High and in

Chapter 22 with Renaissance and Monuments The in Italy

• High Renaissance lasted from 1495 – the deaths of Leonardo ca Vinci in 1519 and in 1520. • in classical culture,,p persp ective ,p, pro portion , and dominated16th century . • No single artistic characterized this period– regional differences especially between ( and Rome) andVd Ven ice. • Humanistic scholars and art patrons adopted ’s view of the nature of artistic creation in general: “All good . . . Compose their beautiful poems not by art, but because they are inspired and possessed. . . . For not by art does the sing , but by power divine.” • Thus, the notion of “fine ” and the exaltation of the artist-genius originated during the Renaissance. • Artists first became international celebrities, i.e. Leonardo di Vinci, Raphael, and . Key Ideas

• The revitalization of the city of Rome under the of Julius II led to one of the most creative outbursts in the of art. • High Renaissance artists seek to emulate Roman grandeur by undertaking awe-inspiring artistic projects • High Renaissance compositions are marked by balance, symmetry, and ideal proportions. Triangular compositions are also favored. • Venetian painters stress sensuous forms and sophisticated color . • Portraits reveal the likenesses of the sitters as well as the character and personality. LEONARDO • Born in the small town of Vinci in 1452, trained in the studio of Verroccio ( ). • A “Renaissance man” and an artist/, Leonardo kept notes/sketchbooks dealing with botany, geology, , , , , animal lore, anatomy, and aspects of physical , including hydraulics and mechanics. He understood , light, and color through his exploration of optics. • Great ambition was to discover the laws underlying the processes and flux of nature. Studied the and contributed to physiology and psychology. • He believed reality in an absolute sense is inaccessible, hum an s can onl y kn ow i t fr om ch an gin g im ages. Thr ough the eyes individuals can grasp reality most directly and profoundly. ƒ Builds on ’s use of ; modeling with light and shadow and expressing emotional states were Leonardo’s goals. ƒ Pyramidal grouping sharing the same environment – unified representation of objects with atmospheric Cue Card perspective, was a manifest ati on of his sci entifi c curiosity about the invisible substance surrounding things. ƒ 4 figures pray, point, and bless – uniting them visually. ƒ Infant John’s outward glance involves the viewer.

LEONARDO DA VINCI, Leonar do da Vinci , MdMad onnaf othf the Rocks, central panel from of San Francesco Grande, , Italy, begun 1483. Oil on wood (transferred to ) 6’6 ” x 4’ , , ca. 1495–1498 Oil and on plaster, 13’ 9” x 29’ 10” Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Commissioned by the Sforza of Milan

Cue Card • Great of the moment: says, One of you will betray me. (Matthew 26:21) • Jesus is isolated – the calm eye of swirling emotion of disciples. Curved of window arches above his head, serving along with the diffused light, as a halo. • Jesus’ head is the focal point of all converging perspective lines. orthogonals of ceiling and floor point to Jesus • Disciples are in 4 groups of 3, the placement of Judas breaks with traditional iconography. He is in green and blu e, falls back clu tching his bag of coins, face in darkness. • Leonardo acted as a director, reading the Gospel story carefully, and casting his /actors in their roles. The disciples’ emotional responses include fear, doubt, protestation, rage, and love. • Leonardo’s experiment to mix oil and tempera applied a secco (dry ), so the would look more like an , failed. The quickly began to flake and the humidity of Milan quickened the process. • 80% of what is visible today is the work of restorers, not Leonardo. ƒ Identity is still debated, but Vasari stated in his of Leonardo that she was Lisa di Antonio Maria Gherardini, the wife of a wealthy Florentine. Mona is a contraction of the Italian ma donna, “my lady.” ƒ Not solely as an of status, as earlier portraits – she is wearing no jewelry, or attributes of wealth. ƒ Renaissance dictated a woman should not look directly into a man’s eyes. She engages the audience psychologically. ƒ Mysterious uninhabited prime example of Leonardo’s famous (misty haziness). Chiaroscuro and atmospheric perspective in the background. ƒ Pyramidal composition ƒ A three-quarter turn toward the viewer, relaxed. Engages the viewer directly, Cue Card seems to smiling but she isn’t. LEONARDO DA VINCI, , ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood 2’ 6” x 1’9” ƒ In late less expensive paper made of fibrous pulp was available for the industry, so artist s experiment ed more and drew with greater freedom using pen and ink, chalk, charcoal, brush, graphite, or lead. Previouslyyy they used expensive or vellum and their were detailed and Fetus and Linin meticulous, executed with a Cue Card stylus.

