica,P . salicina,P . ussuriensis44 , (10) 85, 101 (1,5 , 6) - friedrichsthalianum 195 (11) - cerasus,se e also P. avium, P. fruticosa - guajava 195 (11) 101, 160 (6,9 ) - guineense 177 (10) - chicasa, seeP . angustifolia 205 (12) - littorale 177 (10) - dasycarpa, seeArmeniac a dasycarpa 85 (5) - molle 195 (11) - davidiana 44 (1) - sartorianum 195 (11) - dehiscens, seeAmygdalu s tangutica 85 (5) PSOPHOCARPUS grandiflorus 138 (8) - divaricata, seeP . cerasifera 101 (6) - palustris 138 (8) - domestica, see also P. cerasifera,P . da­ - scandens 138 (8) vidiana,P . insititia,P . spinosa44 , - tetragonolobus 58,13 8 (2,8 ) 100, 101,16 0 (1,6 , 9) PSORALEA bituminosa 115 (7) - fenzliana, see Amygdalus communis,A . PTEROCOCCUS corniculatus, see Pluketia corni- fenzliana 84,10 0 (5,6 ) culata 53 (2) - ferganica 85 (5) PUCCINELLIA nuttalliana 202 (12) - fruticans, see P. spinosa 101 (6) PUERARIA lobata, see P. thunbergiana 58 (2) - fruticosa, see also P. cerasus,P . spinosa - phaseoloides 58 (2) 101, 160 (6,9 ) - thunbergiana 40,5 8 (1,2 ) - x gondounii,se e P. avium 101 (6) PUGIONUM cornutum 35 (1) 250 INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

PUNICA granatum 100 (6) - prinoides 118 (7) - protopunica, see P. granatum 100 (6) RHEEDIA acuminata 172 (10) cocclnea 160 (9) RHEUM hybridum, see also P. rhaponticum 42, PYRETHRUM parthenium, see Tanacetum parthe- 84 (1,5 ) nium 105 (7) - officinale 42 (1) - sinense, see Chrysanthemum sinense 34 (1) - palmatum, see R. hybridum, R. rhaponticum PYRUS 101 (6) 42, 84 (1,5 ) - amygdaliformis, see P. communis 160 (9) - rhabarbarum, see R. palmatum, R. rhaponti­ - baccata, seeMalu s baccata 43 (1) cum 42 (1) - betulaelolia 44 (1) - rhaponticum 42,8 4 (1,5 ) - bretschneideri 44 (1) - undulatum 42 (1) - bucharica, see also P. korshinskyi 86 (5) RHODOMYRTUS tormentosa 61,7 8 (2,4 ) - calleryana 44 (1) 103 (7) - caucasica, see P. communis 101,16 0 (6,9 ) - succedanea 53 (1) - communis,se e also P. pyrifolia,P . ussur- - vernicifera 33 (1) iensis,P . vavilovii 44,86 ,16 0 (1,5 , - verniciflua, seeR . vernicifera 33 (1) 9) ' RHYNCHOSIA minima 175 (10) - cordata 160 (9) RIBES acicularis 154 (9) - domestica, see P. communis 160 (9) - alpestris 39 (1) - hupehensis,se eMalu s hupehensis 43 (1) - americanum, see R. nigrum 154 (9) - korshinskyi, see also P. bucharica 86 (5) - cereum, see R. grossularla 154 (9) - longipes, see P. communis 160 (9) - cynosbati, see also R. grossularia 154, - malus,se eMalu s pumila 159 (9) 203 (9,12 ) - nivalis, see P. communis 160 (9) - dikuscha, see R. nigrum 154 (9) - phaeocarpa 44 (1) - divaricatum, see R. grossularia 154 (9) - prunifolia, seeMalu s prunifolia 159 (9) - fontenayense, see R. grossularia 154 (9) - pyraster, see P. communis 160 (9) - grossularia 154 (9) - pyrifolia 44 (1) - hirtellum, see R. grossularia 154 (9) - regelii 86 (5) - longeracemosum 37 (1) - salicifolia, seeP . communis 160 (9) - multiflorum, see alsoR . sativum 112,15 5 - salvifolla, see P. communis 160 (9) (7, 9) - serotina, seeP . communis,P . phaeocarpa - nigrum, see also R. longeracemosum, R. us- 44, 160 (1,9 ) surlense 39,15 4 (1,9 ) - sogdania 86 (5) - niveum, see also R. grossularia 154 (9) - syriaca, see P. communis 101 (6,9) - odoratum 208 (12) - takhtadzhiana 101 (6) - oxyacanthoides, seeR . grossularia 154 (9) - toringo, seeMalu s sieboldii 43 (1) - petraeum, see alsoR . sativum 155 (9) - ussuriensis,se e P. communis 44,16 0 (1,9 ) - pinetorum, seeR . grossularia 154 (9) - vavilovii 86 (5) - procumbens, see R. nigrum 154 (9) - roezlii, see R. grossularia 154 (9) - rubrum, see R. sativum 155 (9) QUARARIBEA cordata 167 (10) - sanguineum, see R. grossularia 154 (9) QUASSIA amara 179 (10) - sativum 155 (9) QUERCUS aliéna 37 (1) - spicatum 155 (9) - dentata 37 (1) - ussuriense, see also R. nigrum 39,15 4 - mongolica 37 (1) (1, 9) - suber 108 (7) - uva-crispa, see R. grossularia 153 (9) QUISQUALIS indica 51 (2) heudelotii 111 (8) RICINUS communis 178 (8) RITTEROCEREUS deficiens 168 (10) RAPHANUS acanthiformis, seeR . sativus 35 (1) - griseus 168 (10) - caudatus, seeR . sativus 72,10 7 (4,7 ) - pruinosus 188 (11) - chinensis, see R. sativus 