Frontiers in Earth Sciences
Series Editors: J.P. Brun, O. Oncken, H. Weissert, W.-C. Dullo . Dennis Brown • Paul D. Ryan Editors
Arc-Continent Collision Editors Dr. Dennis Brown Dr. Paul D. Ryan Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra National University of Ireland, Galway “Jaume Almera”, CSIC Dept. Earth & Ocean Sciences (EOS) C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n University Road 08028 Barcelona Galway Spain Ireland [email protected] [email protected]
This publication was grant-aided by the National University of Ireland, Galway
ISBN 978-3-540-88557-3 e-ISBN 978-3-540-88558-0 DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-88558-0 Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011931205
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Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (www.springer.com) Preface
One of the key areas of research in the Earth Sciences are processes that occur along the boundaries of the tectonic plates that make up Earth’s lithosphere. Of particular importance are the processes of tectonic accretion and erosion along convergent plate boundaries. One of the principal mechanisms of accretion occurs when intra-oceanic volcanic arcs collide with the margin of a continent in what is called arc–continent collision. Arc–continent collision has been one of the impor- tant tectonic processes in the formation of mountain belts throughout geological time and continues today along tectonically active plate boundaries such as those in the SW Paciﬁc or the Caribbean. Well-constrained fossil arc–continent collision orogens supply the third and fourth dimension (depth and time) that are generally missing from currently active examples where tectonic processes such as sub- duction, uplift and erosion, and the formation of topography can be observed. Arc–continent collision is also thoughttohavebeenoneofthemostimportant processes involved in the growth of the continental crust over geological time, and may also play an important role in its recycling back into the mantle via subduction. The integration of research between active and fossil arc–continent orogens pro- vide key data for the understanding of how plate tectonics works today, and how it might have worked in the past. Understanding the geological processes that take place during arc–continent collision is therefore of importance for our understand- ing of how collisional orogens evolve and how the continental crust grows or is destroyed. Furthermore, zones of arc–continent collision are producers of much of the worlds primary economic wealth in the form of minerals, so understanding the processes that take place during these tectonic events is of importance in modeling how this mineral wealth is formed and preserved. Arc–continent collision orogeny is generally short-lived, lasting from c. 5 to 20 My, although much longer-lived regional events do occur. The duration of an arc–continent collision orogeny depends on a number of factors, among which the obliquity of the collision, the subduction velocity, and the structural architecture of the arc and the continental margin involved are of primary importance. In this book we deﬁne the onset of arc–continent collision as the arrival of the leading edge of the continental margin (continental crust to oceanic crust transition) at the subduction zone, something that is often difﬁcult to identify in the geology of an orogen. Thinned, extended continental margins often reach 150–400 km in width and are highly structured. There is now widespread evidence that this thinned crust can be deeply subducted (>200 km) before being returned to the surface as high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks. Dating these high-pressure rocks can provide important constraints on the timing of arrival of the continental margin at the subduction zone.