LEONARDO DA VINCI, The g of the Uterus, ca. 1511–1513. wash, over chalk and traces of black chalk on paper, 1’ x 9” ƒObserve similarities between Cue Card Raphael’s work and his teacher, Perugino’s (1481 – 1483), .

ƒ Centrally planned temple features Brunelleschian arcades. (Loggia of the Osedale degli RAPHAEL, Marriage of the Virgin, from Innocenti, Florence, the Chapel of Saint Joseph in San begun 1419) Francesco, Città di Castello, Italy, 1504 Oil on wood, 5’ 7” x 3’ 10” RAPHAEL The Marriage of the Virgin • Probably learned his craft with father, Giovanni Santi, a painter connected with ducal court of . • Trained in by Perugino (Christ Delivering the Keys the Kingdom to Saint Peter) • The subject of The Marriage of the Virgin was from the , a 13th century collection of stories about the lives of the saints – it filled in the holes from the Biblical passages. • The high priest was to give the Virgin to the suitor who presented a rod that had miraculously bloomed. Joseph holds the in his right hand. • Other virgins congregate on the left, unsuccessful suitors on the right. • The suitor breaking his rod shows off Raphael’s skill in foreshortening. ƒCommissioned by Julius II’s for his papal in the papal apartments, where he signed official documents. ƒJulius II wanted to be recoggpnized as a spiritual and secular leader, and face each other. ƒPainting originally called “Philosophy “ because the pope’s philosophy books were meant to be housed on the shelving below.. ƒOpen, clear light uniformly spread throughout the composition. RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican , Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresco, 19’ x 27’ Cue Card RAPHAEL Philosophy (School of Athens) ƒ Colossal statues of App,p,ollo and , patrons of and wisdom, oversee interactions of figures in ellipse who display calm reason, balance, and measure – the of philosophy. ƒ In the center to of the greatest leaders: Plato (with features of Leonardo on the l eft) and A ri st otl e. Pl at h old s hi s boo k Timaeus, with his le ft han d – the vanishing point, and points to Heaven – his inspiration, with his right hand. carries his book, Nichomachean , and gestures toward the earth – his observations of reality. ƒ , in the foreground, is probably a portrait of Michelangelo. He is resting on the stone writing a poem.

ƒ Raphael on extreme right by astronomers Zoraster and . ƒ Buildi ngs be hin d m ig ht reflect Bramante’s plan for Saint Peter’s ƒ Commissioned by Agostino Chigi, Cue Card wealthy banker who managed Vatican’s financial affairs, to decorate palace on Tier River with scenes from . ƒ Based on by , who also inspired Botticelli’s Birth of . ƒ Galatea is escaping her uncouth lover, cyclops . ƒ Spiraling composition of figures and Galatea’s complex figural pose (hair/head facing left, arms right, one leg raised and one straight. ƒ Composition rests on a series of triangles ƒ Lively vibrant bodies energetically and playfully arranged

RAPHAEL, Galatea, Sala di Galatea, Farnesina, Rome, Italy, 1513. Fresco, 9’ 8” x 7’ 5” 15 MICHELANGELO • Ldt“PitiittftLeonardo wrote, “Painting is a matter of greater ment tlliftal analysis, of greater skill, and more marvelous than sculpture, since necessity compels the mind of the painter to transform itself into the very mind of nature, to become an interpreter between nature and art.” • Michelangelo considered sculpture superior since it shares in the divine power to “make man.” Artists find their ideas in the natural world, reflecting the absolute idea, which is . He observed that the artist must find their idea – the image loc ke d in the s tone. By remov ing excess s tone, scu lp tors extricate the idea from the block. • He set aside Vitruvious, Alberti, and Leonardo – who sought the perfect measure, and felt artist’ s inspired judgment could identify other pleasing proportions. This artistic license to aspire beyond “rules” derived from the pursuit of fame/success fostered. • Although Michelangelo later claimed he owed nothing artistically to anyone, he was an apprentice of painter Ghirlandaio, but left prior to completing training. Made detailed drawings of and Masaccio, studied sculpture under one of Lorenzo the Magnificent’s favorite artists, Bertoldo di Giovanni (’ s collaborator) , and when the Medici fell in 1494, he fled to where the of a Sienese artist, impressed him. Michelangelo’s Influences?

