New Series - Vol. 16 - No. 4 October-December 2013 Botany Profile Frondly Focused on Ferns By Gary A. Krupnick he Department of Botany recently collections he personally contributed pri- student. Not happy with this deci- hired two new curators. Eric marily stem from trips to Jamaica, Cuba, sion, Schuettpelz had what he calls an TSchuettpelz, a systematic biologist and Central America. “awakening” in his junior year when he recognized for his work on fern diversi- Conrad V. Morton was trained took a plant systematics course taught by fication, has joined the staff as Research under the tutelage of Maxon. His initial Sara B. Hoot, a Ranunculaceae special- Botanist and Assitant Curator of Ferns, appointment at the Smithsonian was as ist. Schuettpelz recalls deciding right and Ashley N. Egan, a systematic biolo- an Assistant Curator of Phanerogams in then, as a naive undergraduate, that he gist with expertise in phylogenomics and the Division of Plants in 1939. In 1946, wanted to be a systematic botanist. Later bioinformatics, has been appointed as when the Division was reorganized as that year he began an undergraduate Research Botanist and Assistant Cura- the Department of Botany, Morton was research project with Hoot, focusing tor of Legumes. They both started in appointed Associate Curator of the Divi- on the biogeography of the windflower August 2013. The fern and legume hold- sion of Ferns. He held the title of Curator genus Anemone (Ranunculaceae) in the ings at the U.S. National Herbarium are of the Division of Ferns until 1970. Mor- Southern Hemisphere. large and significant. New curation and ton collected extensively in Guatemala, Schuettpelz received a B.S. in Bio- research will be highly beneficial. Egan Honduras, and the West Indies. logical Sciences in 1999, and continued and the legume collection will be profiled David B. Lellinger began as an her- on in Hoot’s lab as a master’s student, in a future issue of the Plant Press, while barium aide in 1960, and was hired as a investigating the phylogeny and bioge- Schuettpelz and the fern collection are member of the staff in 1963. He began co- ography of the marsh marigold genus profiled here. authoring articles about South American Caltha (Ranunculaceae). He recalls The fern collection at the U.S. ferns with Morton as early as 1966. Lel- ironically that as a child he would gather National Herbarium currently totals linger continued to build the fern collec- huge “cowslip” bouquets from the approximately 275,000 specimens and is tion, primarily with specimens from Costa ditches around his grandparents’ house. thought to be the largest fern collection Rica, Panama, and the Chocó in Colom- He completed his M.S. in Biological Sci- in the new world. Known for having an bia. He also published a landmark book, A ences in 2001. especially rich collection of types—just Field Manual of the Ferns & Fern-Allies It was during his time as a master’s under 5,500 catalogued type specimens— of the United States and Canada (Smith- student that Schuettpelz first got excited the collection results from a long history sonian Institution Press, 1985). about pteridophytes, thanks primarily of pteridological research at the Smithso- Gregory S. McKee, museum special- to Hoot’s collaboration with W. Carl nian Institution. Remarkably, the collec- ist, began assisting Lellinger in 1998, and Taylor, an Isoëtes (quillwort) special- tion has had continuous curation for over continued to oversee the fern collection as ist. Following conversations with Hoot, 100 years. acting fern curator after Lellinger’s retire- Taylor, and James P. Therrien (a postdoc- William R. Maxon built the fern ment in 2002. McKee will be assisting toral fellow in Hoot’s lab), Schuettpelz collection from almost nothing to over Schuettpelz in managing the fern collec- decided he wanted to pursue a Ph.D. 150,000 specimens in the early 20th cen- tion. focused on ferns. During this time, he tury. Maxon was initially appointed as an also learned of Kathleen M. Pryer (then aide in the Division of Plants of the U.S. ric Schuettpelz grew up in north- at the Field Museum) and was captivated National Museum in 1899 and eventu- eastern Wisconsin, and spent much by her work on fern evolution. ally rose to become Curator of the U.S. Eof his childhood outdoors explor- In 2001, when Pryer took a position National Herbarium in 1937, a position ing the woods. In 1995, he began his at Duke University, Schuettpelz joined he held until his retirement in 1946. The undergraduate studies at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee as a pre-med Continued on page 13 Travel Pedro Acevedo traveled to Bogota, Botanical Congress, and to collect plants (8/24 – 9/2) to deliver the plenary keynote Colombia (8/4 – 8/14) to present a talk in Colombia needed for research. address at the International Flora Malesi- as an invited speaker at the Colombian Ashley Egan traveled to China, Japan, ana Symposium; and to Madison, Wiscon- Botanical Congress; and to San Juan and and Thailand (9/1 – 11/18) with Matthew sin (9/26 – 9/27) as an invited speaker at Ponce, Puerto Rico (9/17 – 10/8) to speak Hansen to conduct field work, collect the University of Wisconsin-Madison. at the University of Sagrado Corazon and specimens, and visit various herbaria. Gary Krupnick traveled to Baltimore, to conduct field work on the floristic stud- Sally Eichhorn traveled to Palermo, Maryland (7/22 – 7/24) to present a talk at ies of Camp Santiago and Fort Allen. Italy (9/5 – 9/12) to attend the annual the 26th International Congress for Conser- Mike Bordelon traveled to Fargo, meeting of the council of the International vation Biology meeting. North Dakota (7/22 – 7/26) to give a pre- Association for Plant Taxonomy. Dail Laughinghouse traveled to sentation at a conference of the Associa- Bob Faden traveled to Bronx, New Svalbard, Norway (6/27 – 7/14) to conduct tion of Education and Research Green- York (7/7 - 7/13) to present a contributed field work on Arctic cyanobacteria from house Curators. paper at Monocots V: 5th International around the archipelago and to give a talk Barrett Brooks traveled to Curaçao Conference on Comparative Biology of aboard the ship Stalbas. (8/13 – 8/20) to participate with the Deep Monocotyledons at Fordham University. Paul Peterson traveled to Bronx, New Reef Observation Project (DROP). Christian Feuillet traveled to Leiden, York (7/7 – 7/13) to speak at Monocots Mauricio Diazgranados traveled to the Netherlands and Paris, France (7/29 V: 5th International Conference on Com- New Orleans, Louisiana (7/26 – 8/01) to – 8/16) to visit various herbaria as part of parative Biology of Monocotyledons give two presentations at the Botany 2013 the preparation of the treatment of the Pas- at Fordham University; and throughout conference; and to Bogota, Colombia sifloraceae for Flora of the Guianas. southwestern China (8/31 – 10/4) to col- (8/4 – 8/31) to coordinate the Symposium Vicki Funk traveled to New Orleans, lect grass specimens. of Biogeography of Neotropical Plants, Louisiana (7/27 – 7/31) to give a presen- Rusty Russell traveled to New to give various talks at the Colombian tation at the Botany 2013 conference; to Orleans, Louisiana (7/26 – 8/1) to chair a Bogota, Colombia (8/4 – 8/13) to attend session and deliver a paper at the Botany the Colombian Botanical Congress and 2013 conference. The Plant Press to collect plants in Colombia needed for Eric Schuettpelz traveled to New research; to Uruguay and Argentina (8/24 Orleans, Louisiana (7/28 – 8/1) to give an New Series - Vol. 16 - No. 4 – 9/3) to conduct fieldwork and present invited presentation at the Botany 2013 Chair of Botany talks at the Argentina Botanical Congress; conference. Warren L. Wagner to Palermo, Italy (9/5 – 9/10) to work Laurence Skog traveled to New ([email protected]) in the University of Palermo Herbarium Orleans, Louisiana (7/26 – 8/1) to attend Mediterraneum; to Durham, North the Botany 2013 conference. EDITORIAL STAFF Carolina (9/13) to attend a meeting at the Rob Soreng traveled to Bronx, New Editor National Evolutionary Synthesis Center; York (7/7 – 7/12) to speak at Monocots th Gary Krupnick and to Honolulu, Hawaii (9/26 – 10/5) to V: 5 International Conference on Com- ([email protected]) attend a graduate student committee meet- parative Biology of Monocotyledons at ing and to conduct field work on Molokai Fordham University; and to Klamath Falls, Copy Editors and Kauai. Oregon (7/20 – 8/10) to collect grasses at Robin Everly, Bernadette Gibbons, Rose Carlos Garcia-Robledo traveled to Crater Lake National Park and the Oregon Gulledge, Dail Laughinghouse Costa Rica (6/17 – 8/5) to teach a graduate Cascades. News Contacts course for the Organization for Tropical Alice Tangerini traveled to Bar Har- MaryAnn Apicelli, Robert Faden, Rusty Studies and to conduct field work along bor, Maine (7/7 – 7/13) to participate and Russell, Alice Tangerini, and Elizabeth the Barva and Talamanca elevational present a portfolio at the annual meeting Zimmer gradients; and to Portal, Arizona (9/18 – and conference of the Guild of Natural The Plant Press is a quarterly publication pro- 9/22) to give an invited plenary talk at the Science Illustrators; to New Orleans, Loui- vided free of charge. To receive notification of Organization of Biological Field Stations siana (7/27 – 7/30) to present a workshop when new pdf issues are posted to the web, please subscribe to the listserve by sending a message meeting at the Southwestern Research for the American Society of Botanical to [email protected] containing only the Station (American Museum of Natural Artists (ASBA) at the Botany 2013 con- following in the body of the text: SUBSCRIBE PLANTPRESS-NEWS Firstname Lastname. History) in the Chiricahua Mountains. ference; and to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Replace “Firstname Lastname” with your name. W. John Kress traveled to Bronx, New (9/24 – 9/29) to present a portfolio at the If you would like to be added to the hard-copy York (7/8 – 7/10) to attend as an invited ASBA conference at the Hunt Institute and mailing list, please contact Dr. Gary Krupnick at: speaker Monocots V: 5th International to attend the annual meeting of the board Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, PO Box 37012, NMNH MRC-166, Washington, Conference on Comparative Biology of of directors of ASBA. DC 20013-7012, or by E-mail: krupnickg@ Monocotyledons at Fordham University; Alain Touwaide and Emanuela si.edu. to Oak Ridge, Tennessee (7/16 – 7/17) Appetiti traveled to Greece (9/1 – 9/27) to Web site: http://botany.si.edu/ to attend a meeting at the Oak Ridge conduct research at the National Library National Laboratories; to Bogor, Indonesia of Athens and the National Archives of Page 2 Reflections on a Shutdown Editor’s Note his issue of The Plant Press, originally scheduled to be published during early October, is seeing a late release elsewhere were canceled, postponed and rescheduled. For Tdue to the U.S. government shutdown. The enforced instance, I am a principal investigator of the North American shutdown was due to a lack of appropriations for fiscal year Orchid Conservation Center. I was scheduled to attend and 2014. It occurred during the first 16 days of October and participate at a 2-day workshop at the Smithsonian Environ- resulted in the closing of the Smithsonian