PLANT : Vegetative & Reproductive

Study of form, shape or structure of a and its parts Vegetative vs. reproductive morphology

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Peanut_plant_NSRW.jpg Vegetative morphology


Seed = starting point of plant after fertilization; a young plant in which development is arrested and the plant is dormant.

Monocotyledon vs. = developed at 1st node of ( leaf). “Textbook” plant

http://bio1903.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch35/35_02AngiospermStructure.jpg Stem variation Stem variation

http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/botf99/stems&leaves/barrel.jpg http://www.puc.edu/Faculty/Gilbert_Muth/art0042.jpg

http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/botf99/stems&leaves/xstawb.gif http://biology.uwsp.edu/courses/botlab/images/1854$.jpg Vegetative morphology Leaf variation Leaf variation Leaf variation Vegetative morphology

If the primary persists, it is called a “true root” and may take the following forms: taproot = single main root (descends vertically) with small lateral . fibrous roots = many divided roots of +/- equal size & thickness. http://oregonstate.edu/dept/nursery-weeds/weedspeciespage/OXALIS/oxalis_taproot.jpg adventitious roots = roots that originate from stem (or leaf ) rather than from the true root. All roots on monocots are adventitious. (e.g., corn and other grasses).

http://plant-disease.ippc.orst.edu/plant_images/StrawberryRootLesion.JPG Root variation

http://bio1903.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch35/35_04RootDiversity.jpg variation Reproductive morphology: flower

Yuan Yaowu Flower parts

Yuan Yaowu Flower parts

Pedicel = (Latin: ped “foot”) stalk of a flower. Receptacle = end of stem on which flower is borne. Sepals = outer of parts, often greenish (leaves). Calyx = collective term for sepals of one flower (Greek: kalux “to cover”). Petals = second whorl of parts, often colorful and showy. Corolla = collective term for petals of one flower (Latin: “”). = collective term for calyx and petals (Greek: peri “around,” anth “flower”). = perianth parts that are not differentiated into sepals and petals.


Yuan Yaowu http://www.freefoto.com/images/12/61/12_61_52---Tulip_web.jpg Corolla

Yuan Yaowu Yuan Yaowu Polypetalous = petals separate Gamopetalous (sympetalous) = petals fused

Yuan Yaowu Yuan Yaowu Actinomorphic/ radially Zygomorphic/ bilaterally symmetric/ regular = symmetric/ irregular = multiple planes of symmetry a single plane of symmetry Reproductive flower parts

Note: in this flower, the pistil is compound, consisting of five fused carpels.

pistil style


Yuan Yaowu filament Reproductive flower parts

Stamen = producing structure; consists of filament and anther; ‘male’ function in reproduction. Androecium = collective term for . (Greek: andro “male”, oikos “house”) Carpel = producing structure; consists of ovary, style, and stigma; ‘female’ function in reproduction. (Greek: karpos “”) may have a single carpel or many carpels; the carpels may be separate or fused together. Pistil = generalized term for each individual female structure in a flower; pistils are made of carpels! When single or separate, each carpel equals one pistil – simple pistil When fused together, one pistil may consist of many carpels - compound pistil (Note: see Figs. 4.19 and 4.20 in your textbook). - collective term for pistils. (Greek: gyno “female”, oikos “house”) Carpel vs. Pistil Ovary position

Superior ovary = ovary above the point of attachment of the other flower parts. Flowers are thus hypogynous = with perianth and stamens arising from below the ovary.

Inferior ovary = ovary is beneath the point of attachment of the other flower parts. Flowers are thus epigynous = with perianth and stamens arising above the ovary.

1/2-inferior ovary = floral parts attach midway on the ovary such that it is partly superior and partly inferior.

Hypanthium = flat, cuplike, or tubular structure on which the sepals, petals, and stamens are borne; usually formed from the fused bases of the perianth parts and stamens or from a modified receptacle.

Flowers are thus perigynous = with perianth parts and stamens borne on a that is distinct from the ovary. (note: different from Reproductive Morphology worksheet…use this definition!) Ovary position quiz

Yuan Yaowu


Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

hypanthium Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Ovary parts

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Ovule = the egg-producing structure.

