Renaissance The approx. 1300 – 1600 (texts vary) • Means “rebirth,” specifically the rebirth of classical (ancient & ) • “Birth” of the modern world (beginning of modern European ) • Bridges the to Modern Times • Begins in northern () & spreads to the Italian city-states & then northern (c.1450)

By contrast to continental Europe, the Renaissance did not begin in until the & lasted until the early 17th century (the time of Shakespeare) Renaissance vs. the Middle Ages

• Renaissance was secular, not religious • Individual, not the group, was emphasized during the Renaissance • Renaissance occurred in urban ($), not rural, areas • It was the awakening of the spirit - feelings & thoughts The Renaissance begins in Italy

• Center of Greco-Roman civilization • Centrally located • Advantages of northern Italian city-states – Large urban centers – Wealth from trade – as patrons of

Rise of the Italian City-States

• Northern Italian cities (centrally located) developed international trade which was linked to the & the – Cities included , , – The Renaissance started in Florence and followed the success of the Medici family which built their power on great wealth from banking & the manufacture & commerce of textiles

Politics among the Italian City-States • Competition among the city-states meant that Italy did not unify politically which would lead to their downfall in the late 15th and early 16th centuries when French & Spanish invaded Italy • Before their downfall, an early balance-of- power pattern emerged • Italy would not unite until the mid-19th c. Major city-states & figures

1. of Florence - Center of the Renaissance in the 14th & 15th Cs - Dominated by the Medici family - most powerful: Cosimo de’ Medici - Lorenzo de’ Medici (the “Magnificent”) - significant patron of the arts - son of Cosimo

2. – ruled by the Sforza family after 1450 - major enemy of Venice & Florence - Peace of Lodi (1454) creates a 40-yr period of peace which was, in part, a response to concerns over the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (1453) - this conquest threatened trade for 3. Rome, the - served as both religious & political leaders - controlled much of central Italy 4. Venice, Venetian Republic - longest lasting of the Italian states (did not fall to a foreign power until Napoleon conquered it in the early 1800s) - greatest maritime power in Italy 5. , Kingdom of the Two Sicilies - only Italian city-state to officially have a king - controlled first by France and then by after 1453 • Renaissance Italy was largely the product of an urban society: – City-states became the centers of Italian political, economic, & social life. – A secular spirit emerged as increasing wealth created new possibilities for the enjoyment of worldly things. – Large urban centers helped promote wealth from trade which led merchants to become patrons of the arts which in turn helped promote , art, &

• Above all, the Renaissance was an age of recuperation from the calamitous .

• As Italy & the rest of Europe recovered from the , political disorder, & economic , there was a rebirth of in . • Linking to their own historical past, Italian became fascinated w/ the Greco-Roman culture

Renaissance Characteristics

• Was : applied mainly to the upper class • Was not religious or scientific but moral & personal, ie. individualistic • Basis for the Renaissance – economic growth

More Characteristics • There was a revived emphasis on individual ability and that each person had and worth (ex. Portrait and ) • People began to view life as worthwhile for its own sake, not a preparation for the hereafter • Emphasized reason and a questioning attitude (contrasts w/ faith, authority, & tradition) Even More Characteristics • Marriage vows were business arrangements which promoted increased wealth • The popolo (poor class) hated their position and used force to take over the cities • The popolo could not retain power and were later replaced by despots (signori) or ( aristocracies) • Despots showed their wealth by patronizing the arts – Medici family was an example • Individual was loyal to their own city-state (recall ) • Five city-states dominated the peninsula: Venice, Milan, Florence, the Papal States, and the Borgia (Machiavelli’s hero and son of Alexander VI) tried to unite the peninsula • While Northern Europe was uniting - Italy remained fragmented (like a jigsaw puzzle) • Signing and breaking alliances was common

Decline of Italian city-states

• French invasions began in 1494 under Charles VIII – This was the beginning of foreign invasions throughout the Decline cont’d

• Florence – Medici family lost power when they attempted to appease the French – Though the Medici would return to power years later, Florence was already severely weakened – Enter • Girolamo Savonarola of Florence, a Dominican friar, became the unofficial leader /t 1494-1498. • He pledged to rid Florence of its & corruption • In effect, he established a theocracy - Initially people supported him but later he was burned

Italy became a battleground in a series of power struggles between Spain & France

Political developments in Italy were observed by Niccolo Machiavelli The by Machiavelli

• For Machiavelli, a “good” government was an effective government • His work rests on 2 principles: – Permanent social reflecting God’s is impossible – Politics should be considered a science

• First modern treatise on government • Supported absolute power of the monarchy • Provided guidelines for the acquisition & maintenance of power: – “it was better to be feared than to be loved” – the ruler must act swiftly & decisively – the “end justifies the means,” ie. right or wrong does not matter – do good if possible, evil when necessary – build the power of the state The

• The 1527 sack of Rome by armies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (who was also king of Spain) symbolized the end of the Renaissance in Italy Renaissance Developments

• The Renaissance was characterized by a self-conscious awareness that were living in a new era • One of the founders of this movement was who coined the term “Dark Ages” • The Renaissance was seen as the light after the gloom of the Dark Ages • The Roman was seen as the peak of human civilization, and the Renaissance was a type of revival for the • Artists of the Renaissance had contempt for medieval predecessors • But most people lived exactly the same in the Renaissance period as the medieval period • A deep interest in , a revival of the antiquity , and a more secular spirit are associated w/ the Renaissance • A new now appeared

Individualism stressed: a) personality b) uniqueness c) fullest development of capabilities d) the quest for glory

Individualism & the great potential of human came to be associated with .

