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Theology in Stone: Gothic Architecture, Scholasticism, and the Medieval Incarnational View of Knowledge

Theology in Stone: Gothic Architecture, Scholasticism, and the Medieval Incarnational View of Knowledge

Christus Cultura: The Journal of in the Social

Theology in Stone: Gothic The conquered , briefly unifying the whole , , of under the papal banner. and the Medieval Scholasticism expanded with the swelling ranks of scholars entering the new Incarnational View of . Two new mendicant orders, the Dominicans and , enriched the ecclesiastical . The greatest medieval scholar, , By Brenton H. Cook, Ph.D. systematized the teaching of the in his Theologica. Accompanying Bob Jones these developments was a burgeoning new movement in spiraling toward the . , like Aquinas’s scholastic masterpiece, was massive in scope, intricately detailed, and reflected the quintessential medieval quest for a unified .1 Aquinas’s Summa narrates the ’s story in three major themes: , Man, and the . Gothic architecture embodies the same themes in stone. The elite sons of the church, who could afford a university education, were lectured on Aquinas’s Summa. Paupers and peasants were lectured in the stone and glass adorning their local . Aquinas harmonized divine with the greatest achievements of human . Gothic architecture harmonized and by anticipating the arrival of the New .2 The development of scholasticism in the high medieval period remarkably parallels the development of church architecture. Edwin Panofsky observes, “There exists between Gothic architecture and Scholasticism a palpable and hardly Image Credit: Pixabay accidental concurrence in the purely factual domain of and place—a concurrence so inescapable that the historians of , uninfluenced by ulterior The Glories of the Thirteenth considerations, have been led to their The crowning achievements of material in precisely the same way as do the medieval culture converged in the thirteenth historians theirs.”3 century. The powerful occupied Peter’s chair in the person of Innocent III.

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This demonstrates that the affair with Heloise, he committed to philosophical currents undergirding observing the monastic at the old scholasticism were identical to those church of -Denis in a few undergirding the Gothic . It to ’s of the explores Gothic architecture as a medium same church. From this Parisian for communicating an incarnational and center, scholasticism and Gothic architecture holistic worldview centered on the reunion would both radiate across Europe. Panofsky of God and man through .4 Scholastic is insightful, theology, likewise, offered an incarnational Thus Early Scholasticism was born worldview that embraced all domains of at the same and in the same human .5 environment in which Early Gothic architecture was born in Suger’s Parallel Beginnings: Gothic Architecture Saint-Denis. For both the new and Scholasticism of thinking and the new style of Scholars generally the Gothic (opus Francigenum)— period in architecture from the end of the though brought about by ‘many Romanesque to the beginning of the masters from different nations,’ as periods.6 The is Suger said of his artisans, and soon somewhat arbitrary, but beginning with the developing into truly international rebuilding of the monastery church of Saint- movements—spread from an Denis near Paris under the direction of comprised with a circle drawn Abbot Suger, several architectural around Paris with a radius of less innovations evolved out of Romanesque than a hundred miles. And they style.7 Since the sixth century, the church at continued to be centered in this area Saint-Denis had been the burial site of the for about one century and a half.9 French monarchy. Suger erected over their sarcophagi a building as magnificent as any Panofsky demonstrates that the in Christendom. “The cathedral,” says Ernst parallels between Gothic architecture and Levy “as the kingdom of God on earth gazed scholasticism are numerous. High down upon the city and its population, scholasticism, begun in the twelfth century, transcending all other concerns of as it coincides with the Cathedrals transcended all its physical .” of and , also erected in the Suger aspired to create “a spectacle in which twelfth century.10 Twelfth-century heaven and earth, the angelic hosts in scholastics were especially influenced by the heaven and the human community in the great ancient , whose sanctuary, seemed to merge.”8 works enjoyed a renaissance following the Suger’s life (1081-1151) intersects early . To Thomas Aquinas, with the life Anselm of (1033- Aristotle was “the philosopher” who did not 1109) and nearly parallels that of Peter need to be named. But Aristotle’s influence Abelard (1079-1142), two of the greatest was also breathed into High Gothic statuary. schoolmen. Anselm’s treatises mark the “The infinitely more lifelike. . . High Gothic beginning of scholasticism proper, and statues of Reims and , Abelard’s writings represent the earliest and and the natural—though not, distinctly French contribution to as yet, naturalistic— and of High scholasticism. Gothic proclaim the victory of Suger may have known Abelard .”11 This Aristotelian personally. After Abelard’s tumultuous love emphasis on the body, though animated by

