Chapter Summary: and

Key Terms *: someone who takes power by force and rules with authority *: rule by the few *: citizen-run *Helot: workers captured and enslaved by the Spartans *: Greek city-

Drawing From Experience Most people experience power struggles in their daily lives. Sometimes, a bully uses force to get his way. Or a group of popular friends can set trends by excluding others. Often, different kinds of people can band together when they become unhappy with a “leader.” In the previous section, you learned about the geography of . In this section, you will learn how two Greek city-states found different methods of running— and changing—their .

Tyranny in the City-States were able to seize power from the nobles with the support of Greek farmers, merchants, and artisans. Small farmers often needed money to support themselves & their until they could harvest and sell their crops. They borrowed this money from the nobles. If the farmers could not pay their debts on time, the nobles took their land. Many farmers lost their land. They had to work directly for the nobles or become city laborers. Desperate farmers sometimes sold themselves into slavery. By 650 B.C., small farmers joined merchants and artisans in demanding change. Merchants and artisans had become wealthy through trade. But they did not own land. Therefore, they could not become citizens. They had no voice in running the polis.

This unrest led to the rise of tyrants. A tyrant is someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority. Today we think of tyrants as being harsh. Early Greek tyrants were wise and fair. They built new market places, temples, and walls. Still, most wanted to be citizens and participate in government. By 500 B.C, most city-states had gotten rid of the tyrants. Two new types of government arose. The first was oligarchy, in which a few people hold power. The second was democracy, where the government is run by its citizens. Sparta had an oligarchy. Athens had a democracy. They were both powerful Greek city-states.

Sparta The Spartans focused on skills to control the people they conquered. Like other city-states, Sparta needed more land as it grew. Unlike other city-states, Sparta did not set up colonies. Instead, Spartans conquered and enslaved their neighbors. They called their slaves .

Why Was the Military So Important? Spartans worried that the helots might rebel. So the government set up strict military training.

At age seven, boys went to live in army barracks. They were toughened with harsh treatment. At age 20, Spartan men entered the army and stayed for ten years. Only then, could they return home. But they stayed in the army until age 60. All were expected to win or die on the battlefield.

Girls kept fit by running, wrestling, and throwing long, thin spears called . Wives stayed home while their husbands lived in the barracks. As a result, Spartan women were freer than other Greek women. They could own property and go where they pleased.

What Was Sparta’s Government Like? Under the Spartan oligarchy, two kings headed a council of elders. The council’s function was to present to an assembly. It included 28 citizens over age 60. All Spartan men over age 30 belonged to an assembly. They voted on council . They also chose five people to be . An enforced laws and managed tax collection. The government adopted several policies to keep people from questioning their system, including: • limiting foreign visitors • banning travel abroad • discouraging the study of literature and the arts.

The Spartans successfully controlled the helots for almost 250 years. But their focus on the military came at a price. They fell behind other Greeks in trade. Their knowledge of science and other subjects was poor. Still, their soldiers would play a key role in defending Greece.

Athens Unlike Spartans, Athenians were more interested in building a democracy than building a military force. What Was Life in Athens Like? Athens was at least a two-day trip from Sparta. The governments of the two city- states were very different. In Athens, citizens raised their children under a different set of values. In schools, one teacher taught reading, writing, and math. Another teacher led sports activities. A third focused on music. This included singing and playing a stringed instrument called a lyre. As you can tell, Athenians believed in creating well-rounded citizens (in both body and mind).

At age 18, boys finished school and became citizens. Girls stayed at home. The girls’ mothers taught them household duties like spinning and weaving linen & cloth. Some wealthy families taught their daughters to read, write, and play the lyre.

A Budding Democracy During the 600’s B.C, landowning nobles ruled Athens. Then, farmers began to rebel. They demanded an end to all debts, and land for the poor. The nobles knew they were in trouble. So in 594 B.C., they called upon a noble named . This man was trusted by both sides.

Solon acted swiftly. First, he cancelled all debts. He also freed farmers who were forced to become slaves. Then he allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts. Solon’s reforms were popular among common people. But they did not address one key issue: Solon refused to give away wealthy nobles’ land. After Solon, 30 years of turmoil gripped Athens. Finally, a tyrant named Peisistratus seized power in 560 B.C. He did several things to win support of the poor. He divided large estates among landless farmers. He also loaned money to the poor. And he gave them jobs building temples and other public works.

The next important leader was . When he took power in 508 B.C., he reorganized the assembly to play a central role. Now, members had new powers. They could participate in open debate, hear court cases, and appoint army generals. Cleisthenes also created a new 500-citizen assembly to conduct daily business. This council proposed laws, dealt with foreign countries, and oversaw the treasury. The new council was an important development for democracy. Athenians chose its members by lottery each year. They believed this system was fairer because an might favor the rich. Cleisthenes’ reforms did not bring women, foreign-born men, and slaves into the political process. Still, he is credited with bringing democracy to Athens.