v vi Preface
A further constraint can be supplied by the arc volcanics, whose geochemistry may record the entrance of continentally derived sediments, or the thinned continental crust itself, into the subduction zone. In currently active systems, imaging the subducted continental lithosphere with techniques such as seismic tomography can also provide key data for determining the timing of on-set of collision and the rates at which the continental crust is being subducted. With the arrival of thicker continental crust (c. 20–30 km thick) at the subduction zone the developing orogen is generally uplifted to above sea level where it begins to erode and provide sediment to a foreland basin and across the arc–continent suture zone and the forearc. As convergence continues, the active volcanic front generally shuts down shortly after the entry of the continental crust into the subduction zone, and volcanic activity can move away from the subduction zone to continue outboard of it for some time before stopping completely. During the ﬁnal stage of collision, a change in the location of the subduction zone can take place, further marking the end of the arc–continent collision. The ﬁnal result of the arc–continent collision is a signiﬁcant change in the structural architecture, composition, and rheology of the continental margin. The aim of this book is to bring together a series of papers that are dedicated to the investigation of the tectonic processes that take place during arc–continent collision. A further aim is to investigate how tectonic processes inﬂuence the large-scale geological characteristics of these accretionary orogens and their mineral wealth. Finally, speciﬁc examples of arc–continent collisions are investigated. These range in age from the Neoproterozoic to those that are currently active, covering a large portion of geological time. To advance these aims, a series of points are developed which we attempt to address where possible in each paper. These points are: • The large-scale crust and mantle structure. • The nature and role of the lithosphere and asthenospheric mantle in the dynamics and chemistry of the subduction and collision processes. • Processes that take place deep within the subduction channel in pure intraoceanic subduction and during the subduction of the continental crust. • The geochemical and petrological evolution of the arc both before and during collision. • The nature of the continental margin and its response to the collision. • The formation of topography and the erosion of the developing mountain belt to form a foreland and a suture forearc basin. • Fore-arc subduction or accretion. • The emplacement of ophiolites and ultramaﬁc massifs. • Metamorphism within the developing orogen. • The possibility of changes in the location of the post-collision subduction zone. • Place constraints on the duration of arc–continent collision orogeny. • Recycling, or growth and destruction of the continental crust. The book is organised in four sections. In the ﬁrst section, numerical modeling and natural examples are used to look at the three main players involved in arc– continent collision; the continental margin, the volcanic arc, and the subduction zone. In the second section, natural examples of arc–continent collisions are described. In the third section, modeling of various aspects of arc–continent collision are presented. In the fourth section, we bring together the material presented in the previous sections addressing the series of points outlined above and, where possible, attempt to provide answers to them. Preface vii
Finally, this publication was grant-aided by the Publications Fund of the National University of Ireland, Galway. Also, we would like to extend our thanks to those who kindly provided reviews of the papers. This is an IGCP 524 publication.
Barcelona, Spain Dennis Brown Galway, Ireland Paul D. Ryan . Contents
Part I The Main Players
1 Rifted Margins: Building Blocks of Later Collision ...... 3 T. Reston and G. Manatschal 2 Intra-oceanic Subduction Zones ...... 23 T.V. Gerya 3 The Subductability of Continental Lithosphere: The Before and After Story ...... 53 J.C. Afonso and S. Zlotnik 4 The Seismic Structure of Island Arc Crust ...... 87 A.J. Calvert 5 Vertical Stratiﬁcation of Composition, Density, and Inferred Magmatic Processes in Exposed Arc Crustal Sections ...... 121 S.M. DeBari and A.R. Greene 6 The Generation and Preservation of Mineral Deposits in Arc–Continent Collision Environments ...... 145 R.J. Herrington and D. Brown Part II Speciﬁc Examples of Arc-Continent Collision
7 The Nature of the Banda Arc–Continent Collision in the Timor Region ...... 163 R. Harris 8 The Arc–Continent Collision in Taiwan ...... 213 T. Byrne, Y.-C. Chan, R.-J. Rau, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-H. Lee, and Y.-J. Wang 9 Early Eocene Arc–Continent Collision in Kamchatka, Russia: Structural Evolution and Geodynamic Model ...... 247 E. Konstantinovskaya 10 The Asia–Kohistan–India Collision: Review and Discussion ...... 279 J.-P. Burg 11 Processes of Arc–Continent Collision in the Uralides ...... 311 D. Brown, R.J. Herrington, and J. Alvarez-Marron
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12 The Record of Ordovician Arc–Arc and Arc–Continent Collisions in the Canadian Appalachians During the Closure of Iapetus ...... 341 A. Zagorevski and C.R. van Staal 13 Arc–Continent Collision in the Ordovician of Western Ireland: Stratigraphic, Structural and Metamorphic Evolution ...... 373 P.D. Ryan and J.F. Dewey 14 Multiple Arc Development in the Paleoproterozoic Wopmay Orogen, Northwest Canada ...... 403 F.A. Cook Part III Models of Arc-Continent Collision Processes