16 Christus Cultura: The Journal of Christianity in the Social Sciences the immortal human , corresponds with rendering them far heavier and potentially the scholastic attempt to demonstrate God’s cracking the stones at the base. through empirical Consequently, Romanesque churches could rather than by a priori means.12 never achieve the enormous heights of the The glories of scholasticism and Gothic churches. Gothic architecture also begin to fade The Gothic pointed , by simultaneously in the late thirteenth century. contrast, rotates much of the horizontal A bifurcation appears in the scholastic pressure in a semi-vertical direction attempt to wed theology and philosophy in a lessening the pressure at the summit of the systematic whole, finally culminating with supporting . Transferring the weight the loss of universals as seen in William of downward also focused pressure on points in Ockham’s . Likewise in the support columns that could be buttressed architecture, the Gothic attempt to wed externally. Consequently, Gothic walls forms with particulars in stone, became lighter, and a distinguishing reverted to far less ambitious architectural characteristic of the Gothic emerged, the styles.13 external flying buttresses—looking very much like the exoskeleton of an exotic Piercing the Heavens: From Romanesque insect. By redistributing much of the to Gothic enormous weight off the , walls and Gothic architecture evolved out of supporting pillars, architects were thus able the earlier Romanesque style, even as the to raise the height of the building Romanesque represents several innovations considerably. Lighter walls also opened up beyond the simple dating to the time large for emitting of Constantine.14 Like the basilica, considerably more than the older Romanesque is heavy, rectangular, and Romanesque. generally large in scale. Romanesque The Gothic style also applied the distinguished itself from the basilica with architectural of the pointed arch to the addition of towers—generally two the intricate structure of the ceiling. An adorning the entrance. The flat wood elaborate series of pointed , or ribbed of the basilica were replaced by vaulting, crisscrossed the central and vaulted ceilings. The most distinguishing evenly distributing the weight of characteristic of the Romanesque is the the ceiling to the support pillars, which in rounded arch, often mounted atop thick, turn were supported by the external heavy columns. buttresses. Charles Moore describes the Whereas Romanesque churches felt effect of these innovations. heavy, somber, and foreboding, the Gothic, This framework, made up of piers, by contrast, begins to feel increasingly open, arches, and buttresses, is freed from light, airy, and grand. The distinguishing every unnecessary encumbrance of architectural characteristic of the Gothic is wall, and is rendered as light in all its the pointed arch, replacing the earlier parts as is compatible with Romanesque circular arch and barrel strength—the stability of the fabric vaulting. The Romanesque arch thrust the depending not upon inert enormous weight of the ceiling outward in a massiveness (except in the outermost horizontal direction, cracking the supporting abutments), but upon a logical pillars at the point where they intersected the adjustment of active parts whose arches. To compensate, Romanesque architects increased the size of their pillars,

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opposing neutralize each other by adorning the entries to the and produce a perfect equilibrium.15 transepts and numerous mounted above the flying buttresses. The famous These foundational structural Cathedral is ringed by a whole changes produced not only a new style in forest of spires penetrating the heavens. architecture, but were accompanied by To the medieval mason, every corner several ornamental developments serving to of the Gothic cathedral was sacred . complete the Gothic style. Large Stone flowers, creatures great and small, fenestration spaces created a demand for images of Christ and the received the , producing a revolution in this same elaborate to detail whether medium. The gallery, situated they adorned the over the main above the compound pillars, was often entrance or were situated in obscure niches, ornamented by stained glass forming a band rarely observed. The delicate scroll work of of color circumscribing the building. Above the framing ornate stained glass in the triforium, large windows the clerestory far above were as carefully emitted profusions of color through stained planned and exquisitely crafted as the glass, glittering downward like so many windows below. The entire structure rainbows cascading from the heavens. radiated the same of holiness seen in Lancet windows situated at both ends of the ’s ancient Temple.17 Like the Holy nave and transepts were crowned by rose of