Chapter 26 to : The 18th Century in and America „ Social, political, economic, and technological change, as well as transformation in the . „ In 1700 Louis XIV still ruled as Sun King at Versailles. His inspired construction of many grandiose homes in the early 18th century. „ By 1800 revolutions had overthrown monarchy in and achieved independence in America from Britain. „ transformed economies. „ Death of Louis XIV in 1715 – elite abandoned court of Versailles and resided in hotels (townhouses) of , decorated in ligg,hthearted, softer Rococo . „ Aristocrats reestablished predominance as patrons. „ The Rococo style was replaced by the Neoclassical, which was perceived as more democratic Enlightenment brought about a rejection of royal and aristocratic authority „ Neoclassicism was inspired by the unearthing of the ruins at . „ Even if works of art depict current events or contemporary portraits, there are frequently classical allusions. „ The late eighteenth century was the age of the Industrial Revolution: new technologies such as cast iron were introduced into , and for the first time it became more economical to carve from than marbl e.

3 ƒ (pebble) – small stones and shells that decorated grotto interiors (natural or man-made caves). Shell forms – principal motifs in Rococo ornamentation. ƒWomen dominated cultural sphere and held influential positions in Europe. ƒRococo salons –center of Parisian ƒWealthy, ambitious, clever society hostesses, referred to as femmes savants (learned women) competed to attract famous and accomplished people to their salons. ƒMore intimate and decentralized culture based in private homes. ƒRococo interiors were total works of art with elab orat e furnishings – ceramics, , small ppgaintings and . ƒ’s adoption of Parisian style ƒCircular hall – , silvered bronze , and crystal ƒSilvery light reflected by mirrors ƒShapes and contours weave rhythmically around upper walls and ceiling coves. ƒEverything seems organic, growing, and in motion. Cue Card ƒPilgrimage of 14 saints ƒDynamic energy of Italian , but not its ƒLight from large – lightness and delicacy ƒMore complex than Borromini’s churches ƒBanished all straight lines ƒUndulating in continuous motion ƒFluid line, floating surfaces, interwoven , dematerialized masses – counterpart to intricacy of voices in Bach ƒDissolves boundaries among ƒRococo is lighter in both color and tone than Baroque. ƒFete galante (amorous festival) – amusements of French high society ƒEntry for admission to French Royal AdAcademy –created a new category. ƒ2 competing doctrines at French Academy: Poussinistes (form) and Rubenistes (color). ƒFlemish Watteau was influenced by Rubens’ colors and open brushwork. ƒSome art think lovers are returning from Cythera (island of eternal youth and love, sacred to ). ƒLove represented as a – elegant, sweet poses; poised, refined attitude, suave gentility appealed to wealthy patrons. Cue Card ƒBoucher replaced Watteau as premier French painter after he died at 36 from tuberculosis. ƒBaroque devices – crossing diagonals, curvilinear forms; dissipated Baroque drama into sensual playfulness. ƒFragonard – best student of Boucher ƒYoung gentleman (work’s patron) convinced old to swing sweetheart, holds finger to lips – to dog? ƒResembles a scene for comic – colors and foliage reflect sensuality. Cue Card ƒTiepolo, a Venetian, worked for patrons in , Germany, , as well as . ƒBaroque of ceiling decoration, but used bright, cheerful colors and relaxed compositions of Rococo. ƒWeightless figures create dark accents as they flutter through vast sunlit skies and fleecy clouds. ƒPisani family members elevated to rank of gods. ƒRetains with a softer style and pictorial scheme of gggreat and grace.

9 Cue Card „ Roots in 17th century Descartes and Pascal. „ While and France were principal centers, intellectuals throughout Europe as well as Ben Franklin and Jefferson embraced principals. „ , (1642 – 1727) Engl and – theori es proved ththhrough observation, avoid realms beyond natural physical world. Theories revealed rationality in physical world. Enlightenment thinkers transferred to sociopolitical world – rationallyyg organized society . „ JOHN LOCKE, (1632 – 1704) England – “doctrine of ,” knowledge through sensory of material world. Ideas are formed through these . are born good, not cursed by or ig ina l s in. Laws of nat ure grant nat ural ri ght s of life, liberty, , freedom of conscience. Government by contract to protect rights. If government abuses rights – natural right of revolution. „ PHILOSOPHES, French intellectuals – by accumulating and spreading knowledge, can advance to a happier state – “doctrine of progress” and its corollary “perfectibility of humankind.” Previous society perceiidved the future as iiiblnevitable –relig ious be lie fs determined fate. Systematic and planned improvement of society continues to influence 21st century thought. Enlightenment thinkers fostered the development of the “ ” and technological innovation which gave birth to the Industrial Revolution (1740s) oWright studied in Birmingham, the center of the Industrial Revolution. oTechnological advances were recorded in his of modern scientific instruments and experiments, epitomizing the notion of progress. oMechanical of the – an orrey, each planet represented by a metal orb, revolves around the sun (a lamp) at the correct relative speed. oComposition is circular, echoing the orrey’s orbital design. Cue Card ƒ1st use of iron in bridge design ƒDarby ran his family’s cast-iron business ƒFabrication of cast- iron rails and bridge elements inspired Darby to work with architect Pritchard to design the bridge. ƒ100’ across, springing from stone piers ƒCenter arc echoes arches of Roman aqueducts.

