Vol. 6, No. 4 April 1996 1996 Annual GSA TODAY Meeting Call for A Publication of the Geological Society of America Papers Page 17 Electronic Dipping Reflectors Beneath Abstracts Submission Old Orogens: A Perspective from page 18 the British Caledonides Registration Issue June GSA Today John H. McBride,* David B. Snyder, Richard W. England, Richard W. Hobbs British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate, Bullard Laboratories, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0EZ, United Kingdom


Figure 1. A: Generalized location map of the British Isles showing principal structural elements (red and black) and location of selected deep seismic reflection profiles discussed here. Major normal faults are shown between mainland Scotland and Shetland. Structural contours (green) are in kilome- ters below sea level for all known mantle reflectors north of Ireland, north of mainland Scotland, and west of Shetland (e.g., Figs. 2A and 5); contours (black) are in seconds (two-way traveltime) on the reflector I-I’ (Fig. 2B) pro- jecting up to the Iapetus suture (from Soper et al., 1992). The contour inter- val is variable. B: A Silurian-Devonian (410 Ma) reconstruction of the Caledo- nian-Appalachian orogen shows the three-way closure of and with the leading edge of Eastern thrust under the Laurentian margin (from Soper, 1988). Long-dash line indicates approximate outer limit of Caledonian-Appalachian orogen and/or accreted . GGF is Great Glen ; NFLD. is Newfoundland.

reflectors in the upper-to-middle crust, suggesting a “thick- skinned” structural style. These reflectors project downward into a pervasive zone of diffuse reflectivity in the lower crust. This zone of diffuse reflectivity corresponds to a theoretical depth interval of low strength that represents distributed shearing separating upper crustal and uppermost mantle lay- ABSTRACT ers of greater strength. Prominent dipping reflectors also occur After two decades of deep seismic reflection profiling, our within the high-strength uppermost mantle beneath the Cale- understanding of dipping reflectors in the crust and upper donian orogen. Reflectors within the stronger upper-to-middle mantle beneath old orogenic belts, and especially their rela- crust and upper mantle are not connected across the Moho tion across the crust-mantle boundary, remains incomplete. discontinuity and thus seem kinematically distinct, although The Caledonian orogenic front (Moine thrust) and the Iapetus mantle reflectors in places appear to continue upward into the suture in Great Britain, two of the world’s most studied com- lowermost crust. Dipping crust and mantle reflectors probably pressional belts, show a consistent pattern of discrete dipping originated from different geologic events: dipping reflectors in the crust first took form as thrusts during the early Paleozoic Caledonian , whereas those in the upper mantle *Present address: Illinois State Geological Survey, Natural Resources Building, 615 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820. Dipping Reflectors continued on p. 2 IN THIS ISSUE GSA TODAY April Vol. 6, No. 4 1996 Dipping Reflectors Beneath Old 1996 GSA Annual Meeting Orogens: A Perspective from the Call for Papers ...... 17 GSA TODAY (ISSN 1052-5173) is published British Caledonides ...... 1 monthly by The Geological Society of America, Inc., Penrose Conference Report ...... 33 with offices at 3300 Penrose Place, Boulder, Colorado. and Geologists in the Former Mailing address: P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301- Soviet Union: Opportunities for Interaction GSA on the Web ...... 35 9140, U.S.A. Second-class postage paid at Boulder, Colorado, and at additional mailing offices. Postmas- Life of Geologists ...... 6 Environment Matters ...... 36 ter: Send address changes to GSA Today, Membership Volcanoes in Kamchatka ...... 8 Letter to the Editor: USGS RIF ...... 39 Services, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301-9140. 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Individual scientists are hereby granted Forum ...... 12 GSA Meetings ...... 45 permission, without royalties or further requests, to About People ...... 13 Classifieds ...... 