107 (7) RIVINA humilis 156 (10) - landra,se eR . sativus 35 (1,7 ) ROBINIA hispida 204 (12) - maritimus, seeR . sativus 35,10 7 (1,7 ) - pseudoacacia 204 (12) - raphanistrum, see R. sativus 35,10 7 (1,7 ) ROEGNERIA canina, seeAgropyro n caninum 151 - rostratus, see R. sativus 35 (1) (9) - sativus 35,72 ,10 7 (1,4 , 7) ROLLINIA deliciosa 166 (10) RAPHIA hookeri 144 (8) - dolabripetala, seeR . longifolia 166 (10) RAUVOLFIA serpentina 71 (4) - longifolia 166 (10) RESEDA arabica, seeR . odorata 118 (7) ROLLINIOPSIS discreta 166 (10) - luteola 117,15 8 (7,9 ) RORIPPA nasturtium-aquaticum, see Nasturtium - orientalis, seeR . odorata,R . phyteuma officinalis 151 (9) 118 (7) ROSA x alba, see also R. arvensis,R . xbi - - phyteuma 100,11 8 (6,7 ) fera,R . gallica 160,16 1 (9) RHAMNUS catharticus 118,15 8 (7,9 ) - arvensis 160 (9) - frangula 118,15 8 (7,9 ) - x bifera, see also R. gallica,R . moschata INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES 251

86, 160,16 1 (5,9 ) SACCHARUM barberi, see S. sinense 75 (4) - canina 160 (9) - edule, see S. officlnarum 54 (2) - centifolia 101 (6) - officinarum, see also S. edule,S . sinense - damascena, see R. x bifera 160 (9) S. spontaneum 38,54 ,55 ,7 5 (1,2 , 4) - eglanteria, see R. rubiginosa 161 (9) - robustum, see S. edule,S . officinarum 54 - gallica, see alsoR . x alba,R . x bifera, (2) R. centifolia 101,16 0 161 (6,9 ) - sinense, see also S. spontaneum, Miscan- - moschata, see also R. x bifera 86,16 0 thus sinensis 38 (1) (5, 9) - spontaneum, see also S. officinarum, S. - multiflora 45 (1) sinense 38,55 ,75 ,13 3 (1,2 ,4 , 8) - rubiginosa 161 (9) SAGITTARIA sagittifolia 32 (1) - rugosa 45 (1) SAKERSIA laurentia 141 (8) - villosa 161 (9) SALACCA edulis 61 (2) ROSMARINUS officinalis 113 (7) SALIX acutifolia 161 (9) RUBIA cordifolia 79 (4) - alba 86,16 1 (5,9 ) - tinctorura16 1 (9) - amygdalina, see S. triandra 161 (9) RUBUS albescens 62,7 8 (2,4 ) - aurea, see S. alba 86,16 1 (5,9 ) - acaulis,se e also R. stellatus 205 (12) - caprea, see also S. viminalis 161,16 2 (9) - arcticus,se e also R. acaulis,R . idaeus, - cinerea, see S. viminalis 162 (9) R. parviflorus,R . stellatus 161,20 5 - cordata, see S. rigida20 5 (12) (9, 12) - dasyclados, see S. viminalis 162 (9) - argutus, see R. idaeus 205 (12) - fragilis, see also S. x rubens 161 (9) - baileyanus, see R. idaeus 205 (12) - helix, see S. viminalis 161 (9) - brasiliensls 179 (10) - longifolia, see S. viminalis 161 (9) - chamaemorus, see also R. idaeus 161 (9) - x mollissima, see S. triandra 161 (9) - ellipticus, seeR . rosaefolius 62 (2) - purpurea, see also S. viminalis 161 (9) - flagellaris 205 (12) - rigida 205 (12) - glaucus 179 (10) - x rubens,se e S. fragilis 161 (9) - idaeus,se e also R. arcticus,R . chamaemo­ - triandra,se e also S. viminalis 161 (9) rus,R . occidentalis,R . pungens 45, 161 - viminalis 161 (9) 205 (1,9 12) SALSOLA komarovl 34 (1) - illecebrosus 45 (1) - soda 34 (1) - laciniatus 161 (9) SALVIA chia 192 (11) - macrocarpus 179 (10) - divinorum 192 (11) - neglectus,se eR . idaeus,R . occidentalis - officinalis, see also Coleus amboinicus 205 (12) 56, 113 (2,7 ) - occidentalis, see also R. idaeus 205 (12) - sclarea 113 (7) - palmatus, see R. idaeus 205 (12) - viridis 113 (7) - parviflorus, see R. idaeus 161 (9) 162 (9) - phoenicolasius 45 (1) - nigra 162 (9) - probus, see R. rosaefolius 62 (2) SANDORICUM koetjape 59 (2) - procerus,se eR . laciniatus 161 (9) SANGUISORBA minor 161 (9) - pungens 45 (1) SANGUISORBA officinalis 161 (9) - rosaefolius 62 (2) SANSEVERINIA guineensis,se e also S.trifas - - sachalinensis, seeR . idaeus 161 (9) ciata 122 (8) - saxatilis 161 (9) - hyacinthoides 70 (4) - stellatus, see alsoR . acaulis 205 (12) - longiflora 122 (8) - strigosus, seeR . idaeus 205 (12) - thyrsiflora 122 (8) - ursinus, seeR . idaeus 205 (12) - trifasciata 122 (8) - villosus,se e R. flagellaris 205 (12) - zeylanica, see S. hyacinthoides 70 (4) - xanthocarpus, see R. idaeus 161 (9) SANTALUM album 63 (2) RUMEX abyssinicus 145 (8) SAPINDUSmukoross o 46 (1) - acetosa 158 (9) - rarak 63 (2) - alpestris,se eR . acutatus 158 (9) - saponaria 156 (10) - alplnus 158 (9) - trifoliatus 