Assignments: 5/4/2020 – 5/27/202 Directions: This material will be new! We will take advantage of spring to learn about ! I will keep it simple and clear. I have included some notes I made to use for any of the activities. I have also included 2 articles to help you understand more, if you need it. I want this last chunk of time to be fun and informative. Week 1: 5/4/2020 – 5/8/2020 articles 1 and 2: Please read the attached articles on plants. These articles will teach you about the structure of plants and the differences between “vascular” and “nonvascular.” These are the two main categories of plants. Questions: Once you have read the articles, answer the following 5 questions about plants. The info you read in the articles will be useful to you on the next activity. SIDE NOTE: vascular means veins, so we have veins to carry blood and plants have to carry . Answer on a separate sheet: 1. What are the 3 main structures of plants? 2. What are the 2 main types of plants? 3. What is a ? 4. What is a nonvascular plant? 5. What are the names of the 2 “vascular tissues?” Week 2: 5/11/2020 – 5/15/2020 rubbings: We are fast approaching summer which means there are many new outside! Collect 2 or 3 (or as many as you want) different looking leaves to create rubbings. I have attached pictures and directions on how to do this. You will want to press firmly so all the details of your leaves show through on the paper. You can use pencils, colored pencils, graphite sticks, crayons, or oil pastels to make your rubbings. After you’ve done your rubbings, answer the following 5 questions about your leaves. Feel free to look back at the plant articles to help. Questions: Answer on a separate sheet: 1. Which type of plant is more common, vascular or nonvascular? 2. Did you collect leaves from vascular or nonvascular plants? 3. Looking at your leaf rubbings, how do you know your leaves are vascular? (look at the SIDE NOTE from week 1) 4. What can vascular plants grow that nonvascular plants cannot? 5. Tell me one example each of a vascular plant and a nonvascular plant. School year Survey: I would have liked us to complete a little survey about the year in my class, at the end of the year. I have attached it for you to complete. This is for me to improve the class for next year! Just be honest and thorough. Plants 1 What are plants?

Plants are living that cover much of the land of planet Earth. You see them everywhere. They include grass, , , bushes, , , and more. Plants are members of the plantae.

What makes a plant a plant?

Here are some basic characteristics that make a living a plant:

 Most plants make their own through a process called .

 Plants have a cuticle, meaning they have a waxy layer on their surface that protects them and keeps them from drying out.

 They have eukaryotic cells with rigid walls.

 They reproduce with or with sex cells.

Plant cells are composed of rigid cell walls made of , (which help with photosynthesis), a nucleus, and large filled with water.

Energy from the Sun

One of the most important functions of most plants is photosynthesis. Plants use photosynthesis to create directly from . You can go here to learn more about photosynthesis.

Types of Plants

There are many different types of plants. They are typically divided into two major groups: vascular and nonvascular.

 Vascular - These plants have specific tissues that help to move materials such as water through the plant. They are further divided into non-flowering plants and flowering plants. Most of the organisms you probably think of as plants, such as trees, bushes, and flowers, fit into this group.

 Nonvascular - These are smaller plants, such as mosses, that use diffusion and osmosis to move material through the plant. Basic Structure of Plants

The three basic parts of most vascular plants are the leaf, the stem, and the .

Leaf - The leaf is an of a plant that is specialized for photosynthesis. Leaves capture energy from sunlight as well as collect from the air. Many leaves are flat and thin in order to catch as much sunlight as possible. However, leaves come in many different shapes including long skinny needles that are found on trees.

Stem - The stem is the main structure that supports leaves and flowers. Stems have vascular tissues that move food and water around the plant to help it grow. Plants often store food in their stems.

Roots - The roots of a plant grow underground. Roots help to keep the plant from falling over and gather water and from the . Some plants store food in their roots. The two major types of roots are fibrous roots and taproots. Taproots tend to have one major that grows very deep, while fibrous roots have many roots that grow in all directions.

Interesting Facts about Plants

 The fastest growing in the world is . Bamboo can grow up to 35 inches in just one day!

 Tomatoes and are considered .

 Fungi (mushrooms) and (seaweed) are not considered plants, but are part of their own kingdoms.

 There are nearly 600 different of carnivorous plants that actually eat and small .

 The largest in the world is the which can grow to over three feet in diameter.