46 make unlimited photocopies of the science articles for use in classrooms to further education and science, and to make up to five copies for distribution to associates in the furtherance of science; permission is granted to Dipping Reflectors continued from p. 1 (1) Can dipping crustal reflectors beneath make more than five photocopies for other noncom- mercial, nonprofit purposes furthering science and edu- the Caledonides be unequivocally linked cation upon payment of the appropriate fee ($0.25 per have an even older history associated with compressional structures at the sur- page) directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 27 with an as yet unrecognized episode face, and how are compressional struc- Congress Street, Salem, Massachusetts 01970, phone (508) 744-3350 (include title and ISSN when paying). of or Late Proterozoic rifting tures distributed deeper within the crust? Written permission is required from GSA for all other of the Laurentian supercontinent. Crust (2) Does dipping reflector structure in the forms of capture, reproduction, and/or distribution of and mantle reflectors were likely reacti- upper mantle beneath the Caledonides any item in this journal by any means. GSA provides this and other forums for the presentation of diverse vated by Mesozoic and younger North have any relation to Paleozoic or younger opinions and positions by scientists worldwide, regard- Sea rifting, which may also have pro- features in the crust above it—what really less of their race, citizenship, gender, religion, or politi- duced, or at least enhanced, the diffuse are the admissible interpretations for upper cal viewpoint. Opinions presented in this publication do not reflect official positions of the Society. reflectivity in the low-strength lower mantle reflectors? (3) Finally, we argue that crust. the crust and upper mantle were mechani- SUBSCRIPTIONS for 1996 calendar year: cally decoupled during Caledonian com- Society Members: GSA Today is provided as part of INTRODUCTION pression, and that crust and mantle defor- membership dues. Contact Membership Services at mation structures beneath the Caledonides (800) 472-1988 or (303) 447-2020 for membership Since its inception in 1981, the British have separate origins. information. Nonmembers & Institutions: Free with Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate paid subscription to both GSA Bulletin and Geology, (BIRPS) has been accumulating deep seis- otherwise $45 for U.S., Canada, and Mexico; $55 else- DIPPING CRUSTAL REFLECTORS where. Contact Subscription Services. Single copies mic reflection data over the offshore parts may be ordered from Publication Sales. Claims: For of the Caledonian orogen. To date, about Moine Thrust nonreceipt or for damaged copies, members contact Membership Services; all others contact Subscription 17,000 km of profiles have been recorded The Moine thrust (Fig. 1A) is Services. Claims are honored for one year; please allow around the British Isles. The major crustal the classic structure of the Caledonide- sufficient delivery time for overseas copies. framework structures of the Caledonian Appalachian system, and is probably anal- orogen, namely the Caledonian orogenic ogous to the Taconian suture in the North STAFF: Prepared from contributions from the GSA staff and membership. front (locally Moine thrust) and the Iape- American Appalachians. Where it crops Executive Director: Donald M. Davidson, Jr. tus suture, are arguably the best studied out in mainland Scotland, the thrust Science Editor: Suzanne M. Kay Paleozoic orogenic features in the world, floors a thick east-dipping Department of Geological Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 particularly from the standpoint of deep zone that separates metamorphic rocks Forum Editor: Bruce F. Molnia reflection data. These two structures of the thrust belt to the east from the less U.S. Geological Survey, MS 917, National Center, together effectively delimit compressional deformed Precambrian foreland and cover Reston, VA 22092 Managing Editor: Faith Rogers deformation resulting from the Caledo- sequence to the west (Barr et al., 1986). Production & Marketing Manager: James R. Clark nian orogeny (Silurian–Early Devonian) Deep seismic data over the offshore pro- Production Editor and Coordinator: Joan E. Manly in Britain (Fig. 1A). The goal of this report jection of the thrust reveal a thick wedge Graphics Production: Joan E. Manly, Adam S. McNally is to summarize results of our recent work of east-dipping reflections in the middle- on the British Caledonides by focusing on to-lower crust (Fig. 