Institution, all of its mental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland, to discuss the museums and the National Zoo. The majority of the federal staff progress of the project and to set goals for future activities. The was furloughed. The effect of the shutdown was significant on workshop, originally scheduled on October 7-8, was canceled. the activities of the U.S. National Herbarium and the livelihood Colleagues from locations such as the Atlanta Botanical Garden, of its workforce. Chicago Botanic Garden, Alaska Botanical Garden, the Royal Botanical Gardens Kew, and the New England Wild Flower Society had to cancel their flights. Similar circumstances occurred throughout the Department as researchers found them- selves unable to participate and speak at scheduled workshops, meetings, and symposia. The museum turned away an estimated 200,000 potential visitors during the shutdown. For the skeleton crew that was deemed essential to protect buildings and collections, they came A view from Twitter, as the National Museum of Natural to the museum each day to assure the safety and security of the History announces a temporary closure as a result of a specimens and artifacts. The crew found the halls empty and U.S. government shutdown. All of the employees of the U.S. dark, which contrasted starkly to the usual lively and vibrant National Herbarium were furloughed for 16 days. atmosphere of the museum. We are grateful to Cathy Hawks, who monitored the U.S. National Herbarium during our forced Most Department staff members were sent home in a non- absence, and Chris Huddleston, who monitored the frozen DNA duty and non-pay status. Due to the Anti-Deficiency Act, we collections at the Museum Support Center. We also owe our were specifically instructed not to conduct work at our work- gratitude to Leslie Brothers and Mike Bordelon who kept the place or any alternative worksite. We were not permitted to living collections at the Research Greenhouses well-watered continue our research as an unpaid volunteer, and thus all of and healthy. our studies were halted. Federal employees were not permitted Fortunately for the Department’s federal work force, retroac- to use or access any Smithsonian system including email, and tive pay provisions were granted. Regrettably, the Department’s we could be subjected to fines and legal actions for doing so. contractors are left without pay for that same time period. We’re Employees were prohibited from using all Smithsonian issued still not out of the woods. Even though the shutdown has ended, equipment, including mobile devices, smartphones, tablets, and the legislation extends current spending levels only to January laptops. Visiting researchers who had planned to work in the 15, 2014, and the U.S. debt cushion through February 7, 2014. herbarium suddenly found their research brought to a halt. Here’s hoping that another shutdown does not occur this com- For those that were on travel, they were “furloughed in ing winter. place.” Messages were sent to all travelers urging them to return to Washington, DC, if at all possible. Many of our botanists were scattered around the world, from field sites in Puerto Rico to the remote jungles of Asia. If they could not return, they were Gary Krupnick told that they should furlough in place and they would not be on Editor of The Plant Press official travel during the shutdown. Head of the Plant Conservation Unit Meetings at the National Museum of Natural History and
Greece in Athens; to attend and deliver Taxonomy; and to Kauai, Hawaii (8/14 to visit Louisiana State University col- papers at the meeting of the International – 8/29) to do research on the Flora of the leagues and to attend the Botany 2013 Association for the History of Nephrol- Marquesas Islands project. conference, where she was a co-author ogy, held in Ancient Olympia and Patras, Jun Wen traveled to New Orleans, on a talk presented by former graduate Greece; and to study and analyze ancient Louisiana (7/27 – 8/2) to attend the student Mike Martin. Greek manuscripts conserved in libraries Botany 2013 conference; and to Shanghai, of monasteries in Lesvos Island. China and Bogor, Indonesia (8/20 – 9/26) Warren Wagner traveled to New to present talks at the Flora of China Orleans, Louisiana (7/27 – 8/1) to attend Symposium and the Flora Malesiana the Botany 2013 conference and to Symposium, and to conduct field work in attend the council meetings of the Ameri- Indonesia. can Society of Plant Taxonomists and Liz Zimmer traveled to Baton Rouge the International Association for Plant and New Orleans, Louisiana (7/26 – 7/28)
Page 3 year the group surveyed six plots. Some Katherine Dymek, Smith College; Plant Staff major pests found are Lonicera japon- DNA barcode project (5/20-7/26). ica, L. maackii, Celastrus orbiculatus, Research & Glechoma hederacea, and Microstegium Kalli Beasley, Western Kentucky Univer- vimenium. sity; Jose Cuatrecasas project internship Activities (5/25-8/17). Alice Tangerini’s artwork was featured Monica Serrano, Colombia; Jose Cua- Gary Krupnick was one of five guest in two exhibits this summer. The first was th trecasas project translator (5/27-8/2). speakers at a July 30th workshop presented “IC16”, the 16 annual juried exhibi- by the Smithsonian’s Science Education tion by the Illustrators Club of DC which Elena Meyer, Northern Virginia Com- Center (SSEC) for teachers and adminis- was held June 11 through July 13 at the munity College; Bulky bamboo internship trators. The goal of the SSEC program was Pepco Edison Place Gallery in Washing- (5/28-8/9). to help teachers learn more about STEM ton, DC. Tangerini exhibited her color Katherine