Holies, sacred spaces rarely observed by windows where Christ, the light of the world human eye were as ornate and beautiful as radiates outward from the center. the frontal façades. This was art done in These highly ornamental windows service of God, not man. Kurt Gerstenberg were complemented by elaborate stone identifies “a basic principle of .” carvings adorning the façades and included “Beauty”, he says, “exists for its own sake, images of both biblical figures and medieval it exists, even though no human eye may see patrons and saints. The Gothic style also what is, above all, meant for the eye of the incorporated and improved the intricately Creator.”18 carved tympanums found in the earlier The architectural innovations of Romanesque. The western façade of Gothic builders ultimately converged into , for instance, is crowned one defining characteristic of the Gothic: by three arches rising above three . The Light. Otto von Simson says, “The Gothic central arch depicts the eternal Christ wall seems to be porous: light filters through enthroned in the heavens. On the left is an it, permeating it, merging with it, image of Christ’s , and on the transfiguring it. . . . In this decisive aspect, right, and image of Christ’s incarnation. then, the Gothic may be described as The Gothic cathedral often added transparent, diaphanous architecture. . . . No two triumphant spires purchased atop the segment of inner space was allowed to towers introduced by the Romanesque style. remain in darkness, undefined by light.”19 In some instances, a single rises from Suger’s large rose , situated at the the intersection of the nave and transepts as north end of his cathedral, depicts God, the in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris. creator of light, at the center. Radiating out in boasts a from God are the days of creation. single central spire rising more than 400 feet Doubtless, Gothic architects sought above the ground, approaching the height of to communicate through the mediums of the Great Pyramid in Egypt.16 These large stone and glass their conviction that Christ Gothic spires are frequently complemented

18 Christus Cultura: The Journal of Christianity in the Social Sciences was the light sent to penetrate the darkness in , , the fifteenth-century of the world below (John 8). “The glow of painter depicts the greatest the stained glass of cathedrals like Chartres, medieval , Saint Thomas Aquinas, , or Strasbourg suggests a light holding a church in his right hand, and his from another world shining into the Summa in his left. Festooned to his chest, a darkness.”20 Light’s ability to completely giant ornament of the pours out its rays eradicate darkness reflects Christ’s to on both church and text.23 completely eradicate the darkness of human Aquinas’s Summa rivals a cathedral . The achievement of light in the Gothic in , running to some sixty-one windows so nearly approaches completion volumes in its English edition.24 Despite its that “the solid elements of the float, enormity, Aquinas left it unfinished at his as it were, on the luminous window surface, , like so many Gothic architects who its dramatically articulated by never witnessed the completion of their light.”21 masterpieces. The Summa attempts to The holistic effect of the comprehensively answer every question of architectural innovations of the Gothic is to sacred theology creating a harmonious communicate an aesthetic of the enabling man to live under God’s reunion of God and man. Phillip Schaff is sacred dominion. Like a mason considering descriptive. every joint and angle and adorning the entire The most magnificent and beautiful sacred space of the building, Aquinas probes of the period are the the entire space of sacred creation. Diarmaid cathedrals—those giant stone MacCulloch says, “The Summa deals with flowers with their countless turrets, the most abstract questions of and the storming the heavens and bearing the of God, yet it also extends to very soul on high, and their mysterious practical discussions of the way everyday devotional gloom, visited never by life should be viewed, and how we should the light of the natural , but only live as part of God’s purpose. . . . It presents by mystic irradiations poured a harmonious view of God’s earthly and through stained glass; , the heavenly creation.”25 authors of which stood so completely Panofsky also recognizes this quest in the general life of the church, and for a harmonious worldview or “totality” were so occupied only with the that was shared in the High Medieval period honor of God in their work, that with by author and architect. a divine carelessness they have left Like the High Scholastic Summa, the even their own to perish in High Gothic cathedral aimed, first of oblivion.”22 all, at ‘totality’ and therefore tended to approximate, by synthesis as well Philosophy in Tome: Reading the as elimination, one perfect and final Summas solution; we may therefore speak of Medieval man believed the light of the High Gothic plan or the High the sun enflamed more than cathedrals Gothic system with much more walls. It symbolized sacred learning also, confidence than would be possible in illuminating the scholastic theologians who any other period. In its imagery, the constructed elaborate cathedrals of High Gothic cathedral sought to knowledge in a new medieval genre, the embody the whole of Christian . In a famous knowledge, theological, moral,