Ghirlandaio Giotto


Bertoldo di Giovanni Jacopo della Quercia Cue Card ƒ Michelangelo in early 20s, in Rome, French cardinal Jean de Bilheres Lagraulas commissioned for Old Saint Peters. Originally intended for a funerary monument. ƒ Only signed work (on Mary’s sash) – “Michelangelo Buonarroti, Florentine, made this,” regretted his later. ƒ Transformed marble into flesh, hair and fabric with unparalleled sensitivity. ƒ Not in proportion – Mary is 6” 6”; ageless beauty because of her purity. She seems to be too young. MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Pieta, ca. 1498-1500. Marble, 5’ 8 ½” high. Saint Peter’s, , Rome. 18 •Pyramidal composition; little negative ; compact; monumental; frontal viewpoint preferred, the work was meant to blbe place d aga itthllfhinst the wall of a chape l. •Christ is protrayed as serene •Heavy drapery Mary’ssizeasshe s size as she easily holds Jesus in her lap Cue Card ƒ Michelangelo returned to Florence in 1501. During Medicis exile in 1495, Florentine ordered Donatello’s David moved from the Medddici residence to t hlhe Palazzo dlldellaSignoriato join Verocchio’s David – civic symbols (a cunning victor over a larger enemy). ƒ Michelangelo was invited to carve another David statue for the out of a block of marble left from an earlier commission. ƒ David is depicted not after victory, but before the encounter – watching his approaching foe. Connected to unseen presence. ƒ Tension/energy in reserve, that permeates Michelangelo’s later figures. ƒ Strong anatomy hh(lhdhints at triumph (large hands and feet, swelling veins, tightening sinews) ƒ First colossal since the ancient world ƒ Slight ; little negative space; compact pose; monumental forms

MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, from , Florence,

Italy, 1501–1504. Marble, 17’ high. 20 ƒ Without strictly imitating antique style, Michelangelo’s David displays tension of the Lysippan athletes and ppysycholog ical insight and emotionalism of Hellenistic statuary ƒ Differs from Donatello’s and Verocchio’s creations in the same way later Hellenistic statuary departed from Classical predecessors.

Epigonos (?), Gallic chieftain Lysippos, Apoxyomenos killing himself and his wife> ()(Scraper). Roman copy Roman copy ofbf a bronze of a bronze statue of ca. statue from Pergamon, 330 BCE. Marble 6’ 9” Turkey ca. 230 - 229 BCE. high. Marble 6’ 11” high. ƒ Pope Julius II’s commission (after David) for tomb – original 1505 design included 28 statues in a freestanding two story structure. Pope interrupted– funds diverted to rebuild Saint Peter’s ƒ After Julius II’s death in 1513, reduced to a simple wall tomb with 1/3 of planned figures. ƒ Michelangelo considered it his best work. ƒ Head is turned and shows anger when his pppeople were worshi ppgpping the Golden Calf - the false idol they made. ƒ Not since Hellenistic times – pent up energy, emotional and physical. Inspired by Hellenistic sculpture of Laocoon. ƒ Originally meant to be seen from below, oblique angle of the legs would have allowed viewing from this point of view Cue Card ƒ Horns: mistranslation of Biblical text; MICHELANGELO thought to have had “horns’ coming out of his head after visitingg,pp Mount Sinai, an improper BUONARROTI, Moses, from for “rays” the tomb of Pope Ju lius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515 ƒ Figure is in awe, but awesome to view as well; Marble, 7’ 8” high. heroic body, idealized form. ƒ 20 statues of captives (slaves) were to be part of pope’s tomb – in revolt and exhaustion. ƒ Some scholars now doubt attribution and even reject identification of statues as “slaves/captives.” ƒ FranticSlave– Michelangelo based art on conviction that powerful emotional states must be expressed through figures.

MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Bound (Rebellious Captive), from the tomb of Pope Julius II, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1516 Marble, 7’1” high

23 ƒ Sistine Chapel is the place where new are elected ƒ Michelangelo reluctantly accepted commission from Julius II when work on his tomb was suspended. ƒ ’s height – approx. 70’ and curve posed problems. ƒ Inexperience at fresco painting, had to redo the first section because of faultyyp prep aration of intonaco, last coat of plaster, applied in sections while still damp with colors ground in lime-water mixture). Completed in less than 4 years ƒ Frescos incorporate his patron’s agenda, doctrine, and Michelangelo’s – the creation (from Genesis), fall, and redemption of . Michelangelo Buonarroti, interior of the ƒ More than 300 figures, no two in Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, the same pose 1508-1512, Fresco, 128’ X 45’ Patron: Pope Julius II Cue Card ƒ Creation along crown of vault ƒ Hebrew prophets and ancient who foretold coming of Christ on thrones on either side of creating frescos. ƒ Old Testament scenes in 4 corner pendentives ƒ Ancest ors of Chri st in tri angl es ab ove windows ƒ Nude youths in corners of central panels ƒ Pairs of putti (cherubic young boy) in grisalle support painted cornice surrounding central corridor. ƒ Renaissance ideas about Christian history: conflict between good and evil, energy of youth and the wisdom of old age. ƒ Michelangelo’s lifelong preoccupation with the male nude in motion. ƒ Enormous variety of expression ƒ Acorns are a motif on the ceiling, inspired by the crest of the patron, Pope Cue Card Julius II. is flying through the sky. Spark of life transferred to Adam. God makes Adam in his “image and likeness”

ƒ Lord as ruler of Heaven in the classical, Olympian sense – High Renaissance joined classical and Christian traditions. ƒ Virgin Mary, Christ at knee – Adam’s original sin eventually led to the sacrifice of ChChirist , whihihch made possibl e the redempti on of mankind . ƒ Movement along arms, focal point is off center (replaced straight architectural axes found in Leonardo’s compositions with curves and diagonals. Adam’s body is concave, God’ s with billowing tunic is convex. ƒ Michelangelo’s style: reclining positions, heavy musculature, twisting poses.

MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Creation of Adam detail of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Cue Card ƒ Christ as judge ƒ Martyrs below Christ, Saint Bartholomew – skinned alive holds knife and skin with portrait of Michelangelo – remark about critics who skin him alive with their criticism ƒ Hope – elect (saved souls) near Christ, far right figure with cross (Good Thief or saint martyred by . ƒ Four horizontal bands act as the unifying element ƒ Bottom: left: dead rising, right: the mouth of hell ƒ 2nd level: ascending elect, descending sinners, trumpeting angels ƒ 3rd level: those rising to heaven gathered around Jesus Cue Card ƒ Top: angels carrying the Cross MICGOCHELANGELO, Last Judgment, altar wall of the and the Column, instruments Sistine Chapel used at Christ’s death. MICHELANGELO Last Judgment Mic he lange lo was critiiiticize d for using creatures from Dante’s Inferno – Charon ferryyging the damned and Minos who is shown as one of the judges located in the underworld, whose portrait is the Vatican’s Master of Ceremonies, Biagio da , most vocal critic of in the work. Cesena asked Paul III to make Michelangelo remove the image, who replied, “If he had placed you into the purgatory, I would have attempted getting you out of there, but he put you into the hell – my power does not extend that far”. ƒ Began in his 70s – for his tomb ƒ Challenged himself to surpass sculptors of Laocoon – 4 figures/1 block ƒ Left leg (criticized) became detached – flaw in marble? Michelangelo abandoned, later permitted assistant to repair and partially finish. ƒ Nicodemus, a self portrait, in direct contact with Christ – heretical during Counter-.

MICHELANGELO, Athanadoros, Myron, 450 BCE Pieta, ca. 1547-1555. Roman copy of Hagesandros, Polydoros st marble, 7’ 8” high Greek bronze of Rhodes, Early 1 century CE, Rome Counter Reformation and Art

• Paul III (r. 1534 – 1549) was pope when there was widespread dissatisfaction with the Roman . The Last Judgment was among his first papal commissions. • In the early Reformers led by and in the Holy Roman , challenged papal authority, regarding the sale of (pardons for sins, reducing the time in purgatory), , and high Church officials pursuing personal wealth . • Protestants believe in a personal relationship between an individual and God, eliminating the need for Church intercession. They believed religggygious imagery encouraged idolatry and distracted the faithful from their goal. • Catholic church mounted a campaign to counteract the defection of its members. Popes had long been aware that visual imagery had power to construct and reinforce ideological claims as well as cultivate piety. ƒ During the Council of Trent in 1564 to review controversial Church doctrines, a month before Michelangelo’s death, it was decided The Last Judgment fresco should be “amended” . ,an, an acquaintance of Michelangelo was hired to paint loin cloths and veils on all figures. •A martyrium that commemorates the place where Saint Peter was crucified; commissioned by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of •This illustrates Bramante’s in the circle as a perfect form and the didominance o flilhittlf classical architectural orders. •Circle represents divine ; proportions of width and height of ground floor repeated in upper floor •Light and shadow interplay in the projecting of columns before the main structure