Plants 2 - How to Compare Vascular & Nonvascular Plants When you think of a plant you probably picture something with leaves, branches, a stem and flowers. Many plants, known as vascular plants or trachelophytes, fit this description. However, some don’t, and these are known as nonvascular plants or . Vascular vs Nonvascular Plants The main difference between vascular and nonvascular plants is that a vascular plant has vascular vessels to carry water and food to all the different parts of the plant. The is the vessel that transports food and the xylem is the vessel that transports water. On the other hand, a nonvascular plant doesn't have a vascular system. This means nonvascular plants are much smaller than vascular plants, and this is one of the simplest ways you can distinguish between vascular vs nonvascular plants. Another difference is that a nonvascular plant doesn't have roots like a vascular plant does. Instead, a nonvascular plant has , small hairs that keep the plant in place. A vascular plant's roots provide support and also soak up water from the area surrounding the plant. Nonvascular plants are most commonly found in moist environments, which ensures they get enough water without relying on roots. Nonvascular plants have much more simple methods of than vascular plants. Most nonvascular plants reproduce by producing single-celled spores or through the asexual process of vegetative propagation, where a new plant grows from a portion of the parent plant. Vascular Plant Examples Clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, and angiosperms (flowering plants) are some examples of vascular plants. Basically, any land plant that carries water and food throughout its parts is a vascular plant, from grasses and plants to and trees. Gymnosperms, like cedars, and , create cones to house their , while angiosperms, like sunflowers, lilies, trees and trees, create their seeds inside flowers or fruits. Non Vascular Plant Examples Three non vascular plants examples are mosses, liverworts and , which all have flattened, green plant bodies. You're likely to see mosses covering the floor of a forest or the trunk of a . They have short central stems, wiry branches and very small, leaf-like structures. Liverworts are most common in tropical climates and may be leafy (typically found on tree trunks in damp ) or branching (common on moist soil or damp rocks). Branching or thallose liverworts provide food for animals, and help logs decay and rocks disintegrate. Hornworts, as their name suggests, have a thorny structure. Most species form small, insignificant blue-green patches, but tropical species may spread across large areas of soil or up the sides of tree trunks.

Vascular plants or tracheophytes are known for their proper organization of the systems, and bearing flowers, green leaves, stems, roots, woods, and branches, on the contrary, Non-vascular plants or bryophytes do not perfectly fit with these features. Examples of , Ferns, flowering, and non-flowering plants are examples of vascular plants, while Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts are examples of non-vascular plants. But most importantly the difference lies in the presence of the vascular system which is xylem and phloem. The xylem carries water and minerals to every part of the plant, while phloem carries food. So, the plants which have this well-organized system are categorized as vascular, whereas the plants where these systems are absent are known as non-vascular plants. Plants are the multicellular, photosynthetic . Kingdom ‘Plantae‘ is also placed in under Five kingdom classification as one of the major kingdoms, containing huge varieties of plants. Further, this kingdom was classified into different categories, under non- vascular and vascular groups. The primitive form of plants is termed as non-vascular, while the advanced type is kept under vascular. There are many different varieties of the plants found on earth and there are many more to discover. Till date there are around 320 thousand species of plants are known. Hereby, on the way of focusing on the difference between the two groups of plants i.e. vascular and non-vascular, we will also discuss on them briefly. Comparison Chart


Meaning Vascular plants are the green plants, Non-Vascular plants are short which have specialized tissues for height plants and lack transporting food, water and minerals to transport system for minerals, all parts of the plant. These tissues food, water and gas. These (xylem and phloem) constitute the plants do not produce , vascular system. These type of plants can fruits or flowers. grow much longer.

Examples Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Ferns, Liverworts, Hornworts and Pines, Grasses, Sunflowers, Clubmosses, Mosses. etc.

Grow on Land, deserts, and other places. Humid, moist, swampy and shady places are best suited for their survival.

Xylem and Phloem Present. Absent. tissues (Vascular system)


Lifecycle Principal or dominating phase is Principal or dominating , which is diploid, and second generation is , is gametophyte. and the second is sporophyte.

Roots Vascular plants have a proper root Instead of roots, they have system, which supports the plants to rhizoids (small hairs to anchor the soil and gets from it. support the plant firmly).

Leaves  Leaves have well defined shape  True leaves are absent. and play role in photosynthesis.  There is no special  Stomata works in . function, or specialized tissues

against the water loss and for gas exchange.

Stem The stem is multilayered in vascular The true stem is not found in plants and helps in protection, non-vascular plants. transportation of food, water, etc.

Definition of the Vascular Plants Vascular plants, also known as Tracheophytes are the groups of higher plants, categorized in kingdom ‘Plantae’. These are the green plants, with the specialized plant called as vascular tissues. This special issue is the main feature which varies them from the non-vascular plants. These two types of tissues are xylem and phloem. the vascular plants are responsible for the transportation of water, minerals, and other products to different parts of the plants. The vascular plants can grow up to a height, they are found on land, deserts, aquatic environments, etc. They include Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Pines, Clubmosses, Ferns, etc. The plants with the vascular system have well-defined root and system, they also bear leaves, fruits, flowers, and wood.

The cells show proper differentiation, where xylem is made up of a structural called as and carries minerals and water from roots to other parts. The role of phloem is to carry the products of photosynthesis that is . The vascular plants exhibit the alternation of generations to complete its life cycle. That means they have sexual or gametophytic phase and asexual or sporophytic phase. The are the diploid organism and by the process of meiosis, they produce the haploid spores. The haploids develop into the new young ones and undergo the gametophytic phase. These produce gametes (male and female) which undergoes the sexual reproduction. The fusion of sperms and eggs (male and female) produces the zygote, which is the next diploid sporophyte generation. Definition of the Non-Vascular Plants Non-vascular plants are small and simple and include the liverworts or Haptophyta, hornworts or Anthocerotophyta and mosses or Bryophyta. They are also known as bryophytes. Non-vascular plants are said as the most primitive form of land vegetation categorized under kingdom ‘Plantae’. These plants are not well developed and lack true leaves, stems, and roots, mainly they have a poor transport system. This transport system consists of the two tissues namely xylem and phloem are responsible for carrying minerals and water to different parts of the plants.