2A). This wedge is ADVERTISING the significance of dipping reflectors, fea- capped by a highly coherent reflection Classifieds and display: contact Ann Crawford (303) 447-2020; fax 303-447-1133 tures now considered to be characteristic (Fig. 2A; M-M’) that correlates with the of compressional orogens. Moine thrust (McBride and England, Issues of this publication are available electronically, in full color, from GSA as Acrobat “Portable Document The greater Paleozoic Caledonide- 1994). The thrust separates an unreflective Format” (PDF) files. These can be viewed and printed Appalachian orogen continues to be the upper crust from a highly reflective crust on personal computers using MSDOS or MSWindows, focus of studies of collisional , as below. The thrust can be projected into on Macintoshes, or on Unix machines. You must use the appropriate Adobe Acrobat Reader, available for illustrated by the recent debate over the the lower crust on the basis of weaker free download from GSA and other online services. The relation of the early Paleozoic Argentine collinear reflection segments and by the more powerful Adobe Exchange program, available Precordillera and related terranes in South distinct change from the eastward-dipping from commercial software suppliers, may also be used. Download the issues of GSA Today and/or the appropri- America to the North American Appala- fabric of the wedge to a westward-dipping ate Readers using the Uniform Resource Locator (URL): chians (e.g., Astini et al., 1995). The well- set of reflections immediately to the east http://www.geosociety.org. Issues of GSA Today are defined reflector patterns of the crust and (W-W’). posted about the first of the month of publication. upper mantle for the British Caledonides This publication is included on GSA’s annual CD-ROM GSA Journals on Compact Disc. Call GSA Publication provide a guide to understanding Iapetus Suture Sales for details. boundaries in Britain as well as elsewhere. The Iapetus suture forms one arm Printed with pure soy inks on recyclable paper in the U.S.A. The three main problems we address are: of the Caledonian triple convergent “junc-

2 GSA TODAY, April 1996 AB

Figure 2. A: A 15° finite-difference time migration and depth conversion of Geco-Prakla NSDP85-8 seismic reflection profile (section displayed with east on left so seismic character can be directly compared to that in B). M-M’ is the interpreted Moine thrust reflector. W-W’ is an oppositely dipping reflector that appears to be cut off by M-M’. “Flannan” refers to dipping mantle reflector. B: A 15° finite-difference time migration and depth conversion of BIRPS NEC seis- mic reflection profile. I-I’ is a dipping reflector within the Iapetus suture. A-A’ is a weak set of subhorizontal reflectors. See Figure 1A for location. Data are dis- played as variable area, no wiggle traces with no vertical exaggeration (V = H). tion” of Laurentia, Baltica, and reflectors do not actually extend into the thrust, a bivergent pattern similar to that (Fig. 1B). In mainland Britain, the suture mantle. The continuation of the reflective in the model is observed (W-W’ and M-M’ separates the Eastern Avalonia terrane to wedge from the middle crust toward the in Fig. 2A). A problem is that this pattern the south from the Southern Uplands to Moho suggests a “thick-skinned” model may simply represent two distinct defor- the north (Fig. 1A), the farthest outboard for the Caledonian orogen, with thrusts mation episodes (W-W’, being older, is of the Caledonian terranes accreted to imbricating the footwall rather than a crosscut by the Moine thrust pattern). Laurentia before the final closure of the single decollement separating upper and For the Moine thrust section where the . Suturing is inferred to have lower plates. If we interpret these observa- dominant reflector dip is to the east, the been in the Middle Silurian and associated tions in terms of deformation in a com- model predicts that westward subduction with northward subduction (Soper et al., pressional zone, then the dominant reflec- occurred beneath Scotland (cf. Figs. 2A 1992). Deep seismic profiles crossing the tor becomes a discrete thrust or and 3). As yet, no such subduction has offshore projection of the Iapetus suture zone, and the underlying reflectivity rep- been inferred from surface geology (Barr (NEC line in Fig. 1A) typically show two resents distributed and disordered