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natural, and historical, with In the following in its place. . . . The Constantine’s conversion to Christianity, second requirement of Scholastic and exploded. Art writing, ‘arrangement according to a became a central medium for system of homologous parts and communicating the Christian message, parts of parts,’ is most graphically especially in the western half of expressed in the uniform division Christendom.30 , , and and subdivision of the whole saints would soon enjoy their own : structure [of the cathedral].26 St. Sebastian bears the arrow, St. Augustine the heart aflame, and the skull, Theology in Stone: Reading the Gothic depicting his morbid fixation with death. Cathedrals Even an illiterate medieval peasant could Knowledge in the medieval world read the symbols and icons of the church as was often the reverse of the modern world. easily as an educated twenty-first century Whereas the medieval world had a westerner can read text. developed appreciation for art and Gothic art and architecture, in this architecture, the modern medieval context, would have been read focuses on text. Western civilization has effortlessly. Simson argues, “The medieval achieved nearly universal rates.27 mind . . . was preoccupied with the symbolic The written word has become the chief nature of the world of appearances. communication medium in , Everywhere the visible seemed to reflect the academia, trade and diplomacy. But few invisible.”31 Simons further argues that education curricula from primary to whereas Gothic architecture has become universities give any attention to incomprehensible to modern , to the as a communication medium. In the medieval mind it was “the representation of medieval period, interpreting art and .” Further, “to those who architecture was commonplace. Even designed the cathedrals, as to their illiterate peasants could interpret symbols in contemporaries who worshipped in them, stone and canvass. this symbolic aspect or function of sacred As early as the third century, and architecture overshadowed all others.”32 possibly much earlier, Christianity began to The main objective of the Gothic adopt aesthetic mediums and a rich cathedral, like the Summas is to symbolism to communicate the .28 In communicate a synthesis between heaven the and adoring the and earth. Simons beautifully summarizes , images of the Holy Spirt as a dove, the intent of Abbot Suger’s architectural as the Good Shepherd, and more agenda, as Suger himself describes it in his general Christian symbols of the fish, ship, account of the building of St. Denis. anchor, and fisherman frequently appear.29 In its opening passages, the author Scenes of the , early , unfolds before us a mystical vision and images of heaven adorned with gardens of harmony that the divine limn the plaster of Christian graves in the has established throughout the subterranean vaults beneath the city of . The treatise ends with the . In the early fourth century, the Chi account of the Rho as well as the Alpha and Omega ceremony that Suger had arranged become standard symbols for Christ. with calculated splendor and that he now describes as a spectacle in

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which heaven and earth, the angelic This reunion of God and man is seen hosts in heaven and the human also in glass. The west façade of Chartres community in the sanctuary seem to cathedral contains an elaborate genealogy of merge.33 Christ, the Messiah, growing organically from the root of Jesse. The lies Wim Swam makes a similar observation, recumbent in the lowest pane. From his “God’s presence was universal; but a body emerges a fruitful vine producing four cathedral was his home. . . . He was the of Jesus’s royal ancestors—, Solomon, architect of the , the supreme and two unidentified kings—in ascending master-mason. . . . Earthly architectural panes. Above them is the , and skills were a reflection of his and an offering from her, the vine blossoms again depicting to him.”34 Christ in the of honor. Christ is full The cathedral is a portal between of the seven gifts of the heaven and earth, drawing the soul upward represented by seven encircling doves. through its majestic heights, and drawing the Flanking each central pane are two prophets, radiant glories of heaven downward like so fourteen total (Nahum, Joel, Ezekiel, Hosea, many sunbeams falling through stained glass Isaiah, Micah, Moses, Balaam, Samuel, to the floor beneath. Soaring towers, and Amos, Zechariah, Daniel, Habakkuk, and countless spires seem to break the bonds of Zephaniah), witnessing to the union of God and transport the worshipper to and man through Christ, Jesse’s heir.37 another world. But domestic scenes etched A variation on the Chartres glass