LEDs and Appnote 1 by George Smith

14–3

Figure 3. Solid angles and luminous intensity Figure 5. Deﬁnition of

dI dF

θ dA dw = dA r2

r dA Cos θ I= dFd (Projected Area) dw

dI dA Bθ= dA Cos θ

dw

Since the space surrounding a point contains 4 π , it The fundamental quantitative standard of the photometric sys- is apparent that an isotropic radiator of one candela intensity tem of units is the standard of luminance. π emits a total luminous ﬂux of 4 Lumens. The luminance of a black body radiator at the temperature of No real light source is isotropic, so it is quite common to show freezing platinum (2043.8°K) is 60 candela per square centime- a plot of luminous intensity versus angle off the axis (Figure 4). ter. A blackbody radiator is a perfect absorber of all electromag- If the source has no axis of symmetry, a more complex diagram netic energy incident on it. In thermal equilibrium at a given is required. temperature, it emits radiation, spectrally distributed according to Planck’s Formula. Figure 4. Spatial distribution pattern 5 C λ– λ 1 0° 15° W = ------C2 exp ------ – 1 1.0 λ 30° 0.8 The units of luminance in present use are an engineering nightmare. 1 candela/cm2 is called a 0.6 1/π candela/cm2 is called a 1 candela/m2 is called a Nit 45° 1/π candela/m2 is called an 0.4 1/π candela/ft2 is called a foot-Lambert

60° The foot Lambert is the most commonly used unit in the U.S. 0.2 Of particular interest is a source whose angular distribution pat- 75° tern is a circle (Figure 6). For such a source we have θ θ I = lo Cos , the luminance of such a source in a given direc- 90° tion q, is then given by:

dIθ dI Cosθ dI Bθ = ------= ------o------= ------o- dAcosθ dACosθ dA For an extended radiating surface, (such as an LED chip), each element of area contributes to the luminous intensity of the The luminance is seen to be the same in all directions. Such a source in any given direction. The luminous intensity contribu- source is called a lambertian source. It can be shown that a per- tion in the given direction divided by the projected area of the fectly diffusing surface behaves in this fashion. The formula θ θ surface element in that direction is called the luminance (B) of governing a diffusing surface l = lO Cos is called Lambert's the source (in that direction), Figure 5. The quantity is some- Cosine Law. times called photometric , or simply brightness. It can be shown that a ﬂat LED chip is a very good approxima- Using the term brightness on its own should be discouraged as tion to a Lambertiian Source. brightness involves various subjective properties such as tex- ture, color, sparkle, apparent size, etc., that have psychological implications.

Appnote 1 14–4

Figure 6. Lambertian radiation pattern Many factors must be taken into account when evaluating LED speciﬁcations for a particular application, and electronic engi- I O neers will need to develop a knowledge of these factors to use LEDs effectively in new designs. Presently available light emitting diodes are made from III-V, Il- θ Iθ=IO Cos VI, and IV semiconductors, with Gallium Arsenide Phosphide and Gallium Phosphide being the major materials. Gallium Alu- minum Arsenide is also used but is less common. Gallium Ars- enide is commonly included in this group, but GaAs emits only radiation around 900 nm which is not visible to the eye θ and can’t properly be called light. All speciﬁcations of non-visi- ble emitters must be in radiametric units. GaP emits green light between 520 and 570 nm peaking at 550 nm, very close to the peak eye sensitivity. It also can emit red light between 630 and 790 nm peaking at 690 nm.

