by Laura Reis Mayer Series Editors: Jeanne M. McGlinn and James E. McGlinn TEACHER’S Guid 2 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays

Table of Contents

Introduction...... 3 list of characters...... 3 synopsis of the trilogy...... 4 prereading activities...... 5





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Printed in the United States of America A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 3


ABC’s Lost has been a cult television classic for follow are enough to compel and horrify the much of the first decade of the twenty-first most demanding of contemporary audiences. century. The show’s blogs, wikis, and fan pages In the classroom, Oedipus the King, Oedipus at perpetuate its phenomenal popularity even Colonus, and will serve to connect beyond the airing of its last episode. Why the students to the classic themes of fate, family, critical acclaim and popular success? Much is and . Whether students read one or all due to the storyline, including dysfunctional of Sophocles’s plays, they will come away with families and apocalyptic , as well as an awareness of the internal and external strug- to the show’s philosophical subtext, which gles linking the playwright’s time to our own. includes the conflict between free will and fate and the duality within all men. This guide’s before, during, and post instruc- tional strategies can be applied to any of Fans of Lost will appreciate its striking parallels Sophocles’s dramas and used in any combina- to Sophocles’s Oedipus Trilogy, the tragic tale tion as teachers design their individual goals of a man who believes he can escape his fate, and lessons. A focus on literacy skills chal- only to find that his stubborn refusal to submit lenges students to actively engage in reading. to his fate will have lasting impact on his home Activities are differentiated to appeal to vari- and family. The incestuous relationships, ous learning styles and are easily adaptable to infanticides, fratricides, and suicides that the leveled lessons used by today’s educators.


OEDIPUS king of Thebes CHORUS of Theban Elders and Colonus brother of Elders CITIZENS a blind prophet of Thebes COUNTRYMAN JOCASTA wife of Oedipus of Colonus PRIEST ANTIGONE daughter of Oedipus of Zeus OLD SHEPHERD daughter of Oedipus PALACE OFFICIALS, ATTENDANTS, POLYNEICES son of Oedipus SERVANTS, and MESSENGERS son of Oedipus SOLDIERS and BODYGUARDS king of son of Creon wife of Creon 4 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays


Oedipus the King opens fifteen years after continues the story twenty Oedipus solved the ’s riddle and saved years later, during which time Creon and the city of Thebes. The city is now suffering Oedipus’s two sons have turned against him. from corruption and plague, and its inhabit- Antigone, who has been serving as her father’s ants look to none other than Oedipus, the guide, leads Oedipus to a grove near Athens. King. Oedipus dispatches Creon, the queen’s When he hears they have reached Colonus, brother, to seek direction from ’s the holy place of the all-seeing Eumenides, . Creon returns with the news that Oedipus vows to wander no more, for this is Thebes will be saved only by purging herself the place prophesized to be his “journey’s of the old king’s murderer. Oedipus vows to end.” Sending a message that “a little favor track down ’s killer and seeks informa- wins a great reward,” Oedipus summons tion from Tiresias, Apollo’s blind prophet. Athens’s ruler, Theseus. As he kneels in prayer, Tiresias begs to be sent away rather than talk, Oedipus is confronted by Elders of Colonus, but when Oedipus accuses him of the murder, who sympathize, but warn Oedipus he is Tiresias identifies Oedipus as the “rotting trespassing on holy ground. Securing their canker” within Thebes, and accuses the ruler protective promise, Oedipus steps forward of being “blind.” In a fit of outrage, Oedipus and identifies himself. Antigone delivers a accuses Creon of murdering Laius and con- compelling plea on her father’s behalf, and spiring with Tiresias, and threatens to have the Elders promise to leave Oedipus’s fate to his brother-in-law killed. Both Queen Jocasta Theseus. Meanwhile, Ismene arrives with and the Chorus of Theban Elders attempt to news that Oedipus’s sons have been fighting calm Oedipus. Jocasta reveals to Oedipus the over the throne, and Polyneices has fled to old oracle that predicted King Laius would be Argos for reinforcements. Ismene further killed by his own son. She explains that she reveals Creon’s plan to place Oedipus’s grave and Laius left their baby boy on a hillside to on the frontiers of Thebes in order for the city die, thereby ending any possibility of the to receive the blessings foretold in a . prophecy’s success. Oedipus then explains Creon plans to force Oedipus back and bury that fifteen years earlier, he left his hometown his body on the threshold of Thebes to pro- of Corinth after a drunkard questioned his tect his city and his position. Lamenting his parentage and Apollo’s oracle predicted his sons’ lack of character and loyalty, Oedipus incestuous marriage. His journey to Thebes vows to embrace Athens as his new home. was an attempt to escape this prophecy, and Respectful of the prophecies, Theseus grants on the way, he fought with a man at a cross- Oedipus the rights of Athenian citizenship roads. A messenger then reveals that it was and protection. When Creon seizes Ismene Oedipus who was abandoned as a baby and and Antigone, Oedipus calls upon Theseus, saved by a herdsman. Against Jocasta’s advice, who rescues both daughters. Meanwhile, Oedipus calls forth the herdsman, who veri- Polyneices has arrived to convince his father fies the account. Sickened, Oedipus now to return home. Oedipus curses him as a liar, realizes that the man he murdered fifteen disowns him and his brother, and predicts years prior was his father, and that unknow- their bloody fate. Though Antigone begs her ingly, Oedipus has married his own mother. brother not to continue his quest for the Jocasta is overwhelmed with grief and hangs throne, Polyneices is determined, asking his herself in the palace. Oedipus, stricken with sisters to honor his grave. Zeus’s great thun- guilt and disgust, blinds himself with her derbolt announces Oedipus’s impending golden brooches. Cursing fate, Oedipus begs death, and the blinded king offers his tomb as Creon for exile. After reuniting Oedipus with a reward to Theseus and the Athenian people. his daughters, Antigone and Ismene, Creon Theseus, Antigone, and Ismene accompany vows to leave Oedipus’s fate to the gods. Oedipus to the gravesite. Vowing to keep the A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 5 gravesite hidden and unmarked, Theseus is Ismene reminds Creon that he is about to put the only one to witness Oedipus’s final to death his own son’s fiancé, Creon still will moments. Theseus promises to return the not be moved. Haemon, Creon’s son, entreats sisters to Thebes, where they hope to stop the his father to listen to his people, who sympa- impending doom. thize with Antigone’s plight. He gently advises Antigone opens one day after the battle Creon that being right and doing the right between Polyneices and Eteocles. Both are thing do not necessarily go hand in hand, and dead. Creon, who supported Eteocles, has his father should admit his mistake. Calling ordered the young man’s body to be properly Haemon a “woman’s slave,” Creon orders buried with all the honors of state. Polyneices, Antigone to be abandoned in a rocky vault. who led Argos against Thebes, has been Lamenting her unmarried and childless status, ordered left for the vultures. Antigone is Antigone marches to the tomb. The blind caught between loyalty to the law and love for prophet Tiresias returns to Thebes, advising Polyneices and decides to defy Creon’s edict Creon to look at the omens and see how the by honoring her brother’s grave. Ismene warns city sickens. Reminding the ruler that damna- Antigone that they would be writing their tion only comes to those who do not repent, own death warrants and entreats her sister to Tiresias echoes Haemon’s plea. When Creon stop the cycle of suicidal actions. Undaunted disregards the prophet’s warning, Tiresias is and defiant, Antigone determines to do it compelled to prophesize Haemon’s death. alone. When a sentry reports to Creon that Creon finally listens, but too late. When he Polyneices’s body has been buried, he orders reaches Antigone’s vault, it is to find Antigone the sentry to find the culprit or risk his own has hung herself and Haemon is grief-stricken. death. The sentry returns with Antigone, who Upon seeing his father, Haemon attempts to declares that dying for her crime is less painful stab Creon, misses, then stabs himself. Stag- than living with her brother unburied. gering homeward in grief, Creon is greeted Vowing “that no woman while I live shall with the news his wife, Eurydice, has commit- govern me,” Creon will not relent. When ted suicide as well. Begging for his own death, Creon is led away to await his fate.