Humanism Characteristics: 1. revival of antiquity (Greece & Rome) in , literature and art - the study of the classics became known as “new learning” or “humanism” - (from ) considered this important for anyone who considered himself civilized - sought to reconcile pagan writings w/ Christian thought

2. a strong in individualism and the great potential of human beings, their achievements & capabilities - Virtu: “the quality of a man”; - idea of excelling in all of one’s pursuits 3. a critical spirit & enthusiasm for life

4. Civic humanism: the idea that should prepare leaders who would be active in civic affairs 5. Often, humanism was more secular and lay dominated Italian Humanists 1. were deeply religious who sought to reconcile pagan writings (the classics) w/ Christian thought 2. were skeptical of the authority of the classics because of the passage of time 3. did study the classics to understand human nature 4. were very Christian - men and women were made in God’s image 5. rejected classical ideas that opposed but sought a between , secularism, and Christianity. 6. loved the language of the classics Petrarch • “father of humanism” • Wrote in both Latin & Italian • Encouraged the study of ancient Rome and its classical literary style • Wrote beautiful (poems) expressing romantic love & appreciation of nature - many of his sonnets expressed his love for a married woman named Laura Pico della Mirandola Authored Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486) 1. Perhaps the most famous Renaissance work on the nature of humankind 2. were created by God & therefore given tremendous potential for greatness, & even union with God if they desired it (represents the “spark of divinity”) 3. Humans had to be great or fall

Authored The Book of the Courtier (1528) 1. Perhaps the most important work on Renaissance education 2. Specified qualities necessary to be a true gentleman 3. Described the ideal of a “Renaissance man” ( recall virtu)

Secularism Concerned with the material world not the eternal world Lorenzo Valla’s On Pleasure defended pleasure; also wrote On the False which weakened the pope’s authority. - proved that the had not been granted vast territories by the 4th c. Roman emperor Constantine Boccaccio’s Decameron about a worldly society - aimed to impart wisdom of human character & behavior Papal actually encouraged worldliness (goes against the Church vow of poverty) NORTHERN RENAISSANCE Politics and the State The Northern Renaissance: • was a blend of old and new learning • was more religious than in Italy • promoted the study of Greek & Hebrew texts for a greater understanding of Christianity • resulted in students from England, Holland, France, and going to Italy for the ‘new learning’ • Led northern humanists to interpret Italian ideas in terms of their own traditions

Northern Humanists: a) were more religious b) stressed the Bible & early Christian themes c) developed an ethical way of life d) believed Classical & Christian cultures should be combined e) had a profound faith in the human intellect f) believed people could be improved through education Northern Humanists • In Germany: - Western and southern Germany were economically advanced - 14th century - mystics like Thomas a Kempis believed the human soul could communicate with God - They did not rebel against the Church but wanted a deeper In France Jacques Lefevre d’Etaples, theologian & humanist, applied humanism to religion - believed in education Francois Rabelais, Renaissance writer, doctor and humanist, was secular Wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel - ridiculed fakes & quacks, outmoded ideas & hypocrisy; believed that man could perfect himself by using his own mind, & through natural, joyous living In England was trained as a Deeply interested in the classics Entered government under Henry VIII Wrote ( literally means “no place”) where all children receive a humanist education - he portrayed an ideal country: free from war, injustice, poverty, & ignorance - sought a society based on reason rather than wealth More believed private caused vices and civil disorder Lost his life to maintain his convictions More's final words on the scaffold were: "The King's good servant, but God's First."

Low Countries (Benelux countries) • , a Christian humanist, had a deep appreciation for the classics - Was a well-respected man in Europe - Wrote The Education of a Christian Prince and The Praise of Folly in which he criticized , prejudice, upper class privileges, & Church abuses

On Desiderius Erasmus • His criticisms encouraged people to think about reforms to improve society • He sought the simple piety of the Church • Claimed the popes were so corrupt that they no longer practiced Christianity • He promoted ideas on humanism • Primary message: power to promote true reverence for God and in living out the Gospel message

Two main themes: 1) Education is the means to reform 2) ‘The philosophy of Christ’ Christianity is an inner feeling The “New Monarchs” 1. Invested kingship w/ strong authority & national purpose 2. Linked all classes of society within a boundary 3. Insisted on respect & loyalty 4. Ruthlessly suppressed rebellions & opposition