Cue Card Compare to Reconstruction of Roman Bramante’s Tempietto, 1502, Rome, Italy New Saint Peters’s BRAMANTE &

• Donato d’Angelo Bramante (1444- 1514) trained as a painter, became generation’s most renowned architect. Under influence of Brunelleschi, Alberti, and maybe Leonardo, who favored of , BtdldthHihRiffthtlBramante developed the High Renaissance form of the central-plhhlan church. • Julius II selected him as first architect of the New Saint Peter’s -- wanted to gain control of all of Italy and rival the Rome of the caesars. St. Peter’s would serve as a martyrium to mark apostle’ s grave and Julius II hoped to install his own tomb. • His plan had 9 interlocking crosses, 5 of them supporting . Bramante boasted he would put the of the Pantheon over the Basilica Nova (Basilica of Constantine). • During Bramante’s lifetime, only crossing piers and lower choir walls were completed. After his death, passed from one architect to another, and to Michelangelo in 1546 – a work of dedication, thankless and without pay. • Pope Paul III felt a sense of urgency to complete New St. Peter’s A ƒ Michelangelo also A DDDD believed central plan was D D D D ideal form for church. ƒ Michelangelo believed AAAD A AAAD A buildings should follow anatomy of human body, D D D D organized around a central axis. D D A ƒ Instead of 9 interlocking P DONATO crosses, Michelangelo D’ANGELO designed a compact BRAMANTE, plan domed Greek cross for the new Saint inscribed in a square and fronted with a double- PtPeter’s, the columned portico. Vatican, Rome, ƒ Converted Bramante’s Italy, 1505 cryypystalline complexity into massive, cohesive unity. ƒ Double dome like Bllhi’Brunelleschi’s dome of MICHELANGELO, Saint Peter’s ,,y,,Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564. Dome completed by , 1590.

ƒ Unified design with colossal 2 story . ƒ After Michelangelo’s death, his original dome design was replaced by Giacomo della Porta’s for a higher dome. Mic he lange lo mig ht no t have approved. Cue Card

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger,


Palazzo Palazzo Medici- Rucellai Riccardi • High Renaissance palace • SihitlftldbMihllSweeping horizontal front, enlarged by Michelangelo • Heavily rusticated entrance and quoins (an exterior angle on the façade of a building that has large dressed stones forming a decorative contrast with the wall. • Each story has different window frames • Heavy cornice crowns the work • Built for Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, later elected Pope Paul II 16th Century Venetian Art & Architecture • and the were only Italian sovereignties to retain independence during the 16th century, France or Spain dominated all others. • Venice reached its height of commercial and political power as Mediterranean port in 15th century. • was a constant threat to control the eastern Mediterranean . • The European powers of the League of Cambrai (formed by Julius II, who coveted Venetian holdings on Italy’s mainland) which also included Spain, France, and the Holy ) attacked Venice. • Despite challenges , Venice developed a flourishing, independent, and influential school of artists. ƒ Name from Pallas Athena, Greek goddess of wisdom, appropriate for architect schooled in of Bramante. ƒ Reputation from villa designs build on Venetian mainland. CCdCue Card

ƒ Most built for aristocratic farmers (similar to later American pp)lantations) who Villa Rotonda, and Northwest developed swamps into productive land view, near , Italy because their fortunes were declining. ca. 1566–1570 ƒ Villa Rotonda built for Italian monsignor (a tiiltle o f honor bestowed on some priests by a pope) for social events. ƒ Located on a hilltop as a kind of belvedere (literally beautiful view; an architectural structure with a view of the sea or countryside). ƒ Central plan included 4 identical facades with porches, resembling a Roman Ionic temple – similar to Pantheon. ƒ EEachach poporchrch hhadad a ddifferentifferent view of surrounding landscape – central dome was a reception area where visitors could turn in any direction for their preferred view. ƒ Villa Rotonda embodies self-sufficiency and formal completeness most Renaissance architects sought. ƒ Palladio influence was stronger and more long ANDREA PALLADIO, plan of the lasting than any other architect in and Villa Rotonda (formerly Villa Capra), colonial America. near Vicenza, Italy, ca. 1550–1570 16th Century vs. Central Italy Venice Florence and Rome

