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Geologica Macedonica, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 87–93 (2013) GEOME 2 ISSN 0352 – 1206 Manuscript received: May 17, 2013 UDC: 551.245.03(497.71/.73) Accepted: October 25, 2013 Original scientific paper
GEOTECTONIC MODEL OF THE ALPINE DEVELOPMENT OF LAKAVICA GRABEN IN THE EASTERN PART OF THE VARDAR ZONE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
A b s t r a c t: Lakavica graben is located in the eastern subzone of the Vardar zone, which during the Alpine orogenesis was covered with very complex processes of tectogenesis. On the area of about 200 km2, in the Lakavica graben, are present geological units from the oldest geological periods (Precam- brian) to the youngest (Neogene and Quaternary). Tectonic structure, or rupture tectonic, is very intense developed and gives possibility for analysis of the geotectonic processes in the Alpine orogen phase. This paper presents the possible model for geotectonic processes in the Lakavica graben, according to which can be generalized geotectonic processes in the Vardar zone during the Alpine orogeny.
Key words: Lakavica graben; geotectonic model; Alpine orogeny; Vardar zone
Vardar zone as a tectonic unit, for the first niki Gulf (Greece), than bent eastward and crosses time, is separated and showed on the "Geological- the ophiolite zone Izmir–Ankara (Turkey). tectomic map of Dinarides and a part of Karpato- Vardar zone is old structure (Arsovski et al., Balkanides" from F. Kossmat (1924). Later, the 1984) which was formed with crushing of the zone is studied by several investigators: Dimitri- Grenvile earth's crust in Riphean Cambrian. Until jević M. (1974), Karamata S. (1974), Arsovski et Triassic, Vardar zone is characterized with geosyn- al. (1984), Ivanov T. et al. (1987), Dumurdžanov et clinals development, tended to thinning the earth's al. (1990), which, from aspect of global tectonic, crust. With rifting processes in the mediterranean gave plate – tectonic models according to which part of Tethys, in Jurassic was formed narrow Vardar zone is determined as rift zone, subduction ocean, and in the Vardar zone was created ocean zone, faulting zone, peeling and overlapping and type of crust. zone of tectonic melange. Today, Vardar zone is In the Vardar zone, based on the determined determined as ophiolite structure (rift), or geotec- differences in the lithological composition and tonic unit that separates Dinarides on west from structure, three subzones with orientation NNW- Serbian–Macedonian massif, Rodopian and Kar- SSE are separated: eastern Vardar subzone, central pato–Balkanides on east. With length of above Vardar subzone and western Vardar subzone (Fig. 1000 km, it is assumed that Vardar zone starts 1). north from Belgrade, than stretches toward south In the eastern Vardar subzone, in their middle along Serbia and central Macedonia, with width of part (south-southeast from Štip) is situated Lakavi- 60–80 km, and goes toward south to the Thessalo- ca graben.
TECTONIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAKAVICA GRABEN AND WIDER VICINITY
The territory of the Republic of Macedonia gen area, where geosyncline conditions of devel- enters into the composition of Mediterranean oro- opment and riftogenesis finished in the end of Pa-
88 G. Petrov, V. Stojanova, G. Dimov leogene and early Neogene, when started conti- formed in this period can now be found on Moun- nental development. The first phase of continental tains ridges of different heights. In some places development, during the Miocene, there was pene- these plateaus are covered by Pliocene and Quater- plenization of the structures created by Pyrenean nary sediments. and Savian orogeny stage. Relics of plateaus
Fig. 1. Tectonic zoning of the Vardar zone on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia (Dumurdžanov N. et al., 1990) 1. Relics of Vardar oceanic crust, 2. Main parts of tectonic ultramafites, LG – Lakavica graben, HBBS – horst Bučim block–Smrdeš, HSGP – horst Serta–Gradeški Mountains
At the beginning of Neogene, or in the middle entation NW-SE, between the horst Serta–Grdeški of Miocene, the first depressions were formed, Mountains and the horst Bučim block–Smrdeš such as Skopje and Kumanovo depression. (Fig. 1). From the southwest, Lakavica graben is During Pliocene were activated tectonic proc- limited with the horst Serta–Smrdeški Mountains esses and were formed structures of rising and along the contrast normal (gravitational) fault. The sinking, which today can be seen in the contempo- horst Bučim block–Smrdeš which is characterized rary relief. The process of differential movements with very complex morphological structure limits between depressions and horsts over the time in- the Lakavica graben on the northeast. creased, leading to activation of old and formation General conclusion is that all morphostruc- of new faults, which are edge faults of the created tures on the area of the Lakavica graben have regu- morpho-structures. lar position that results from the tectonic processes Lakavica graben is located in the Vardar which took place in Alpine period of the geological zone. It is long about 40 km with average width of development on the territory of the Republic of around 5 km. It is relatively sinked block with ori- Macedonia.
