9 Honors Summer Reading

We Have Always Lived in the Castle by Shirley Jackson

As you read the novel, take notes, using the rubric to guide you. These notes will be collected and graded one day during the first week of school. They will help you with our class discussions and in-class assignments.

Consider and take notes on the following as you read:

• Setting: What is the setting? How does the impact the plot and characters? How does it further the themes? • Characters/Character Traits: Identify the character traits for each of the main characters. What do you like or dislike about the characters? Are they dynamic or static? What are the characters’ motivations? • Conflicts: What are the central conflicts in each piece? Consider both internal and external conflicts. Are they resolved? • Quotes: Identify and explain the context and significance of quotes that you feel are important or interesting. Cite page numbers. • Literary Style and Technique: What do you notice about the author’s style and/or use of literary elements? (Foreshadowing, irony, imagery, symbolism, metaphor, etc.) Provide examples and explain how they add to the meaning of the text. • Topics for Theme (Reminder, a topic is a subject that is discussed throughout a piece of literature, and the theme is the claim that the author makes about the subject.): What themes can you identify? What was the author’s purpose in writing the book? • Questions: What questions do you have as you read?

9H Summer Reading Notes Rubric 4 3 2 1 Content - all notes are relevant -most notes are -some notes are -notes are irrelevant (x2) and accurately portray relevant and clearly relevant and portray and do not show an the events in the plot portray the events in the events in plot understanding of the the plot events in the play Organization -all notes are -most notes are -some evidence that -no evidence of notes organized logically organized with some notes are organized, that are organized or and effectively logic with little order logical

Quotes -key quotes are -key quotes are -key quotes are -one or no quotes (x2) provided from the provided from five of provided from three- provided main characters the main characters four of the main -quotes are not (Georgie, Lennie, -most quotations are characters explained Slim, Candy, Curley, clearly explained -some quotations are Curley’s Wife, explained but need Crooks) more detail - all quotations are clearly explained Literary Elements -clearly addresses and -partially addresses -vaguely addresses -few literary elements (x3) gives specific and gives examples of and gives examples of addressed examples of symbolism, irony, a few literary -does not explain the symbolism, irony, foreshadowing, elements significance of foreshadowing, setting, - briefly explains the elements to the plot setting, characterization, significance of characterization, motivation, conflict elements to plot motivation, conflict - briefly explains the - thoroughly explains significance of the significance of elements to plot elements to plot Themes -at least three topics -three topics for -two topics for theme -one topic for theme (x2) for theme are theme are provided are provided is provided provided - vaguely explains -vaguely explains -little explanation of -specific examples of how the themes are how the themes are how themes are how the themes are evident evident evident evident Questions -questions about the -questions about the -questions are vague -questions are play are thoughtful play are thoughtful irrelevant and show evidence of and relevant critical thinking _____/44

Conventions 3 2 1 (x2) -demonstrate -demonstrate -demonstrate a control of emerging control, lack of control, conventions with exhibiting exhibiting essentially no occasional errors frequent errors errors that hinder that make comprehension comprehension difficult _____/6

TOTAL: ____/50 Required Reading and Assignment for English 10H

Required reading: Animal Farm by George Orwell Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury These texts can be signed out in Ms. Erickson’s room (415).

Before reading each text, read the background information below. As you read each work, take notes on your thoughts, questions, and observations. Then answer the questions below. The questions and notes will count as two homework grades, and they will help you write your graded essay on the summer reading. Be sure to cite page numbers if you plan to use quotes in your essay.

Guiding Questions

Take notes on the following as you read: • Characters/Character Traits Identify the character traits for each of the main characters. What do you like or dislike about the characters? Are they dynamic or static? • Conflicts What are the central conflicts in each novel? Consider both internal and external conflicts. Are they resolved? • Important/Interesting quotes Identify quotes that you feel are important or interesting. Cite page numbers. • Literary Style and Technique What do you notice about the author’s style and/or use of literary elements? (Foreshadowing, irony, imagery, symbolism, metaphor, etc.) How do they add to the meaning of the text? • Themes What themes can you identify? What was the author’s purpose in writing the book? • Questions Answer the questions for each text as listed below. What questions do you have as you read?