• Colorito (colored or painted) – • Disegno ( and design) – focused on color and application careful design preparation based of paint. on preliminary drawings. • Among the earliest to use oil • Painted intellectual themes – the painting in Italy; as a result, epic of humanity, the masculine known for rich colors. virtues, the grandeur of the ideal, • Interest in recording effect of and lofty conceptions of religion Venice’s soft-colored light on involving the heroic and sublime. figures and . • Painted poetry of the senses and delighted in nature’s beauty and plfhitleasures of humanity.

ƒ Trained in International Style by father, a student of Fabriano, did not develop his own style until later in life, after father’s death. ƒ Early works, i.e. Saint Francis in the Desert show influence of brother-in-law Mantegna. ƒ (a Sicilian painter who must have encountered Flemish painting) came to Venice in 1475 and introduced colleagues to . GIOVANNI BELLINI ƒ As a result of contact with Saint Francis in the Desert, ca. Antonello, Bellini abandoned 1470–1480. Oil and tempera on Mantegna’s harsh linear style and wood, 4’ 1” X 4’ 8” developed a coloristic manner that would characterize Venetian painting for a century. ƒ (altarpiece in which the and Child are accompanied by saints and engage in “holy conversation” popular theme from 15th century, saints from different epochs occupy same space and converse with one another or the audience. ƒ Attributes aid identification: Saint Lucy with tray and plucked-out eyes; Pet er with his key and book ; Catherine with palm of martyrdom and the broken wheel (after she was bound upp,on it, it was shattered by Heaven, the flying fragments killed her executioners); with a book (translated Bible into ). ƒ Serenity/ spiritual calm from use of color and light.

BELLINI, San Zaccaria Altarpiece , 1505 Oil on wood transferred to canvas, 16’ 5” x 7’ 9” ƒ , an influential student of Bellini, who only lived 33 years, is credited with developpging poesia, or painting meant to operate similar to poetry. ƒ Both classical and Renaissance poetry inspired Venetian artists – discerning narratives or subjects is virtually impossible. ƒ Stormy skies and lightening ƒ Man with halberd (combination spear and battle-ax, but not a soldier))p was painted over a seated nude woman (X-rayed). ƒ Perhaps Giorgione did not have a definitive narrative in mind. ƒ Uncertainly contributes to Cue Card painting’s intrigue. ƒ Emerging use of oil paint in GIORGIONE DA CASTELFRANCO, Veneti an art allows artist to rend er , ca. 1510 softer color tonalities and Oil on canvas, 2’8” x 2’5” harmonies ƒ Giorgione’s handling of light and color along with his interest in landscape, poetry, and (according to Vasari he was an accompppylished player and singer) also influenced the younger . ƒ Long attribdbuted to Giorgione, Symphony casts a mood of tranquil reverie. ƒ Shepherd symbolizes the poet, pipes and his poetry. TITIAN (Tiziano Vecelli), Pastoral ƒ Deep chiaroscuro, no Symphony ca. 1508–1510, Oil on canvas, clear cut edges 3’7” x 4’6” ƒ Women are their – sacred well of pppoetic inspiration. ƒ Voluptuous bodies, softly modulated by smoky shadow, became standard of Venetian art. Fullness of figures – personifications of nature’s abundance. ƒ After Bellini died in 1516, Titian was appointed ’s official painter. Shortly after, prior (a monk, head of religious house – just below an abbot) of the Franciscan basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa (glorious Saint Mary) commissioned Titian to paint a monumental altarpiece. ƒ Ascent of Virgin go Heaven on cloud held up by putti. is above, awaiting Mary w ith open arms. Brilli an t color amplifies drama. ƒ At bottom, over-life-size apostles gesture wildly as they witness event. ƒ Fresco not a good choice for Venice because of dampness and salinity of the saltwater streets.