Geologica Macedonica, 27 (1), 87– 93 (2013) Geotectonic model of the alpine development of Lakavica graben in the eastern part of the Vardar zone in the Republic of Macedonia 89
GEOLOGICAL COMPOSITION OF LAKAVICA RIDGE
In the wider vicinity of the Lakavica graben carbonate schists, cipollino marbles, marbles and are present rocks from Precambrian, Plaeozoic, chlorite-amphibolite schists. Igneous rocks are pre- Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary (Fig. 2). sented with gabbros. Precambrian complex is presented with high Mesozoic is presented with Jurassic acid ig- metamorphic rocks (different types of gneisses, neous rocks (Štip granites) with granite, quartz- micaschists, graphitic schists, amphibolites, quartz- monconite to granodiorite composition. ites, marbles and cipollino marbles). Cretaceous sediments occurred in the horst Lower Paleozoic complex occurred in the Bučim block–Smrdešh (near the locality Močar- horst Serta–Gradeški Mountains. In this complex nik), where transgressively lied over the Štip gran- are separated: series of amphibole schists and mar- ites. They are presented with basal conglomerates, bles and schistose-carbonate series composed of marls, sandstones and slates.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Fig. 2. Geological map of the wider vicinity of Lakavica graben 1 – Quaternary and Neogene sediments, 2 – Tertiary volcanic rocks, 3 – Upper Eocene flysch sediments, 4 – Cretaceous sediments, 5 – Jurassic (and older) granitoides, 6 – Jurassic gabbro-diabases, 7 – Lower Paleozoic complex, 8 – Riphean Cambrian complex, 9 – Precambrian complex, 10 – faults, 11 – peels
Geologica Macedonica, 27 (1), 87–93 (2013) 90 G. Petrov, V. Stojanova, G. Dimov
Tertiary is presented with Upper Eocene ter- Along the flow of the river Kriva Lakavica rigenous sediments in which, according the litholo- are developed Quaternary gravels and sands with gical composition are separated: basal lithozone, thickness to 100 m. lower flysch lithozone, lithozone of yellow sand- In the wider vicinity of the Lakavica graben stones and upper flysch lithozone. are confirmed many rupture structures (faults and Tertiary volcanism is presented with: ande- peels). These are longitudinal structures with ori- sites, latites, quartz–latites, trachytes and pyroclas- entation NW–SE. They are old ruptures that sev- tic rocks (mainly on the contact with Serbian–Ma- eral times over the geological history were reacti- cedonian massif). vated and have important role in the formation of Pliocene sediments occurred in Lakavica gra- Lakavica graben and surrounding horsts. ben with gravels, sands, clays and sandy clays with thickness over 200 m.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Vardar zone since its formation, in Riphean The second compression phase started in Pa- Cambrian–Lower Paleozoic (before Lower Juras- leocene (Laramide orogeny phase). As a result of sic) had geosyncline development, with a tendency this compression, from northeast toward southeast, to thinning of the Earth's crust. In Lower Jurassic on the terrain of Lakavica graben comes to forma- in the central parts of paleo-Vardar structure led to tion of several reversal faults (peels). Along the the opening of the Earth's crust and the formation Vučjačka peel (Fig. 2,1) granites from the of oceanic type of crust (Fig. 3). Rift development Gradeški Mountains are overlapped along the in the Vardar zone lasted from Lower Jurassic to ophiolite complex Demir Kapija–Gevgelija, and Upper Jurassic, when it came to creating thick along the Koševo peel (Fig. 2,2) Štip granites are ophiolite masses. In the Titonian came to closure overlapped over the Albian–Cenomanian sedi- of the rift with the one sided subduction eastward. ments (near the locality Močarnik). The result was the creation of a long strip of grani- In the Upper Eocene again started mode of toides (Štip granites, Serta, Gradeški Mountains extension, when there were formed more graben etc.). structures. In this period there was a sinking of the In the upper Jurassic–lower Cretaceous with space of Lakavica graben along SW Lakavica fault subduction, generally eastward, under the conti- (Fig. 2,5) and NE Lakavica fault (Fig. 2,6). These nental crust of the Serbian–Macedonian massif, in faults were reactivated in the Pliocene, when it was the further development of the Vardar zone and formed Lakavica graben. beyond, have changed several times the compres- After Upper Eocene maximum transgression, sion mode with mode of extension, with orienta- when much of the region of Lakavica graben was tion east–west. Such a direction of compression covered with Upper Eocene epicontinental, conti- and extension conditioned orientation of Paleozoic, nental and flysch sediments in the Upper Oligo- Mesozoic and Paleogene rocky complexes, faults cene–Lower Miocene (Pyreneic and Savian oroge- and fault blocks and axes of the folding structures ny phase) the space of Lakavica ridge was sub- in direction NNW–SSE with N–S. jected to intense compression of the northeast side The first phase of compression took place in as a result of repeated compression of the Serbo– the period of uppermost Jurassic–lowermost Cre- Macedonian massif on the Vardar zone. With this taceous (young Cimerc orogeny phase). As a result compression upper Eocene sediments were folded, of this compression, in the wider vicinity of the and the folds were formed which were mostly Lakavica graben were formed several reversed slope and inverse southwest. It also led to the for- faults (peels) with overlapping toward west– mation of reversal faults and peells, along which southwest. there was a tectonic diapire intrusion of tectonic In Albian–Cenomanian–Turonian–Senonian, ophiolites. Along Serta peel (Fig. 2,3) and Damjan in conditions of extension, were formed graben peel (Fig. 2,4) occurred overlapping from NE to structures filled with flysch and flyschoidal sedi- the SW on the Paleozoic schists and Jurassic grani- ments (presented with conglomerates, marls, sand- toides through Upper Eocene sediments (Fig. 4). stones and slates).