Gilchrist, Virginia; Jose Cua- (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) rendition of Globba sherwoodiana. The trecasas project internship (6/1-7/31). related careers so that they can better com- second exhibition was “Botanica 2013, municate to their students the many ways The Art & Science of Plants,” the annual Leah Aronowsky, Harvard University; they can pursue careers that use what is juried exhibition of botanical art by artists U.S. Exploring Expedition (6/3-8/2). being taught in the classroom. The guest associated with the Brookside Gardens panel included a variety of museum staff School of Botanical Art & Illustration Elena Clark, George Washington Univer- that conduct research, care for collec- and members of the Botanical Art Society sity, and Rachel Livengood, Bloomsburg tions, work on developing new exhibits, of the Capital Region which ran June 29 University of Pennsylvania; Plant conser- and teach the public. The workshop was through August 10 at Brookside Gardens vation internship (6/3-8/9). in Wheaton, Maryland. Tangerini exhib- held at the National Museum of Natural Killian Miller, District of Columbia; Jose History. ited two artworks: Besleria sp. nov. and Platycarphella parvifolia. Cuatrecasas project internship (6/3-8/9). On September 12, Chris Puttock gave Amanda Sikirica, Virginia; Jose Cua- the monthly botanical talk at the Virginia Visitors trecasas project internship (6/7-8/20). Native Plant Society on “Oaks of Vir- ginia.” He was also the keynote speaker Carlos García-Robledo, Smithsonian Rubens Coelho, State University of at the 43rd Annual Prince George’s County Fellow; Plant-herbivore interaction Campinas, Brazil; Allophylus (Sapin- Beautification Awards Ceremony on Sep- (7/20/10-7/20/13). daceae) (6/10-8/8). tember 25, giving a presentation entitled, Kenneth Bauters, Ghent University, Bel- “Non-natives Versus Natives: What’s in Janelle Burke, New York Botanical Gar- guim; Scleria (Cyperaceae) (6/14-7/5). Your Garden?” den; Tropical Polygonaceae and Plumbag- inaceae (8/1/12-12/31/14). Caitlyn Maczka, Montgomery College; With a grant from the Washington Bio- Flora of Classical Antiquity (6/15-8/31). logical Field Club (WBFC), the club’s Jianqiang Zhang, Peking University, China; Rhodiola (Crassulaceae) (10/8/12- Committee on Invasive Biota, led by Rob Katherine Sizov, Virginia; Jose Cuatreca- 10/7/13). Soreng, began a three year, spring and fall sas project internship (6/21-8/23). survey of vegetation, focused on invasive Genevieve Croft, Washington University; Katya Medrano and Samerawit Sebe- plants, on Plummers Island, Potomac Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) sibe, Washington, DC; Heliconia project River, Maryland. The island is situated in (10/16/12-10/16/13). the Potomac Gorge just below the Ameri- (6/24-8/2). Leah Birdwell, University of Maryland, can Legion Bridge (US 495), and covers Alexander Dudley, University of Colo- College Park; Silene (Caryophyllaceae) approximately 12 acres of land, situated rado; Liberian collections (6/24-8/16). within the confines of the C&O Canal (1/7-7/21). National Park. The biota of the island has Clara Finkelstein, Kensington, Maryland, Ning Zhang, Pennsylvania State Univer- been extensively studied by the WBFC and Nicole Choi, University of Maryland, sity; Vitaceae (1/7/13-6/30/15). (vegetation and plant checklist: Shetler, S., College Park; Historical expeditions proj- et al. 2006. Bull. Biological Soc. Wash. no. Jesus Valdez R., Universidad Autónoma ect (6/26-7/19). 14). Additionally the island has been off Agraria Antonio Narro, Mexico; Poaceae Ryan Barlow, University of Mary Wash- limits to development for over 100 years. (2/7-12/7). ington; Caribbean seaweed internship The committee is recording all plants (6/6-8/9). found within 20 separate, 10-meter diam- Jorge A. Perez, University of California Davis; Prunus (Rosaceae) (3/7-7/13). eter plots, recording cover and frequency Fernanda dos Santos Silva, Jardim data for all plant species with special Fabio Avila, Universidad Nacional de Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Dyckia attention to invasive plants. The goal is Colombia; Cuatrecasas project (4/1-8/3). (Bromeliaceae) (7/1-7/5). to provide baseline data for the WBFC to make future decisions about the direction Asmaa Muneer, University of Maryland; Joanne Birch, National Herbarium of of management of invasive species. This Plant DNA barcode project (4/22-12/31). Victoria, Australia; Australasian Poa Page 4 (Poaceae) (7/1-7/5). Timothy Gilla, University of Hawaii, Kenya; African Asplenium (Aspleniaceae) Manoa; Pandanaceae (7/15-7/28). (8/12-9/9). Peter Linder, University of Zurich, Swit- zerland; Grasses (7/1-7/7). Helena Pinto Lima, Universidade Federal Natalie Mueller, Washington University Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Kath- in St. Louis; Polygonum (Polygonaceae) Pengfei Ma, Kunming Institute of Botany, lyn Vasconcelos, Universidade do Estado (8/13). China; Bamboo (7/1-7/12). do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Zingiberales (7/15-7/16). Paulo Baleeiro, Universidade de São Diane Pollock, Venice High School, Cali- Paulo, Brazil; Utricularia (Lentibulari- fornia; Economic plants (7/1). Paula Rudall, Royal Botanic Garden, aceae) (8/19-8/24). Kew; Monocots (7/15-7/24). Jennifer Strong, Virginia; Compositae Julian Campbell, Bluegrass Woodland volunteer (7/1-8/15). Maria Vorontsova, Royal Botanic Gar- Restoration Center; Asteraceae and Ken- Eleanor Wagner, Virginia; Pacific Island den, Kew; Grasses (7/15-7/19). tucky flora (8/19). flora internship (7/1-7/31). Vanessa Terra dos Santos, Centre Paulo Gonella, Universidade de São Amy Wang, Maryland; Silene (7/1-8/31). for Australian National Biodiversity Paulo, Brazil; Drosera (Droseraceae) Research; Fabaceae (7/15-7/18). (8/19-8/24). Cassiano Welker, Universidade Fed- eral do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Helina Chin, California State University Jennifer Gordetsky, Johns Hopkins Uni- Andropogoneae (Poaceae) (7/1-7/5). at Monterey Bay; Botanical illustration versity; Medicinal plants (8/23). internship (7/16-9/10). Mannat Dhillon, University of Alberta, Peter Schafran, Old Dominion Univer- Canada; Flora of Classical Antiquity (7/8- Jefferson Maciel, Universidade Federal sity; Isoëtes (Isoetaceae) (8/26-8/30). 