Placenta (pl. placentae) = tissue inside the ovary to which the attach. placenta = attachment of ovules within the ovary. ovule Placentation types septum

basal free-central free-central Parietal placentation = ovules attach to the wall of the ovary. Axile placentation = ovules attach to the central axis of the ovary with two or more . Free-central placentation = ovules attach to a freestanding or central axis in the middle of a unilocular ovary. Basal placentation = ovules attach at the base of the ovary. Placentation quiz

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Placentation quiz

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN


http://home.comcast.net/~suzyq9/MarioQBellOpenCompare.jpg Fusion of flower parts connate = parts of one whorl fused to each other; fusion of LIKE parts. (e.g., gamopetalous corolla - petals fused together) adnate = parts of one whorl fused to parts of another whorl; fusion of UNLIKE parts from different whorls. (e.g., epipetalous stamens - stamens adnate to petals.)

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Yuan Yaowu Flower types complete = all four whorls present. incomplete = one or more whorls missing. perfect = both reproductive whorls present; bisexual. imperfect = one reproductive whorl missing; unisexual. monoecious = with imperfect (unisexual) flowers, in which both are on the same plant. dioecious = plants with imperfect (unisexual) flowers, in which each is on a separate plant.

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Inflorescences

Inflorescence = positions and arrangements of flowers on a plant. Inflorescences Inflorescences Inflorescences Inflorescence quiz

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Will Cook 2010 http://www.freefoto.com/images/12/61/12_61_52---Tulip_web.jpg

Solitary = a single flower formed in the axil of a leaf (solitary axillary flower) or at the end of a stem (solitary terminal flower). = simple, indeterminate inflorescence with a single axis bearing pedicellate flowers. Panicle = indeterminate inflorescence with two or more orders of branching, each axis bearing flowers or higher order axes. Inflorescence quiz

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Textbook DVD KRR & DLN Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Spike = simple, indeterminate inflorescence with a single axis bearing sessile flowers. = determinate or indeterminate inflorescence with all flowers on pedicels of +/- equal length that arise from a single point at the apex of the inflorescence axis. = spike with a thickened, fleshy axis. Inflorescence quiz

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Textbook DVD KMN

Textbook DVD KRR & DLN

Spikelet = small spike. = inflorescence consisting of a dense, elongated mass of inconspicuous, usually -pollinated flowers. Head or Capitulum = compact determinate or indeterminate inflorescence with a very short, often disk-like axis and usually sessile flowers. Inflorescence quiz

Textbook DVD WSJ

Textbook DVD WSJ

Cyme = determinate, compound inflorescence composed of repeating units of a pedicel bearing a terminal flower and below it, one or two bracteoles, each bracteole associated with an axillary flower. = raceme with the pedicels of the lowermost flowers elongated, bringing all flowers to more or less the same level, i.e., a flat-topped raceme. Fruit

Fruit = mature ovary; after the eggs within the ovules are fertilized, the ovary starts to expand, and becomes a fruit containing .


http://home.comcast.net/~suzyq9/MarioQBellOpenCompare.jpg Fruit variation

Bill Ebbesen

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f7/FruitArrangement.jpg http://photos.mongabay.com/07/1107DSC09262.jpg You will see many different types of in lab

Fruit summary

Simple fruits (from a single flower) Dry fruits Dry, dehiscent fruits (opens) : 1 carpel splitting along 1 suture : 1 carpel splitting along 2 sutures ( only) : 2 carpels (includes the silicle, only) : ≥2 carpels opening in various ways

Dry, indehiscent fruits (doesn’t open) : 1-2 carpels containing a single seed, thin wall surrounding cypsela: 1 carpel ( only, i.e. sunflower seeds) : winged achene-like fruit caryposis: (grain) surrounding wall ± fused to single seed () : ≥2 carpels, single seed, fruit walls are thick, bony : ≥2 carpels, splits into 1-seeded segments

Fleshy fruits : 1 carpel, 1 seed, outer fruit walls soft, inner wall is hard (i.e. pit) : 5 carpels, inferior ovary ( only) : ≥2 carpels, several – many seeded pepo: berry with thick outer skin (e.g. , squash) : berry with thick outer skins and inner sections (e.g. )

Aggregate fruits (from separate carpels of a single flower) e.g.: –aggregate of fruit –aggregate of follicles –aggregate of drupelets

Multiple fruits (fruit is a fusion of fruit from multiple separate flowers) e.g.: pineapple