ANIMAL FARM by George Orwell

GEORGE ORWELL (1903-1950)

In the years since the publication of Animal Farm and 1984, both of which conjure visions of modern government’s dangerous power, critics have studied and analyzed George Orwell’s personal life. Orwell was a man who had a reputation for standing apart and even making a virtue of his detachment. This “outsider” position often led him to oppose the crowd.

Orwell began life as Eric Arthur Blair (George Orwell was a pen name he adopted later for its “manly, English, country-sounding ring.”) He spent his early years in India as a lonely boy who liked to make up stories and talk with imaginary companions. He began to “write” before he even knew how, dictating poems to his mother, and perhaps saw this outlet as an alternative to the human relationships he found so difficult. Refuge in words and ideas became increasingly important when Orwell’s parents sent him, at age eight, to boarding school in England.

Later, instead of going on to university, he decided to take a job in Burma with the Indian Imperial Police. Orwell wrote about this experience in Burmese Days (1934) and in the essay “Shooting an Elephant.” At odds with British colonial rule, Orwell said he “theoretically—and secretly, of course . . . was all for the Burmese and all against their oppressors, the British.”

Returning to England to recover from a bout of the chronic lung illness that plagued him all his life, Orwell began his writing career in earnest. Over the next two decades, he wrote newspaper columns, novels, essays, and radio broadcasts, most of which grew out of his own personal experience.

Orwell’s beliefs about politics were affected by his experiences fighting in the Spanish Civil War. He viewed socialists, communists, and fascists as repressive and self-serving. Orwell patriotically supported England during World War II, but remained skeptical of governments and their willingness to forsake ideals in favor of power.

With each book or essay, Orwell solidified his role as the outsider willing to question any group’s ideology. Orwell spoke his mind with Animal Farm, in which he criticized the Soviet Union despite its role as a World War II ally of Great Britain. At first, no one would publish the novel, but when Animal Farm finally appeared in 1945 it was a success. It was later adapted both as an animated film and as a play.

In explaining how he came to write Animal Farm, Orwell says he once saw a little boy whipping a horse:

It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the [worker].

Orwell said it was the first book in which he consciously tried to blend artistic and political goals. Orwell’s final novel, 1984, continued that effort with a grim portrayal of a world totally under government control.

Orwell pursued his writing career faithfully, although it was not always easy. In his final days he made the statement, “Writing . . . is a horrible, exhausting struggle . . . One would never undertake such a thing if one were not driven . . .”


Animal Farm is written on many levels. It is already a children’s story in its own right. . . . [It] is also a lament for the fate of revolutions and the hopes contained in them. It is a moving comment on man’s constant compromise with the truth. —John Atkins

On the publication of Animal Farm in 1945, George Orwell discovered with horror that booksellers were placing his novel on children’s shelves. According to his housekeeper, he began traveling from bookstore to bookstore requesting that the book be shelved with adult works. This dual identity—as children’s story and adult satire—has stayed with Orwell’s novel for more than fifty years. Animal Farm tells the story of Farmer Jones’s animals who rise up in rebellion and take over the farm. Tired of being exploited solely for human gain, the animals—who have human characteristics such as the power of speech—vow to create a new and more just society. Though the novel reads like a fairy story, and Orwell subtitles it as just that, it is also a satire containing a message about world politics and especially the former Soviet Union in particular. Since the Bolshevik revolutions of the early 1900s, the former Soviet Union had captured the attention of the world with its socialist experiment. Stalin’s form of government had some supporters in Britain and the United States, but Orwell was against this system. Animal Farm is both a satire and an allegory. In a satire, the writer attacks a serious issue by presenting it in a ridiculous light or otherwise poking fun at it. Orwell uses satire to expose what he saw as the myth of Soviet socialism. Thus, the novel tells a story that people of all ages can understand, but it also tells us a second story— that of the real-life Russian Revolution. For this reason, it can also be considered an allegory. An allegory is a narrative that can be read on more than one level. Critics often consider Animal Farm to be an allegory of the Russian Revolution because the characters can be matched to real life historical figures.


