Acquisition System for Arabic

Saleem Abuleil Khalid Alsamara Martha Evens Information System Department Computer Science Department Chicago State University Illinois Institute of Technology 9501 S. King Drive, Chicago, IL 60628 10 West 31 Street, Chicago IL 60616 [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

all the roots in the file. Al-Shalabi reduced the Abstract processing, but he discussed this from point of view of not . Anne Roeck and Many papers have discussed different Waleed Al-Fares (2000) developed a clustering aspects of Arabic morphology. Some of algorithm for Arabic words sharing the same them used patterns; others used patterns and verbal root. They used root-based clusters to affixes. But very few have discussed Arabic substitute for dictionaries in indexing for noun morphology particularly for nouns that information retrieval. Beesley and Karttunen are not derived from verbs. In this paper we (2000) described a new technique for describe a learning system that can analyze constructing finite-state transducers that Arabic nouns to produce their involves reapplying a regular-expression morphological information and their compiler to its own output. They implemented paradigms with respect to both gender and the system in an algorithm called compile- number using a rule base that uses suffix replace. This technique has proved useful for analysis as well as pattern analysis. The handling non-concatenate phenomena, and they system utilizes user-feedback to classify the demonstrate it on Malay full-stem reduplication noun and identify the group that it belongs and Arabic stem inter-digitations. to. Most verbs in the Arabic follow clear rules that define their morphology 1 Introduction and generate their paradigms. Those nouns that are not derived from roots do not seem to follow

a similar set of well-defined rules. Instead there A morphology system is the backbone of a are groups showing family resemblances. natural language processing system. No We believe that nouns in Arabic that are application in this field can survive without a not derived from roots are governed not only by good morphology system to support it. The phonological rules but by lexical patterns that Arabic language has its own features that are not must be identified and stored for each found in other . That is why many noun. Like irregular verbs in English their forms researchers have worked in this area. Al-Fedaghi are determined by history and etymology, not and Al-Anzi (1989) present an algorithm to just phonology. Among many other examples, generate the root and the pattern of a given Pinker (1999) points to the survival of past Arabic word. The main concept in the algorithm forms became for become and overcame for is to locate the position of the root’s letters in the overcome, modeled on came for come, while pattern and examine the letters in the same succumb, with the same sound pattern, has a position in a given word to see whether the tri regular past form succumbed. The same kinds graph forms a valid Arabic root or not. of phenomena are especially apparent for proper Al-Shalabi (1998) developed a system nouns in Arabic derived from Indian and Persian that removes the longest possible prefix from the names. Pinker uses examples like this, as well as word where the three letters of the root must lie emerging research in neurophysiology, to argue somewhere in the first four or five characters of for the coexistence of phonological rules and the remainder. Then he generates some lexical storage of English verb patterns. combinations and checks each one of them with We believe that further work in Arabic instruments are derived; some are inert. key ﻣﻔﺘﺎح :computational requires the Example development of a pattern bank for nouns. This An is considered to be a type paper describes the tool that we have built for of noun in traditional Arabic grammar. It this purpose. While the set of patterns for describes the state of the modified noun. .Mr ﺳﻴﺪ beautiful ﺟﻤﻴﻞ :common nouns in Arabic may soon be Example big آﺒﺒﺮ Professor ﻣﺤﺎﺿﺮ established, newspapers and other dynamic sources of language will always contain new An is a noun that is not derived proper names, so we expect our tool to be a and that indicates the place or the time of the permanent part of our system, even though we action. Example: north ﺷﻤﺎل city ﻣﺪﻱﻨﺔ Month ﺷﻬﺮ .may need it less often as time goes on A proper noun is the name of a specific 2 Nouns in the Arabic Language person, place, organization, thing, idea, event, date, time, or other entity. Some of them are A noun in Arabic is a word that indicates a solid (inert) nouns some of them are derived meaning by itself without being connected with [Abuleil and Evens 1998]. the notion of time. There are two main kinds of noun: variable and invariable. Variable nouns 3 Noun Classification have different forms for the singular, the dual, the plural, the diminutive, and the relative. In this paper we focus on the following nouns: Variable nouns are again divided into two kinds: genus nouns, agent nouns, instrument nouns, inert and derived. The inert noun is not