These activities are designed to deepen stu- specific city such as Thebes or Athens, stu- dents’ background knowledge of literary sym- dents can then type in specific coordinates bols and traditions, and to introduce them to and take a virtual field trip with actual satel- the plays’ major themes. (Note: Consult other lite and digital photographs of cultural and Teacher’s Guides to Signet Classics; they con- historic sites relating to the times and writ- tain ideas that can be adapted to prepare stu- ings of Sophocles. For more in-depth action dents to read and enjoy these plays.) research, students can ask a Skype expert for information. (See below). I. BUILDING BACKGROUND Ask an Expert KNOWLEDGE IN HISTORY, CULTURE, AND GENRE Free Skype software can be used for world- wide collaboration, live video, and instant Virtual Map of Greece file sharing, and adds an authenticity to the study of ancient plays. Set up an Take your students on a field trip to Greece “expert” contact in Athens or Thebes, hook without ever leaving your classroom. At up a web-cam to your classroom Internet, http://earth.google.com/ students can view and watch your students receive instant a map of the world and visualize the distance answers to their questions about Grecian between the U.S. and Greece. By choosing a 6 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays culture, both ancient and contemporary. Sign Note: Anyone can sign up for Skype, but for up for a free account and find expert contacts Discovery streaming, the free account comes at http://www.skype.com/intl/en-us/home. after the teacher keys in the school code, available from the school media specialist. The Life of Sophocles Critical Reading Contemporary Greek Choruses Because the setting and characters in the In the Signet Classics edition of Sophocles: Oedipus trilogy are so intricately tied to the The Complete Plays, translator culture of Sophocles’s time, it would be useful defends his decision to maintain the original to review the life of the playwright and the role text. Eliminating the formality and ritual of the chorus prior to reading the play(s). A balances of the Greek chorus, Roche asserts, discussion of these topics is found in Paul “is not Greek and is not Sophocles.” Roche’s introduction and appendix in the Introduce students to the idea and function Signet Classics edition of Sophocles: The Com- of a Greek chorus by viewing and analyzing plete Plays. Ask students to read Roche’s intro- Greek choruses in contemporary films. After duction and/or appendix and take Cornell students have watched the clip(s), ask: Notes by drawing an inverted capital “T” on a • “What function does the chorus serve in piece of paper. On the left side of the vertical this scene?” line they will label Roche’s main ideas. On the right side, they will record supporting details. • “How would the ’s character- At the bottom of each page, under the hori- ization differ without the chorus?” zontal line, students will synthesize their notes Modern films with a chorus that comments into a one or two sentence summary. Students on the action include: should be sure to include the following topics: Hercules. Directors Ron Clements and 1. Sophocles’s youth John Musker. Disney, 1997. (the Muses) 2. Language and style in Sophocles’s plays Mamma Mia! Director Phyllida Lloyd. 3. The purpose of the chorus Disney, 2008. (the townspeople) 4. The role of the audience Mighty Aphrodite. Director Woody Allen. As a formative assessment, students’ summa- Magnolia Pictures, 1995. (traditional ries can be posted on the wall or shared via Greek Chorus) document camera. Pirates of the Caribbean. Director Gore Greek Drama Film Clip Verbinski. Disney, 2003. (comic relief characters Pintel and Rogetti) Introduce students to the history of Greek Theater with a focused film clip. Visit Dis- Tragedy and the Tragic covery Education (formerly known as United Streaming) at http://www.discoveryeducation. Ask students to read parts one, six, and thir- com. Educators receive free accounts just by teen of ’s The .The text can be signing up. Give students a focus prior to found at http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/ viewing the video clip, such as “What ancient poetics.mb.txt. Review the definitions of Greek theater traditions can you recognize tragedy and and, on the white- that still exist in modern theater?” Have board or smartboard, construct columned them “think, pair, share” their observations notes or graphic organizers that illustrate the with a classmate or the whole class afterwards. differences between tragedy and comedy, Several short videos covering Greek drama heroes and tragic heroes. Ask students to use cycles, theater vocabulary, and the Oedipus this information to write their own profile of trilogy can be found here. a modern tragic hero. For example, they might choose to write about a sports figure A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 7 whose quest for money and fame challenges 1. How does the prophecy explain the his personal values as well as the integrity of actions of those around Harry? the game he loves. 2. How might Harry feel now that he knows his prophecy? Should he alter his Greek Vocabulary Foldable plans or actions? Why or why not? The Signet Classics edition of Sophocles: The 3. If you could be told your future, would Complete Plays includes a glossary of the you choose to hear it? Why or why not? people and places in mythol- ogy. Teachers can select the terms they feel Companion Piece most significant for background knowledge on Sophocles’s play(s). Individually or in Examining a parallel, contemporary text pairs, ask students to create a foldable with prior to reading provides material for com- four quadrants. Have them write their term parison and contrast later. One link between in the middle of the foldable. In the four the popular Lost series and the Oedipus tril- quadrants, ask students to record the defini- ogy is the theme of fate versus free will. Ask tion in their own words, draw a picture con- students to watch a short clip from Lost, nected to the term, produce one or more season 3, the episode entitled “Flashes Before synonyms or associations, and leave a spot your Eyes.” The clip can be found on DVD open for connections to the Oedipus trilogy. or at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= Students can share their work via document LGauAyUWUas. After viewing, discuss the camera or in front of the class and can add to following with students: their notes during reading. This activity will 1. What is meant by Mrs. Hawking’s also work well with theater terms such as statements: chorus, strophe, antistrophe, choral , episode, and . • “You don’t do it because you choose to, you do it because you’re supposed to.” II. BUILDING BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE through • “The universe has a way of course correcting.” INITIAL EXPLORATION 2. What is Mrs. Hawking’s role? Prophet? OF THEMES Desmond’s self-conscious? Explain.