defor- et al., 1986). Near the Iapetus suture strong north-dipping reflectors spanning mation that continues to the base of the (I-I’ in Fig. 2B), no clear bivergence is the middle crust (below and including I-I' crust where it abruptly disappears. A prin- observed, although the reflection data in Fig. 2B). The upper and northernmost cipal difference between the crust beneath show one set of discordant reflectors (A-A’) reflector forms a boundary between reflec- the Moine thrust and the Iapetus suture that appears to intersect the dominant tive and unreflective crust. The seismic is the prominence of a “bivergent” (i.e., dipping Iapetus suture pattern. Following expression of the Iapetus suture is inter- interpreted thrusts dipping in opposing the model (Fig. 3), the predominance of preted as the leading edge of Avalon directions) pattern of dipping reflectors northwest-dipping crustal reflectors would crust (i.e., the footwall of the suture zone). in the Moine thrust section (Fig. 2A) com- be associated with southeastward subduc- A possible reversal of reflector dip appears pared with the relative absence of a biver- tion; however, the available geologic evi- farther northwest in the hanging wall of gent pattern in the Iapetus suture section dence has been used to argue in favor of the suture zone (A-A’ in Fig. 2B), but the (Fig. 2B). northward subduction (Soper et al., 1992). northwest-dipping pattern clearly domi- A finite-difference geodynamic In summary, the crustal sections nates the crustal section and may slightly model (Quinlan et al., 1993) formulated underlying the two principal framework continue into the uppermost mantle, to explain dipping reflectors beneath structures of the Caledonian orogen have where it appears to either offset Moho orogens predicts a bivergent pattern that a similar seismic signature. This similarity reflections or merge with a northwest- develops during a single deformation points toward a unified explanation in dipping Moho. phase. This pattern forms above a which both structures have a mainly discontinuity where the subducting crust thick-skinned deformation style modified Moine Thrust and bends downward as it detaches from its by thrust imbrication. The thrust Iapetus Suture Synthesis mantle (Fig. 3). Such models are poten- directions inferred from the seismic data A key point of our study is that the tially useful in linking observations of seismic signatures of the Moine thrust and dipping crustal reflectors with mantle Iapetus suture show significant similarities subduction polarity. Beneath the Moine Dipping Reflectors continued on p. 4 even though they appear to be quite dif- ferent structures at the surface. Both crust- al sections are dominated by a prominent Figure 3. One-stage geody- dipping reflector that correlates with a namic model (from Quinlan metamorphic and/or terrane boundary et al., 1993) representing and that divides the crust into a reflective two domains of dipping lower section and a poorly reflective upper crustal reflectors interpreted as thrust faults associated section. The dipping reflector acts as the with subducting lithosphere. leading edge of highly reflective crust Only one domain is typically which may be more widely deformed observed in the British Cale- than poorly reflective crust. In each case, donides as indicated (see par- this dominant reflector appears to ap- ticularly Fig. 2B). As subduc- proach the Moho as a planar surface and tion proceeds to the right, mantle lithosphere is detached from the crust. The black circle gives the position on the top of the to disrupt the Moho at intersection. The down-going plate where the mantle of the left plate detaches and is underthrust. The direction of dominant and other associated dipping the dominant thrust vergence is the same as that of material transport.

GSA TODAY, April 1996 3 Dipping Reflectors continued from p. 3 indicate transport of crustal material away from the interior of the orogen (i.e., northwest for Moine thrust, south- east for Iapetus suture; Figs. 1A and 4). In summary, a single-phase geodynamic model correctly predicts key aspects of the seismic observations; however, linking the dipping reflector pattern in the crust to subduction in the mantle remains a prob- lem. Our next step must be to intensify study of reflectivity in the upper mantle and show how it is, or is not, structurally linked with crustal reflectivity.