In the early 1900s, Russia’s Czar Nicholas II faced an increasingly discontented populace. Freed from feudal serfdom in 1861, many Russian peasants were struggling to survive under an oppressive government. By 1917, amidst the tremendous suffering of World War I, a revolution began. In two major battles, the Czar’s government was overthrown and replaced by the Bolshevik leadership of Vladmir Lenin. When Lenin died in 1924, his former colleagues Leon Trotsky, hero of the early Revolution, and Joseph Stalin, head of the Communist Party, struggled for power. Stalin won the battle, and he deported Trotsky into permanent exile.

Once in power, Stalin began, with despotic urgency and exalted nationalism, to move the Soviet Union into the modern industrial age. His government seized land in order to create collective farms. Stalin’s Five Year Plan was an attempt to modernize Soviet industry. To counter resistance (many peasants refused to give up their land), Stalin used vicious military tactics. Rigged trials led to executions of an estimated 20 million government officials and ordinary citizens. The government controlled the flow and content of information to the people, and all but outlawed churches.

Many critics have matched the characters in Animal Farm to the historical figures of The Russian Revolution –– for example, linking the power struggle between Napoleon and Snowball to the historical feuding between Joseph Stalin and Leon Trostky for control of the Soviet Union. Critics also believe that Old Major represents Karl Marx, who dies before realizing his dream. Other comparisons include Moses as the Russian Orthodox church, Boxer and Clover as workers, the sheep as the general public, Squealer as Stalin’s government news agency, the dogs as Stalin’s military police, and Farmer Jones as Czar Nicholas II. The farm’s neighbors, Pilkington and Frederick, are said to represent Great Britain and Germany, while Mollie suggests the old Russian aristocracy, which resists change.

Clearly, Animal Farm is more than a fairy story. It is a commentary on the relevance of independent thought, truth, and justice.

Adapted from: "Animal Farm Study Guide." Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Web. 21 May 2012.Available at: .


Consider the following as you read. Answer the following questions in your notes:

1. How do the various characters in the novel symbolize their counterparts in the Russian Revolution?

2. What is Orwell's perspective on socialism? How do you know?

3. A dystopia is a repressive society characterized by misery, often disguised as a utopia (perfect society). How does the farm in Animal Farm represent a dystopia?

FAHRENHEIT 451 by Ray Bradbury


Ray Bradbury began writing when he was seven years old. He was born in Waukegan, Illinois, and lived, he says, immersed in a world of fantasy and illusion— the world of the comic strip characters Buck Rogers and Flash Gordon. In high school, he founded and edited a magazine called Futuria Fantasia, which he ran off on a mimeograph. After graduating from high school, Bradbury wrote stories that didn’t sell and supported himself by selling newspapers in downtown Los Angeles. At the age of twenty-three, he became a fulltime writer.

Bradbury explains that his hatred of thought investigation and thought control of any kind arises from the fact that his ancestor, Mary Bradbury, was tried as a witch in Salem, Massachusetts, during the seventeenth century. According to Bradbury, “Science fiction is a wonderful hammer; I intend to use it when and if necessary to bark a few shins or knock a few heads, in order to make people leave people alone.”

Adapted from: "Independent Reading: A Guide to Fahrenheit 451." Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Web. 21 May 2012. .