8/31). de Pernambuco, Brazil; Bromeliaceae (7/16-7/19). Elena Roman Jordan, Catedra de Tech- Joe Miller, Australian National Herbar- nologia de la Madera, Spain; Cupressaceae ium; neotropical Mimosoideae (Fabaceae) Fabian Michelangeli, New York Botani- (8/30-12/13). cal Garden; Melastomataceae (7/18-7/19). (7/8-7/26). Ignacio del val Gonzalez, Catedra de Felipe Borja, Virginia, and Xavier Lowe, Emmet Judziewicz, University of Technologia de la Madera, Spain; Cupres- Washington, DC; Youth Engagement Wisconsin-Stevens Point; Poaceae (7/22- saceae (8/30-9/12). 7/25). through Science (YES) internship, Carib- Maria José Reis da Rocha, Universidade bean seaweed project (7/8-8/2). Kerry Barringer, Brooklyn Botanic Federal de Minas, Brazil; Melastomateae Tiffany Munoz-Zegarra and Melissa Garden; North American Scrophulariaceae (9/4-9/6). (7/29-7/30). Ramos, Washington, DC; Youth Engage- Martha Tomecek and Lewis H. Ziska, ment through Science (YES) internship, Dale Dixon, National Herbarium of New U.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricul- global genome project (7/8-8/2). South Wales, Australia; Collection man- tural Research Service; Solidago (Aster- Nils Niemeier, Cornell University; Flora agement (7/29-7/30). aceae) (9/9-12/9). of Classical Antiquity internship (7/8-8/10). Jay Frost, Jerold Panas, Linzy & Partners, Rich Spellenberg, New Mexico State Danielle Norwood, St. Mary’s College of Washington, DC; Historia Plantarum col- University; Aristolochia (Aristolochi- Maryland; Plant conservation internship lection (7/29). aceae) and Polianthes (Asparagaceae) (9/12). (7/8-8/23). Amanda Grusz, Duke University; Chei- Yuxiao Zhang, Kunming Institute of lanthes (Pteridaceae) (8/5-8/6). Vidal Mansano, Jardim Botânico do Rio Botany, China; Bamboo (7/10-7/12). de Janeiro, Brazil; Swartzia (Fabaceae) Shuren Zhang, Chinese Academy of (9/16-9/18). David Carr, Mary McKenna, and 13 stu- Sciences, China; Asian Cyperaceae (8/5- dents, University of Virginia Blandy Field 8/31). Jonathan Price, University of Hawaii at Hilo; Hawaiian flora (9/23-10/23). Station; Herbarium tour, plant conserva- Kathleen Stewart, Shenandoah Memorial tion (7/12). Hospital, and J.J. Waller, Texas Healthnet M. Das Sivadasan, King Saud Univer- Tim Gallaher, University of Hawaii; Medical Clinic Ltd; Medicinal plants of sity, Saudi Arabia; Anaphyllum and Lasia Pandanaceae (7/14-7/26). Antiquity (8/6). (Araceae) (9/24). Richard Bateman, Royal Botanic Gar- Heroen Verbruggen, University of Mel- Danica Raynaud, AuthenTechnologies, den, Kew; Orchidaceae and paleobotany bourne, Australia; Phycology (8/9-8/15). California; Eleutherococcus (Araliaceae), (7/15-7/24). Pueraria (Fabaceae), and Curcuma and Susan Hunter, National College of Natu- Zingiber (Zingiberaceae) (9/25-9/27). Aleksey Gibson, Washington, DC; His- ral Medicine; Mediterranean medicinal tory of Mediterranean botany and medi- plants (8/12). cine (7/15). Peris Kamau, National Museums of Page 5 species. The second Botany station was entitled, “Saving Paradise: Threatened Plants and How We Can Protect Them,” hosted by Gary Krupnick, Alice Tanger- ini, and interns Elena Clark and Danielle Norwood. The station highlighted how the Department of Botany is contribut- ing to the targets of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation. Some of these are identifying new species, assessing the conservation status of species, caring for living endangered plants in research greenhouses, and educating the public about the importance of threatened plants. Living and dried specimens of endangered and extinct species were showcased and the process of illustrating threatened spe- cies was demonstrated. Krupnick also participated at a station entitled, “The Buzz on Bees,” hosted by The National Museum of Natural History hosted 1,800 Congressional staff, 20 the Department of Entomology’s Seán Members of Congress and their families, at the annual Congressional Night at Brady, Nate Erwin (Insect Zoo), and Sam the Smithsonian. The Department of Botany hosted two stations providing an Droege (USGS). The station highlighted opportunity to discuss the importance of science. (Photo by Gary Krupnick) the diversity of bees and emphasized Congressional Night Leafsnap, an iPhone and iPad app, which their critical roles in providing pollination uses an image recognition approach and services in agricultural and ecological set- at the Museum provides tree species identification within tings. The station featured a wide variety seconds by simply taking a photo of a tree of bee specimens from the collection, “Congressional Night at the Smithso- leaf; and 2) plant DNA barcodes, which common plants (potted) that attract native nian” was held at the National Museum offers a molecular approach to identifying bee pollinators, gear and equipment used of Natural History on the evening of July 24, 2013. The event was attended by 1,800 Congressional staff and their families, as well as 20 Members of Congress. The event encouraged Congressional staff to meet members of the museum’s research staff, engage in