79 (4) - ambiguus, seeR . acetosa 158 (9) SAPIUM jenmani 170 (10) - hymenosepalus 195 (11) - sebiferum 37 (1) - obtusifolius 158 (9) SAPONARIA officinalis 149 (9) - patientia 158 (9) SAR0THAMNUS scoparius 157 (9) - scutatus 158 (9) SATUREJA hortensis 113 (7) - vesicarius 78 (4) - illyrica, see S. montana 113 (7) RUTA chalepensis 118 (7) - laxiflora, see S. hortensis 113 (7) - graveolens 118 (7) - montana 113 (7) RYNCHELYTRUM repens,se eTricholaen a rosea - obovata, seeS . montana 113 (7) 135 (8) - pachyphylla, see S. hortensis 113 (7) SAUROPUS albicans 53 (2) - androgynus, see S. albicans 53 (2) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

SAUSSUREA lappa 71 (4) - sphacelata 133 (8) 165, 186 (10, 11) - viridis, see S. italica 38 (1) SCHIZOSTACHYM brachycladus 55 (2) SHOREA stenocarpa 52 (2) - grande 55 (2) SICANA odorifera 169 (10) - lulampao 56 (2) SIDA rhombifolia 77 (4) - zollingeri 56 (2) SILYBUM marianum 105 (7) SCIRPODENDRON costatum, see S. ghaerl 52 (2) SIMAROUBA glauca 196 (11) - ghaerl 52 (2) SIMMONDSIA California, see S. chinensis 196 (11) SCIRPUS californicus 169 (10) - chinensis 196 (11) - lacustris 151 (9) SINAPIS alba 108 (7) - latara, see S. californicus 169 (10) - juncea, see 124,15 8 (8,9 ) - validus, see S. lacustris 151 (9) SINOBAMBUSA tootsik 38 (1) SCOLYMUS hispanicus 105 (7) SINOCALAMUS beecheyanus 38 (1) SCOPOLIA carniolica 162 (9) - edulis 39 (1) SCORZONERA hispanica 105 (7) - giganteus 75 (4) SECALE afghanicum, see also S. céréale, S. - latiflorus 56 (2) vavilovii 83,91 ,9 3 (5,6 ) - oldhamii 39 (1) - africanum, see also S. montanum 93,13 3 SIRIUM myrtifolium, see Santalum album 63 (2) (6, 8) SITANION hystrix, seeAgropyro n spicatum 202 - anatolicum, see also S. montanum 91,9 3 (6) (12) - ancestrale, see S. cereale 91 (6) SIUM sisarum 119 (7) - cereale, see also S. montanum, S. vavilo­ SMYRNIUM olusatrum 119 (7) vii,Triticu m aestivum 83,91 ,9 3 (5,6 ) SOLANUM abancayense 181 (10) - ciliatoglume, see S. montanum 93 (6) - abbottianum, see S. brevicaule 197 (11) - dalmaticum, see S. montanum 93 (6) - acaule, see also S. x juzepczukii 181,19 8 - daralgesii, see S. cereale,S . montanum (10, 11) 91, 93 (6) - acroleucon, see S. commersonii 182 (10) - dighoricum, see S. cereale 92 (6) - aculeastrum 146 (8) - fragile,se e S. silvestre 93 (6) - aethiopicum 146 (8) - kuprijanovii, see S. montaneura9 3 (6) - agrimonifolium 196 (11) - montanum, see also S. africanum, S. anato­ - ajanhuiri 181 (10) licum, S. cereale,S . silvestre,S . vavi­ - aliblle, see S. topiro 183 (10) lovii 91,93 , 133 (6,8 ) - americanum, see S. nigrum 146 (8) - segetale,se e S. cereale 91 (6) - andigena, see S. tuberosum 183 (10) - silvestre, see also S. montanum and S. va­ - andreanum, see S. verrucosum 198 (11) vilovii 93 (6) - anomalum 146 (8) - turkestanicum, see also S. cereale 83,9 1 - brachistotrichum 196 (11) (5, 6) - brachycarpum, see S. iopetalum 197 (11) - vavilovii, see also S. cereale,S .silves ­ - brevicaule, see also S. sparsipilum, S. tre, S. montanum 91,9 3 (6) stenotomum 183, 197 (10,11 ) SECHIUM edule 189 (11) - bulbocastanum, see also S. polytrichon 197 SEDUM reflexum 150 (9) (11) SELENICEREUS grandiflorus 188 (11) - burbankii 146 (8) SELINUM monnieri, see Ligusticum monnieri - calvescens, see S. chacoense 182 (10) 64 (2) - canasense, see S. brevicaule, S. raphanifo- SEMECARPUS anacardium 49 (2) lium,S . sparsipilum 183, 197 (10,11 ) SEMPERVIVUM tectorum 150 (9) - cardiophyllum, see also S. x sambucinum 197 SENECIO biafrae 123 (8) (11) - gabonicus 123 (8) - caripense, see S. muricatum 182 (10) SESAMUM alatum 144 (8) - chacoense, see also S. ruiz-lealii 182,18 3 - indicum 42,78 ,14 4 (1,4 , 8) (10) - orientalis,se e S. indicum 144 (8) - x chauca, see also S. stenotomum, S. tube­ - prostratum, see S. indicum 144 (8) rosum 182,18 3 (10) - radiatum 145 (8) - darum 197 (11) SESBANIA aculeata 76 (4) - commersonii 182 (10) - aegyptiaca 58,7 6 (2,4 ) - contumazaense 182 (10) - exaltata, see also S. macrocarpa 204 (12) - x curtilobum 182 (10) - grandiflora 58 (2) - demissum, see also S. x edinense,S . xse - - macrocarpa 204 (12) midemissum 197,19 8 (11) - sesban, see S. aegyptiaca 58 (2) - duplosinuatum 146 (8) - speciosa 76 (4) - x edinense, see also S. demissum, S. x se- SETARIA anceps,se e S. sphacelata 133 (8) midemissum 197, 198 (11) - geniculata 190 (11) - fendleri,se e also S. hjertingii,S . jame- - italica 38 (1) sii, S. papita 197,20 6 (11,12 ) - macrostachya 190 (11) - flavoviridens 182 (10) - pallidifusca, see S. italica 38 (1) - georgicum, see S. topiro 183 (10) - porphyrantha 133 (8) - gilo 146 (8) INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES 253