Fate versus Free Will Vision and Blindness Accessible Text Archetypal Characters Assigning students a short, interesting, and easier modern text prior to beginning a more The character of Tiresias, the blind prophet, challenging classic drama is an excellent appears in literature well beyond the time of method for generating student interest, Sophocles. In Oh, Brother, Where art Thou, making connections, and building prior the blind old man prophesizes the protago- knowledge. One connection between the nists’ impending epic journey. Show students popular Harry Potter series and the Oedipus this brief movie clip and ask them to put trilogy is the prophecy faced by the protago- themselves in the shoes of the as nists. Ask students to read an excerpt from they listen to the stranger’s warning. After Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, viewing, ask students to “turn and talk” chapter 37, which reveals the prophecy of about how they might react to the old man’s Harry’s birth. Afterwards, ask students to (Tiresias’s) speech. journal on the following. 8 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays

Trust Walk Circle Map In Oedipus at Colonus, Antigone serves as her Draw a large circle on the board. In the blind father’s “eyes.” At the same time, Oedi- middle, draw a smaller circle. Inside the pus’s “sight” has improved vastly in the twenty smaller circle, write one or all of the follow- years since he blinded himself. To provide a ing words: “arrogance,” “ambition,” and connection and to illustrate the metaphoric “pride.” Draw a square around the larger quality of vision, ask students to partner up circle. In the four corners of the square, write and take turns blindfolding each other. The the words “history,” “literature,” politics,” partner with sight should lead around his and “sports/entertainment.” Ask students to classmate, helping him/her avoid obstacles brainstorm the names of famous people who and narrating what he sees. The “blind” stu- have been guilty of the (s) listed dent uses his senses of touch, smell, and in the inner circle. Use the reference words in hearing to “see” in new ways. After partners the four corners to expand students’ think- have played each role, discuss as a class: ing. For example, students might brainstorm 1. How did you feel when you were blind- Hitler as an historical person and Macbeth folded? Could you “see” in other ways? for a literary person. To expand their think- ing, point out the categories in the corners. 2. How did you feel when you were the Tell students that pride will be the downfall leader? Did your responsibility sharpen of several characters in the Sophocles plays. your own sight? Tell them to watch for parallels to their brainstormed examples. Ambition and Pride Freudian Cartoon “Thin Books” Introduce students to Freudian psychology with the following cartoon: http://www. Children’s picture books, or “thin books,” are cartoonstock.com/lowres/shr0958l.jpg making a comeback with teens. Teachers can use picture books as a fun and accessible The cartoon depicts a highway with three method for making connections and build- different speed limits, one for the id, one for ing background knowledge prior to reading the ego, and one for the superego. Using a more difficult text. Gather students around a document camera, digital projector, or hand- rocker or use a document camera to show the outs, introduce the cartoon and ask partners pictures while you read aloud from a picture or groups to discuss what they think each book about pride, arrogance, or what the Freudian concept means, based on the pic- Greeks called “hubris.” Afterwards, ask stu- ture. Groups can write a summary statement dents to compose a “quick write” about the for their definitions. Then, expand student theme as depicted in the story. Use this activ- understanding of Freud’s id/ego/superego ity as a springboard for the theme of hubris concepts with the use of an article or graphic in the Oedipus plays. Picture books about organizer, and ask students to edit or add to arrogant rulers include: their original thinking. Explain that Oedipus himself is the basis of another Freudian Anderson, Hans Christian. theory that will be central to the play. The Emperor’s New Clothes.NY: Graphic organizers depicting Freud’s id, ego, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2004. and superego can be found at Google images. Hamilton, Virginia. The Girl Who Spun Gold. NY: Blue Sky Press, 2000. Seuss. Yertle the Turtle. NY: Random House, 2008. A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 9