educational activities, and visit the museum’s exhibit halls. The evening also included the successful and dynamic debut of Q?rius - the museum’s new learning center. Sponsorship by Nis- san North America, Inc. provided support and refreshments. Guests had the opportunity to interact with museum staff and learn about their research and collections at 22 different stations. The success of the Congressional Night was in part due to broad participa- tion from across the museum’s research departments. The Department of Botany was represented by two stations. John Kress, Ida Lopez, contractor Masha Kuzmina, and interns Katherine Dymek and Asmaa Muneer hosted a station entitled, “Novel Technologies to Identify Plant Species, from Apps to Labs.” The Katherine Dymek, Botany intern from Smith College, demonstrates how to use the group demonstrated two current tech- iPad mobile app “Leafsnap” to identify trees for guests at Congressional Night. nologies in use for plant identification: 1) (Photo by Ida Lopez) Page 6 to research native bee diversity and evolu- around in the cabinets, I unearthed a “new tion, and tools used to manage honey bee record” of Eriophorum virginicum. This colonies. cottongrass is common in more northeast- A large contingency of volunteers from ern states, but it has virtually disappeared the museum assisted throughout the night. from Kentucky, with only two or three Volunteers from the Department of Botany currently known populations. This “new also included Andrew Clark, Elaine record” was a collection of Robert Runyon Haug, Melinda Peters, Meghann Toner, in 1928 that has never been assimilated and intern Elena Meyer. into the state’s Natural Heritage Program database. Through the wizardry of Wikipe- dia, I discovered that Runyon (previously off my radar-screen) was born in Boyd County, Kentucky, but became an amateur botanist, photographer, curio-shop mer- chant, and politician in Texas and Mexico. A Day with US: Between 9:30 am and 5:30 pm, break- The Herbarium that ing for an excellent lunch and cup of tea at the staff cafeteria downstairs, I was able Keeps on Giving to check on the following other items of interest: By Julian Campbell • Agrimonia striata: drew blank, remains When James Smithson endowed an unverified in Kentucky despite old “establishment for the increase & diffusion report by Kearney (1893)—where is of knowledge among men,” how could he his collection? possibly have imagined the pleasant place • Cyperus plukenetii: verified Braun’s that the Smithsonian’s Department of collection again from McCreary Co., Botany and Herbarium has now become? but still no trace of her cataloged col- Herbarium visitor Julian Campbell Located on the 4th and 5th West Wing floors lection from Rowan Co. examines historic specimens collected of that massive National Museum of Natu- • Hypericum pseudomaculatum: checked from Kentucky. (Photo by Debbie Bell) ral History building, I have been coming Braun’s collections that she referred to Lix’s (from Mammoth Cave) were here to study every year or two or three this species, but they are just robust H. annotated as this taxon by Kanchi since 1982. Almost like going ‘through the punctatum. Gandhi, but Flora of North America looking glass’ one walks up through the • Luzula acuminata var. carolinae: excluded it from Kentucky—is it really ‘Ascent of Man’ exhibit or ascends on the checked Braun’s collection that she distinct anyway? elevator to the secure door, swiping one’s initially referred to L. saltuensis, but it • Ulmus thomasii and U. serotina: visitor pass for entry. A magical world is indeed var. carolinae. checked the few collections of these awaits! • Oenothera nutans: checked Braun’s rather poorly known elms; no new For readers who may not be so familiar collection from Menifee Co., which records but more misidentification. with the visiting experience, let me outline Werner Dietrich had redetermined as highlights of a day recently spent here, O. biennis—rightly so? US is one of the most effective large checking on some botanical records from • I noted much O. nutans recently at herbaria in the world, partly because its Kentucky, where I have been working on higher elevation in West Virginia, collections are regularly used by many an atlas of the state’s vascular flora since flowering a few weeks earlier thanO. visiting researchers, as well as staff. The about 1990. There are many important old biennis at a lower elevation. open and friendly communication amongst collections of plants from Kentucky at US • Polygala nuttalii: verified Braun’s col- botanists that is fostered here is an essen- (the official acronym for this herbarium). lections again from a site in Metcalfe tial feature of the operation. Knowledge- Particularly important are the collections Co., the only records of this southeast- able visitors are able to make provisional of Lucy Braun (1889-1971), who, almost ern species in Kentucky. rearrangements within difficult taxa, using single handedly, documented the flora and • Polygonum buxiforme: verified Braun’s subfolders where appropriate. Doors vegetation of Kentucky during 1920-1950. collection of this overlooked species are open to a range of experts in offices I continually maintain a list of collections from Kenton Co., and discovered around the collections, so that useful dis- to check at major herbaria, attempting to McFarland’s from Fayette. cussion can often proceed and the staff can verify obscure records or to clarify iden- • Prunus allegheniensis: drew blank; keep an eye on the visitors in case they get tifications. My list for US has now gotten Braun initially used this name for a out of line. down to a handful of really problematic collection from McCreary Co., accord- cases, but it will probably never go to ing to Max Medley (1993). Julian Campbell is an Independent Con- zero—since taxonomic issues are never- • Schizachyrium scoparium var. diver- sultant at the Bluegrass Woodland Resto- ending! gens: Braun’s collections (from ration Center in Lexington, Kentucky Within the first few minutes of poking Christian and Grayson Cos.) and Henry