The story of fireman Guy Montag first appeared in "The Fireman", a short story by Ray Bradbury published in Galaxy Science Fiction in 1951. Montag's story was expanded two years later, in 1953, and was published as Fahrenheit 451. While the novel is most often classified as a work of science fiction, it is first and foremost a social criticism warning against the danger of censorship. Fahrenheit 451 uses the genre of science fiction, which enjoyed immense popularity at the time of the book's publication, as a vehicle for his message that unchecked oppressive government irreparably damages society by limiting the creativity and freedom of its people. In particular, the "dystopia" motif popular in science fiction - a futuristic technocratic and totalitarian society that demands order and harmony at the expense of individual rights - serves the novel well. Developed in the years following World War II, Fahrenheit 451 condemns not only the anti-intellectualism of the defeated Nazi party in Germany, but more immediately the intellectually oppressive political climate of the early 1950's - the heyday of McCarthyism. That such influential fictional social criticisms such as Orwell's Animal Farm and 1984 and Skinner's Walden Two were published just a few short years prior to Fahrenheit 451 is not coincidental. These works reveal a very real apprehension of the danger of the US evolving into an oppressive, authoritarian society in the post- WWII period. On a more personal level, Bradbury used Fahrenheit 451 as a vehicle through which to protest what he believed to be the invasiveness of editors who, through their strict control of the books they printed, impair writers' originality and creativity. Ironically, Fahrenheit 451, itself a vehicle of protest against censorship, has often been edited for foul language. Fahrenheit 451, Ray Bradbury's most popular novel, has been reprinted scores of times since initially published in 1953. The lessons of this American classic, the dangers of censorship and government control, have become increasingly important and the novel is as relevant today as it was when first written.

"Fahrenheit 451 Background." Study Guides & Essay Editing. Web. 21 May 2012. Available at: .


Consider the following as you read. Answer the following questions in your notes:

1. What is the significance of each of the major characters in the novel? Characterize Guy Montag, Millie, Clarisse, Faber, and Beatty. What purpose does each character serve in the novel?

2. Science fiction is literature that explores technological and societal change. Science fiction is often based on scientific principles and technology. It may make predictions about life in the future or comment on important issues in society. What elements make Fahrenheit 451 a science fiction novel?

3. A dystopia is a repressive society characterized by misery, often disguised as a utopia (perfect society). How does the society in Fahrenheit 451 represent a dystopia?

Required Reading and Assignments for English 11H Over the summer months, please prepare for our initial meetings by completing the two assignments listed below. The notes are due in school on or about Tuesday, September 5, 2017. Be prepared for a quiz and an essay on/incorporating the texts during the first few weeks of school. Your notes will help to prepare you for these assessments as well as our in-class discussions. PART I: Fiction: The Awakening by Kate Chopin *Copies, which are yours to keep, are available from Ms. Duffy in 407 and Ms. Calcaterra in 403 when class is not being conducted.* TASK: 1. Read the entire novella, taking appropriate and useful notes for yourself as you proceed. These notes will facilitate your understanding of the text as a whole and your participation during early discussions.

2. Then complete the assignment below for EACH SET OF CHAPTERS(1-10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40):

ASSIGNMENT: Go back into the text to select and analyze the literary value of 10 passages per chapter set. **A passage can be anything from one sentence to a whole page. • Type the entire passage. • Below this, provide the page number, speaker (if applicable), and a brief summary of context. • Underneath that, thoroughly explicate the analytical value of the passage to the text at large. REMEMBER THAT YOU ARE COMPLETING THIS ASSIGNMENT AFTER HAVING COMPLETED THE READING OF THE ENTIRE TEXT. This analysis should illuminate the multiple and varied contributions of the passage to the reader’s experience while/after reading the novel and should smoothly and copiously incorporate the language of literary analysis.

Please take heed of our reminder about the importance of academic integrity; you will be asked to upload your work to Turnitin as part of your first homework assignment.

PART II: Literary Criticism TASK: 1. Locate a scholarly article* on EACH of the following four topics, using the school databases (Passwords are available on the TZHS Library webpage.). Please note that the selection of the final four articles with which to proceed might require the preliminary reading of several. *Scholarly article: Please be aware of the difference between an encyclopedia entry, explanatory entry, etc. and a scholarly article. Any “article” that is not scholarly will earn no credit.

TOPICS: Evolving role of women The male protagonist Effect of world war The American Dream 2. Read and annotate the selected articles; notes should focus on information gleaned from the article and the implications for students entering a course focused on American Literature. *See model provided in 403/407.*

These annotated articles will be collected on the first day of school; no exceptions.