derived , proper adjectives (adjectives derived from another word, i.e. it does not refer to a from proper nouns), proper nouns, and . verbal root. Inert nouns are divided into two Some of these nouns are not derived from verbs kinds: concrete nouns (e.g., lion), and abstract and some are. All of these nouns use the same nouns (e.g., love). Derived nouns are taken from pattern when it comes to the dual form either for another word (usually a verb) (e.g. office); they masculine or feminine, but there are many ways have a root to refer to. A derived noun is usually to form the plural noun. Some of the nouns have close to its root in meaning. It indicates, besides both masculine and feminine forms, some of the meaning, the concrete thing that caused its them have just feminine forms and some have formation (case of the agent-noun), or just masculine forms. A few nouns use the same underwent its action (case of the patient-noun), format for both the plural and the dual (e.g. (teachers used for both dual and plural ﻣﺪرﺳﻴﻦ or any other notions of time, place, or instrument. The following are the noun types: For most nouns, when they end with the letter ,this indicates the feminine form of the noun ,(ة) A genus noun indicates what is common to every element of the genus without sometimes it does not, but it changes the ﻣﻜﺘﺐ .being specific to any one of them. It is the word meaning of the noun completely (e.g library). Sometimes the same ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ,naming a person, an animal, a thing or an idea. office book consonant string with different vowels has آﺘﺎب man رﺟﻞ :Example ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ ,school ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ .An agent noun is a derived noun different meanings (e.g indicating the actor of the verb or its behavior. It teacher). Nouns are not like verbs in the Arabic has several patterns according to its root. language, there is no clear rule to define the Example: morphological information and generate the the person who studies morphology paradigms for them. Instead each دارس A patient noun is a derived noun group of nouns follows its own pattern. indicating the person or thing that undergoes the We have classified the nouns into 84 action of the verb. Patient nouns have several groups according to their patterns for singular, patterns depending in the verbal root. Example: plural, masculine and feminine. We generated a the thing that has been studied method for each group to be used to find the ﻣﺪروس An instrument noun is a noun morphological information and to form its indicating the tool of an action. Some paradigm. Very few of these groups have a unique pattern for plural and singular; and most noun by running several tests: Database lookup, of them share the same pattern with other particle check, check on adjectives derived from groups. Table 1 shows some examples of these proper nouns, parse of noun phrases and verb groups and their patterns. The digit 9 stands for phrases, the affix check and the pattern check and This module was built by Abuleil and Evens ”[ء] stands for “hamzh ‘ ,”[ع] the letter “ayn since there is no (1998, 2001). We use this module in our new ”[ﻩ] stands for “ta @ corresponding letters in English for these letters. system to find all nouns and extract them from the text. Table 1. Pattern Classification S-M S-F P-M P-F f9l X af9al X Interface f9l f9l@ af9la’ af9la’ X f9l@ X f9l fa9l fa9l@ f9al/f9l@ f9al/f9l@ User- DB f9al X X af9l@ Feedback Checker mf9l X mfa9l X fa9wl X fwa9el X mf9el X mfa9el X X fa9l@ X fa9lat Noun Database f9el f9el@ f9la’ f9la’ Morphology S: Singular F: Feminine Analyzer P: Plural M: Masculine Type- X: not available Finder

4 Acquisition System Suffix Pattern Analyzer Generator The system reads the next noun in the text, isolates and analyzes the suffixes of the noun, generates its pattern, and uses either the Classified Noun Table, the Suffix/Pattern Figure 1. The Acquisition System Analysis or the User-Feedback Module to find the group to which the noun belongs to identify 4.3 Database the rules that applies to this group to generate all The database includes a Classified Noun Table morphological paradigms with respect to the that contains each root noun (singular: number and gender and updates the database. masculine or feminine) and the number of the The system consists of several modules as group to which the noun belongs. Each time the shown in Figure 1. system identifies a new noun it adds its root to the Classified Noun Table. 