5. Relied on the middle-class, the new 6. Used balance-of-power politics, ex. Peace of Lodi 7. Aimed to reassert strong dynastic claims w/ centralizing strategies The “New Monarchs” established strategies to centralize power which consisted of: 1. taxation for consistent revenue 2. controlling the aristocracy 3. codifying laws & creating courts - applied uniform law 4. controlling warfare 5. creating a bureaucracy 6. religious control FRANCE Charles VII revived the monarchy i) expelled the English ii) increased the influence of the middle class iii) strengthened finances through taxes like salt (gabelle) and land (taille) iv) created first permanent royal v) by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438) asserted French Church supremacy over the papacy - crown could appoint

• His son, Louis XI of the Valois , was a Renaissance prince, who promoted industry, improved the army, and signed international treaties • The Estates General (legislative branch of government) would meet only once during his reign • In 1516, Francis I , who followed Louis XI, signed the Concordat of which rescinded the Pragmatic Sanction (confirming the supremacy of a council over the pope) - conceding the French king’s right to nominate bishops thereby keeping France Catholic • The reign of Francis I would be dominated by the spread of , humanism and (much to the displeasure of the Catholic monarchy)


Decimated by the Black Death The Tudors (1485-1603) won the bringing Henry VII to power They passed laws against nobles having standing armies to better control them The monarchs did not depend on government for money so they were much more independent in their rule Royal Council (Star Chamber) was the center of authority The Royal Council handled the king’s business including arranging marriages. Aristocratic threats were dealt with by the Star Chamber The Star Chamber used Roman Law and methods to enforce the law a) accused people were not entitled to see the evidence against them b) sessions were in secret c) was often used d) there were no juries

The Tudors promoted peace and order. Henry VII (1485) rebuilt the monarchy. - ruled through unpaid officials - he encouraged trade - built up the merchant fleet - crushed an invasion from Ireland - secured peace with Scotland (his daughter Margaret married the Scottish king)

SPAIN Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married (1469) and united the regions • They ruled through ‘hermandades,’ a peacekeeping association of armed individuals • Restructured the royal council - excluded the rich and powerful The was the linchpin of the reform. Alliance with the Spanish pope Alexander VI: Spanish monarchs gained great power and a national church • They established the “reconquista” (1492) which led to the expulsion of the Jews and Moors from Spain; lasted over 100 years - Conversos- Jews that converted - Moriscos - Christians of Moorish background - Marranos - Christians of Jewish background • Established the - the ruthless court that decided if conversos were telling the ; it would eventually be used against the Protestants • Ferdinand and Isabella expelling all Jews from Spain had major economic consequences (revenue, strength, laborers and consumers) • Absolute religious orthodoxy and pure blood were the foundation of Spain • Ferdinand and Isabella’s daughter Joanna married Philip (from the HRE). Their son was Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor who would support the RCC • Charles V - the ‘Universal Monarch,’ answers to no other monarch and is seen as supreme Germany • Part of the Holy • Local lords recognized the supremacy of the Holy Roman Emperor, who was elected by 7 Electors - Maximilian I, (b.1459 – d. 1519), archduke of Austria, German king, and Holy Roman emperor (1493– 1519), made his family, the Habsburgs, dominant in 16th-century Europe. • He (Max. I) married the heiress of the Duke of Burgundy • Their son, Philip, married Mad Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella • Their son was Charles V who became H.R. Emperor

On Technology: • Johann Gutenberg changed the course of history with . made propaganda possible and forced people into groups i.e. church and state or Crown and . - Printing stimulated literacy of lay people - encouraged talented men to write - popularized ideas of the Renaissance

Women • The status of upper-class women declined • Women generally had less power than in the Middle Ages: Why? • represented an educational advance for a small minority. • Women had to choose marriage or education • Education brought jealousy and envy • Girls in the upper-class were taught how to , , and play - they were decorative • Women belonged at home • Educational opportunities were severely limited Literary and art works had no effect on ordinary women • Women were a sign of wealth. ORPS!! Other Renaissance Personalities (di Bondone)

• considered the 1st Renaissance painter • human figures that looked real & lifelike; illusion of depth • figures seem to interact & show realistic emotion Dante Aligheri

• wrote The (Inferno, Purgatorio, Paradiso) – uses real people – deals with political events – compares the religious ideas of the Middle Ages with the worldly concerns of the Renaissance – uses the • wanted his sculpted figures to seem real & alive; • wanted to show the strength & grace of the human form; • his statue “” represents the work of the 1st European sculptor since ancient times to make a large, free-standing human figure in the

• develops the technique of (depth, 3-D) • “father of modern painting” • paints the library of Pope Julius II, a combo of both Christian & classical ideas & themes • known for his Madonnas • noted for his which epitomized the ideals embodied not only by but also by the Renaissance itself

• often considered to be the greatest & playwright of all time • known for his plays, sonnets, & • skilled at showing human emotions & probing deeply into the human character • considered to be the Renaissance writer who had the most far-reaching influence • Plays?

• wrote which ridiculed feudal society, especially knighthood & • considered to be the first novel, a new form of literature Michel Montaigne

• introduced the essay as a sincere literary form • his Essays cover a variety of subjects ranging from cannibalism to bodily functions to death & dying