§ 201.56–6 7 CFR Ch. I (1–1–12 Edition)

(C) No leaf. (B) Short, thick, and grainy. (D) Leaf extending less than halfway (C) No leaf. up into the coleoptile. (D) Leaf extending less than halfway (E) Leaf extensively shredded or up into the coleoptile. split. (E) Leaf extensively shredded or (F) Spindly or watery. split. (G) Deep open cracks in the (F) Spindly or watery. mesocotyl. (G) Deep open cracks in the (ii) : mesocotyl. (A) None. (ii) Root: (B) Damaged or weak primary root (A) Missing or defective primary root with less than two strong secondary even if other are present. roots. (B) Spindly, stubby, or watery pri- (iii) : mary root. (A) Decayed at point of attachment (iii) Seedling: to the scutellum. (A) Decayed at point of attachment (B) One or more essential structures to the scutellum. impaired as a result of decay from pri- (B) One or more essential structures mary infection. impaired as a result of decay from pri- (C) Albino. mary infection. (e) Grasses and millets. (C) Albino. (1) General description. (D) Yellow (when grown in light). (i) habit: Hypogeal (E) obviously detached monocot. from the root-shoot axis (e.g. kernel (ii) Food reserves: Endosperm. The lifted away by the growing shoot). scutellum is a modified which is in direct contact with the [59 FR 64501, Dec. 14, 1994, as amended at 65 endosperm. During germination the FR 1708, Jan. 11, 2000] scutellum remains inside the to absorb nutrients from the endosperm § 201.56–6 Legume or pea family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae). and transfer them to the growing seed- ling. Kinds of seed: Alfalfa, alyceclover, (iii) Shoot system: The shoot consists asparagusbean, beans (Phaseolus spp.), of the coleoptile, leaves enclosed in the Florida beggarweed, black medic, coleoptile, and the mesocotyl. The broadbean, burclovers, buttonclover, coleoptile elongates and pushes chickpea, clovers (Trifolium spp.), through the soil surface. The cowpea, crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, mesocotyl may or may not elongate hairy indigo, kudzu, lentil, lespedezas, significantly, depending on the kind. lupines, northern sweetvetch, peas, Splitting of the coleoptile occurs natu- peanut, roughpea, sainfoin, sesbania, rally as a result of growth and emer- sourclover, , sweetclovers, gence of the leaves. trefoils, velvetbean, and vetches. (iv) Root system: A long primary (a) Field bean, garden bean, lima root. Secondary or adventitious roots bean, mung bean, asparagusbean, and may develop within the test period. In cowpea. certain kinds (e.g. bermudagrass) the (1) General description. primary root may not be readily visible (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. because it is coiled inside the tightly (ii) Food reserves: which fitting lemma and palea. At the time of are large and fleshy. evaluation, the glumes should be re- (iii) Shoot system: The moved and the root observed. Such elongates and carries the cotyledons are classified as normal if the above the soil surface. The primary root has developed. For Ken- elongates, causing the terminal bud to tucky bluegrass, a primary root 1⁄16 emerge from between the cotyledons; inch (1.6 mm) or more in length is clas- the primary leaves expand rapidly. sified as normal. (iv) Root system: A long primary (2) Abnormal seedling description. root with secondary roots. (i) Shoot: (2) Abnormal seedling description. (A) Missing. (i) Cotyledons:

348 Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA § 201.56–6

(A) For garden bean (Phaseolus (B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary vulgaris in part), remove any attached root with weak secondary or adven- seed coats at the end of the test period titious roots. (A root bound within a for evaluation of cotyledons: tough seed coat is considered normal.) (1) Less than half of the original cot- (v) Seedling: yledon tissue remaining attached. (A) One or more essential structures (2) Less than half of the original cot- impaired as the result of decay from yledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. primary infection. (Secondary infec- (B) All other kinds: tion is common in towel and blotter (1) Both missing and the seedling tests. Some pathogens, such as Fusar- generally weak. ium, Phomopsis, and Rhizoctonia, can (2) [Reserved] spread through the substratum and in- (ii) Epicotyl: fect seedlings some distance away from (A) Missing. the primary source. Seedlings with sec- ondary infection are to be classified as (B) Deep open cracks. normal. A retest in sand or soil may be (C) Malformed, such as markedly advisable.) curled or thickened. (B) Albino. (D) Less than one primary leaf. (b) Adzuki bean, broadbean, (E) Primary leaves too small in pro- chickpea, field pea, lentil, pea, portion to the rest of the seedling, usu- roughpea, runner bean, velvetbean, and ally associated with visible defects of, vetches. or damage to, the main stem of the (1) General description. epicotyl. (i) Germination habit: Hypogeal (F) Terminal bud missing or dam- dicot. aged. (If a few seedlings with total or (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which partial decay to the epicotyl are found, are large and fleshy, and remain en- they may be classified as normal, pro- closed within the seed coat beneath the vided the hypocotyl and root are nor- soil surface. They are usually not pho- mal. The epicotyl on such seedlings tosynthetic. usually does not decay when grown in a (iii) Shoot system: The epicotyl elon- fairly dry environment and exposed to gates and carries the terminal bud and light. A retest, preferably in soil or primary leaves above the soil surface. sand, will aid in interpretation of such The stem bears one or more scale seedlings.) leaves and, prior to emergence, is (iii) Hypocotyl: arched near the apex, causing the ter- (A) Deep open cracks extending into minal bud to be pulled through the the conducting tissue. (A healed break, soil; after emergence, the stem sometimes referred to as a ‘‘knee,’’ is straightens. For practical purposes, the considered normal.) hypocotyl is not discernible and is not (B) Malformed, such as markedly an evaluation factor. Buds in the axils shortened, curled, or thickened. of each cotyledon and scale leaf usu- (Hypocotyl stunting or curling may be ally remain dormant unless the ter- caused by seedling orientation or con- minal bud is seriously damaged. In this striction on or in the substratum.) case, one or more axillary buds may (Hypocotyl collar rot is the breakdown start to develop into a shoot. If the ax- of hypocotyl tissue initially character- illary shoot is well-developed, it may ized by a watery appearance and col- be considered normal. lapse of the hypocotyl below the (iv) Root system: A long primary cotyledonary node. The area later be- root with secondary roots. comes discolored, shrivelled, and ne- (2) Abnormal seedling description. crotic. The condition is caused by in- (i) Cotyledons: sufficient calcium available to the (A) Less than half of the original tis- seedling. If hypocotyl collar rot is ob- sue remaining attached. served on seedlings of garden bean, the (B) Less than half of the original tis- sample involved shall be retested in ac- sue free of necrosis or decay. cordance with § 201.58(b)(12).) (ii) Epicotyl: (iv) Root: (A) Missing. (A) None. (B) Less than one primary leaf.

349 § 201.56–6 7 CFR Ch. I (1–1–12 Edition)