4.1 Interface Module This graphical user interface allows the user 4.4 Noun Morphology Analyzer to interact with the system and handles the Module input/output. This module displays a main This is the core of the system, it calls different menu with two main options: collect nouns modules and performs different tasks to identify from documents and find morphological the noun and find its paradigm. First, it passes information. the noun to the suffix analyzer module to drop the suffix. Second, it passes it to the pattern 4.2 Type-Finder Module generator module to find the pattern. Third, it The main function of this module is to read the analyzes the pattern to see whether it belongs to document and find the of the more than one group. It checks the Classified word: noun, verb, adjective, particle or proper Nouns Table and then the suffix/pattern to identify the group that the noun belongs to. If 4.7 Database Checker Module the system cannot identify the group then it calls This module identifies any already classified the user-Feedback module to produce some noun or any noun derived from it. It gets the questions to be answered by the user to reduce noun and its pattern from the noun morphology the number of alternatives to one. Finally, analyzer, finds all groups that contain the depending on the group the noun belongs to, it pattern, finds the singular noun (masculine or generates the morphological paradigms for feminine) in each group and uses it to check the number and gender and updates the database. Classified Noun Table. If the noun exists it gets the group number to which it belongs and passes 4.5 Suffix Analyzer Module it to the Noun Morphology Analyzer to generate ﻣﻼﻋﺐ) This module identifies the suffix, analyzes it and the results. For example the noun produces some lexical information about the playground) has the pattern (mfa9l). This pattern noun like number and gender. First, it checks if appears in three different groups. See table 2. any pronoun is concatenated with the noun. ”ﻣﻼﻋﺐ “ Second, it checks for a suffix indicating number. Table 2. The Groups of the Noun Third, it checks for a suffix indicating gender. Group# Sing. Sing Plural Plural .comes at the end of Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem (ي) When the letter the noun there are two cases: it could be a part of 1 X mf9l@ X Mfa9l the noun so we should not drop it, or it could be 2 Mf9l X X Mfa9l ﻣﻠﻌﺒﺎت /an extra letter as in relative nouns or when the 3 mfa9l mf9l@ mf9lun pronoun is connected to the noun and it should mf9len be dropped in this case. When the noun ends most of the time it The nouns formed from these patterns have the ,(ﻱﻦ) with the letters represents dual nouns but some times it following paradigms. See table 3. represents both plural and dual nouns as in the ”ﻣﻼﻋﺐ “ following patterns: mfa9l, fa9l, mf9ull. Table 3. The Paradigms of the Noun Sometimes we have to check the pattern also to Group# Sing. Sing Plural Plural Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. help in analyzing the suffix. We will handle ﻣﻼﻋﺐ X ﻣﻠﻌﺒﺔ X 1 these problems as special cases. ﻣﻼﻋﺐ X X ﻣﻠﻌﺐ 2 ﻣﻠﻌﺒﺎت /ﻣﻠﻌﺒﻮن ﻣﻠﻌﺒﺔ ﻣﻼﻋﺐ 3 ﻣﻠﻌﺒﻴﻦ Pattern Generator Module 4.6 We have collected 62 different patterns used for both masculine and feminine, singular and plural If the noun itself or any other noun derived from after the suffix has been dropped see Appendix it has been previously classified we will find its A. We used these patterns to generate a set of noun root (singular noun) in the Classified Noun rules to build a finite-state diagram to be used to Table. The module will find the root (singular in the table and will get its ”ﻣﻠﻌﺐ“ (find the pattern for any noun. The input to this masculine module is a noun after its suffix has been group number “2” and pass it to Noun dropped in the previous step, the output is one or Morphology Analyzer to find the noun more patterns. If more than one pattern is found paradigms. we validate the string by checking the pattern table. 4.8 User-Feedback Module at the This module gets all alternatives (groups) from (ا) and the letter (م) The letter beginning of the noun are sometimes the first the noun morphology analyzer module. It characters of the noun, but sometimes they are analyzes them and generates some questions to separate words. We collected the nouns that be answered by the user. It gets the answers, and analyzes them and finds the group that the noun (ا) and the letter (م) begin with the letter saved them in a file to help us to distinguish belongs to. The module asks questions like: Is between these two cases. the noun a singular? Is the noun a plural? Does the noun have a masculine-singular format? column name to form questions. For the “A1” Does the noun have a feminine-singular format? value use the following question: is the noun a [column name]? For the “B1” use the following Example: question: does the noun have the [column name] playground) format? Get the answer and drop invalid ﻣﻼﻋﺐ) Input: The noun Pattern: mfa9l group(s). Number of groups that contain the pattern is 3. Group# Sing. Sing. Plural Plural Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Process: 1 -1 0 -1 1 Step #1: identify the groups 2 0 -1 -1 1 A = Σ1’s 0 0 0 2 Group# Sing. Sing. Plural Plural B = Σ-1’s 1 1 2 0 Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. C = Σ 0’s 1 1 0 0 1 X mf9l@ X mfa9l A1 = #G – A 2 2 2 0 2 mf9l X X mfa9l B1 = #G – B 1 1 0 2 3 mfa9l mf9l@ mf9lun / mf9lat mf9len Step #5: Repeat step 3 and step 4 until you end up with one group or all the values in both Row Step #2: Replace (X) with –1, given pattern with A1 and row B1 have the values either zero or the 1 and any thing else with 0. number of groups left.