English 12H- Summer Reading Assignment

1. Essays That Worked for College Applications: 50 Essays that Helped Students Get into the Nation's Top Colleges, edited by Boykin Curry, Emily Angel Baer, and Brian Kasbar

* This text can be ordered from amazon.com or purchased from your local bookstore.

Assignment: Select five essays of varying styles and approaches. For each, comment on the author’s structure, style, tone, voice, topic selection, and meaning.

Questions to consider: -How does the author engage the reader (beginning, middle, end)? -Is the topic appropriate and/or engaging for a college essay? -What makes this essay stand out from other college essays? -What would a college admissions officer learn about this candidate through his/her essay? -How does the author’s style complement the content of the essay?

2. The of (read only Books 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 11, 16, 18, 19, 22, 24).

*There are multiple translations available. We prefer Fitzgerald or Pope. *This text is available at local libraries and book stores. A pdf version is also available at: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/6130/6130-pdf.pdf

Assignment: a. Read the background information below, which is necessary to understand The Iliad. b. Answer the Study questions at the end of this document.


The Iliad is a long narrative poem in . The story combines the history, legends, and religion of the ancient Greeks with the imagination, invention, and lively story-telling abilities of a great poet. The events in the Iliad were as well known to the ancient Greeks as the story of Noah’s ark or the song lyrics of Michael Jackson are known to today’s young people. And, like a favorite story or song, the ancient Greeks wanted to hear this story, the Iliad, told again and again.

The poem begins with a dispute between the Greek king, , and the great soldier and Greek prince, . After a recent battle, each Greek hero has received spoils as his reward for victory. The king has received the most wealth and a beautiful woman, , and each warrior has received his share of the spoils according to his rank and heroism.

Chryses, a priest of and Chryseis’ father, comes to Agamemnon with gifts and offerings to his daughter. Against the advice of the army, however, Agamemnon refuses to let Chryseis go and Chryses prays to Apollo for revenge. Apollo sends a plague into the Greek army and many men die. Achilles realizes that this scourge may be divine retribution and asks , a prophet, why they are suffering. Calchas, after extracting a promise of protection from Achilles, explains that Agamemnon has offended Apollo by refusing to return Chryseis.

Achilles confronts Agamemnon who grudgingly agrees to return Chryseis, but who then takes Achilles’ woman, , as a reminder that he, Agamemnon, is king. Achilles is inconsolable and asks his mother , a goddess of the sea, to persuade to punish Agamemnon by aiding the Trojans until his, Achilles’, honor is restored.

Thetis does as her son bids, and Zeus agrees with the result that the gods, already divided in their loyalties, enter the fray, each god fighting for or protecting his or her own: and supporting the Greeks while Apollo and support . This expansion of hostilities further complicates the relationships among the Trojans, the Greeks, and their gods, and the resulting disputes form the basis of this epic poem.

But why are the Greeks and Trojans fighting? Why are the gods displaying so much love or hatred for one or the other side?

The answers lie in the events of Greek myths and legends which occur before this poem begins, and in the relationship the ancient Greeks had with their gods and goddesses.


Before students begin to read the Iliad, they need to learn about the legend of Paris and Helen. This can be done by film or filmstrip, by reading the story or simply by the instructor telling students the story.

There was much feasting at the wedding of , king of Phthia, and Thetis, a sea goddess who would bear a son, Achilles. Everyone was happy and celebrating. Athena, Hera and Aphrodite were at the feast and amicably conversing when a golden apple rolled at their feet. Peleus picked it up and was embarrassed to find that it was inscribed “to the fairest.” No one knew for which goddess the apple was intended.

The golden apple had actually been tossed by (“strife”), who was angry that she had not been invited to the feast. Zeus was asked to award the apple to the “fairest” goddess, but he tactfully declined and assigned Paris, one of the Princes of Troy (’s second son) the unwelcome task.

Each goddess desired to be known as the most beautiful, and competed aggressively for the apple. Each goddess willingly disrobed so that Paris could see that she was “fairest.” Paris first examined Hera who promised him all of Asia and great wealth if he would choose her. Paris refused the bribe.