Self-Mutilation Dysfunctional Families

Artistic Connection Probable Passages In Oedipus the King, as Oedipus blinds him- To encourage student predictions, generate a self with Jocasta’s golden brooches, the king list of ten to fifteen words related to one of the cries, “Wicked, wicked eyes…You shall not Oedipus plays. Tell students they’ll be creating see me nor my crime, not see my present a storyline about a dysfunctional family, much shame” (pp. 255). Critics have argued that like they might see on a television talk show. Oedipus’s self-mutilation is the result of Ask students to write a “probable passage” shame, guilt, or despair over Jocasta’s suicide. paragraph that predicts the content of the play Their daughter Antigone eventually hangs by using all the words from the list. After the herself and her two brothers kill each other, play is read, students can return to the passage actions labeled by Ismene as “suicidal neme- and make corrections to their narratives. Pos- sis.” Introduce students to this controversial sible words might include: prophecy, Sphinx, theme of self-mutilation or self-destruction blind man, sisters, brothers, golden brooches, through the self-portrait of Vincent Van three crossroads, hanging, civil war, and uncle. Gogh with a bandaged ear. http://www.abc- As an alternative, create a “treasure box” of gallery.com/V/vangogh/vangogh40.html props that might inspire the dysfunctional Discuss Van Gogh’s self-mutilation and ask family story. Items for the box might include: students to journal, “turn and talk,” or dis- a prophecy, a blindfold, a woman’s jeweled cuss as a class: brooch, a cane, and a Sphinx figurine. 1. What might motivate a person to Anticipation Guide commit such an act? 2. Are there any contemporary examples of Anticipation Guides create personal connec- this controversial practice? tions and promote thinking about significant themes students will encounter in the reading. Book Trailers As a literacy tool, anticipation guides encourage students to engage while reading by focusing on Just like trailers for movies, online book trail- the issues introduced. Before reading the Oedi- ers provide students with concise and con- pus play(s), ask students to answer the follow- temporary glimpses of classic works of ing questions. They can respond with “true” literature prior to reading. As a class or on or “false,” or they can answer on a continuum, their own, students can access online book such as “highly agree” or “agree somewhat.” trailers to build prior knowledge about plot, setting, and theme. One website is “60 1. It is a parent’s job to care for his/her Second Recaps” which includes one minute child more than for him/herself. trailers on Oedipus the King’s overview, con- 2. Children should be loyal to their text, plot, cast, themes, motifs and symbols: parents no matter what the cost. http://www.60secondrecap.com/library/ 3. Siblings may be justified in harming oedipus-rex/1/ Calling the play an “ancient each other with words or actions. 4. Children are fated to carry on their par- but relevant tragedy,” the trailer highlights its ents’ legacies, be they bad or good. “twisted family relationships and stomach- 5. Families forgive, period. turning eye-gouging.” Direct students to watch one or all of the trailers. As an exten- Students can discuss answers with a partner sion, students can produce their own book “turn and talk” or whole class discussion, or trailers as an after-reading activity. they can expand one of their answers in a quick-write or journal entry. After reading, students can return to the anticipation guides and note how their thinking has changed now that they have read the play. 10 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays


These activities encourage students to utilize foolish or hurting classmates’ feelings. research-based comprehension strategies such Because online postings allow multiple as predicting, connecting, summarizing, and responses simultaneously, questions that nor- determining main ideas while reading Oedi- mally receive five or six verbal responses in the pus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, and Anti- classroom elicit numerous responses online. gone. Whether the play is read aloud in class The teacher’s job is to insure posts are on-task, or silently at home, teachers can choose appropriate, and, analytical. Assessments can appropriate assignments from the ideas below. be completed later when the teacher pulls up the discussion as a whole. You may wish to I. ANALYZING THROUGH extend the blog or chat discussion in class. GROUP RESPONSE Sample blog or chat prompts for Oedipus the King include: Class Blog 1. Who is the biggest victim in this play? Students can use their post-it note questions, Oedipus? Jocasta? Their children? The connections, and inferences as the basis for people of Thebes? (You may choose an online blog. Using an online teaching another character). Explain your choice. assistant such as Blackboard or Moodle, or 2. What connections can you make to using your teacher website, create a discus- other literature we have read in class? To sion forum for student responses outside of the contemporary world? To your own class. Post two or three open-ended questions experience? Explain how these connec- designed to elicit a broad range of answers tions inform your reading of the play. with the capacity for complex and controver- sial responses. Give students a deadline to 3. Why all the references to darkness, sight, respond, and ask them to discuss not only the and blindness? What is the playwright’s initial topic, but their classmates’ responses as purpose in using these motifs? well. Some teachers consider blogs an exten- sion of traditional class discussions, and Foldable Dialectic Journals therefore expect the use of academic lan- Using one piece of notebook or typing paper guage. Discuss in class your expectations (or two facing pieces from a sewn composi- concerning academic versus “texting” type tion book), model for students how to fold language. Some sample questions are listed paper into four columns. Label the columns with the next activity. in the following order from left to right: Electronic Chat Room 1. “From the Text” 2. “From Me” The difference in blogs and online chats is 3. “From my Classmate” that blogs are composed over a period of 4. “My New Thinking” days, whereas chats occur in “real time,” while the teacher is present and monitoring. During an in-class reading of the play stu- In a computer lab or lap-top classroom, stu- dents record in the first column any signifi- dents read and respond to each other’s posts cant words, phrases, or sentences from the in silence. Due to this real-time atmosphere, selection. Excerpts may be chosen because many teachers allow “IM” or “texting” type they align with a theme, issue, or literary language for online chats. technique discussed in class or because they promote student questions, connections, or For both blogs and chats, the use of alias inferences. In the second column, students screen names encourages traditionally reticent record their questions or explain their think- students to respond without fear of appearing ing. In the third column, classmates exchange A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 11 journals and respond to or add to each other’s 4. Tiresias accuses Oedipus of being “your thoughts. Afterwards, students reflect on own worst enemy” (pp. 227). Is this an classmate input and record their new think- accurate statement? What would you ing in the fourth column. consider to be Oedipus’s tragic flaw? Provide evidence from the play. Modern Scene Rewrites 5. Oedipus freely chose to leave Corinth To illustrate the point that classic Greek and pursue a journey that led to the dramas such as the Oedipus trilogy have rel- three crossroads. evant meaning and messages for all eras, Was the murder he committed there an groups can re-write, re-interpret and re-enact act of free will or fate? scenes for new settings. While these scenes are fun to create and enjoyable to watch, chal- 6. Mistakenly believing they have escaped lenge students to keep Sophocles’s objectives, fate, Jocasta vows to “never change my tone, and themes intact. Students might re- look from left to right to suit a proph- interpret Thebes as New York City, or may ecy” (pp. 242). How has her attitude opt to send Apollo’s prophecies in text format. towards the gods shifted? 7. Why does Jocasta leave after Oedipus Discussion Questions refuses to end his line of questioning? Discussion questions encourage students to Is she justified in her abandonment? deepen their individual analysis of the play 8. What is symbolic about the way by sharing their reactions with classmates. Oedipus chooses to mutilate himself? Students generally feel more comfortable 9. How is Mount Cithaeron an appropriate sharing their ideas with a small group of location for Oedipus’s desired exile? peers first. When group discussions are com- plete, student spokespersons can discuss their 10. Oedipus entreats his daughters to “abide in findings with the class as a whole. modesty” (pp. 262). What does this advice reveal about the king at the play’s end? Discussion questions on the Oedipus plays ask students to analyze the playwright’s pur- Oedipus at Colonus pose, themes, and literary techniques. Below 1. The Eumenides are known as “all-seeing” are some thought-provoking questions based (pp. 272). How might they connect to on the trilogy. Oedipus’s blindness? Oedipus the King 2. What does Oedipus’s lengthy self-defense 1. Analyze the dramatic in Oedipus’s to the Colonus elders reveal about his claim that “the cause of Laius therefore internal journey? is my own” (pp. 219). 3. When Ismene tells Oedipus his future 2. The chorus advises Oedipus to seek out tomb has become a prize to be won, the blind prophet Tiresias, who is “our Oedipus responds, “So, when I am source of light” (pp. 224). Analyze nothing, then am I a man?” (pp. 284). Sophocles’s use of symbolism here. Explain his meaning. 3. Oedipus compels Tiresias to “save your- 4. Oedipus accuses his sons of multiple self, the city, and save me” (pp. 225) by faults. Is his judgment too harsh? sharing his prophesies. Can the truth Defend your answer. “save” Oedipus? Or will it serve to seal 5. How might Theseus be characterized, his fate? Discuss. especially when compared to the other males in the play? Provide evidence for your characterization. 12 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays

6. Oedipus explains to Theseus, “I can 7. Is Creon being “just” when he carries out return no more. I am a parricide” his promised punishment on Antigone? (pp. 291). Is Oedipus’s character as 8. What does Haemon mean when he says, simple as this statement? Is he merely “Well, then, dead—one death beckon- the sum of his sins? ing to another” (pp. 367). Does his 7. Oedipus tells Creon, “You come to fetch father understand Haemon’s intent? me—home? Ah, no! You come to plant me 9. As Antigone marches to her death vault, on your doorstep” (pp. 297). Discuss the she laments her predicament. Some crit- figurative language Sophocles uses here. ics see this self-pity as out of character 8. Compare Theseus’s and Creon’s ruling for Antigone. Do you agree? Why might styles, as evidenced in their exchange Sophocles have included this lament? with each other and with Oedipus. 10. Is Creon a sympathetic character in 9. What does Polyneices hope to accom- the end? Has he become the play’s plish by coming to Colonus? Explain. protagonist? Explain. 10. At the beginning of the play, Oedipus promised that “a little favor wins a great II. ANALYZING THROUGH reward” (pp. 273). How does Oedipus’s INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE request to have Theseus accompany him to the brink of the underworld connect Major Character Motivation Log to this promise? Motivation logs are a specific type of double- Antigone column chart. In the left column, students record the names of major characters from 1. Is Ismene right to remind Antigone that Sophocles’s play(s), such as Oedipus, Creon, “we are women and as such are not or Antigone. The right column is for recording made to fight with men?” (pp. 346). the changing motivations of the characters as Consider the gender roles of Greek soci- the play progresses. Motivations are supported ety, as revealed in the play(s), as well as by quotations or excerpts from the play. For your own views. example, an entry on Creon in Antigone might 2. How is Ismene a character foil to her sister? read, “Creon has become the protagonist. He is overcome by a “madness of misdoing started 3. The chorus suggests that the fall of by himself and no other” (epilogue). Oedipus’s house is fated. Do you agree? What role or responsibility do Eteocles Later, double-column notes can be used to and Polyneices play in this fall? initiate student-led discussions in class. Ask students: “Who would like to share a response 4. Creon calls the brothers’ actions a from the second episode?” After a student “mutual murder,” but Ismene sees it as answers, the teacher can invite responses, and suicide (pp. 349). Which do you think the discussion is off and running. is more accurate? 5. A Theban leader says “no man is mad Post-It Note Questions enough to welcome death” (pp. 350). What is the irony in the fact that Anti- Student-created questions that lead to inter- gone risks death to bury her brother? pretation and analysis are much more effec- tive comprehension tools than the traditional 6. Why does Creon allow the Sentry to end of chapter questions provided by teach- speak in such a disrespectful manner to ers or textbooks. Discuss with the class the him? What might their dialogue reveal different levels of questions and how broader about Creon’s state of mind? questions lead to interpretation and analysis. Ask students to formulate one or two ques- A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 13 tions per episode and to jot questions down Character-Foil on post-it notes, one per note. Post-its are Double-Bubble Maps affixed to the page of text they reference. In class, students can categorize these questions Robert Marzano’s first essential teaching on the board or on a concept chart, and dis- strategy is the study of similarities and differ- cuss possible answers with their peers. ences. In Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colu- nus, and Antigone, Oedipus serves as a foil to To help students make personal, literary, and almost every other character in the plays. To cultural connections to Sophocles’s play(s), ask help students compare and contrast Oedipus them to record on post-it notes any connections with Creon or with any of the plays’ second- they see as they read Oedipus the King, Oedipus ary characters, ask students to label one at Colonus, and/or Antigone. To emphasize the bubble “Oedipus,” and the other with idea that connections should “count,” remind another character. In the bubbles shared by students to think about how these observa- the foils, students record similarities, such as tions help them better understand the text, “pride gets in the way.” In the bubbles specific and to discard the post-its that do not aid in to each of the characters, students record comprehension. At the end of each assigned parallel differences, such as “ignores prophe- section, students can collaborate and catego- cies” and “respects the gods.” After students rize their connections, and stick their post-its fill in their double-bubble maps, they might on labeled posters throughout the room, turn and share with a classmate or the class, allowing the class to observe each other’s ideas. adding to their maps as the discussion ensues. In addition to Oedipus and Creon, other Double-Column Inferencing possible character foils include the following: Double-Column Notes encourage students to 1. Oedipus and Antigone take a second look while reading, and to read 2. Antigone and Ismene for analysis, not simply plot. The best notes 3. Antigone and Creon are composed as the student reads, not after 4. Creon and Theseus the reading is completed. In this way, students prove to themselves and their teachers that Multi-Flow Map they are thinking as they read. Ask students to find one (or more) significant event or quota- Refusing to “see” the truth in front of his eyes tion from each episode in the play(s), and causes a myriad of effects for Oedipus as well record it on the left side of a double-columned as the other characters in the plays. Ask stu- sheet of paper. On the right side column, dents to choose a character such as Jocasta, students record their thinking about the event Antigone, Polyneices, Creon, or even Oedi- or quotation. They might comment on pat- pus himself, and “map” the effects of Oedi- terns they see developing, themes they see pus’s denial. In the large, middle box of the evolving, commentary they see being made, multi-flow, ask students to write the event, or connections they believe tie the drama to “Oedipus denies the truth.” To the left, stu- modern society. Students could also use the dents create smaller boxes, fill them with the second column for making predictions. As causes of this act, and connect to the middle the double-column notes progress, students box with arrows. In the boxes to the right, should see their responses falling into catego- students identify the effects of the act and ries that illustrate their comprehension of connect them to the middle box with arrows. Sophocles’s significant themes and stylistic Effects can be on another character, on devices. Notes can be handwritten or submit- Oedipus himself, or on the plot. The multi- ted via email. Teachers may choose to add flow map activity is a study in character comments in the second column, responding motivation and the “tragic hero” archetype. personally to inferences students may not be willing to verbalize in class. 14 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays

Exit Slips remember about the episode’s main themes.” Exit slips can also take the form of 1-2-3 As students complete the day’s reading, ask cards, where students write down three them to write a five-minute response on an themes, two literary devices, and one ques- index card that they will submit as they exit. tion from the day’s reading. Exit slips are Prompts might be specific, such as “In what formative assessments that allow students to ways is Oedipus ‘blind’?” or they might be self assess their comprehension and teachers general, such as, “Write down anything you to check the impact of their lesson.


These activities encourage students to deepen 3. From the Sphinx’s riddle forward, the their interpretation of the Oedipus plays by Oedipus trilogy centers around prophe- helping them make connections between cies, omens, and riddles. Discuss Sopho- themes and issues in the play(s), in other cles’s use of this device. How is human works, and in the outside world. knowledge and self determination con- trasted with the knowledge of the gods I. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION and their control of human ? How might Oedipus’s destiny be AND ESSAYS explained as psychological determinism? Full Circle 4. While some of Sophocles’s productions Revisit one of the pre-reading activities such assign chorus dialogue to townspeople, as the probable passage, circle map, or antici- this edition of the Oedipus trilogy main- pation guide. Now that you have completed tains the chorus in a separate and integral the play, what further commentary can you role. Is the chorus there to calm the pro- add? Have you and your classmates changed tagonist? To represent the gods? To repre- your thinking? Why or why not? sent the character’s conscious? How would the play(s) differ without the chorus? Thematic Analysis Trace and analyze the role of the chorus. Now that students have read the entire 5. Oedipus unknowingly meets and kills his play(s), they can return to the text for a deeper birthfather at a place where three roads understanding of its significant themes. The converge. Typically symbolic of a deci- following topics and questions can be used sion, “crossroads” imply the protagonist for whole class and small group discussion or has a choice to make. Does Oedipus kill as essay topics. his father as a result of free will or fate? Does Oedipus have choice? Explain. 1. In Greek, the name Oedipus means “swollen foot.” How has the torture 6. In the Oedipus trilogy Jocasta, Antigone Oedipus suffered as an infant “scarred” and Eurydice hang themselves, Eteocles not only his ankles, but his entire life? and Polyneices kill each other, Oedipus stabs out his eyes, and Ismene threatens 2. Oedipus says no man can be hurt, “me to kill herself on multiple occasions. Is or any man who lives in light.” Yet Tire- suicide the sign of an internal conflict, sias accuses Oedipus, “you see and still an external expectation, or both? What are blind.” To what extent does Oedipus is the connection between suicide and choose to be blind? Trace the theme of honor in Sophocles’s plays? sight and blindness throughout the play(s). For what is sight a metaphor? 7. In the first play of the Oedipus trilogy, Creon plays a minor and sympathetic role. By the end of Antigone, he suffers A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 15