Group# Sing. Sing. Plural Plural Step #6: if more than one group is left from step Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. #5 then find the largest value in the row “C” 1 -1 0 -1 1 from left to right and ask the following question: 2 0 -1 -1 1 which of the following [list all the options in that 3 1 0 0 0 column] is the [column name] of the noun?

Step #3: Add the one’s in each column and Group Sing. Sing. Plural Plural subtract it from number of groups. Add the (- # Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. 1’s) in each column and subtract it from number 2 0 -1 -1 1 of groups. Add the (0’s) in each column. A = Σ1’s 0 0 0 1 B = Σ-1’s 0 1 1 0 Group# Sing. Sing. Plural Plural C = Σ 0’s 1 0 0 0 Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. A1 = #G – A 1 1 1 0 1 -1 0 -1 1 B1 = #G – B 1 0 0 1 2 0 -1 -1 1 3 1 0 0 0 The questions the module generated from the Σ A = 1’s 1 0 0 2 previous example are: Σ B = -1’s 1 1 2 0 Q1: is the noun plural feminine? Σ C = 0’s 1 2 1 1 Answer: yes // the system drops group#3 A1 = #G – A 2 3 3 1 Q2: does the noun have singular masculine B1 = #G – B 2 2 1 3 format? Answer: No // the system drops group#1 From the table above we know that: the probability that the noun is singular masculine is Result: playground) is a ﻣﻼﻋﺐ) and the probability that it is a plural Group # 2: The noun 33.3% feminine is 66.6%. plural Feminine. The singular Masculine format the singular Feminine format and ,( ﻣﻠﻌﺐ) is Step #4: Pick the smallest value greater than 0 plural masculine format are not available for this from the “A1” row and the “B1” row go from noun. left to right and from top to bottom. Use the 5 Examples Fifth, it generates the results: group#38 and updates the database. Table 6 shows system The following example shows how the system output for some input. ﻣﺪرﺏﺘﻬﻢ) works. Assume that the input is the noun their trainer), First the system calls the suffix Table 6. System Output آﺮﻱﻤﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺕﻨﺎ ﻃﺎﺋﺮة ﻣﻔﺎﺕﻴﺢ analyzer module to drop the extra letter Noun keys plane Our generous replace sound ,(ﻣﺪرﺏﺖ + هﻢ) pronoun: their) at the end) ﻱﻦ ﻥﺎ ------generate the Suffix ,(ة) with the letter (ت) the letter trainer) and some lexical information ﻣﺪرﺏﺔ) noun ﻓﻌﻴﻞ ﻓﻌﻞ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ ﻣﻔﺎﻋﻴﻞ about the noun. Pattern trainer) mfa9el fa9l@ f9l f9el ﻣﺪرﺏﺔ) Second, it passes the noun Group # 52 23 3 37 to the pattern generator module to generate the pattern (mf9l@). Third, it checks the group table Result Plural Singular Singular Dual / looking for this pattern (mf9l@). Fourth, if more masc. Feminine feminine plural that one group is found it uses the Database masc. آﺮﻱﻢ ﺻﻮت X ﻣﻔﺘﺎح Checker Module to check the Classified Noun Singular Table. Fifth, if the noun does not exist in the / Masc. آﺮﻱﻤﺔ X ﻃﺎﺋﺮة Singular X table, it calls the User-Feedback Module to / Fem. / آﺮﻣﺎء analyze the groups (all alternatives) and asks the Plural / X X X آﺮﻱﻤﻴﻦ .user some questions to assist in identifying the Masc آﺮﻱﻤﺎت اﺻﻮات ﻃﺎﺋﺮات ﻣﻔﺎﺕﻴﺢ / group see Table 4 and Table 5. The question that Plural the module generated is: Fem. آﺮﻱﻤﻴﻦ ﺻﻮﺕﻴﻦ X ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡﻴﻦ / Dual آﺮﻱﻤﺎن ﺻﻮﺕﺎن ﻣﻔﺘﺎﺡﺎن .Masc آﺮﻱﻤﺘﻴﻦ X ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺕﻴﻦ Question: Does the noun have a masculine- Dual / X آﺮﻱﻤﺘﺎن ﻃﺎﺋﺮﺕﺎن .singular format? Fem Answer: Yes Result: drop group # 10 & group # 22 6 Results