He next examined Athena who promised to make Paris victorious in all battles. She also promised to make him the most handsome and wise man in the world. Paris also refused this offer.

Finally, Aphrodite promised that she could offer Paris Helen, the wife of Menalaos (King of and Agamemnon’s brother) and the most beautiful mortal woman in the world, to become Paris’ bride. After Aphrodite swore that she could make Helen fall in love with him, Paris awarded her the apple. This decision so angered Hera and Athena that they plotted the destruction of Troy.

Aphrodite, long before this event, had doomed Helen and her sisters because their father, , had sacrificed to the other gods but had forgotten to offer a sacrifice to her. Aphrodite, therefore, swore to make his daughters known for adultery. Of course, Aphrodite approved Paris’ decision. Later Paris, following Aphrodite’s’ instruction, visited Menalaos as a friend but eloped with Helen. The Greeks came to Troy to regain Helen and Menalaos’ honor.

THE OATH OF TYNDAREUS IN The name of the mythological Spartan King Tyndareus is today most famous from the sacred oath that bears his name; the Oath of Tyndareus was the promise that ultimately brought together the Achaean forces to the gates of Troy.

KING TYNDAREUS Tyndareus was the husband of Leda, father of Castor and Clytemnestra, and step-father of Pollox and Helen. Tyndareus was one of the most powerful kings of his day, and managed to unseat Thyestes from the throne of when he sent his Spartan army there. Thus Tyndareus was the man who put Agamemnon on the throne of Mycenae, and made him his son-in-law, for Agamemnon married Clytemnestra.

HELEN DAUGHTER OF TYNDAREUS Tyndareus though had far greater problems when it came to marrying off his other daughter Helen. The King of Sparta sent out heralds announcing that eligible suitors could now present themselves, for Helen of Sparta was now of age.

In hindsight, this might not have been the cleverest announcement to make, for Helen was recognized across the ancient world as the most beautiful woman of the mortal plain. As a result, heroes, kings and princes travelled in their droves to Sparta.

THE SUITORS OF HELEN Six names appear in all three sources:

Ajax the Greater, son of , and already a great warrior; , king of the ; , son of Atreus, exiled Mycenaean prince; , King of ; , son of , King of the Cephallenians; and , son of .

Across the sources, though, many other notable names appeared as suitors of Helen, including the Lesser, the son of and prince of Locris; , the mighty warrior and King of ; , son of Menoeitus, and friend of Achilles; , son of Poeas, Thessalonian prince and acclaimed archer; Idomeneus, a prince of Crete; and , son of Telamon and half-brother to .

TYNDAREUS' DILEMMA The gathered suitors of Helen represented all of the most powerful kingdoms of Ancient Greece and many were regarded as the best warriors of the day. Each suitor brought with them gifts, but Tyndareus quickly realized he was in an impossible position, for choosing one suitor over the others would lead to bloodshed between them and a great deal of animosity between the different Greek states.

THE OATH OF TYNDAREUS Tyndareus delayed making a decision and whilst the king waited, Odysseus came up with a solution to his dilemma. Odysseus recognized that other suitors of Helen were even more eligible than himself, so the son of Laertes had instead turned his attention to , the daughter of Icarius. Being the daughter of Icarius meant that Penelope was the niece of Tyndareus, and so upon the promise of assistance in gaining the hand of Penelope, Odysseus told Tyndareus of his idea. Odysseus told Tyndareus that the king should extract from each suitor an oath that they would protect and defend whichever suitor of Helen was chosen. No hero of note would break such an oath, and even if someone did, then they would have to face the force of the other suitors who were bound to protect Helen’s husband. Tyndareus put forth Odysseus’ plan, and each suitor took the Oath of Tyndareus, with the sacred promise, and the oath was bound when Tyndareus sacrificed a horse.

