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You will need paper, a pen or pencil, and your iPad. *All info on these slides = fair game for a quiz either tomorrow or next week :) Goal: to explore the significant elements of Ancient society such as beliefs in death and the afterlife and important theatre terminology in order to better inform our reading of Oedipus and Antigone. DP Curriculum (quarters 1&2)

Pedro Paramo by Juan Rulfo

Antigone by Sophocles

Persepolis by Marjane Satrapi

IB Assessment = World Lit Paper (25%) Antigone Interactive Oral Topics

Sophocles - THE MAN

Ancient Greek beliefs in death and the afterlife

Ancient Greek Theatre


Sparta vs. Athens Imagine that the Sphinx is ravaging your city due to some ancient crime. She kills anyone who cannot answer her riddle. The only way to save yourself and your town is to correctly answer her riddle. Let’s see if you can do it... What travels on four feet in the morning, two at midday, and three in the evening? Let’s review the of Oedipus. Greece was roughly the size of Texas.

Used force to rule

Very war-like people

Slavery was commonly accepted.

Spartan females were taught to be fit, brave, and patriotic.

ALL Spartan males were expected to be lifelong warriors. Athens Democratic and forward thinking

Education -The male members of the society had access to good education and were free to pursue any of the arts or sciences.

Women had few rights. Only men were considered citizens.

Slavery was commonly accepted. Mexico’s beliefs in death Ancient Greek beliefs an intro to Ancient Greek beliefs in death...

Proper burials—along with appropriate rituals—were very important in order for the body to go into the afterlife.

If these rituals were not properly completed, the body was believed to be destined to suffer between worlds until an individual's rite of passage into the underworld were completed. In general, the Greeks feared death. The journey to Hades after death was considered frightening. To make this journey comfortable, they added gifts of jewels and personal property to burials.

They believed that the Underworld offered punishment for the bad. (The Elysian Fields, a sunny and green paradise, was the home for the good. Those who lead a bad life were condemned to torture.) Zeus Hestia Poseidon Greek Religion was Hera Demeter polytheistic. Hades Athena Ares Hephaestus As part of their Apollo Artemis religion, they Aphrodite Hermes believed in FATE as a Dionysis / Bacchus muses divine force. Danae soothsayers/oracles were sought like fortune tellers

Greek theatre was an outgrowth of festivals honoring the god Dionysus. Participating in theater was a civic duty. Greek Theater The Greek theater was an open-air stone structure with tiered seating, a stage, and a ground-level orchestra.

Major Sections of the Theater -A tiered, horseshoe-shaped seating area called a theatron. -An orchestra accommodated the chorus. The word means dancing space and they were normally circular. -A stage -The stage faced the west to allow the midday sun to illuminate the faces of the actors. -Skene - The building behind the stage which was decorated and used for entrances and exits. -Parodos = passageways for chorus and some actors

Other characteristics of theatre...

The stories/plots nearly always taken from mythology (dramatic )

No more than THREE actors on stage at any time. First actor added by Thespis of Attica. Hence, actors are known as thespians.

actors wore masks (sometimes with wigs, the masks indicated , type, gender, etc.)

Tragedies were by far the most powerful and the most important to , , and judges

No visible violence on stage


Protagonist = character who usually interacts with the chorus some roles of the CHORUS…

Chorus in Greek means dance...so a main function was to sing and dance lyric odes between

dramatic episodes

To explain the

To s e t t h e t o n e

To interpret the action in relation to the law of the state and the law of the Olympian gods

To foreshadow the future

The chorus represents the citizens/society. In some ways, the chorus is like the narrator of a modern film.

The Theban Plays

The three Theban plays tell the continuing story of Oedipus and his daughter Antigone in the following order: (1) (2) , and (3) Antigone.

**Sophocles wrote the plays years apart and out of sequence. Sophocles

Sophocles was born near Athens in the township of Colonus between 497 and 495 B.C.. He died around 405.

Sophocles was a child of advantage, enjoying the comforts of the privileged and received an excellent education where he studied , dance, music, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, law, athletics, and military tactics.

In spite of his aristocratic background and entitlements, Sophocles was a man of the people: kind, generous, popular. He was also said to have been quite handsome.

Sophocles won many awards during his lifetime. He wrote 123 ; seven survive.

Drama terms terms Drama terms Drama terms Drama terms Drama terms Drama terms Definition of ... a dramatic composition dealing with a serious or somber , typically that of a great person destined through a flaw of character or conflict with some overpowering force, as fate or society, to downfall or destruction. Characteristics of a (according to ’s )

POSITION The hero is royal or noble with great power, usually a king. He is a good, respected man who acts out of good intentions. He has much to lose.

TRAGIC FLAW (hamartia) - In spite of his good intentions, the hero makes a tragic error which causes his reversal. The error usually stems from a character flaw, usually ().

REVERSAL - Because of his tragic error, the hero suffers a downfall from his happy, envied position to suffering and misery.