•Prefigured the skeletal use of iron and steel in 19 th century – Crystal Palace in England and Eiffel Tower in France •Cast iron is brittle, but the design has made the bridge stand effecti vel y

Cue Card ƒ“Natural” portraiture, painter looks directly at viewers ƒLighthearted mood is and echoes Rococo serpentine curve, but not frivolous. ƒSelf-confident stance of woman whose art won her an independent role in society. ƒExtraordinary personal and economic idindepen dence from painting portraits of the highborn. ƒMarried Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun, painter and art dealer. Husband's great-great-uncle – , 1st Director of French Academy under Louis XIV. ƒAdmission of Vigée Le Brun to the Royal Academy was first opposed – husband was an art dealer, but overruled by Louis XVI – put considerable pressure on him on behalf of her portraitist. ƒColor and style while serving as the portrait painter to Marie Antoinette, is pu re ly Rococo . ƒVigée Le Brun would more than thirty portraits of the queen and her family, leading to her commonly viewed as the official portraitist of Marie Antoinette. ƒAfter Revolution, membership to Royal Academy was rescinded because they no longer accepted women. ƒContinued success due to , wit, and ability to forge connections with those in power during the post- revolutionary period.

ƒGreat age of English satirical writing – Hogarth translated into . ƒTraditionally Britain imported painters from the Continent – Holbein, Rubens, and VanDyck. ƒSeries of 6 narrative paintings – like chapters in books/scenes in plays, later made into ; satirizing marital immoralities of moneyed classes. ƒViscount is married to class woman because of her wealth. ƒWoman’s lacy cap in pocket, steward with unpaid bills, curtained , knickknacks on mantle ƒDemocratization of knowledge and culture Enlightenment fostered – technologies – more affordable, widely disseminated visual culture.

Cue Card ƒBlend of “naturalistic” representation and Rococo setting similar to Watteau’s Pilgrimage to Cythera – soft-hued light and feathery brushwork. ƒMatch natural,,p unspoiled of with sitter. ƒClear “English complexion” and genuine sweetness contrast to lllively sop histication f Rococo subjects. ƒPlanned to add sheep, but did not live long enough. ƒBegan career as landscape artist, preferred scenes of nature to portraits.

Cue Card ƒJonathan Buttall – son of successful hardware merchant, a close friend of the artist. ƒExecuted during Gainsborough's extended stay in Bath before he finall y settl ed in Lond on in 1774. ƒCostume dates from ca. 140 years earlier. Familiar through the portraits of the great Flemish painter, (1559- 1641), a resident in England during the early 17th century, who paiitdnted Charl es I in the Hunting Field. Gainsborough greatly admired Van Dyck and seems to have conceived The Boy as an act of homage to that master. ƒMore heroic – modern hero, yet “natural” emotion and . ƒEnlightenment concept of “ ,” according to Rousseau, referred to character, not aristocratic birth. ƒPre-revolutionaryyg virtues of courage and resolution, patriotism and self- sacrifice. ƒ portraiture –key participants in great events, l8later 18th century. Elevated sitters – grace and class with standard conventions: large scale of figure, controlled pose, landscape setting, low horizon line. ƒOfficer, commandant of fortress at Gibraltar – defended against Spanish & French. Key to fortress – victory symbol ƒDramatic pose and setting convey heroic themes of battle, courage, and patriotism.

Cue Card ƒNot a resident but a pavilion ƒBoyle: amateur architect ƒKent: interior and garden designer ƒAppeal of Neoclassicism and popularity of Greek and Roman culture –morality, rationa lity, integrity and connection to political systems ranging from Athenian to Roman imperial rule. ƒClarity and simplicity stark contrast to opulence of Baroque art and architecture associated with rule of . ƒ variation of Palladio’s Villa Rotonda within informal gardens – charming irregularity of layout and uncropped foliage mitigate severity and rationality of architecture. ƒInteriors more closely related to Rococo decoration of brilliant color ƒBaroque tradition lingers in the double staircase that changes view as it ascends. Cue Card Natural and Italian ¾“Naturalness” was also sought in landscape paiiinting. ¾Growing travel opportunities and exppganding ; (a “pilgrimage” of aristocrats) of major sites of Europe – especially Italy, was part of e ver y well-bred person’s . ¾English artists Joseph Wright of Derby and J.M. W. Turner undertook Grand .