can in stone and wood of students and soldiers, be seen in Britain’s , home of kings and , prophets and the greatest collection of medieval stained physicians—crafted with increasingly glass. Many of Europe’s cathedrals were realistic Aristotelian precision—tell another badly damaged in the Second story, that God has come to earth and other cataclysms since the late medieval authenticating the miseries and triumphs of period. But the York Minster boasts a human existence below. stunning collection of 128 ancient windows The cathedral’s nave and transepts protected by the York Glaziers Trust.38 The intersect forming a cross over the extant, but fragmented window enshrining Christ’s broken body and shed in the York Minster is to be the blood. The cross is the anchor joining this oldest panel of stained glass in England, world to the world above, reuniting God and dating to approximately 1170.39 man. Gerstenberg says, “A feeling that all Such examples illustrate the Gothic human was governed by a higher plan of synthesis by uniting God and man permeated the faith of the Gothic period.”35 through the Redeemer. But synthesis , a late example of extended beyond the atonement. The stones Gothic architecture in the south of England, also depict the unity of human learning with communicates the medieval notion of a the Christian faith. Medieval thinkers unity between heaven and earth. Adoring the recognized an acute compatibility between two great towers of the front entrance are Greek and Christian . two great ladders populated by as in The western façade of , Jacob’s dream. The angels move for example, brings the two together through ceaselessly, ascending and descending, a series of depicting twelve conducting their business between heaven virtues and their opposites: (1) faith and and earth.36 idolatry (2) and cowardice (3) hope

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and despair (4) and impatience (5) Their place implies that human wisdom is charity and avarice (6) gentleness and dependent on Divine Wisdom and directed violence (7) chastity and (8) concord toward it.”43 and discord (9) and folly (10) These and similar examples from constancy and rebellion (11) and Gothic architecture demonstrate the pride (12) perseverance and inconstancy.40 medieval conviction that Christianity can One of the clearest examples of the accommodate secular learning. Thomas medieval synthesis of faith and learning can Aquinas demonstrates the identical attitude be seen in the famous Chartres tympanum. in his Summa. Gothic architecture and Surrounding Christ at the center, the scholasticism both testify to a profound archivolts are carved with personifications that the universe can be subdued by a of the seven liberal as well as several synthesis of faith and reason. ancient . Adolf Katzenellenbogen identifies the central significance of the The Age of Light tympanum. Opponents of Christianity have long At Chartres the personifications of dismissed the as simply the secular learning were . . . considered “Dark Ages.” Gothic architecture is but one important enough to frame a of several medieval achievements that theological cycle. While in the us to reconsider this glib dismissal of the tympanum and its lintels theological pre-Renaissance world. James Michener, in are made understandable to an oft-cited line, proclaimed “An age is the intellect through the ideographic called Dark not because the light fails to clarity of their representation, in the shine, but because people refuse to see it.”44 archivolts are shown the intellectual The synthesis of stone and light, philosophy means that prepare the wisdom and theology, structure and beauty found in seeker for such an . the Gothic style is unmatched by the Underneath each of the Liberal Arts aesthetic achievements of any other age, is represented an author who by his or . and writings had primarily One has to wonder what a medieval contributed to the substance of that traveler, who is transported suddenly to the art. That the seven branches of modern world, would think of much modern secular learning and seven authors of art, especially when contrasted with the the past, mostly pagan, were given a distinct Christian narrative etched in stone place on a church façade is, indeed, a and glass by Gothic architects. Many tangible example of the forms replace distinct lines, protohumanism pervading the form, , and correspondence to of Chartres.41 objective natural phenomena with twisted and figures, misshapen creatures, Katzenellenbogen this and unconventional combinations of color. emphasis on the liberal arts should be Modern culture operates on the attributed to who argued, “In order metaphysical assumption that behind to become truly wise, man should know the everything is nothing at all: no God, no seven liberal arts.”42 He says further, “The purpose, no , no final explanations, peripheral place of the Liberal Arts in no , order or shape to the world. relation to the central position of Christ, the Modern art is anti-teleological, it Divine Wisdom, on the Royal Portal corresponds to these concepts of Boethius.