TITIAN, Assumption of the Virgin, 1516–1518. Oil on wood, 22’ 7 1/2” x 11’ 10” 45 Cue Card

•Painted to commemorate the Venetian victory won by Jacopo Pesaro at the Battle of Santa Maura in 1502 against the Turks •JkltlftithStGdJacopo kneels at left with St. George and bowing Turk; members of the Pesaro family at right are presented by St. Francis of •St. Peter in center with keys looking down to Pesaro. •Strong diagonals and triangles; Madonna and Child placed off center, but still at the focus of interest •Novel approach of asymmetrical composition – balanced by color rather than Titian, Madonna of the Pesaro Family by design 1519-1526, oil on canvas, Santa Maria del Frari, Venice ƒ Commissioned by Alfonso d’Este the duke of , for a small room in his pp(palace (Raphael and Fra Bartolommeo died before completing their works). ƒ Based on Latin poems by Catullus and . ƒ After Princess Ariadne, daughter of Minos, helped Theseus kill the Minotaur at the palace of Knossos on , he abandoned her while she slept on the island of Naxos. ƒ Ariadne was looking for Theseus’ when fell in love with her at first sight. He later TITIAN, Meeting of Bacchus and asks her to marry him and his AiAria ddne, from the CiCamerino wedding gift, a diadem d’Alabastro, Palazzo Ducale, (ornamented headband/crown) Ferrara, Italy, 1522–1523 was set in the heavens as the Oil on canvas, 5’ 9” x 6’ 3” constellation Corona. ƒ Snake entwined from recently unearthed Laocoon. ƒ Commissioned by Cue Card Guidobaldo II – duke of Urbano, Title (given later) elevates the status to classical mythology. ƒ Titian established compositional and the standard for of reclining female nudes. Looks at us directly ƒ Rounded body contrasts with clear vertical of curtain, dividing fore-and backgro und . TITIAN, Venus of , 1538. Oil on ƒ Dog perhaps symbolizes canvas, 3’ 11” x 5’ 5” faithfulness ƒ Complex spatial environment: figure placed forward on the picture , servants in middle space; open window with plants in background ƒ 2 servants searching for garments in chest. ƒ Division of space into smaller units; gauge distance and are implied diagonal – as opposed to real one of figure. ƒ It become a standard for future reclining female nudes: Manet, Olympia, and Ingres, The Grand Odalisque ƒ Titian was also a portraitist – 50 paintings survive. Emphasize his psychological reading of subject’s head and hands. ƒ Marquess of , daughter of the duke of Ferrara, was prominent art patron after she married (at 16) Franceso Gonzaga, marquis of Mantua. ƒ Det ail and complex ity of her contracts reveal insistence on control over the artworks. ƒ Painted when Isabella was 60, but depicts her in her 20s – at her request. Titian used an earlier likeness, but portrait is not a mere copy – distinctive portrayal of posed and self-assured patron.

TITIAN, Isabella d’Este, 1534–1536 Oil on canvas, 3’4” x 2’1” ƒ Oil on canvas, replaced wood as typical medium for Western tradition. ƒ Intended for altar of burial chapel in Santa Maria Gloriosa. ƒ Unfinished – died of plague, assistant completed. ƒ Mary Magdalene runs forward, angel – by Palma echoes form in reverse. ƒ Kneeling Saint Jerome has ftfeatures of Titian. ƒ Diagonal movement – favorite composition. ƒ Votive painting – Titian and son (also died of plague) pray before another Pieta TITIAN and PALMA IL GIOVANE, Pietà ca. 1570–1576. Oil on canvas, 11’6” X 12’9” ƒ Impasto (a layer of thickly applied pigment) – Baroque painters – Rubens and Rembrandt would later adapt. Renaissance Summary

• The Papal Court of Julius II commissioned some of the greatest works of to beautify the Vatican, including starting construction on the new Saint Peter’s. • Artist sought to rival the ancients with their accomplishments, often doing heroic feats like carving monumental sculptures form a single block of marble, or painting vast walls in fresco • Women begin to emerge as powerful patrons of the arts, commissioning works form Titian and Leonardo da Vinci • The Venetian School of paint was at it height during this period, realizing works that have soft, sensuous surface texture layered with glazes. Sfumato and chiaroscuro are widely use to enhance this sensuous effect Mannerist Key Ideas

• Mannerist art is deliberately intellectual, asking the viewer to respond in a sophisticated way to the spatial challenges presented in a painting or sculpture. • PitiPainting an d scu ltlpture are c harac ter ize dbd by complicated compositions, distorted figure styles, and complex allegorical interpretations. • Architecture often employs classical elements in a new and unusual way that defies traditional formulas. Compare Van dier Weyden, Deposition