DIPPING MANTLE REFLECTORS One of the world’s most remarkable regions of reflective upper mantle (Fig. 1A) lies beneath the British Caledonides (Flack et al., 1990). New industry seismic profiles and reprocessed older profiles have recently improved our knowledge of the Flannan mantle reflectors (Fig. 5), better constraining their regional distribution and origin. We have pursued a working hypothesis that the northern Scottish mantle reflectors (currently mapped as an east-plunging antiform north of mainland Scotland and a synform west of Shetland; Figure 4. Simplified schematic drawings of NSDP85-8 and NEC seismic reflection profiles showing their Fig. 1A) and the occasional reflectors from positions relative to the surface traces of the Caledonian orogenic front (locally Moine thrust) and the Iapetus suture. Arrows on profiles indicate interpreted thrust vergence. The two seismic sections are seismic lines north and west of Ireland shown referenced to a theoretical shear stress vs. depth curve for an idealized continental crust and (Fig. 1A) are correlative or at least closely mantle (from Meissner and Kusznir, 1987) and a surface heat flow of 70 mW/m2, typical for a related. Comparison of the sections in Paleozoic orogen (alternative curve for lower crust assumes abrupt mid-crustal shift from acidic to dry parts A and B of Figure 5 shows that the mafic mineralogies). expression of this mantle reflector and its geometrical relation to the Moho vary considerably along strike. Northwest of tion of a zone of shearing. Two proposed profiles that cross it. Thus, it is clear that the Scottish mainland (west end of section explanations for a pre-Caledonian origin subduction need not produce mantle in Fig. 5A), the reflector continues from are that these reflectors represent (1) a reflectors that are preserved for hundreds the uppermost mantle into the lower relict subduction zone (Warner et al., of millions of years after the event. crust and marks a disruption or offset of 1996), or (2) extensional shearing within the Moho. Although other workers have the upper mantle produced during Neo- STRAIN PARTITION IN argued that this reflector is either a Meso- proterozoic rifting of the Laurentia-Baltica CALEDONIAN LITHOSPHERE zoic normal fault or a Caledonian thrust, supercontinent (McBride et al., 1995). it does not consistently follow either The above discussion of crust and Support for pre-Caledonian subduction Mesozoic or younger normal fault trends, mantle structure, in which Caledonian-age comes from the postulated accretion of or Caledonian structural trends. On none thrusts and mantle reflectors are spatially at least one island arc onto the Laurentia- of the available profiles can continuity of unconnected, suggests distinct crust and Baltica supercontinent at 1.8 Ga (Dickin, normal faults nor thrusts down into the upper mantle strain patterns. Rheological 1992). Alternatively, on the basis of paral- upper mantle be seen, despite the fact that models of the crust and upper mantle, lelism between the trend of mantle reflec- the Moine and other Caledonian thrusts, which assume an increasing mafic and tors and the old Laurentian margin (Fig. as well as major basin-bounding normal decreasing quartz mineralogy with depth 1B), the mantle reflectors contoured in faults, commonly dip in the same direc- and a typical orogenic geotherm (e.g., Figure 1A may be associated with Neopro- tion as the mantle reflector. Meissner and Kusznir, 1987), predict terozoic rifting (McBride et al., 1995). The key point of our observations is strength maxima in the mid-crust and Current models of continental rifting (e.g., that reflectors in the crust are discontinu- just beneath the Moho for a constant Torske and Prestvik, 1991) predict the con- ous with and spatially unrelated to reflec- applied stress (Fig. 4). Using these models, tinuation of normal faults from the upper tors in the upper mantle and thus have the low-strength zone in the lower crust crust into the mantle as extensional shear distinct origins. We suggest that although corresponds to the zone of highest and zones that could be preserved as zones of the mantle reflectors were probably reac- most coherent reflectivity. This observa- high impedance contrast. It is difficult to tivated by Phanerozoic tectonism, they tion is consistent with interpreting these favor conclusively either a subduction or actually originate from a Precambrian reflective zones as resulting from shear, a rifting hypothesis at this time, although tectono-thermal event. The complex and it provides an explanation for the both hypotheses postulate a zone of shear- shape of mantle reflectors in map view concentration of deformation-related ing or detachment in the mantle. Even (Fig. 1A) may be related to subsequent reflectivity in the middle and lower crust though the Iapetus suture is associated deformation episodes. The multistrand (cf. Kusznir and Matthews, 1988). With with known subduction, no mantle reflec- nature of the reflection on some profiles elevated temperature in the mid-to-lower tors have been observed anywhere on the (Fig. 5A) may express multistage reactiva- crust, one would expect a partially ductile