goniocalyx 182 (10) - x procurrens, see S. nigrum 146 (8) guerreroense 197 (11) - quitoense 183 (10) guineense, see S. burbankii 146 (8) - raphanifolium, see also S. brevicaule, S. hirsutissimura,se e S. quitoense 183 (10) sparsipilum 183, 197 (10,11 ) hjertingii, see S. jamesii 197,20 5 (11, - retroflexum, see S. viarum 183 (10) 12) - rotundifolium 147 (8) hougasii 197 (10) - ruiz-lealii 183 (10) humectophilum 182 (10) - x sambucinum, see also S. cardiophyllum, S. improvidum 182 (10) pinnatisectum 197 (11) incanum, see also S. melongena 79, 146 (4, - sarrachoides, see S. burbankii,S . nigrum 8) 146 (8) iopetalum 197 (11) - x semidemissum, see also S. demissum 197, jamesii 206 (12) 198 (11) juglandifolium 197 (11) - soukupii,se e also S. brevicaule 197 (11) x juzepczukii, see also S. acaule, S. ajan­ ~ sparsipilum 183 (10) huiri, S. curtilobum, S. stenotomum, S. - spegazzinii, see S. brevicaule 197 (11) tuberosum 181,182,183 (10) - stenotomum, see also S. ajanhuiri,S . bre­ khasianum, see S. viarum 184 (10) vicaule,S . chaucha,S . goniocalyx, S. x kurtzianum, see also S. ruiz-lealii182 , juzepczukii,S . phureja, S. sparsipilum, 183 (10) S. tuberosum 183,19 7 (10,11 ) lacianiatum 69 (3) - stoloniferum 198 (11) leptophyes, see S. brevicaule 197 (11) - sucrense 183 (10) leptosepalum 197 (11) - tabanoense, see S. muricatum 182 (10) lesteri 197 (11) - topiro 183 (10) liriunianum, see S. brevicaule 197 (11) - trifida, see S. michoacanum 197 (11) lycopersicoides, see S. pennellii 183 (10) - tuberosum, see also S. bulbocastanum, S. macolae 182 (10) chaucha,S . x edinense,S . x juzepczukii, macrocarpon 146 (8) S. phureja,S . sparsipilum, S. stenotomum maglia 182 (10) 162, 181,182 , 183,197 ,19 8 (9,10 ,11 ) mammosum 208 (12) - uporo 64 (2) megistacrolobum, see S. ajanhuiri, S. ra- - x vallis-mexici, see also S. stoloniferum phanifolium 182,18 3 (10) 198 (11) melanocerasum, see S. burbankii 146 (8) - verrucosum, see also S. demissum, S.houga ­ melongena, see also S. incanum 46,79 ,14 6 sii, S. iopetalum, S. stoloniferum, S. x (1, 4, 8) vallis-mexici 197,19 8 (11) michoacanum 197 (11) - viarum 184 (10) microdontum, see S. chacoense 182 (10) - vidaurrei, see S. brevicaule 197 (11) morelliforme 197 (11) - villosum, see S. burbankii,S . nigrum 146 muelleri, see S. chacoense 182 (10) (8) multidissectum, see S. brevicaule 197 (11) - woodsonii 198 (11) multi-interruptum, see S. brevicaule,S . SOLEIROLIA soleirolii 119 (7) goniocalyx 183,19 7 (10,11 ) SOLENOSTEMON ocymoides 136 (8) muricatum 182 (10) SONCHUS taraxacifolius, see Lactua taraxa- myriacanthum, see S. viarum 184 (10) cifolia 123 (8) nelsoni, see S. rotundifolium 147 (8) SOPHORA secundiflora 194 (11) nigrum 146 (8) SORBUS aucuparia, seeMespilu s aucuparia,M . nodiflorum 147 (8) germanica 100, 161 (6, 9) nubicola 182 (10) - domestica 101, 161 (6, 9) oceanicum 182 (10) SORGHUM aethiopicum, see S. bicolor 135 (8) ochoae, see S. brevicaule 197 (11) - almum, see also S. halepense 111, 135,17 1 olivare 147 (8) (7, 8, 10) oplocense, see S. sucrense 183 (10) - ankolib, see S. bicolor 135 (8) oxycarpum 197 (11) - arundinaceum, see S. bicolor 135 (8) papita, see also S. fendleri 197,20 2 (11, - basutorum, see S. bicolor 135 (8) 12) - bicolor, see also S. almum, S.halepense , pectinatum, see S. quitoense 183 (10) Saccharum spontaneum 39,75 , 111, 133, peloquinianum 183 (10) 135 (1,4 , 7, 8) pennellii 183 (10) - caffrorum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) phureja, see also S. bulbocastanum, S. - caudatum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) chaucha, S. x juzepczukii,S . sparsipi­ - cernuum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) lum,S . stenotomum 183, 197 (10,11 ) - conspicum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) pinnatisectum, see also S. x sambucinum 197 - controversum, see S. bicolor 111, 135 (7, (11) 8) platanifolium, see S. viarum 183 (10) - coriaceum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) polydenium 197 (11) - dochna, see S. bicolor 133 (8) polytrichon, see also S. bulbocastanum 197 - drummondii, see S. bicolor 135 (8) (11) - dulcicaule, see S. bicolor 133 (8) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