(C) Malformed such as markedly sand, will aid in interpretation of such shortened, curled, or thickened. seedlings.) (D) Severely damaged (e.g. terminal (iii) Hypocotyl: bud missing or damaged) with only a (A) Deep open cracks extending into weak shoot developing from the axil of the conducting tissue. (Adventitious a cotyledon or scale leaf. roots may occur at the site of injury, (E) Two weak and spindly shoots. particularly on the hypocotyl and near (F) Deep open cracks extending into the base of the cotyledons. The seed- the conducting tissue. ling is classified as normal if the injury (iii) Root: is healed over and other essential (A) None. structures are normal.) (B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary (B) Malformed, such as markedly root with weak secondary roots. shortened, curled, or thickened. (iv) Seedlings: (Hypocotyl development is slow until (A) One or more essential structures the roots start functioning. Caution impaired as a result of decay from pri- should be exercised to ensure slow mary infection. (Secondary infection is seedlings are not classified as abnor- common in towel and blotter tests. mal. Hypocotyl stunting or curling Some pathogens can spread through also may be caused by seedling orienta- the substratum and infect seedlings tion or constriction on or in the sub- some distance away from the primary stratum.) source. Seedlings with secondary infec- (iv) Root: tion are classified as normal. A retest (A) None. in sand or soil may be advisable.) (B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary (B) Albino. root with weak secondary or adven- (c) Soybean and lupine. titious roots. (Roots of seedlings on (1) General description. ‘‘Kimpak’’ with insufficient moisture (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. may not become established and (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons, which hypocotyl elongation may appear to be are large and fleshy; they expand and abnormal. There may be curling of the become photosynthetic. root and hypocotyl. When a number of (iii) Shoot system: The hypocotyl seedlings are observed with this condi- elongates and carries the cotyledons tion, the sample should be retested.) above the soil surface. The primary (v) Seedlings: leaves usually increase in size and the (A) One or more essential structures epicotyl may elongate within the test impaired as a result of decay from pri- period. mary infection. (Secondary infection is (iv) Root system: A long primary common in towel and blotter tests. root with secondary roots. Some pathogens, such as Fusarium, (2) Abnormal seedling description. Phomopsis, and Rhizoctonia, can spread (i) Cotyledons: through the substratum and infect (A) Less than half of the original cot- seedlings some distance away from the yledon tissue remaining attached. primary source. Seedlings with sec- (B) Less than half of the original cot- ondary infection are to be classified as yledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. normal. A retest in sand or soil may be (ii) Epicotyl: advisable.) (A) Missing. (B) Albino. (B) Less than one primary leaf. (d) Peanut. (C) Deep open cracks. (1) General description. (D) Terminal bud damaged, missing, (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. or decayed. (If a few seedlings with par- (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons, which tial decay of the epicotyl are found, are large and fleshy. they may be classified as normal, pro- (iii) Shoot system: The cotyledons vided the hypocotyl and root are nor- are carried to the soil surface by the mal. The epicotyl on such seedlings hypocotyl which is very thick, nar- usually does not decay when grown in a rowing abruptly at the root. Elon- fairly dry environment and is exposed gation of the hypocotyl stops when the to light. A retest, preferably in soil or epicotyl is exposed to light at the soil

350 Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA § 201.56–6 surface. The primary leaves are com- of sub clover develop elongated pound and usually expand during the petioles. test period. (iii) Shoot system: The hypocotyl (iv) Root system: A long primary elongates and carries the cotyledons root with secondary roots. Adven- above the soil surface. The epicotyl titious roots develop from the base of usually does not show any development the hypocotyl if the primary root is within the test period. damaged. (iv) Root system: A long, tapering (2) Abnormal seedling description. primary root, usually with root hairs. (i) Cotyledons: Secondary roots may or may not de- (A) Less than half of the original cot- velop within the test period, depending yledon tissue remaining attached. on the kind. (B) Less than half of the original cot- (2) Abnormal seedling description. yledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. (i) Cotyledons: (ii) Epicotyl: (A) Less than half of the original cot- (A) Missing. yledon tissue remaining attached. (B) Less than one primary leaf. (Breaks at the point of attachment of (C) Deep open cracks. the cotyledons to the hypocotyl are (D) Terminal bud damaged, missing, common in which have been me- or decayed. chanically damaged. It is important (iii) Hypocotyl: that seedlings not be removed during (A) Deep open cracks extending into preliminary counts unless development the conducting tissue. is sufficient to allow the conditions of (B) Malformed, such as markedly the cotyledons to be determined. If the shortened or curled. ( re- point of attachment of the cotyledons main somewhat thickened and may ap- cannot be seen at the end of the test, pear to be stunted. Light, depth of the seed coat should be peeled back to planting, and substratum moisture all determine whether a break has oc- contribute to the length of the curred.) hypocotyl. Hypocotyl stunting or curl- (B) Less than half of the original cot- ing may be caused by seedling orienta- yledon tissue free of necrosis or decay. tion or constriction in the substratum. (ii) Epicotyl: Seedlings planted in a soil test with (A) Missing. (May be assumed to be the too close to the surface may present if both cotyledons are intact.) send roots above the soil and appear to exhibit negative geotropism and a dis- (B) [Reserved] torted, U-shaped hypocotyl. (iii) Hypocotyl: (iv) Root: (A) Deep open cracks extending into (A) None. the conducting tissue. (B) Weak, stubby, or missing primary (B) Malformed, such as markedly root with weak secondary or adven- shortened, curled, or thickened. (Seed- titious roots. lings of sainfoin which have been con- (v) Seedling: stricted by growing through the net- (A) One or more essential structures ting of the pod, but which are other- impaired as a result of primary infec- wise normal, are classified as normal.) tion. (C) Weak and watery. (B) Albino. (iv) Root: (e) Alfalfa, alyceclover, Florida (A) None. beggarweed, black medic, burclovers, (B) Primary root stubby. (The roots buttonclover, milkvetch, clovers, of sweetclovers may be stubby when crotalarias, crownvetch, guar, hairy in- grown on artificial substrata due to the digo, kudzu, lespedezas, northern presence of coumarin in the seed; since sweetvetch, sainfoin, sesbania, this condition usually does not occur sourclover, sweetclovers, and trefoils. in soil, such seedlings are classified as (1) General description. normal. Roots may appear stubby as a (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. result of being bound by the seed coat; (ii) Food reserve: Cotyledons, which such seedlings are classified as normal. are small and fleshy; they expand and Crownvetch produces phytotoxic ef- become photosynthetic. The cotyledons fects similar to sweetclovers.)