Though non-vascular plants have certain specialized tissues, which helps in transportation of water and other substances, as the specialized tissue do not have lignin and so does not said as the . These plants do not bear fruits, flowers or wood and are found in moist, shady areas. The green parts of the plants are known as the and rhizoids are the thin filaments, which anchor the plant to their place. Bryophytes or non-vascular plants show alternation of generations and cycle completes between sexual and asexual stages. The thallus is the gametophyte of the plant which develops male and female organs. The gametophyte phase is the sexual phase and produces gametes. The photosynthesis takes place in the plant gametophyte and so non-vascular plants spend most of their time in the gametophyte phase and even the sporophytes are dependent on the gametophyte for . The sporophyte is the asexual phase, where spores are produced. The sporophytes keep the spores and when get germinated they develop into a new plant. Mosses are most abundantly found among bryophytes and these plants look like dense mats of vegetation and grow on mountains, rocks, trees or glaciers.

Key Differences Between Vascular and Non-Vascular Plants Upcoming points are essential in order to differentiate between vascular and non-vascular plants: 1. Vascular plants are the green plants, which have true leaves, stems, roots, and bear fruits and flower, essentially they have specialized tissues (xylem and phloem) for transporting food, water, and minerals to all parts of the plant. These type of plants can grow much longer. Non-Vascular plants are short height plants, with poorly developed roots and stems, do not bear fruits and flowers, or woods and mainly lacks transport system carrying minerals, food, water, and gas. 2. Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, Ferns, Pines, Grasses, Sunflowers, Clubmosses, etc. are examples of some of the vascular plants while Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses are examples of non-vascular plants. 3. Vascular plants widely grow on widely in every part, while non-vascular plants are specified to marshy, swampy, moist and shady places. 4. Xylem and Phloem tissues (Vascular system) is the critical point to discuss, as these tissues help in carrying food, water and minerals to all parts of the plants and these tissues are the specializations of vascular plants, while it is not found in non-vascular plants. 5. The life cycle of both the plants are same, that means both types of plants go through the alternation of generations, but in vascular plants dominating phase is sporophyte, which is diploid and in non-vascular plants dominating generation is gametophyte, and second is sporophyte. 6. Vascular plants have a proper root system, which supports the plants to anchor the soil and gets nutrients from its, whereas in non-vascular plants instead of roots, they have rhizoids (small hairs to support the plant firmly). 7. Stems or shoot system is well developed in vascular plants and protect the plants, helps in exchange of gases, photosynthesis, etc., in non-vascular plants true stems are absent. 8. Leaves of the vascular plants play a critical role in photosynthesis, which prevents the water loss and stomata works in gas exchange, whereas in non-vascular plants true leaves are absent, and there is no special function or specialized tissues against the water loss and for gas exchange. Similarities

 Both the types of plants belonging to the same kingdom Plantae.

 As both are the types of plants so contains and .

 They require water to grow.

 Both the types undergo photosynthesis and provide .

 Vascular and non-Vascular plants have waxy cuticles.

 Both the types show alternation of generation. Conclusion The first thing clicked on the mind or the picture which is created after listening to the word ‘Plant’ is of the green leaves, colorful flowers, fruits. Though from the above content it is much evidence that not all plants bear these items, some of them are categorized as plants but have different features from the typical green plants. We also considered a few similarities, due to which they both are kept in one group called as plants.


1. Which activities did you enjoy most this year in Biology?

2. Which activities do you not enjoy this year?

3. What topic(s) did you learn the best this year in biology (cell , mitosis, meiosis, photosynthesis, etc.)?

4. What would you like to learn about related to biology that we did not learn this year? Give as many options as possible. 


(../images/craft-steps/leafprints-step1.jpg) 1 Collect leaves. Collect leaves of various shapes and sizes. You can use fresh leaves or dried fallen ones. 


(../images/craft-steps/leafrubbings-step2.jpg) 2 Position a leaf. Place a leaf with its bottom side facing up. 


(../images/craft-steps/leafrubbings-step3.jpg) 3 Place paper over the leaf. Put a sheet of paper, preferably thin or lightweight, over the leaf. 


(../images/craft-steps/leafrubbings-step4.jpg) 4 Rub a crayon. Rub the side of a crayon or an oil pastel gently on the area over the leaf. As you do this, you'll see the colored areas start to take the shape of the leaf. 


(../images/craft-steps/leafrubbings-step5.jpg) 5 Rub over the entire leaf. Continue until you've rubbed over the entire leaf. 


(../images/craft-steps/leafrubbings-step6.jpg) 6 Remove the leaf. Remove the leaf from under the paper. This completes the basic steps for making a leaf rubbing. 


(../images/craft-steps/leafrubbings-step7a.jpg) 7 Make more leaf rubbings. Make more leaf rubbings using other colors and different leaf shapes.