- durra, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - humilis 138 (8) - elegans, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - mucronata, see S. fruticosa 138 (8) - exsertum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - surinamensis, see S. guianensis 175 (10) - gambicum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) STYRAX benzoin 64 (2) - guineensis, see S. bicolor 133 (8) SUAEDA glauca 34 (1) - halepense, see also S. almum, S. bicolor SYMPHYTUM asperrinum, see S. asperum 88 (6) 111, 135, 171 (7,8 , 10) - asperum 88 (6) - margaritiferum, S. bicolor 133 (8) - officinale, see S. asperum 88 (6) - melaleucum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - uplandicum, see S. asperum 88 (6) - mellitum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) SYZYGIUM aqueum, see Eugenia aquea 60 (2) - miliaceum, see S. halepense 111 (7) - aromaticum, see Eugenia caryophyllus 60 (2) - miliiforrae,se eS . bicolor 133 (8) - cumini, seeEugeni a jambolana6 1 (2) - nervosum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - jambos,se e Eugenia jambos 61 (2) - nigricans, see S. bicolor 133 (8) ~ malaccensis, see Eugenia malaccensis 61 (2) - notabile, see S. bicolor 133 (8) SYZYGIUM mappaceum, seeEugeni a formosa 60 (2) - propinquum, see S. bicolor 39 (1) - samarangense, seeEugeni a javanica 61 (2) - rigidum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - roxburghii, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - simulans,se e S. bicolor 133 (8) TABERNAEMONTANA coronaria, seeErvatami a co- - splendidum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) ronaria 49 (2) - subglabrescens, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - divaricata, seeErvatami a coronaria 49 (2) - sudanense, see S. bicolor 135 (8) TABERNANTHE iboga 122 (8) - verticilliflorum, see S. bicolor 135 (8) TACCA involucrata, seeT . pinnatifida 64 (2) - virgatum, see S. bicolor 133 (8) - leontopetaloides, seeT . pinnatifida 64 (2) SPARTINA anglica 154 (9) - pinnatifida 64 (2) - alterniflora, see S. anglica 154 (9) TAETSIA fruticosa 58 (2) - maritima, see S. anglicum 154 (9) TAGETES erecta, see alsoT . patula 188,18 9 SPARTINA x townendsii,se e S. anglicum 154 (9) (11) SPARTIUM junceum 115 (7) - minuta 169 (10) SPERGULA arvensis 149 (9) - patula, see alsoT . erecta 188, 189 (11) - sativa, see S. arvensis 149 (9) - tenuifolia, seeT . patula 189 (11) SPERGULARIA arvensis, see Spergula arvensis TALINUM cuneifolium 145 (8) 149 (9) - paniculatum 145 (8) SPHENOSTYLIS schweinfurthii 138 (8) - portulacifolium 145 (8) - stenocarpa 138 (8) - trianguläre 145, 178 (8,10 ) SPILANTHES acmella, see S. oleracea 169 (10) TAMARINDUS indica 138 (8) - oleracea 169 (10) artlculata 147 (8) - paniculata 51 (2) - galllca 86 (5) SPINACIA oleracea 82 (5) TANACETUM audibertii, seeT . vulgare 150 (9) - tetrandra, see also S. oleracea 82 (5) - cinerariifolium 105 (7) - turkestanica, see also S. oleracea 82 (5) - parthenium 89,10 5 (6,7) SPONDIAS cytherea 207 (?) - vulgare 150 (9) - dulcis,se e S. cytherea 207 (?) TARAXACUM bicorne, seeT . koksaghyz 82 (5) - laosensis 49 (2) - hybernum 150 (9) - lutea, see S. mombim 165 (10) - koksaghyz 82 (5) - mangifera, see S. pinnata 49 (2) - officinalis 150 (9) - mombim, see also S. purpurea 165,16 6 (10) TELFAIRIA occidentalis 110 (8) - pinnata 49 (2) TEPHROSIA Candida 58 (2) - purpurea 166,18 6 (10,11 ) - densiflora 138 (8) - radlkoferi 166 (10) - purpurea 208 (?) STACHYS sieboldii 40 (1) - singapou 194 (11) STELECHOCARPA burahol 49 (2) - toxicaria, seeT . singapou 194 (11) rebaudiana 169 (10) - vogelii 138 (8) STIPA