15 The Origin of Obducted Large-Slab Ophiolite Complexes ...... 431 J.F. Dewey and J.F. Casey 16 Physical Modeling of Arc–Continent Collision: A Review of 2D, 3D, Purely Mechanical and Thermo‐Mechanical Experimental Models ...... 445 D. Boutelier and A. Chemenda Part IV Putting it All Together
17 Arc–Continent Collision: The Making of an Orogen ...... 477 D. Brown, P.D. Ryan, J.C. Afonso, D. Boutelier, J.P. Burg, T. Byrne, A. Calvert, F. Cook, S. DeBari, J.F. Dewey, T.V. Gerya, R. Harris, R. Herrington, E. Konstantinovskaya, T. Reston, and A. Zagorevski Contributors
J.C. Afonso Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, GEMOC ARC Key Centre for Geochemical Evolution and Metallogeny of Continents, Macquarie University, North Ryde, 2109 Sydney, NSW, Australia J. Alvarez-Marron Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, c/Lluı´s Sole´ i Sabarı´s s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain D. Boutelier Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschunsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, 14471 Potsdam, Germany D. Brown Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, c/Lluı´sSole´ i Sabarı´s s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain J.P. Burg Department of Earth sciences, ETH- and University Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 5, CH 8092 Zurich, Switzerland T. Byrne Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Beach Hall, U-2045, 354 Mansﬁeld Rd, Storrs, CT 06269, USA A.J. Calvert Department of Earth Science, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada J.F. Casey Department of Geosciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA Y.-C. Chan Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, 128, Sec. 2, Academia Road, Nangang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan A. Chemenda Ge´oazur, Universite´ de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, 250 av. A. Einstein, 06560 Valbonne, France F.A. Cook Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N1N4, Canada S.M. DeBari Geology Department, MS 9080, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA 98225, USA J.F. Dewey Department of Geology, UC Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA T.V. Gerya Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Group, Institute of Geophysics, Department of Earth Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH- Zurich), Sonneggstrasse, 5, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
xi xii Contributors
A. Greene Department of Geology and Geophysics, SOEST, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA R. Harris Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA R.J. Herrington Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, England M. Johnsen Department of Geology and Geophysics, SOEST, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA E. Konstantinovskaya Institut national de la recherche scientiﬁque, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Quebec, QB G1K 9A9, Canada Y.-H. Lee Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Chiayi 621, Taiwan C.-Y. Lu Department of Geological Sciences, National Taiwan University, 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan G. Manatschal IPGS-EOST, Universite´ de Strasbourg, 67084 Strasbourg, France R.-J. Rau Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan T. Reston Earth and Environmental Sciences, School of Geography, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK P.D. Ryan Earth and Ocean Sciences, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland C. van Staal Geological Survey of Canada, 625 Robson St, Vancouver, BC V6B5J3, Canada Y.-J. Wang Institute of Geophysics, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhungli, Taiwan A. Zagorevski Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth St, Ottawa, ON K1A 0E8, Canada S. Zlotnik School of Geosciences/School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton Campus, 3800 Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Currently at LaCaN, Laboratori de Calcul Numeric, Applied Mathematics Department III, UPC-Barcelona Tech, Jordi Girona 1–3, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain The Editors
Dr. Dennis Brown is a senior research scientist at the Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, in Barcelona, Spain. He obtained a Ph.D. in structural geology from Royal Holloway, University of London in 1994. His research interests lie in the general area of mountain building processes. Within this broad theme, he is especially interested in processes of arc–continent collision, the structure and kinematics of foreland thrust and fold belts, and the crustal-scale structure and geodynamics of collisional orogens. He is also active in petrophysical studies of the continental crust. Dr. P.D. Ryan is Emeritus Professor of Geology at Earth and Ocean Sciences, National Univeristy of Ireland, Galway. He obtained a PhD in Geology from The University of Keele, North Staffordshire in 1974. His research interests include continental tectonics, ﬁnite element modelling of lithospheric scale processes, appli- cation of non-parametric statistics to geological problems, ﬁeld geology in Western Europe and reform of geological higher education in the context of the Bologna Process. He has developed a special interest in the process of arc–continent collision during his 40 years of ﬁeld experience in the Caledonides of western Ireland.