4 GSA TODAY, April 1996 B A Figure 5. A 15° finite-difference time migration of BIRPS GRID-10 and the WOSP (West Of Shetland Profile) reflection seismic sections. See Figure 1A for loca- tion. Arrows indicate mantle reflectors (e.g., Flannan) shown as contours in Figure 1A. M is reflection from Moho discontinuity. Data are displayed as variable area, no wiggle trace sections with no vertical exaggeration for a time-depth conversion velocity of 6 km/s. rheology, so that compressional deforma- orogen which divides the crust into upper North Sea PLC, Mobil North Sea Limited, tion would develop as broad ductile shear poorly reflective and lower highly reflec- Shell U.K. Exploration and Production, zones rather than discrete brittle faults. tive zones. Although a bivergent reflector and Statoil [UK] Ltd.). Total Oil Marine The contrasting rock types necessary for pattern appears occasionally, as predicted provided technical assistance. The the high-amplitude reflectivity could be by recent geodynamic models, a univer- NSDP85-8 seismic section comes from a produced either by deforming reflective gent reflector pattern best characterizes nonexclusive proprietary survey acquired material into elongated shapes that are each side of the Caledonides. As such, by Geco-Prakla Exploration Services; we optimum for strong reflection, juxtapos- dipping reflector patterns cannot yet be appreciate permission to use these data. ing layers with distinct impedance (seis- reliably linked to subduction polarity as We thank M. Hauck, S. M. Kay, D. R. mic velocity and density), or creating a suggested by the models. Univergent Kolata, E. A. Latimer, E. M. Moores, E. I. new high-reflectivity layer by internal reflector patterns are also well developed Prussen, J. D. Treworgy, and an anony- deformation (e.g., mylonitization). in the upper mantle where they dip in mous referee for helpful reviews of the High-strength zones in the upper-to- the same direction as the Moine and manuscript, and S. Capon, J. L. Hannah, middle crust and the uppermost mantle other Caledonian-age thrusts. Because and D. R. Kolata for assistance with the are characterized by a substantial decrease these mantle reflectors are unrelated to illustrations. University of Cambridge in reflectivity relative to the lower crust, Phanerozoic deformation patterns, either Department of Earth Sciences almost to the point of being acoustically in plan or cross-sectional view, we suggest contribution 4393. blank. Reflectivity, where it does exist a Precambrian origin for them. The com- within these zones, consists of a single plex mantle reflector contour pattern seen REFERENCES CITED bright reflection or narrow concentrations in Figure 1A probably arose from subse- Astini, R. A., Benedetto, J. L., and Vaccari, N. E., 1995, of reflections. The localization of shear quent Caledonian compression or later The early Paleozoic evolution of the Argentine Pre- stress maxima and minima around extension associated with North Sea - cordillera as a Laurentian rifted, drifted, and collided terrane: A geodynamic model: Geological Society of the Moho underscores the concept of ing that probably reactivated the mantle America Bulletin, v. 107, p. 253–273. mechanical decoupling accompanied by reflectors. A simple hypothetical Caledo- Barr, D., Holdsworth, R. E., and Roberts, A. M., 1986, a change in deformation style near this nian stress vs. depth relation indicates Caledonian ductile thrusting in a Precambrian meta- boundary and is in harmony with the that discrete reflectors appear in strong morphic complex: The Moine of northwestern Scot- observation that dipping reflectors in the upper and middle crustal and mantle lay- land: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 97, p. 754–764. crust and mantle are discontinuous across ers, and that distributed reflectivity char- Cook, F. A. and Varsek, J. L., 1994, Orogen-scale the Moho. If the uppermost mantle is acterizes low-strength lower crust. The decollements: Reviews of , v. 32, p. 37–60. stronger than the crust (Fig. 4; Meissner pronounced