Geologica Macedonica, 27 (1), 87– 93 (2013) Geotectonic model of the alpine development of Lakavica graben in the eastern part of the Vardar zone in the Republic of Macedonia 91
Fig. 3. Geotectonic model of Lakavica ridge in Alpine orogeny cycle 1 – Pliocene sediments, 2 – upper Eocene sediments, 3 – Cretaceous sediments, 4 – Jurassic granitoides, 5 – gabbro – diabases, 6 – Paleozoic and Precambrian metamorphic rocks, 7 – compression, 8 – extension, 9 – vertical rising through the compression, 10 – overlapping, 11 – gravitational sinking
At the end of Oligocene and the beginning of are found on different heights (400–600 m in horst Miocene in the Vardar zone starts the period of Serta–Gradeški Mountains, or 600–800 m in horst extension. In the period of middle Miocene to Bučim block–Smrdeš). Pleistocene were formed numerous neotectonic In the Miocene–Pliocene proceeded intense continental grabens filled with lake sediments. volcanic activity of andesite–latite–quartzlatite In this period on the territory of the Lakavica composition, and in Pliocene–Pleistocene basalt graben comes to peneplenization of the before and alkali basalt composition. formed morpho-structural forms and formation of Definitive Lakavica graben formation began denudation plateaus. Relics of these plateaus today in the Pliocene with reactivation of older faults
Geologica Macedonica, 27 (1), 87–93 (2013) 92 G. Petrov, V. Stojanova, G. Dimov with NW-SE orientation (SW Lakavica fault and Especially important in this area is SW NE Lakavica fault), as a result of the extension Lakavica fault, which is a regional fault that cuts strain in the Vardar zone. With the departure of the deep crust in this part of the Vardar zone. This is horst Serta–Gradeški Mountains from the horst an old fault, along which during on Jurassic, on Bučim block–Smrdeš and gravitational descent of more places occurred diapire intrusion on tectonic the block between the two horsts was formed ultrabasites and later was reactivated several times. Lakavica graben.
Fig. 4. Geological profile near the village of Leskovica 1 – deluvium, 2 – Pliocene sediments, 3 – Upper Eocene sediments, 4 – Jurassic granites, 5 – biotite gneisses, 6 – crushed zone, 7 – mylonitization, 8 – faults and peels
Although Lakavica graben is a relatively lowed by three periods of compression that existed small structure, which together with the wider en- between periods of extension. The first compres- vironment covers an area of about 200 km2, can sion period is related to the young Cimeric orogeny serve for quite accurately reconstruction of geo- stage, the second compression period is associated tectonic processes in Alpine orogeny. The same with the Laramide orogeny stage and the third with can be generalized on entire area on the Vardar Pyreneic–Savian orogeny phase. The result of zone on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. these tectonic processes and refolding and folding, Namely, before creating of the Lakavica graben (in faulting, peeling and overlapping toward west– the Pliocene), the resulting strain extension in Al- southwest to all newly created and older forma- pine orogeny epoch, continental collision was fol- tions.
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Р е з и м е
ГЕОТЕКТОНСКИ МОДЕЛ НА АЛПСКИОТ РАЗВОЈ ЛАКАВИЧКИОТ ГРЕБЕН ВО ИСТОЧНИОТ ДЕЛ НА ВАРДАРСКАТА ЗОНА ВО РЕПУБЛИКА МАКЕДОНИЈА
Гоше Петров, Виолета Стојанова, Горги Димов
Клучни зборови: Лакавички гребен; геотектонски модел; Алпска орогенеза; Вардарска зона
Лакавичкиот грабен се наоѓа во источната субзона ника, е интензивно развиена, што дава можност за расчле- на Вардарската зона, која за време на Алпискиот ороген нување на геотектонските случувања во Алписката ороге- циклус била зафатена со многу сложени процеси на текто- на фаза. 2 генеза. На површина од околу 200 km , во Лакавичкиот Во овој труд е презентиран веројатен модел на гео- грабен се застапени геолошки единици од најстарите гео- тектонските процеси во Лакавичкиот грабен, преку кој лошки периоди (прекамбриум) до најмладите (неоген и може да се генерализираат геотектонските процеси во квартер). Тектонската градба, особено руптурната текто- Вардарската зона за време на Алписката орогенеза.
Geologica Macedonica, 27 (1), 87–93 (2013)