Table 4. First Cycle to Generate Question To test our system we used nouns obtained from Group # Sing. Sing Plural Plural a corpus developed by Ahmad Hasnah based on Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. text given to Illinois Institute of Technology, by 10 -1 1 0 -1 the newspaper, Al-Raya, published in Qatar. We 22 -1 1 0 -1 have tested each module in our system: the 38 0 1 0 0 suffix analyzer modules, the pattern generator Σ A = 1’s 0 3 0 0 module, and the user-Feedback module. Table 7 Σ B = -1’s 2 0 0 2 shows the result of testing the system on 500 Σ C = 0’s 1 0 3 1 nouns. A1 = #G – A 3 0 3 3 B1 = #G – B 1 3 3 1 Table 7. Suffix / Pattern / Noun Morphology

Analyzer Table 5. Second Cycle to Generate Question # # % % Group # Sing. Sing Plural Plural correct incorrect correct incorrect Masc. Fem. Masc. Fem. Suffix 38 0 1 0 0 Analyzer 490 10 97% 3% A = Σ1’s 0 1 0 0 Pattern B = Σ-1’s 0 0 0 0 Analyzer 471 29 93% 8% Noun Σ 1 0 1 1 C = 0’s Morph 451 49 90.2% 9.8% A1 = #G – A 1 0 1 1 analyzer B1 = #G – B 1 1 1 1 As shown in Table 7 there were ten failure because of incorrect suffix analysis and 29 due to missing patterns. These missing patterns have University of Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada, now been added. The suffix analysis problem is Aug 16 1998, pp 1-7. hard to correct because it arises from underlying ambiguities. If the noun has been classified Abuleil, S. and Evens, M., 2002. Extracting an previously the system does not have any Arabic Lexicon from Arabic Newspaper Text. problem to identify it and identify any noun Computers and the Humanities, 36(2), pp. 191- derived from it. 221. The User-Feedback Module found most of the nouns that the Database Checker Module Al-Fedaghi, Sabah and Al-Anzi, Fawaz, 1989. failed to identify. Table 8 shows a number of “A New Algorithm to Generate Arabic Root- nouns identified by suffix/pattern, nouns Pattern Forms”. Proceedings of the 11th National identified by Database Checker Module and Computer Conference, King Fahd University of nouns identified by User-Feedback Modules. Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia., We believe that the more knowledge that the pp 4-7. system gains and the more nouns that it adds to the Classified Noun Table the fewer questions Al-Shalabi, R. and Evens, M., 1998. “A have to be asked. Computational Morphology System for Arabic”. Workshop on Semitic Language Processing. Table 8. Noun Methods COLING-ACL’98, University of Montreal, Nouns Nouns Nouns Identified Montreal, PQ, Canada, Aug 16 1998. pp. 66-72. Identified by Identified by by Database Suffix/ User-Feedback Beesley, K. and Karttunen, L., 2000. “Finite- Checker Pattern Module State Non-Concatenative Morphotactics”. Analysis Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 144 32 289 Hong Kong, Oct 1-8, 2000. pp.191-198. 28.8% 7.1% 64.1% Hasnah, A., 1996. Full Text Processing and Retrieval: Weight Ranking, Text Structuring, 7 Conclusion and Passage Retrieval For Arabic Documents.