contrast of reflectivity across Dickin, A. P., 1992, Evidence for an Early Proterozoic and Kusznir, 1987; Cook and Varsek, the crust-mantle boundary is consistent crustal province in the North Atlantic region: Geologi- 1994), stress-induced failure will occur with this boundary acting as a detach- cal Society of London Journal, v. 149, p. 483–486. at different times and rates in the crust ment. Dipping reflectors in the crust and Flack, C. A., Klemperer, S. L., McGeary, S. E., Snyder, and mantle. This means that the points upper mantle are discontinuous across this D. B., and Warner, M. R., 1990, Reflections from mantle fault zones around the British Isles: Geology, v. 18, of failure will not necessarily be linked, boundary and must have had kinemati- p. 528–532. and that deformation structures will not cally different origins. Kusznir, N. J., and Matthews, D. H., 1988, Deep match across the crust-mantle boundary. reflections and the deformational mechanics of the ACKNOWLEDGMENTS continental lithosphere: Journal of Petrology, Special CONCLUSIONS Lithosphere Issue, p. 63–87. The British Institutions Reflection McBride, J. H., and England, R. W., 1994, Deep seismic The large set of reflection profiles Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) is supported by reflection structure of the Caledonian orogenic front from the Caledonide orogen around the Natural Environment Research Coun- west of Shetland: Geological Society of London Journal, v. 151, p. 9–16. Britain reveals a “thick-skinned” structural cil and by BIRPS’s Industrial Associates style for the upper-to-middle crust. This (Amerada Hess Limited, BP Exploration McBride, J. H., Snyder, D. B., Tate, M. P., England, R. W., and Hobbs, R. W., 1995, Upper mantle reflector style is expressed by a coherent planar Co. Limited, British Gas plc, U.K. reflector dipping toward the interior of the Limited, Conoco [U.K.] Limited, Lasmo Dipping Reflectors continued on p. 6

GSA TODAY, April 1996 5 Geology and Geologists in the Former Soviet Union: Opportunities for Interaction These three articles give us a glimpse of new possibilities for scientific interchange made possible by political change — thethe breakupbreakup ofof thethe SovietSoviet UnionUnion

The Life of Geologists in the Former Soviet Union

Leonid M. Parfenov, Yakutian Institute of Geosciences, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 39 Lenin Prospekt, Yakutsk 677891, Sakha Republic (Yakutia), Russian Federation, E-mail: [email protected]

Geologists in the former Soviet Union boggy lowland in the west. The main geologists. This work would not have been are now having hard times. While the rivers flow into the Arctic Ocean and cross accomplished without specialized schools average salary of a geologist is less than Yakutia from south to north; they are the and institutes, not only in Moscow and US$100 per month, the prices for food, primary routes for shipping. The Yakutian Leningrad, but also in most of the large clothes, furniture, and housing are nearly climate is very severe; winter lasts for 7–8 cities of Siberia and the Russian Far East. the same as in the United States. More- months, and temperatures reach minus In the course of this work, a whole genera- over, a helicopter is essential for field work 34 to minus 50 °C. Summer is brief (2–3 tion of specialists in regional geology grew. in much of Russia, but chartering one months) and hot (30–40 °C). Yakutsk is a A representative of that generation was costs about $1000 per hour, which is city of about 200,000 and hosts govern- Lev Zonenshain. He devoted much of his about the same as, or more than, in the mental and cultural institutions, Yakut life to geologic mapping of various regions United States. However, because they like State University, and the Yakut Science of the former USSR and developed into a their work and do it very well, Russian Center of the Siberian Division of the scientist well-known even in America. geologists continue to work, in spite of Russian Academy of Sciences, which During the mapping in the 1950s and these difficulties. includes eight scientific institutes. I work 1960s, the major tectonic structures were There are various groups of geologists in the Yakutian Institute of Geological Sci- interpreted and large mineral deposits in Russia—geological survey scientists who ences and am concurrently a professor in were discovered; for example, oil and gas deal with regional studies and perform the geology department of the university. fields in western Siberia, and diamonds in geologic mapping, mining geologists, and Russia, especially Siberia, is rich in