Page 7 Maryland, is only opened to staff. Still, a short open house accommodating about 35 visitors took place. This particular specimen was given to the Smithsonian Institution’s Botany Greenhouse in 2003 by now-retired Aroid curator Dan Nicolson. Dan attended the open house with his wife Alice Nicolson and son David. Before modern transportation and easy shipping of plant materials between conservatories and collectors, the titan Infrared image of Amorphophallus arum was very rare outside its Sumatran titanum. (Photo by Claude Jefferson) rain forest. Now much more common in cultivation, its irregular flowering times, bringing in hopeful carrion beetles (in large inflorescence and foul odor still Sumatra) and flies (in our area). The create a fascinating burst of fecundity. Smithsonian Office of Facilities Engineer- Amorphophallus titanum has the largest ing and Operations supplied the infrared known unbranched inflorescence in the images to show the warming spadix. plant kingdom, and this time the Botany Because an individual plant requires a Department’s plant grew to a respect- substantial amount of energy to produce Isotype of Alloplectus savannarum able 52 inches tall. Though its width and such a large inflorescence, it can be many odor peaked in the middle of the night, SI years before the Botany Department has New Genus, Lesia, Photographic Services was kind enough another one of these fleeting events in the Named in Honor of to photograph the event Saturday through research greenhouses. Seeing titan arum Monday morning, where the overnight bloom is highly recommended, here or Laurence Skog maximum can be seen in a stop motion elsewhere. video. A new gesneriad genus, Lesia J.L. Unseen by visitors, the spadix itself Clark & J.F. Sm., has been named in honor Adey’s Summer warms up above ambient temperature to of emeritus research botanist Laurence E. help dissipate the odor of rotting flesh, Cruise Adds Skog. The genus was created to accom- modate the odd South American (primarily Specimens to the Guianan) species Alloplectus savannarum Coralline Algae C.V. Morton, which molecular phylog- enies had shown did not belong to that or Collection any other genus. The genus has a single species, Lesia savannarum (C.V. Mor- To better understand the longevity ton) J.L. Clark & J.F. Sm. The authors ecology of the coralline algae, Clathro- of the published paper, James F. Smith morphum compactum, a prime Arctic/ (Boise State University) and John L. Clark Subarctic climate archive species, Walter (University of Alabama), write, “The new H. Adey spent 10 weeks during the 2013 genus honors Laurence E. Skog (by using summer on a cruise of the R/V Alca i in his initials L.E.S.), who has made numer- northern Labrador, Canada. The cruise was ous, invaluable contributions to our under- funded largely through a Canadian Natural standing of Neotropical Gesneriaceae” Sciences and Engineering Research Coun- (Systematic Botany 38(2): 451-463; 2013). cil (NSERC) grant to himself and his two colleagues, Jochen Halfar at the University of Toronto and Patrick Gagnon at Memo- Departmental Titan rial University of Newfoundland. Halfar Arum Blooms and Gagnon did not participate in the cruise at sea, but each provided a graduate While more common than they used to student/diver, both of which were also car- be, a flowering Amorphophallus tita- rying out their personal doctoral research num (titan arum) is still a treat. In early as part of the cruise. August one of these large aroids decided The vessel crew totaled seven: Adey to put on its irregular, smelly show for serving as vessel captain and chief the first time since 2007. Inconveniently, Dan Nicolson observes Amorphophallus scientist on the cruise, a chief engineer, it bloomed during the weekend, and the titanum in the SI Botany Research an administrative officer, a cook and Botany Greenhouses, located in Suitland, Greenhouses. (Photo by Alice Nicolson) three Ph.D. student/SCUBA divers— Page 8 Thew Suskiewicz of Laval University, David Belanger of Memorial University, and Michael Fox of Scripps Institute of Oceanography. Suskiewicz carried out experimental analyses of sea urchin feed- ing rates on kelp and Belanger analyzed infauna within the coralline rhodoliths Lithothamnion glaciale and Lithothamnion tophiforme. Approximately 80 SCUBA dives to depths of up to 30 meters were carried out, two thirds with two divers and one third with three divers. During most of the work season, bottom working temperatures ranged from -1.5ᵒ C to +2ᵒ C, limiting dives to about 50 minutes. The cruise was specifically dedicated to the establishment of ecological param- eters allowing the collection of specimens of Clathromorphum compactum exceed- ing 1,000 years in age. While pursuing this objective, it was possible to identify Walter Adey (center) and dive crew Thew Susquewicz of Laval University and an entirely new sub-community of the Mike Fox of Scripps Institution hold a 1,200 year-old mound of Clathromorphum rocky Subarctic benthos. This common compactum newly recovered from the rhodolith bed shown below. (Photo by David cobble-boulder, glacial lag-till community Belanger) allows the achievement of great age in C. compactum. At the prime work site in (approximately 1,000 years