RECOGNITION - The hero realizes that his own flaw or error has caused his reversal. This recognition always occurs too late for the hero to prevent or escape his reversal. Eventually, tragic heroes: Fall from great heights or high esteem

Realize they have made an irreversible mistake

Face and accept death with honor

Meet a tragic death Three Unities of a Tragedy (according to Aristotle’s Poetics)

TIME - The entire should take place within one day. PLACE - The entire play should be set in a single place. ACTION - The play should have only a single kahoot.it AntigoneHomework: reading due on 10/16.

Antigone Journal due 10/16 at 7:30 am on turnitin.com. Antigone Journal Respond to the following questions. Use direct quotes in responses 2-6. DUE TO TURNITIN.COM ON 10/16 AT 7:30 am.

1. Choose one choral ode from the play and annotate it. Look at , , allusions, etc. Include a paraphrase next to each stanza of the ode. Write the main idea/significance of the ode at the top of the document and underline it. Do not use the Internet for help. 10 points

2. How is hubris demonstrated in the play? 4 points

3. is a humorous scene in the course of a serious drama—usually introduced to provide relief from emotional intensity. The contrast actually heightens the seriousness of the story. Cite and discuss one example of comic relief in the play. 2 points

4. is the effect of tragedy relieving the emotions of the . Does Antigone leave you feeling relieved? If so, why? Do you feel sorry for ? For Antigone? 4 points

5. Support or refute the following statement: The play should have been named Creon instead of Antigone. 4 points

6. Current Events: Find a recent story from a magazine, a newspaper, or the Internet that somehow ties in with the themes or events in Antigone. Write a short paragraph (five to seven sentences) explaining the connection. Include a copy of the article. 6 points Characters in Antigone

Creon: King of Thebes, who creates conflict when he forbids the burial of .

Antigone: Daughter of Oedipus, sister of Polynices, and niece of Creon. She defies Creon's orders and buries Polynices.

Ismene: sister of Antigone

Haemon: Son of Creon who is betrothed to Antigone.

Eurydice: wife of Creon.

Tiresias: Blind prophet

Chorus of Theban Elders

Messengers, Watchman Pre-Reading Questions

The title character of the play Antigone is willing to die for her principles/beliefs. Look at the list of principles below and rank them from 1 to 6, with 1 being the most important to you and 6 being the least important.

Loyalty to Family

Importance of Civil Laws

Importance of Religious Beliefs

Self-respect, or pride


Protection of Community or Country What would happen today if one of American’s top military leaders allied himself with a foreign army and led an attack on the U.S.? If such a person died in battle, would he/she be buried with full honors in Arlington? Now imagine that the top general was your BFF and that you understand that he/she had a very strong and personal reason for allying with this foreign army. It is a reason you understand and sympathize with, but don’t necessarily support. Would you feel that the general deserved to be buried at Arlington? Why or why not? Imagine that the top general, your BFF, was ordered not to be buried at Arlington, but you secretly buried him/her there anyway. Your “crime” is then discovered. Should you receive punishment? If so, what should it be? In a leader, such as the President, do you value decisive, confident action or sympathetic reasoning? What qualities do you value most in a leader? Would it be possible for two people to share a position of power equally? How would it work? Why might it fail? How responsible do you feel for your family members? Do you think family members should risk danger or even death for one another? Define the word FEMINIST. Keep in mind that both males and females can be feminists. Do you consider yourself to be a feminist? Why or why not? How far would you go to defend your feminist beliefs? You are in a serious relationship, and you are considering marriage. What would you do if your boy/girlfriend’s father seriously offended you? Would you be able to overlook the problem and remain with your boy/ girlfriend? Or, would you have to break up? • Are stubbornness and pride admirable qualities? Explain. Think of a situation in which two equally proud and stubborn people came into conflict. What happened? Which do you consider more important… Upholding your family's honor or obeying the law? Do you believe in fate, or do you believe that people are responsible for the good and bad things that happen to them? From your experience, do most people find it easy or difficult to admit they have made a mistake? Is admitting to a mistake a sign of strength or weakness? Please respond to the BIG IDEA QUESTIONS...the three questions on the handout. You should check SKIP THIS SLIDE Structure of ...

Prologue: A monologue or dialogue preceding the entry of the chorus, which presents the tragedy's topic.

Parode (Entrance Ode): The entry chant of the chorus. Generally, they remain on stage throughout the remainder of the play. Although they wear masks, their dancing is expressive, as conveyed by the hands, arms and body.

SKIP THIS SLIDE Parode (continued)...

Typically the parode and other choral odes involve the following parts, repeated in order several times: 1. Strophê (Turn): A stanza in which the chorus moves in one direction (toward the altar). 2. Antistrophê (Counter-Turn): The following stanza, in which it moves in the opposite direction. 3. Epode (After-Song): The epode is chanted by the chorus standing still. The epode is often omitted, so there may be a series of strophe-antistrophe pairs without intervening epodes. SKIP THIS SLIDE

Episode: There are several episodes in which one or two actors interact with the chorus. They are, at least in part, sung or chanted.

Stasimon (stationary song): a choral ode in which the chorus may comment on or react to the preceding episode

Exode (exit ode): The exit song of the chorus after the last episode offering words of wisdom related to the actions and outcomes of the play. Prior Knowledge (This should be open and working. If not, skip it)

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