22 Christus Cultura: The Journal of Christianity in the Social Sciences communicates no , and it 5 Norman Klassen and Jens Zimmermann argue suggests no coherent view of reality.45 for a “genuine ” centered on the Gothic architecture, on the other incarnation of Christ that was a product of the hand, coupled with its contemporary medieval mind. “Medieval confidence in reason summas, form a nearly a perfect contrast to and the intelligibility of the universe arose out of a fundamental commitment to the tenets of the character of and Christianity, now being worked out in a detailed modern art. The Middle Ages were indeed and systematic way.” Thomas Aquinas, in an age of light, but in a world darkened by particular, “exemplifies this .” “Thomas the heritage of the Enlightenment, modern did two things especially well, and they are men are ill-equipped to see the light. surely related. First, he took seriously both God’s word and God’s world, following the example of the early scholastic humanists. Second he embraced man of the of the (and therefore pagan) philosopher Aristotle.” The Passionate Intellect: 1Philip Schaff celebrated this medieval : Incarnational Humanism and the of “It is this precisely which renders the Middle University Education (Grand Rapids: Baker Ages so grand and venerable, that in this Academic, 2006), 49, 51. period appears the all-moving, all-ruling force— 6 Andre Martindale, Gothic Art: From the the center around which all moral struggles and Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries (New York: triumphs, all thought, poetry, and action are Frederick Praeger Publishers, 1967), 7. found to revolve. All sciences, and philosophy 7 In a rare example of a medieval architectural itself—the of the sciences—were narrative, Abbot Suger describes his rebuilding handmaids to theology.” Philip Schaff, The of Saint-Denis in considerable detail. Erwin Principle of , (Eugene, OR: Wipf Panofsky, ed. Abbot Suger: On the Abbey & Stock Publishers, n.d.), 175. Church of St.-Denis and its Art Treasures, 2nd 2 Otto von Simson is descriptive. “The church is, ed. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, mystically and liturgically, an image of heaven. 1946). Art historians are nearly unanimously Medieval theologians have, on innumerable agreed that the church of Saint-Denis is the occasions, dwelt on this correspondence. The earliest embodiment of the major characteristics authoritative of the dedication of of Gothic architecture (see below). See for a church explicitly relates the vision of the instance, Harald Busch and Bernd Lohse, eds., Celestial City, as described in the Book of Buildings of Europe: Gothic Europe (London: , to the building that is to be erected.” B.T. Batsford Ltd, 1959), v. The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic 8The Gothic Cathedral, xix. Architecture and the Medieval of Order 9Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism, 4-5. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1956), 8. 10Ibid., 5. 3Erwin Panofsky, Gothic Architecture and 11Ibid., 6. Scholasticism (New York: Meridian Books, 12Ibid., 6-7. 1957), 2-3. 13Panofksy sees the end of both projects by the 4 The “Gothic” was first used in the middle of the fourteenth century. Ibid., 11. sixteenth century as a smug and derogatory 14Examples of Romanesque can be found in dismissal of pre-. It essentially in (1093), the dismissed the medieval achievement as Abbey Church of Vezelay Church in “barbaric” but incorrectly associated Gothic (1104), Tum Collegiate Church in architecture with the raiding bands of who (1161), and the Abbey Church of Conques in overran the a earlier. France (11th c.). See Andrew Martindale, Gothic Art: From the 15Charles Herbert Moore, Development and Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries (New York: Character of Gothic Architecture, 2nd ed. Frederick A. Praeger Publishers, 1967), 7. (London: The Macmillan Company, 1906), 8.