•Center of the circular composition is a grouping • of hands •Elongation of bodies, high-keyed colors •No ggyground line for many figures; what is Mary sitting on? •Hands seem disembodied, some androgynous figures •No weeping, just yarning •Linear bodies twisting around one another •Anti-classical composition

Pontormo, Entombment of Christ, 1525-1529, oil on wood, Santa Felicita, Florence Cue Card Parmigiano, Madonna of the Long Neck , 1535, oil on wood, , Florence

•Mary’s small head, long neck, delicate gesture, graceful hand •Crowding of heads on left •Elongated torso and disembodied limbs •Column appears to be singular at top bdbut descen ds to a row o f co lumns at bottom •Small figure at base strangely out of proportion; role in the painting uncertain •Pose of Mary and Jesus reminiscent of the Pieta

Cue Card •Commission by Cosimo de’ Medici of Florence as a gift to •Complicated allegorical structure that invites a muliltip liilicity o f mean ings • kisses his mother Venus, but has his eyyge on her golden ; he rests on a pillow, indicating his idleness •Venus responds to Cupid, but removes an arrow behind his back from his quiver •FllthFolly throws flowers a ttht the couple • symbolize falseness; Agnolo , Venus, Cupid, doves symbolize love Folly and Time, 1546, oil on panel, , London Cue Card •Fraud or Vanity has a beautiful face and offers a honeycomb, but underneath she is an animal and has a poisonous lizard in her other hand; he hands seem to be reverse •Envy, on left, is green; has recently been symbolically interpreted as syphilis •Fury or truth at top left; Time at top right, exposing all •Has been interpreted as a morality piece about syphilis •Complex imagery and poses •Figures in a congest composition ppppushed to the front of the picture plane , Last Supper, 1594, oil on canvas, San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice Cue Card

Christ is in the center, yet powerful diagonals pull the eye into the distance Light reveals flying angels, light cast long shadows • Elongated figures • Many d eta ils o f every day life dom inate pa int ing • No action, no announcement of betrayal, nameless apostles, insignificant Judas; divinity of Christ expressed in Holy Communion is stressed • Christ gives the Eucharist to Saint peter • Original point of view was form an angle which would have given it more balance , Christ in the House of Levi, 1573 , Oil on Canvas, , Venice

Cue Card

•Originally titled Last Supper but name was changed because it was deemed inappropriate for a sacred scene •Maryyyg and Christ lost in a vast array of miscellaneous figures •Sumptuous setting; architecture overwhelms; courtly gestures; brocaded costumes •Mary 2:13-17: Jesus ahs dinner in a house filled with sinners, thus point out that it is his mission to save sinners Compare: Ceiling of the

Correggio, Assumption of the Virgin 1526-15300, fresco, Cathedral, Cue Card Parma, Italy •View of the sky with hundreds of figures flying overhead in concentric rings •Weightlessness of bodies •Clouds appear as soft and elusive masses •Saints at lowest level; second level has Virgin escorted to heaven with angels; celestial glory at top with Christ waiting to receive his mother •Glowing colors et in blazing setting that prefigures the Baroque •Unsettling , Pediment corners do not meet •Window openings at unconventional locations •Engage columns divide façade into unequal bays •Keystone pops out of the arches , Oddly size stones •Highly unusual placement of arch below a pediment

Compare to Palazzo Medici-Riccardi

Mix of large & small stones randomly Palazzo del Te Mannerist Summary

• Mannerist artist broke the conventional representations of art by introducing intentionally distorted figures, acidy colors, and unusual compositions to create evocative an highly intellectual works of art and challenge the viewers perceptions and ideals Perspective was used as a tool to manipulate a composition into intriguing arrangements of spatial forms • Mannerist architects seek to combine conventional architectural elements in a refined and challenging itinterp lay o fff forms. Question #1: Where is this work located? Analyze ways in which references to the classical past are used to accommodate the aims of the work’s patron. Question #2: Where is this work located? Analyze ways in which references to the classical past are used to accommodate the aims of the work’s patron. Question #3: The work above was created by Raphael’s teacher, Perugino. How does the work to the right, created by Raphael, reflect Perugino’s influence? Question #4: Theses works were created during the 15th century. In what ways does the depiction of created by Dieric Boots from the early Northern Renaissance differ from the depiction of the Last Supper by from the early Italian Renaissance and Leonardo’s Last Supper? What factors might account for these differences?