tenacissima 111 (7) TERAMNUS labialis 138 (8) - viridula 203 (12) - repens 138 (8) STIZ0L0BIUM aterrimum, seeMucun a pruriens 57 TERMINALIA bellirica 51 (2) (2) - catappa 51 (2) - deeringianum,se e Mucuna deeringianum 57 - chebula 51 (2) (2) TETRACARPIDUM conophorum, see Plukenetia co- - hassjoo, see Mucuna hassjoo 40 (1) nophora 126 (8) - niveum, see Mucuna cochinchinensis 57 (2) TETRAGONIA expansa 46 (1) - pachylobium, seeMucun a pachylobia 76 (4) TETRAPANAX papyriferum 33 (1) STOKESIA laevis 200 (12) TEUCRIUM chamaedrys 113 (7) STRUCHIUM sparganophora 123 (8) - marum 113 (7) STRYCHNOS nux-vomica 79 (4) - officinale, seeT . chamaedrys 113 (7) STYL0SANTHUS fruticosa 138 (8) THAUMATOCOCCUS danielli 141 (8) - guianensis 175 (10) THEA lasiocalyx, see Camellia sinensis 46 (1) INDEXO F BOTANICAL NAMES 2S5

- sinensis, see Camellia sinensis 46,7 9 - resupinatum 157 (9) (1, 4) - salmoneum, seeT . alexandrinum 115 (7) THEOBROMA bicolor 184,19 8 (10,11 ) - sativum, seeT . pratense 157 (9) - cacao, see alsoT . bicolor 184,19 8 (10, - savianum, see T. repens 157 (9) 11) - semipilosum 138 (8) - grandiflora, see Guazuma grandiflora 184 - suaveolens, seeT . resupinatum 157 (9) (10) - subterraneum, see alsoT . isrealiticum 66, - microcarpa 184 (10) 115 (3,7 ) - pantagona 198 (11) - uniflorum, see T. repens 157 (9) THESPESIA fissicalyx, see T. populnea 59 (2) - vavilovii 115 (7) - multibracteata, seeT . populnea 59 (2) TRIGIDIA pavonia 192 (11) - patellifera, seeT . populnea 59 (2) TRIGONELLA besserana, see T. coerulea 157 (9) - populnea 59 (2) - coerulea 157 (9) - robusta, seeT . populnea 59 (2) - foenum-graecum 97 (6) THEVETIA nereifolia 166 (10) - procumbens, seeT . coerulea 157 (9) - peruviana, seeT . nereifolia 166 (10) TRIGONOPLEURA malayana 53 (2) THYMUS vulgaris 113 (7) TRIPHASIA aurantiola, seeT . trifolia 45 (1) TORREYA grandis 46 (1) - trifolia 45 (1) - nucifera 46 (1) - trifoliata, seeT . trifolia 45 (1) T0UCHARDIA latifolia 208 (?) TRIPSACUM andersonni 171,19 0 (10,11 ) T0URNEF0RTIA argentea 51 (2) - australe 171 (10) TRACHYCARPUS fortunei 41 (1) - dactyloides, see also Zea mays 190,203 , TRACHYSPERMUM ammi, see Carum copticum 79 (4) (11, 12) - roxburghianum, seeCaru m roxburghianum 64 - lanceolatum 190 (11) (2) - latifolium 190 (11) TRAGOPOGON australis, see T. porrlfolius 105 - laxum 190 (11) (7) - lemmoni, seeT . lanceolatum 190 (11) - porrifolius 105 (7) - maizar 190 (11) - sativus,se eT . porrifolius 105 (7) - pilosum 190 (11) TRAPA blcornis 47 (1) - zopilotense 190 (11) - bispinsosa 47 (1) TRIPTERYGIUM wilfordii 34 (1) - natans 47 (1) TRISETUM flavescens 154 (9) TRICHOCEREUS bridgesii 168 (10) - pratense, see T. flavescens 154 (9) - cuzcoensis 168 (10) - sibiricum, seeT . flavescens 155 (9) - pachanoi 168 (10) TRITICUM aegilipoides, see T. boeoticum 94 TRICHOLAENA rosea 135 (8) (6) TRICHOSANTHES anguina, see also T. cucumeri- - aestivum, see also Aegilops crassa,A , na 51,7 3 (2, 4) ovata, A. speltoides,Ae . squarrosa,T . - cucumerina 73 (4) monococcum, T. turgidum 39,75 ,82 ,83 , - cucumeroides 36 (1) 90,93, 95,135 , 155 (1,4 , 5,6 , 8, 9) - japonica 36 (1) - antiquorum, seeT . aestivum 155 (9) - kadam, see Hodgsonia macrocarpa 36 (1) - araraticum, seeT . timopheevi 94 (6) TRIFOLIUM alexandrinum 115 (7) - armeniacum, see T. timopheevi 94 (6) - ambiguum 97 (6) - bicorne, see Aegilops bicornis 108 (7) - anatolicum, seeT . subterraneum 115 (7) - boeoticum, see also Aegilops speltoides, - batmanicum, seeT . subterraneum 115 (7) T. monococcum 90,9 4 (6) - berytheum, see T. alexandrinum 115 (7) - carthlicum, seeT . turgidum 95 (6) - blesense, see T. subterraneum 115 (7) - caudatum, seeAegilop s caudata 89 (6) - chlorotrichum, seeT . subterraneum 115 (7) - comosum, see Aegilops comosa 108 (7) - diffusum, see T. pratense 157 (9) - compactum, seeT . aestivum 83,93 ,15 4 - expansum, see T. pratense 157 (9) (5, 6, 9) - fistulosum, see T. hybridum 157 (9) - crassum, see Aegilops crassa 90 (6) - fragiferum 115 (7) - cylindricum, see Aegilops cylindrica 90 (6) - globosum, see T. subterraneum 115 (7) - dichasians, seeAegilop s caudata 89 (6) - hybridum 157 (9) - dicoccoides,se e T. timopheevi,T . - incarnatum 115 (7) turgidum 90,9 4 (6) - israeliticum 115 (7) - dicoccum. seeT . turgidum 94,9 5 (6) - neglectum, see T. fragiferum 115 (7) - durum, see T. turgidum 56,94 ,95 , (2,6 ) - nidificum, see T. subterraneum 115 (7) - georgicum, see T. turgidum 95 (6) - nigrescens, seeT . repens 157 (9) - ispahanicum, seeT . turgidum 84 (6) - noricum, see T'.pratens e 157 (9) - kotschyi, seeAegilop s kotschyi 90 (6) - occidentale, see T. repens 157 (9) - lorentii,se e Aegilops lorentii 90 (6) - pallidum, see T. pratense 157 (9) - macha, seeT . aestivum 93 (6) - pannonicum 157 (9) - macrochaetum, see Aegilops lorentii 90 (6) - pratense 157 (9) - monococcum, see alsoT . speltoides,T . - radiosum, seeT . subterraneum 115 (7) turgidum,T . zhukovskyi 90,9 4 (6) - repens,se eT . hybridum 115,15 7 (7, 9) - orientale, seeT . turgidum 95 (6) 256 INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES

- ovatum, see Aegilops ovata 90 (6) 49 (2) - paleocolchicum, seeT . turgidum 94,9 5 (6) - peregrinum, see Aegilops variabilis 109 (7) - persicum, seeT . turgidum 95 (6) VACCINIUM alto-montanum, see V. corymbosum - polonicum, seeT . turgidum 95 (6) 200 (12) - rodeti, see Aegilops ventricosa 108 (7) - angustifolium, see V. corymbosum 200 (12) - searsii, see Aegilops speltoides 90 (6) - arkansanum, see V. ashei 200 (12) - x sharonense, see Aegilops speltoides 90 - ashei 200 (12) (6) - australe, see V. ashei,V . corymbosum 200 - spelta, seeT . aestivum 93, 135,15 5 (6,8 , (12) 9) - corymbosum 200 (12) - speltoides, see Aegilops speltoides 90 (6) - darrowi, see V. ashei 200 (12) - sphaerococcum, seeT . aestivum 75,93 ,13 5 - lamarckii,se e V. corymbosum 200 (12) (4, 6, 8) - macrocarpon 202 (12) - tauschii, see Aegilops squarrosa 82 (5) - microcarpum, see V. macrocarpon 202 (12) - thaoudar, seeT . monococcum 94 (6) - myrsinites, see V. ashei 200 (12) - timopheevi, see alsoAegilop s speltoides, - myrtillus, see V. corymbosum 200 (12) T.monococcum,T . zhukovskyi 90,94 ,9 5 - oxycoccos, see V. macrocarpon 202 (12) (6) - simulatum, see V. corymbosum 200 (12) - triaristatum, see Aegilops triaristata 90 VALERIANA collina see V. officinalis 163 (9) (6) - edulis 206 (12) - tripsacoides, seeAegilop s mutica 90 (6) - eriocarpa 119 (7) - triuncialis, seeAegilop s triuncialis 91 - exaltata, see V. officinalis 163 (9) (6) - exelsa, see V. officinalis 163 (9) - turanicum, seeT . turgidum 95 (6) - locusta 162 (9) - turcomanica, see Aegilops juvenalis 90 (6) - officinalis,se e alsoV . exaltata,V . pro- - turgidum, see alsoAegilop s ovata,A . ven­ cumbens,V . sambucifolia 163 (9) tricosa,T . aestivum,T . monoccoccum,T . - olitoria, see V. locusta 162 (9) tlmopheevi 56,83 ,90 ,93 ,94 ,95 ,109 , - procumbens 163 (9) 112, 135 (2,5 ,6 , 7, 8) - sambucifolia. see alsoV . officinalis 163 - umbellulatum, see Aegilops umbellulata 91 (9) (6) VANGUERIA edulis,se e V. madagascariensis - uniaristatum, see Aegilops uniaristata 108 146 (8) (7) - madagascariensis 146 (8) - urarta, seeT , monococcum 94 (6) VANILLA fragrans 195 (11) - vavilovii, seeT . aestivum 93 (6) - grandiflora, see V. pompona 195 (11) - ventricosum, seeAegilop s ventricosa 108 - planifolia, see V. fragrans 195 (11) (7) - pompona 195 (11) - vulgare,se eT . aestivum 39,93 ,13 5 VAVILOVIA formosa, see Alophotropis formo- (1, 6, 8) sum 96 (6) - zhukovskyi 94,9 5 (6) VERBASCUM thapsiforme 162 (9) TR0PAE0LUM leptophyllum 184 (10) VERDCOURTIA lignosus, see Dipogon lignosus - majus 184 (10) 137 (8) - tuberosum, see alsoOxali s tuberosa 177, VERNONIA amygdalina 72 (4) 184 (10) - anthelmintica 51 (2) TUBAGHIA violacea 139 (8) VERONICA anagallis 46 (1) latifolia 47 (1) VETIVERIA odorata, see V. zizanioides 56 (2) - zizanioides 56,75 (2,4 ) VICIA amphicarpa, see V. sativa 98 (16) ULEX europaeus 157 (9) - angustifolia, seeV . sativa 83 (5) ULLUCUS tuberosus 167 (10) - articulata 116 (7) ULMUS 118 (7) - stropurpurea, seeV . benghalensis 116 (7) - villosa 86 (5) - benghalensis 116 (7) - wallichiana 86 (5) - bithynica, seeV . faba 83 (5) , seeTrigonopleur a malayana - calcarata 116 (7) 62 (2) - cordata, see V. sativa 98 (6) UNIOLA paniculata 203 (12) - cracca 157 (9) URBANELLA procera, see Lucumaprocer a 179 - ervilea 98,11 6 (6,7) (10) - faba, see also Lupinus mutabilis 83,116 , URENA lobata 208 (?) 174 (5,7 , 10) URGINEA maritima 116 (7) - galilaea, seeV . faba 83 (5) - scilla, see U. maritima 116 (7) - graminea 175 (10) URTICA cannabina 84 (5) - hirsuta 157 (9) - heterophylla, see Girardinia heterophylla - hyaeniscyamus, see V. faba 83 (5) 79 (4) - incisa, see V. sativa 98 (6) - puya, seeMaouti a puya 79 (4) - johannis,se e V. faba 83 (5) UVARIA burahol,se e Stelechocarpus burahol - leavenworthii 204 (12) INDEX OF BOTANICAL NAMES 257