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16http://www.salisburycathedral.org.uk/history/a http://www.medievalart.org.uk/Angers/Bay_103 dding-spire (accessed 10/18/14) b/Angers_Bay103b_Key.htm (accessed 17 “The Temple of Solomon . . . and the Temple 11/8/2014) of Ezekiel were . . . understood as images of 38https://www.yorkminster.org/history-and- heaven. They, no less than the Heavenly City, conservation/york-glaziers-trust.html (accessed were looked upon as archetypes of the Christian 11/8/2014) sanctuary and actually inspired the medieval 39http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_of_Jesse#me builder.” The Gothic Cathedral, 11. diaviewer/File:England_YorkMinster_JesseTree 18 “Introduction” in Harald Busch and Bernd _c1170.JPG (accesses 11/8/2014) Lohse, eds. Buildings of Europe: Gothic Europe 40http://www.medievalart.org.uk/Amiens/West_ (London. B.T. Batsford Ltd, 1959), iii. Facade/VirtuesAndVices/AmiensWest_Quatrefo 19The Gothic Cathedral, 4. il_VirtuesVices_Key.htm 20Buildings of Europe, Gothic Europe, xvii. 41Adolf Katzenellenbogen, The Sculptural 21The Gothic Cathedral, 4. Programs of Chartres Cathedral (Baltimore: 22Principle of Protestantism, 175-176. The John Hopkins Press, 1959), 16. 23http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/ca 42Ibid., 17. rlo-crivelli-saint-thomas-aquinas (accessed 43Ibid. 11/8/2014) 44 James A. Michener, Space (1982). 24Diarmaid MacCulloch, Christianity: The First 45 “When the travesties scattered throughout our Three Thousand Years (New York: Viking, modern art museums are alongside the 2009), 413. glories of ancient , the Christian heart 25 Ibid. should swell with pride. Our Lord has thrown 26Panofsky, 44-45. unbelievers down, and they can never recover. 27http://world.bymap.org/LiteracyRates.html Look at what they now do on their own! The (accessed 11/2/14) modern materialist has truly fallen between two 28The persecution from 303 to 311 stools—he cannot have the Nike of Samothrace, destroyed much of the material evidences of and he cannot have Bach’s in B Minor. He early Christianity. records that “I saw cannot have Vergil and he cannot have Milton. with my own eyes the houses of worship But he can hang a toilet seat on the gallery wall demolished to their foundations.” Paul L Maier, and apply for federal grants—we are all just ed. Eusebius: The Church History (Grand prisoners here of our own device.” Douglas Rapids: Kregel Publications, 1999), 290. Jones and Douglas Wilson, Angels in the 29An excellent recent treatment of catacomb art Architecture: A Protestant Vision for Middle is, Vincenzo Fiocchi Nicolai, Fabrizio Bisconti, Earth (Moscow, ID: Press, 1998), 34. and Danilo Mazzoleni, The Christian Catacombs of Rome: History, Decoration, Inscriptions (Rome: Schnell & Steiner, 2002). 30The iconoclastic controversy would limit Greek Orthodox art. 31The Gothic Cathedral, xxi. 32 Ibid., xvii. 33The Gothic Cathedral, xix. 34 Christopher Brooke, “The Cathedral in Medieval Society” in Wim Swam, ed. The Gothic Cathedral (Doubleday & Co., Inc.), 15. 35Buildings of Europe: Gothic Europe, iii. 36http://www.bathabbey.org/sites/default/files/La dder2783.jpg (accessed 11/8/2014) 37http://www.medievalart.org.uk/chartres/049_p ages/Chartres_Bay049_key.htm A similar window can be found in Cathedral.