GaAs(1–x) PX emits light over a broad range from green to infra- red depending on the percentage of phosphorus in the material (x). For x in the 0.4 region, red light between 640 and 700 nm If we now take a surface element (dA) and determine the inten- peaking at 660 nm is obtained. For x=0.5, amber light peaking sity contribution in each direction we can determine the total around 610 nm is obtained. ﬂux (dF) emitted by the surface element. The resultant ratio Ga(1–x) AIXAS as presently available emits red light between (dF⁄dA) Lumens/m2 is called the luminous emittance (L). For a 650 and 700 nm peaking at 670 nm and also emits into the ﬂat surface we may calculate L from: infrared range. π -- The efﬁciency of these materials is very dependent on the 2 L = 2π ∫ B(θ)Sin θCos θd θ emitted wavelength, with drastic fall off in efﬁciency as the 0 wavelength gets shorter. Fortunately the standard eyeball ﬁlter 2 The corresponding radiant emittance in watts/m is of consider- favors the shorter wavelength (down to 555 nm) and gives able interest for GaAs infrared LEDs where total output power some measure of compensation. Some typical efﬁciencies is an important parameter. reported by device makers, and the resulting overall luminous The total luminous ﬂux emitted by a light source can then be efﬁciency (Lumens/electrical watt) are as follows: calculated from Ftotal =∫LdA. GaP.red .72% at 20 Lum/Watt=14 Lum/Watt overall These photometric quantities are sufﬁcient to describe the GaAs6P4 red .3% at 50 Lum/Watt=.15 Lum/Watt overall properties of light sources such as light emitting diodes. GaAlAs red 1.5% at 40 Lum/Watt=.024 Lum/Watt overall When light falls on a receiving surface, it is either partially reﬂected in the case of a purely passive surface, or partly con- GaP green .006% at 675 Lum/Watt=.04 Lum/Watt overall verted into some other form of energy by what we may GaAs5P5 amber .0044% at 340 Lum/Watt=.015 Lum/Watt describe as an active surface (such as a phototransistor or pho- overall tomultiplier cathode). In either case we are interested in how 2 For simple status indicator applications, front panel lamps and much ﬂux falls on each element of the surface; Lumens/m in similar applications, several factors must be considered: the case of a passive surface which we wish to illuminate, or the eye; and Watts/m2 in the case of other active surfaces. The 1. Color—LED lamps and displays are available in a variety of quantity Lumens/m2 in this case is called the some- standardized colors of emitted light: red, high efﬁciency red, times loosely referred to as the illumination. The unit of illumi- soft orange, yellow, green and blue—although not every com- nance is the also referred to as the metercandle. Another ponent is available in every color. commonly used unit of illuminance, in the U.S. is the foot can- 2. Apparent source size—Various combinations of chip size and dle, equal to one lumen per square foot. One lumen per square optical systems are available so that apparent source sizes from cm is called a . about 5 mils to about 300 mils diameter are available as stan- Many of these photometric quantities and units are in common dard products. Other things being equal, a larger source size is use in the ﬁeld of illumination engineering. While English units more visible. are the most common in the U.S., a mixed system of units is 3. Angular distribution. GaAsP diode chips are nearly Lamber- involved in common usage. tian, but GaP are nearly isotropic. With suitable optical design, the angular distribution pattern can be changed from very broad Application to Light Emitting Diodes to quite narrow. By placing the chip at the focus of the lens sys- The above description of photometric quantities should indicate tem a narrow high intensity beam is obtained. The off axis visi- that there are many ways in which the photometric properties bility is drastically reduced. By using diffusing lens materials, a of LEDs can be stated. There is no general agreement among large area source with good off axis visibility is obtained but the LED makers and users as to the best way to specify LED per- luminance is reduced. formance leading to much confusion and misunderstanding.

Appnote 1 14–5

4. Luminous intensity. This will govern the visibility under opti- the source. The intensity of the source will not be a factor mum background contrast conditions, when viewed at normal unless the detector active area is larger than the incident beam. distances. 1 millicandela is typical for red lamps of either GaAsP When average power consumption must be minimized but or GaP at normal operating conditions. good visibility is required, or detection at a considerable dis- 5. Luminance. When it is not possible to provide a dark con- tance is required, pulsed operation can be used. With GaAs trasting background, or when the source is viewed at very and GaAsP emitters using low duty cycle short pulses, very close distances, the luminance becomes important. Values high peak intensity levels can be reached permitting communi- from 100 ft-L to 5000 ft-L are typical. cation over considerable distances. This technique is not use- These factors are all related to the design of the device and the ful with GaP diodes since they do not exhibit a linear user should understand the trade offs. High luminance values in relationship between optical output and instantaneous forward excess of 10,000 ft-L are easily obtained by running very high current, becoming saturated at moderate current levels. current densities in the LED chip but can lead to shortened life GaPalso has a 50% higher rate of fall off in light output with if carried too far. temperature increase, than GaAsP which further inhibits high power applications. For a given drive current the luminous intensity of two different chips will be similar, while the luminance will be inversely pro- Using LEDs to give a “heads up” projected display, such as for portional to the active area of the chip. an automobile speedometer readout, or aircraft cockpit applica- tion places severe requirements on the display luminance. For If the designer can use ﬁlter screens or circularly polarizing ﬁl- easy visibility, the projected image must be sufﬁciently con- ters in front of the light source, excellent protection from back- trasted with the ambient illumination. This requires very high ground illumination can be obtained. In this case a diffusive lens luminance values for the LEDs together with the use of photo- giving a large apparent source with lower luminance, is more chromic windshields and probably polarizing screens. visible than a high luminance point source. The foregoing is a necessarily simpliﬁed description of a very When a LED is used with an optical system to activate a complex subject. For more information read the standard text- remote sensor such as a cadmium sulphide or cadmium book literature on these subjects. selenide cell (red light), or a GaAs IR emitter is used with a sili- con photo detector, the performance requirements are some- what different. It can be shown that for a given optical References: arrangement the of the detector determines the R. Kingslake, Applied & Optical Engineering Committee detected signal and this is proportional to the of the on of the O.S.A., The Science of Color. source, which is comparable to the luminance (brightness) of Warren J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering

Appnote 1 14–6