Ph.D. Dissertation, Illinois Institute of We have built a learning system that utilizes Technology, Chicago, IL. user feedback to identify the nouns in the Arabic language, obtain their features and generate their Roeck, A. and Al-Fares, W., 2000. “A paradigms with respect to number and gender. Morphologically Sensitive Clustering Algorithm We tested the system on 500 nouns from for Identifying Arabic Roots”. Proceedings of newspaper text. The system identified 90.2% of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Association for them, 7.1% by just analyzing the suffix and the Computational Linguistics. Hong Kong, Oct 1-8, pattern of the noun, 28.8% by using the 2000. pp.199-206. Database Checker Module and the Classified

Noun Table and 64.1% by using User-Feedback Module. The system failed on 9.8% of the tested Appendix A. Patterns nouns. Pattern Used for Example ﺟﻤﻞ .References f9l sing – masc ﺟﺰر .f9l plural – masc ﻋﺮب .Abuleil, S. and Evens, M., 1998. “Discovering f9l plural – fem. / masc ﺻﻮر .Lexical Information by Tagging Arabic f9l plural – fem ﺿﻮء .Newspaper Text”, Workshop on Semitic f9l sing – masc ﺻﻮرة .Language Processing. COLING-ACL’98, f9l@ sing. – fem ﻣﻔﺘﺎح .mf9al sing. masc Pattern Used for Example Pattern Used for Example ﻣﺴﺘﺨﺪم .Mstf9l sing. – masc ﻗﺘﻠﺔ .f9l@ plural – masc ﻣﺴﻠﺴﻞ .mf9ll sing. – masc اﺧﺘﺮاع .aft9al sing. – masc ﻣﺴﺘﺸﻔﻰ .Mstf9a sing. fem اﻥﻔﺠﺎر .anf9al sing. – masc ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻋﺔ .mf9wl@ sing. – fem اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر .astf9al sing. - masc ﻣﻨﺪﻱﻞ .mf9el sing. masc اﺷﺠﺎر .af9al plural – fem ﻣﻨﺎدﻱﻞ .mfa9el plural – fem اﻏﻨﻴﺎء .af9la’ plural – fem. / masc ﻣﺴﺮﺡﻴﺔ .mf9le@ sing. – fem ادوﻱﺔ .af9l@ plural – fem ﻣﻘﺎﺕﻞ .mfa9l sing. – masc اﺏﺮﻱﻖ .af9el sing. – masc ﻣﻈﺎهﺮة .mfa9l@ sing. – fem اﺏﺎرﻱﻖ .afa9el plural – fem ﻣﺸﺮوع .mf9wl sing. – masc ﺡﻤﺮاوات .f9lawat plural – fem ﻣﺸﺎرﻱﻊ .mfa9el plural – fem ﺟﻮاﻣﻊ .fwa9l plural – fem ﻣﻮازﻱﻦ .fwa9el plural – fem ﻣﻴﺰان .fe9al sing- masc ﻏﺰﻻن .f9lan plural – fem ﻗﻨﺎﺏﻞ .f9all plural – fem ﺕﻜﻠﻔﺔ .tf9l@ plural – fem ﺡﻜﻮﻣﺔ .f9wl@ plural –fem ﻋﻤﻮد .f9wl sing. – masc ﻗﻨﺒﻠﺔ .f9ll@ sing- fem ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ .f9le@ sing. – fem ﺻﺤﻔﻲ .f9le sing.- masc آﺮﻱﻢ .f9el sing – masc ﺟﺰﻱﺮة .f9el@ sing.- fem ﻣﻄﺎر .f9al sing.- masc ﺟﻤﺎل .f9al plural – fem ﺻﺤﺎري .f9ale plural – fem ﻋﺎﻝﻢ .fa9l sing. – masc ﺏﺎﺧﺮة .fa9l@ sing. – fem ﺧﺴﺎرة .f9al@ sing. – fem ﺳﺠﺎد .f9al plural – masc ﻋﻠﻤﺎء .f9la’ plural – masc ﺡﻤﺮاء .f9la’ sing. – fem ﺟﻤﺎهﻴﺮ .f9alel plural – fem. / masc ﺻﺎروخ .fa9wl sing. masc ﺡﻘﺎﺋﺐ .f9a’l plural – fem ﺕﻤﺮﻱﻦ .tf9el sing. – masc ﺟﻤﻬﻮر .f9lwl sing. – masc ﺕﻤﺎرﻱﻦ .tfa9el plural – fem ﺟﻮهﺮة .fw9l@ sing. – fem ﻋﻨﻮان .f9wal sing. – masc ﻋﻨﺎوﻱﻦ .f9awel plural – fem ﻣﻨﺠﺮة .mf9l@ sing. – fem ﻣﻨﺎﺟﺮ .mfa9l plural – fem ﻣﺪرس .mf9l sing. – masc ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ .mf9l@ sing. – fem ﻣﻜﺘﺐ .mf9l sing. – masc ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ .mf9l@ sing. – fem ﻣﻌﺘﻘﻞ .mft9l sing. masc