¾Enlightenment made knowledge of ancient and imperative – revived in and popularity of Neoclassical art drove the fascination. ¾Return with souvenirs to remember experience and impress those at home. ¾English avid collectors of travel pictures – vedute (scenic views), often by Canaletto who made on location with a camera obscura (as did Vermeer). Basin of San Marco from San Giorgio Antonio Canaletto Maggiore

Grand Tour „ Excavations in 1738 and 1728, respectively – eruption of Mount Vesuvius in August 79 CE buried both cities; able to reconstruct and life. „ Roman finds quickly came available to a wide public and “Pompeian” style became the range in England. „ New Neoclassical style almost entirely displaced Rococo in wealthy homes after midcentury. „ Wedgewood , cameos, and medallions reflected Neoclassical taste, based on what were then thought to be Etruscan vases (actually were Greek vases deposited in Etruscan tombs). „ Enlightenment’s emphasis on classical art, architecture, and culture because of its rationality, , model of enlightened political organization: of liberty, , morality, and sacrifice – provided ideal models during period of political upheaval of French and American Revolutions. Cue Card

, born in , trained in Italy, productive years in England – founding member of British Royal Academy. •Story and setting is Roman, with figures before an Italianate background

Models in Roman garb, statuesque poses in Roman interiors – simplicity and firmness of low- relief carving. Visitor shows off jewelry and insisted Cornelia show hers; instead Cornelia brought her sons forward - A truly noble woman places her children above material possessions ƒEnlightenment – art should have a moral Cue Card ƒStory from pre-Republican Rome – (1606 – 1684) had retold in a performed in Paris several years earlier. ƒLeaders of warring Rome and Alba to resol ve confli ct s usi ng representatives from each side – Romans chose Horatius brothers who had to face Curatius sons from Alba. ƒIntermarriage between families source of anguish and sorrow for women. ƒExemplum Virtutis: a painting that tells a moral tale for the viewer.

ƒSwear on their to win or die for Rome – (Enlightenment virtues of courage, patriotism, and loyalty to a cause), oblivious of women’s emotions. ƒStage setting, figures close to foreground as ancient classical relief. ƒPainted under royal , not intended as revolutionary statement. ƒForms are vigorous, powerful, animated, emphatic ƒNeoclassical style – semiofficial voice of . ƒ sided with Jacobins – radical and militant revolutionary faction. ƒPracticing minister of propaganda – political pageants, ceremonies with floats, , and sculptural props ƒNow portrayed scenes from actual Revolution to inspire & encourage forces. ƒ of Marat – influential writer and friend of David ƒCharlotte Corday, member or rival pp,olitical faction, stabbed him in tub ( skin disease required medicinal baths) ƒNarrative details in foreground heighten pain and outrage – knife, wound, letter (w ith which Cord ay gai ned ent rance) . ƒFigure modeled on ’s Pieta in ’s – reference to martyrdom – new “” for civic “religion.” ƒ-like lighting

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•Hero’s death in as martyrdom with religious connotations. •Influenced painting well in to the 19th century.

•Wolfe died nearly alone, but in the painting he is surrounded by friends and admirers •Compositional arrangement in thirds reflects triptych and triangular units reflect paintings •Wolfe bathed in the pool of light; he is in the pose of Christ being taken down from the cross •West shows the entire battle in the background of the painting; English boats unlading their , cannon put in place in center, and cathedral breaking through the smoke. Cue Card ƒSuccessful portrait painter in Colony – promoted the son of a needy tobacconist into the local aristocracy. ƒLater emigggrated to England with the urging of West. ƒPainted Paul Revere before he left Boston and before Revere became a hero of the revol liution – silversmith by profession. ƒDirectness and faithfulness to visual fact, taste for honesty and plainness noted by many late 18th and 19th century visitors to America. ƒInformality and sense of the moment similar to English and Continental portraits, ƒSpare sttlyle and emphhiasis on sitter’s down-to-earth character– American work. ƒNew American adopted Neoclassicism as national . ƒJefferson admired Palladio immensely and read his books. ƒLater when he was minister to France, studied 18th century French and city planning, visited an ancient Roman at Nimes. ƒAfter his visit to Europe, completely remodeled Monticello – reminiscent of Palladio’s Villa Rotonda and Chiswick House, but used local materials – wood and brick found in Virginia. ƒAppears to be a one-storyyg building with a , but the balustrade hides the second floor, Octagonal dome ƒJefferson obsessed with saving space in his home: very narrow spiral staircases, beds in alcoves or in walls between rooms. ƒNeoclassicism also preferred style for public in new American republic. ƒLLdieading French NNleoclassi ilcal scul ltptor was HHdoudon who already carved a bust of Ben Franklin when he was America’s ambassador to France. ƒSculptural equivalent of Grand Manner portrait. ƒWears contemporary garments, but references – “” is a bundle of rods with ax attached, ancient Roman fasces – an of authority (later used for Mussolini’s Fascist government) ƒ13 rods symbolize original states. ƒPlow behind represents Cincinnatus, early Roman Republic patrician, elected dictator during war, who resigned after victory to return to his farm. ƒSociety of Cincinnatus badge, founded in 1783, (under waistcoat) for officers in revolutionary who resumed peacetime roles. ƒWashington no longer holds his .

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