Yakutia. The theoretical basis of geologic geologists in academic institutes and uni- mineral resources. There are numerous investigations during that time was the versities. I have worked my entire life in mineral deposits in Yakutia, discovered geosynclinal concept. It was within this academic institutes, but I have also taught because of the work of many geologists. framework that the geology was inter- at the universities and maintained close Most important are deposits of diamonds, preted and many great discoveries were contacts with geologists from the geologi- gold, coal, rare earth elements (REEs), iron, made; this explains, in part, why the con- cal survey. Thus, I know about the lives of natural gas, and oil on the Siberian plat- cept is still supported by many Russian all the groups of geologists in Russia. form, and gold, silver, tin, antimony, zinc, geologists. But the main reason for the I live and work in the town of lead, coal, rare metals, REEs, and others in conservatism of Russian workers is intel- Yakutsk, the capital of the Sakha Republic the Mesozoic in eastern lectual isolation. For decades under Soviet (Yakutia), a part of the Russian Federation. Yakutia. It is possible that additional large power, science in the former USSR, includ- Yakutia is a vast area in northeast Siberia deposits have yet to be discovered. Trans- ing geology, was forcibly isolated from covering about 3.3 million km2 and hav- portation and technology difficulties the rest of the world. Many of the new ing a population of about 1 million. About make most of these deposits, other than scientific ideas that appeared in the West 35% of the population are Yakuts and diamonds, unprofitable. were ignored as being bourgeois and alien other native peoples; the remainder are At present, geologic maps completed to progressive Soviet science. Great efforts Russians. The republic has its own presi- in the early 1970s, at a scale of 1:200,000, were made to develop something of our dent and government. Our republic spans represent almost the entire territory of own that differed from western ideas. For several natural zones, including tundra Russia. These maps have long been secret, this reason, the orthodox fixist interpreta- along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, a and although many have now been tion of the geosynclinal concept remains mountainous eastern part, and a vast issued, they remain unavailable to foreign popular among Russian geologists. An example of such ideas is the “deep fault” concept, which was incomprehensible to western geologists. Lev Zonenshain did much to popularize in the Dipping Reflectors continued from p.5 Soper, N. J., England, R. W., Snyder, D. B., and Ryan, P. D., 1992, The Iapetus suture zone in England, Scot- former Soviet Union, but it is still not land and eastern Ireland: A reconciliation of geological generally accepted. structure and origin beneath the Scottish Caledonides: and deep seismic data: Geological Society of London In the early 1970s, it was decided to Tectonics, v. 14, p. 1351–1367. Journal, v. 149, p. 697–700. compile a geologic map of the entire USSR Meissner, R., and Kusznir, N. J., 1987, Crust viscosity Torske, T., and Prestvik, T., 1991, Mesozoic detachment at a scale of 1:50,000. This was to begin a and the reflectivity of the lower crust: Annales Geo- faulting between Greenland and Norway: Inferences physicae, v. 5, p. 365–374. from Jan Mayen Zone system and associated new stage in the geologic study of the alkalic volcanic rocks: Geology, v. 19, p. 481–484. Quinlan, G., Beaumont, C., and Hall, J., 1993, Tectonic country and to lead to new discoveries. model for crustal seismic reflectivity patterns in com- Warner, M., Morgan, J., Barton, P., Morgan, P., Price, Maps at this scale are now available for pressional orogens: Geology, v. 21, p. 663–666. C., and Jones, K., 1996, Seismic reflections from the most of the country, but most of them are mantle represent relict subduction zones within the Soper, N. J., 1988, Timing and geometry of collision, continental lithosphere: Geology, v. 24, p. 39–42. simply enlarged copies of the earlier terrane accretion and sinistral strike-slip events in the 1:200,000 maps; the hoped-for advances British Caledonides, in Harris, A. L., and Fettes, D. J., Manuscript received July 24, 1995; revisions received eds., The Caledonide-Appalachian orogen: Geological November 16, 1995 and January 22, 1996; accepted in geology did not occur. I believe that the Society of London Special Publication 38, p. 481–492. January 23, 1996 ■ reason for this lack of progress was, again,

6 GSA TODAY, April 1996