- narbonensis, see also V. faba 93,98 ,116 , - belophyllum 166 (10) (5, 6, 7) - blandum, see X. maffafa 166 (10) - pannonica 98,15 7 (6,9 ) - brasiliense 166 (10) - pilosa, see V. satiya 98 (6) - caracu 166 (10) - plinlana 98,15 7 (5,9 ) - edule, see X. sagittifolium 166 (10) - unijuga 40 (1) - jacquinii, see X. undipes 166 (10) - satlva 98 (6) - mafaffa 166 (10) - segetalis 98 (6) - nigrum, see X. violaceum 166 (10) - villosa 98 (6) - peregrinum, see X. atrovirens 166 (10) VIGNA aconitifolia 76 (4) - poeppigii, see X. mafaffa 166 (10) - capensis, see V. vexillata 139 (8) - robustum 187 (11) - catjang, seeV . unguiculata 138 (8) - sagittifolium 166 (10) - cylindrica, see V. unguiculata 138 (8) - undipes 166 (10) - glabrescens, see V. radiata 58 (2) - versicolor, see X. belophyllum 166 (10) - hosei 58 (2) - violaceum 166 (10) - lobata, see V. aconitifolia 76 (4) - xanthorrhizon, see X. sagittifolium 166 - maraguënsis, see V. hosei 58 (2) (10) - mungo, see also V. radiata 58,66 , 76 XYLOPIA aethiopica 122 (8) (2, 3, 4) - parkeri,se e V. hosei 58 (2) - radiata, see alsoV . mungo 58,7 6 (2,4 ) YUCCA elephantipes 186 (11) - senegalensis, see V. vexillata 139 (8) - funifera, see Hesperoyucca funifera 186 - sesquipdalis, see V. unguiculata 138 (8) (11) - sinensis,se e V. unguiculata 138 (8) - gloriosa 207 (?) - subterranea 139 (8) - unguiculata 76, 138 (4,8 ) - vexillata 139 (8) ZANTHOXYLUM bungei, see Z. simulans 45 (1) VINCA rosea 123 (8) - nitidum, see Z. simulans 45 (1) VIOLA arvensis, seeV . tricolor 163 (9) - piperituiu4 5 (1) - odorata 119 (7) - simulans 45 (1) - officinalis,se e V. odorata 119 (7) - varians, see Evodia hortensis 208 (?) - tricolor 163 (9) ZEA diploperensis 190 (11) - verucunda 47 (1) - lusuriasis 190 (11) VITELLARIA paradoxa, see Butyrospermum - mays, see alsoTripsacu m dactyloides 39, parkii 146 (8) 56, 75,95 ,112 ,135 , 154,171 ,190 ,192 , VITEX agnus-castus 119 (7) 203 (1,2 ,4 ,6 , 7,8 , 9, 10,11 ,12 ) - cienkowskii 147 (8) - mexicana, see also Z. mays 171,190 ,19 2 VITIS amurensls, see also V. vinifera 47 (1) (10, 11) - berlandieri, see also V. riparia 206 (12) ZINGIBER cassumunar 64 (2) - cinerea 206 (12) - mioga 47 (1) - cordifolia 206 (12) - officinale 80 (4) - davidii 47 (1) - striolabum, see Z. mioga 47 (1) - labrusca, see also V. vinifera 102,20 6 - zerumbet 64 (2) (6, 12) ZIZANIA aquatica 203 (12) - riparia, see also V. berlandieri 206 (12) - latifolia 39 (1) - rotundifolia 206 (12) ZIZIPHUS jujuba, see alsoZ . mauritiana 42 - rupestris 206 (12) (1) - shiragai, seeV . amurensis 47 (1) - lotus 118 (7) - thunbergii,se e V. amurensis 47 (1) - mauritiana 42 (1) - vinifera, see also V. amurensis,V . ber­ - sosoria, seeZ . mauritiana 42 (1) landieri,V . cinerea,V . cordifolia V. la - vulgaris 42 (1) brusca,V . riparia, V. rotundifolia,V . rupestris 47,86,102 , 119, 163,20 6 (1, 5, 6, 7, 12) - vulpina, see V. riparia 206 (12) VOANDZEIA poissonnii, seeMacrostylom ageo - carpum 137 (8) - subterranea, seeVign a subter­ ranea 139 (8) WASABIA japonica, seeEutrem a wasabi 36 (1) - pungens, see Eutrema wasabi 36 (1) WISSADULA contracta 177 (10) - periplocifolia 177 (10) WISTERIA brachybotrys 40 (1) WOLFFIA arrhiza 58 (2) XANTHIUM strumarium 35 (1) XANTHOSOMA atrovirens 166 (10) 259

The following pages give fourblan k distri­ bution maps. 1. The Americas 2. Europe, theMiddl e East and Africa 3.Asi a and Australia 4. World map

Maps 1-3 canb e joined. -.-, national fron­ tiers; borders of states and provinces. They canb ephotocopie d by plant geographers to make their own distribution maps. t? (T*.



u t? 263