THE OUTCOME OF THE OATH Tyndareus gave Helen a free choice in terms of which suitor to choose, and Helen chose Menelaus to be her husband; and because of the Oath of Tyndareus all the other suitors left Sparta with their honor intact. The Oath of Tyndareus would of course be invoked by Menelaus when Helen was later abducted from Sparta by the Trojan prince, Paris. All of the Suitors of Helen would eventually gather at Aulis, although some did need persuading, including Odysseus the inventor of the Oath. From Aulis, a fleet of 1000 ships set sail for Troy to retrieve the wife of Menelaus. Source:http://teachersinstitute.yale.edu/curriculum/units/1984/2/84.02

Study Questions—The Iliad

Books 1-10

(1) Why are the Greeks and Trojans fighting? (2) Why does Chryses come to Agamemnon? (3) What is the cause of the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles? (4) What does Achilles ask Thetis, his mother, to do for him? Why? (5) How does Priam (Alexandros) behave in the following situations: ____1. When the Greeks and Trojans met in battle? ____2. When Menalaos accepts his offer? ____3. When he sees Helen? ____4. When shames him? (6) What kind of person is Paris? (7) Which gods fight for the Greeks? Which fight for Troy? Why? (8) During the first battle Hector visits home. Why? (9) Briefly describe Hector’s visit with his wife and child. Why is it hard for him to return to battle? Why does he go? (10) How do the Greeks try to protect their ships? What is their fear? (11) Why do the three envoys visit Achilles? What arguments do they present? How does Achilles respond to them?

Books 11-24

(1) Briefly describe how Agamemnon, Diomedes, and Odysseus become wounded. Who is winning at the end of this day’s battle? (2) How do the day’s events affect Patroclus? (3) Why does Patroclus want to enter the war? What is Achilles’ reaction? (4) What is Achilles’ reaction after Patroclus’ death? (5) Why is it important for Achilles and Agamemnon to reconcile publicly? (6) What hardships have resulted from Achilles’ anger? (7) How does the tide of war change after Achilles enters the war? (8) What is to be Achilles’ own future? (9) How does Achilles honor Patroclus and dishonor Hector? (10) Why do the gods interfere with Achilles’ plans for Hector’s body? (11) What are the results of Priam’s meeting with Achilles? Why? (12) The Iliad ends without total victory for the Greeks. Why? (13) Suppose the Greeks had come to regain Helen, but Achilles and Agamemnon had not quarreled. How would the story have changed? (14) In what ways do the Greek gods behave differently from our own divinity? (15) Contrast Hector and Achilles. Which do you like better? Why? (16) In your opinion, is Achilles any different at the end of the story than he was at the beginning? Explain.


Welcome to Advanced Placement English! Please read at least the required works listed below. However, I encourage you to read, read, read – as much as you can, whatever you can. The summer reading program is an integral feature of the AP English program, serving two functions:

1. to keep you active as readers, broadening your horizons; 2. to forestall summer “brain drain” by writing about what you have read.

This important requirement will keep your writing skills sharp and ease your transition into the AP English Literature class. View this as literary summer camp.


Texts were chosen based upon what they offer you in terms of narrative structure, how they mesh with other texts you have encountered as a student here, as well as accessibility while you work alone. This summer, you are going to read Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, An Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen, and Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya. All texts are available in room 407 for pick-up, or you can borrow or purchase the texts. Each text has a unique accompanying assignment, all of which are explained on my Google Classroom page, which you will have to join, using your SOCSD account. The page is AP Lit. Summer 2017, and the access code is b8na9gk. Do not upload work to Google Classroom over the summer. All work is to be typed and will be uploaded to turnitin.com as soon as we return to school; your first night’s homework assignment will be to join the appropriate class and upload all work. Work must show evidence of intellectual endeavor and incorporate language of literary analysis; work must also demonstrate close attention to editing. While none of these assignments is intended to be a research assignment, any outside information that is incorporated, either directly or indirectly, is to be cited. You are expected to work alone. Read actively, cheerfully, and thirstily; savor the words and ideas. Write earnestly, clearly, and sophisticatedly; embrace the opportunity to analyze. The reading and writing assignments will count toward major grades for the first quarter. See you in September!

~Frances B. Duffy