from the same flaws as Oedipus, and has The hypothetical essay plan offers students progressed into the play’s protagonist. Is collaborative time with their peers to work Creon an antagonist? Or is he a victim? on essay organization and thesis writing. It Consider the role of Creon by discussing also emphasizes the value of annotations as his changing actions and motivations. students see their individual blog ideas turn into significant essay ideas. 8. Examine the lives and characters of Jocasta, Antigone, Ismene, and Eurydice. What is the role of women in the Oedi- II. ACTIVITIES pus plays? Does the playwright call into WITH TECHNOLOGY question the Greek cultural expectations evident in these plays? Consider Creon’s Animoto Multi-Media comments about women. Presentation 9. Compare and contrast Theseus, King of Students can create a multi-media presenta- Athens, to the other two kings in the tril- tion on the Sophocles plays using Animoto. ogy. What is Sophocles’s purpose in paint- com. The program is a quick, user-friendly ing Theseus as a foil to Oedipus and Creon? website where students choose music and 10. Consider the ancient adage, “Pride goeth images from the Internet to illustrate their before a fall.” To which character in the comprehension of character or theme. The Oedipus trilogy does this best apply? result is a digital story told by music, art, and Examine both major and minor characters minimal text, such as quotations from the before making your choice and defending play. After teacher discussion of how music your selection. and visuals can portray certain tones or themes from Sophocles’s trilogy, students Hypothetical Essay simply choose the pieces, and Animoto puts them together in a professional-looking pre- An in-class extension of an online blog or sentation. Students can post the presenta- chat is to create group plans for a hypotheti- tions on the class website, where the clips can cal essay. Print a hard copy of the class blog or be viewed either collectively or at home. To chat and provide one for each student. Long extend the assignment, students can critique discussions can be divided into strands, one each other’s work. Sample presentations and per group. Students may not have had an registration instructions can be found at the opportunity to read the online discussion in following website: http://animoto.com/ its entirety, as some students posted on day one and others on the last day. Ask groups to Book Review Podcasts highlight any repetitive themes or literary issues they see emerging in the blog. Label Ask students to write and record a book these topics one per post-it note. Post notes review of one of the Sophocles plays. Prior to on the board and categorize them. Discuss assigning the review, model the format using findings as a class and ask each group to choose contemporary examples of book, movie, and one of the topics. Groups then create a plan for television show reviews, which can be found an analytical essay. Plans include the following: in popular print publications such as Enter- tainment Weekly or online sites such as http:// 1. A tree-map indicating possible sub-topics; www.pluggedinonline.com/tv/. Ask stu- 2. A flow map illustrating sub-topic order dents to take the role of critic and review (Under each flow-map box is a list of sup- Sophocles’s Oedipus the King, Oedipus at porting details or quotations from Oedipus Colonus, or Antigone. Topics might include the King, Oedipus at Colonus, or Antigone.); plot, characterization, style, and significance. Students should support all input with text. In 3. An analytical thesis statement that illus- this way, critiques are based on valid examina- trates the topic’s significance. 16 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays tion of the play, not merely personal prefer- both peers and professionals. In fan fiction, ence. This assignment provides practice student writers put their own spin on some- writing to specific audiences and for specific one else’s story. Set in the fictional universe of purposes. In this case, students are critics writ- students’ favorite TV shows, films, or books, ing to potential readers of the Sophocles tril- fan fiction stories are based on a published ogy. Writers can share their critiques with the author’s characters or plot. For instance, rest of the class or school community via pod- Ginny Weasley from the Harry Potter series cast, including a sample reading from the text. might encounter Edward Cullen of Twilight To create a podcast, students need only a fame at the crossroads outside of Thebes, and microphone and an audio-editing software from there, they might serve as advisors to program like Audacity, which can be down- Oedipus. Ask students to choose one or two loaded for free. Students create an MP3 file characters from another play, novel, movie, with their information and include transi- or video game, set them in Ancient Thebes or tional commentary. Next, students upload Athens, and create a story based on the the podcast to a free site such as iTunes, or Oedipus trilogy. To provide opportunity for post it to the class website. Classmates, par- publication as well as feedback, invite stu- ents, and other community members can dents to post their stories on one of several listen to the recordings online or download web-based fan fiction sites, such as Fanfic- them to their ipods. tion.net and Fictionalley.org. Book Trailers Word-Clouds A different type of digital review is a book Using words from the text, from their own trailer. Ask students to watch the Oedipus brainstorming, or a combination of both, book trailer discussed in the pre-reading sec- students can create digital “word-clouds” that tion (p. 9) of this guide in preparation for emphasize characterization and theme creating their own Sophocles book trailer or through language, font, color, and size. Stu- dents choose which words should receive “recap”: http://www.60secondrecap.com/ library/oedipus-rex/ greater emphasis and which colors and font demonstrate personality, tone, and theme. For Topics for trailers can include overviews, instance, a word-cloud on Creon might be in context, plot, cast, themes, motifs, and sym- purple, with text support such as “headlong bols. With the use of green screen technology folly,” “frenzied heart,” “always thinks that he and software found in many school media is right,” and “a man of sorrows” in larger centers, students can choose the format of font. Student-chosen words might include their trailers. For example, students might be “proud,” “arrogant,” and “blind.” Using television news reporters or a modern Greek “wordle.net,” at http://www.wordle.net/ chorus, standing in front of the Sphinx students indicate their preferences and Wordle monster in Thebes or performing in the does the rest. The colorful charts can be Theater of . This activity would be printed off and posted as concept maps on the especially helpful if one portion of the class classroom walls. Or, students can post them read Oedipus the King and another read on the class website or directly on Wordle for Oedipus at Colonus or Antigone. the purposes of discussion and critique. Fan Fiction III. GROUP AND Fan fiction is a specific type of modern re- INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS write. Fast gaining popularity as a web-based publishing opportunity, fan-fiction stories Greek Drama Cycle provide students with a real audience for Encourage your students to bring the text to their writing and if they wish, feedback from life. For instance, ask small groups to select a A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 17 scene from Oedipus the King, Oedipus at QAR Grid Colonus, or Antigone and act it out for the In order to develop levels of critical question- class. Assign extra credit for props and cos- ing, students will create their own questions tumes. Assign a director in each group. After on Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, or the group meets to discuss what themes, Antigone. Ask students to create a Question- emotions, or messages they want their scene Answer-Relationship (QAR) Grid by folding to portray, the director helps bring this vision a piece of paper in half and then in half again. to life by making sure all blocking is planned, When the paper is opened, it should have practiced, and focused on the intended goal. four equal-sized squares. Ask students to Remind students to use vocal and facial label the squares with the following: expression and energy. • Right There: The answer is in the Book Jackets play, usually very easy In this activity, groups create and portray a to find. living book cover for an illustrated edition of • Think The answer is in the play, the play. In picking a quotation from the and Search: but not directly. You have drama and in portraying an illustration that to put together pieces of depicts the quotation’s meaning, students information to find it. take on the role of the bookseller or publish- ing house, who must decide how best to get • Playwright The answer is not in the across the point of the play to an audience and You: play. You have to think who has not yet read it. Ask groups to follow about what you already this process: know, what Sophocles tells you in the play, and 1. Pick one quotation from the play that is how the two fit together. particularly significant, one that seems to speak to one of the playwright’s major • On Your Own: The answer is not in the themes or intents, or one that would play. You have to use your make good sense on the cover of the book. own experience and prior knowledge to find it. 2. Write out the quotation on a long, narrow piece of paper, in large enough print to Students then write one question for each be seen from the back of the classroom. square. After creating the QAR Grids, stu- 3. Decide how to portray the quotation in a dents can trade questions and record answers. frozen tableau. Rather than presenting a As an extension, students might meet in scene from the play, create a dramatic partners or groups to discuss answers to their picture that illustrates the quotation. For own and classmates’ questions. instance, the struggle between Antigone’s duty to the state and her duty to her Musical Memoir brother might be portrayed as a tug of Ask students to choose a character from war. This activity requires you to illustrate Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus, or comprehension and synthesis by turning Antigone, either a major one like Oedipus or your understanding into performance art. Antigone, or a minor character such as 4. In front of the class, arrange yourselves Ismene or Theseus. Next, students should into a frozen tableau, and either hold or research and select songs with titles and lyrics post your quotation so that it is part of that reflect this character’s inner and outer the “book cover.” Hold the scene for conflicts, motivations, and actions. The goal thirty seconds, so that the rest of the is to create a musical “memoir,” which can class can read and appreciate your “illus- take the form of a CD insert, a digital photo trated classic.” story, or an essay. Memoirs should include 18 A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays titles, lyrics, and explanations that justify the Extended Reading choice of selections and connect them to the When Creon admonishes Oedipus at the end Sophocles character. It will be useful to dis- of Oedipus the King, he asserts, “Stop this cuss with students how memoirs differ from striving to be master of all. The mastery you autobiographies in that the recollections of had in life has been your fall.” In doing so, the character may be altered by emotion and Creon depicts Oedipus as a classic tragic experience. The result is a study in Sophocles’s hero. Ask students to read one short story or characterizations. poem, one play or novel, or watch one film Gallery Walk that depicts the role of ambition in a hero’s demise or redemption. Students can make a In this cooperative learning activity, divide double-columned comparison chart depict- students into groups of four or five. Assign ing the similarities and differences between each group one of the major themes that have the character and Oedipus. been addressed throughout the reading of Students should consider the following ques- Oedipus the King, Oedipus at Colonus or tions as they read/view: Antigone, such as fate versus free will, vision and blindness, ambition, families, self-muti- 1. What character traits, dramatic ele- lation, and the role of women. In front of ments, or plot events depict the protago- large sheets of paper pre-labeled with the nist as being ambitious? name of a theme and posted around the 2. Does this character illustrate a moral or room, groups meet to brainstorm and write social code of behavior? If so, describe it. down textual evidence and commentary that illustrates their particular theme. When the 3. What is the character’s greatest desire? teacher says, “continue your walk,” students 4. What ultimate price is the protagonist move to the next base and read what the pre- willing to pay to reach his/her objective? vious groups have written before adding their own commentary. The gallery walk continues 5. Detail the outcome of the protagonist’s until the groups have seen and contributed to struggle with ambition. all posters and return to their original place. 6. Does the protagonist regret his/her deci- sion? How do you know? Four Corners 7. Is the protagonist ultimately redeemed Four Corners is a kinesthetic strategy for or condemned for his/her choices? practicing point-of-view and argumentation The following titles focus on themes of ambi- techniques. Assign each corner of the class- tion, fate, blindness, family, self-destruction, room a different opinion, topic, or answer to a and gender roles and are appropriate for both question. For example, one corner might be independent reading or literature circles assigned, “Oedipus is a victim of fate.” Other where each group of students reads a differ- corners may assert, “Oedipus has himself to ent work on the same theme. Ask students blame,” “Oedipus and the gods are equally at for their own additions to the list. fault,” and “I am undecided.” Present the topic or question to the students, allowing them Ambition & Pride time to choose and move to a corner that Rash, Ron. Serena. NY: Ecco, 2009. matches their opinions. Allow groups to talk Marlowe, Christopher. Dr. Faustus. amongst themselves to generate support for NY: Signet Classics, 2001. their opinion and prompt them to give a sum- mary statement. Now allow students to change Shakespeare, William. Macbeth. corners after hearing each other’s explanations. NY: Signet Classics, 1998. Students should explain why they moved. A Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Sophocles: The Complete Plays 19