351 § 201.56–7 7 CFR Ch. I (1–1–12 Edition)

(C) Split extending into the (B) Stubby primary root with weak hypocotyl. secondary roots. (v) Seedling: (v) Seedling: (A) One or more essential structures (A) One or more essential structures impaired as a result of decay from pri- impaired as a result of decay from pri- mary infection. mary infection. (B) Albino. (B) Albino. [59 FR 64503, Dec. 14, 1994, as amended at 65 (b) Chives, leek, onion, Welsh onion. FR 1708, Jan. 11, 2000] (1) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal § 201.56–7 Lily family, Liliaceae. monocot. Kinds of seed: Asparagus, chives, (ii) Food reserves: Endosperm which leek, onion, and Welsh onion. is hard, semi-transparent, and non- (a) Asparagus. starchy; minor reserves in the coty- (1) General description. ledon. (i) Germination habit: Hypogeal (iii) Cotyledon: A single cylindrical monocot. cotyledon. The cotyledon emerges with (ii) Food reserves: Endosperm which the seed coat and endosperm attached is hard, semi- transparent, and non- to the tip. A sharp bend known as the starchy; minor reserves in the coty- ‘‘knee’’ forms; continued elongation of ledon. The endosperm surrounds the the cotyledon on each side of this knee entire . pushes it above the soil surface. The (iii) Cotyledon: A single cylindrical cotyledon tip is pulled from the soil cotyledon; following germination, all and straightens except for a slight but the basal end remains embedded in kink which remains at the site of the the endosperm to absorb nutrients. knee. (iv) Shoot system: The epicotyl elon- (iv) Shoot system: The first foliage gates and carries the terminal bud leaf emerges through a slit near the above the soil surface. The epicotyl base of the cotyledon, but this does not may bear several small scale leaves. A usually occur during the test period. short hypocotyl is barely distinguish- The hypocotyl is a very short transi- able, joining the root to the basal end tional zone between the primary root of the cotyledon. More than one shoot and the cotyledon, and is not distin- may arise simultaneously, and the guishable for purposes of seedling eval- seedling may be considered normal if uation. at least one shoot is well- developed (v) Root system: A long slender pri- and has a terminal growing point, pro- mary root with adventitious roots de- vided other essential structures are veloping from the hypocotyl. The pri- normal. mary root does not develop secondary (v) Root system: A long slender pri- roots. mary root. (2) Abnormal seedling description. (2) Abnormal seedling description. (i) Cotyledon: (i) Cotyledon: (A) Short and thick. (A) Detached from seedling. (B) Without a definite bend or (B) Deep open cracks at basal end. ‘‘knee’’. (ii) Epicotyl: (C) Spindly or watery. (A) Missing. (B) Terminal bud missing or dam- (ii) Epicotyl: aged. (A) Not observed during the test pe- (C) Deep open cracks. riod. (D) Malformed, such as markedly (B) [Reserved] shortened, curled, or thickened. (iii) Hypocotyl: (E) Spindly. (A) Not evaluated. (F) Watery. (B) [Reserved] (iii) Hypocotyl: (iv) Root: (A) Deep open cracks. (A) No primary root. (B) [Reserved] (B) Short, weak, or stubby primary (iv) Root: root. (A) No primary root. (v) Seedling:

352