Gender Roles Vision & Blindness Donnelly, Jennifer. A Northern Light. Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Order of Boston: Graphia, 2004. the Phoenix. NY: Scholastic, 2004. Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll’s House. Shakespeare, William. King Lear. (Ibsen: Four Major Plays, Volume I) NY: Signet Classics, 1999. NY: Signet Classics, 2006. The Sixth Sense.Dir. M. Night Shymalan. Tennyson, Lord Alfred. The Lady of Shallot. Barry Mendel Productions: 1999. 1833, 1842. Fate versus Freewill The Whale Rider.Dir. Niki Caro. Sony Pictures, 2003. Pulman, Philip. The Golden Compass. New York: Knopf Books, 1996. Dysfunctional Families Star Wars. Dir. George Lucas. Crutcher, Chris. Whale Talk. 20th Century Fox: 1977. NY: Greenwillow, 2009. White, T.H. The Once and Future King. Smiley, Jane. A Thousand Acres. New York: Ace Trade, 1996. NY: Anchor, 2003. Self-Destruction Hoban, Julia. Willow. NY: Penguin Young Readers, 2010. McCormack, Patricia. Cut. NY: Push, 2002.


Laura Reis Mayer is a High School Teacher’s Guide to the Signet Classics Edition Instructional Coach in Asheville, North Caro- of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, A Teacher’s lina. A National Board Certified Teacher, she Guide to the Signet Classics Edition of Ibsen: serves as Support Provider for National Board Four Major Plays, Volume I, A Teacher’s Guide Candidates in her district. She has taught to The Signet Classics Edition of George Ber- middle, high school, and college English and nard Shaw’s Pygmalion and My Fair Lady, and has facilitated numerous workshops on teacher A Teacher’s Guide to The Signet Classics Edi- coaching, literacy, Senior Project, and National tion of Christopher Marlowe’s Dr. Faustus. Board Certification. She is also the author of A

About the Editors of This Guide

Jeanne M. McGlinn, Professor in the James E. McGlinn, Professor of Educa- Department of Education at the University tion at the University of North Carolina at of North Carolina at Asheville, teaches Chil- Asheville, teaches methods of teaching and dren’s and Adolescent Literature and directs reading courses. He has taught high school the field experiences of 9-12 English licensure English and developmental reading at all levels, candidates. She serves on various editorial elementary through adult. His research inter- and professional boards, such as the Language ests currently focus on motivating and increas- Experience Special Interest Group of the ing the reading achievement of students in International Reading Association. She has high school and college. He is the author and written extensively in the area of adolescent editor of numerous Penguin Teachers’ Guides. literature, including a critical book on the his- torical fiction of adolescent writer Ann Rinaldi for Scarecrow Press Young Adult Writers series. F ree T eacher ’ s G u ides

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