old); the old- isotope levels. Kingitok Islands, where they spent about est at over 200 mm is nearly 1,700 years The identification of a new benthic one third of their total field time, the mean old. These specimens more than double community, based in fine sedimentation thickness of the collected 51 samples was their Arctic/Subarctic climate archive into a lag till of cobbles and boulders with 105 mm, and the maximum was over 200 potential and are invaluable additions to Lithothamnion rhodoliths that enhances mm. Since Adey estimates the growth rate the herbarium’s coralline climate archive great age in this climate archive species, to be between 110-120 µm per year, based collection, and add to the determination presages a new era of collection and the on the research cruises of 2010-2011, they of past sea ice cover, ambient temperature beginning of significant herbarium expan- now have 17 samples thicker than 115 mm and salinity, as well as carbon and oxygen sion. It also allows Adey to once again bring his Pleistocene geology background together with his coralline research. While both the sea urchin and rhodolith components of the cruise are independent doctoral thesis efforts, both directly relate to his C. compactum research. A secondary objective of Adey’s personal research on this cruise was the obtaining of abundant samples of Lepto- phytum species for phylogenetic work. From pebble/shell bottoms mostly over 25 m, approximately 100 samples of Lepto- phytum laeve and Leptophytum foecundum were taken. These are critically needed for the phylogenetic studies of the Melobe- siaceae currently in progress. Extract- ing DNA from samples currently in the herbarium has been difficult. This large number of dives, some dedicated to this need for the coralline herbarium, produced many mollusk shell encrustations solely occupied by each of the Leptophytum species. It is expected that this will solve a Rhodoliths of the coralline Lithothamnion tophiforme with an infauna of brittle serious analysis problem with this genus. stars, a sea urchin (echinoderms) and a nudibranch at 30 meters depth and a peak temperature of 2ᵒ C. (Photo by Michael Fox) Page 9 Notes from the mens, I am featuring two specimens from Give thanks during this fall harvest and families that are economically important. try this Pumpkin Curry that incorporates Plant Mounting As we enter the fall harvest, it is a good both of these families. reminder to think about how much we Room benefit from plants, and it seemed appro- Pumpkin Curry (Lauraine Jacobs, Guest Food Editor, New By Melinda Peters priate to highlight two specimens that are in families we recognize often during Zealand Woman’s Weekly, modified by M. As we enter the fall season, the Plant this time of the year. One is a recently Peters) Mounting Program is in full swing and we mounted member of the Cucurbitaceae 3 cups coconut milk have been recruiting a few new volunteers and the other is in the Lauraceae family. 1 fresh green chili, de-seeded and split to help with the preparation of specimens. ½ tsp turmeric Some volunteers are back from vaca- • Specimen US 3656200 is a specimen of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb., collected 1 tsp ginger, peeled and finely chopped or tion while others are still enjoying their grated adventures, but we are gearing up for the by John H. Thomas along the coast of Baja California, Mexico in 1959. A small 1Cinnamomum stick fall. During this quarter, with many people 1 stalk lemongrass away, we were still able to contribute dot map accompanies the specimen infor- mation on the collection label, which is 8 curry leaves some 2,267 mounted specimens to the 1 medium onion, finely sliced permanent collection. The plant mounting a nice addition especially as we work to georeference collections. This is a member 8 oz. raw cashews, soaked overnight in volunteers also helped with the prepara- water and drained tion of 111 specimens for the Q?RIUS of the cucumber genus, which is closely related to pumpkins, or the genus Cucur- 14.5 oz. Cucurbita, (C. moschata or C. center, the new learning center set to open pepo), cut into 1 cm diced pieces at the National Museum of Natural His- bita. These two genera include species that are staples during the summer and fall 1 Cucumis, peeled-cut into 1 inch pieces tory in November. These specimens will 2 limes be available to the public and provide a months. way to experience what it is like “behind • Specimen US 3653070 is a specimen 1. Place the coconut milk, chili, turmeric, the scenes.” of Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume ginger, cinnamon, lemongrass and curry The new acquisitions in this quarter sent to us from the United States Pharma- leaves in a heavy-bottomed saucepan and have been a smattering of material, much copeia, Authenticated Botanical Reference bring to a boil. Turn the heat down and of it for curators and the rest of it from Standards project. The purpose of the allow the mixture to simmer gently for 10 geographic areas of interest. We have also project is to build a reference collection minutes. been incorporating backlog specimens into for the public to use in order to identify 2. Add the onion, soaked cashews, pump- the current queue of mounting, which is botanical dietary supplements. The U.S. kin and cucumber and continue to sim- very exciting to see some older specimens National Herbarium will house specimens mer until the vegetables are tender, about make their way into the collection. for this project. 20-25 minutes, adding a little water if the For this quarter’s noteworthy speci- mixture reduces too much. Season with salt to taste and add the juice of 1 lime. 3. Serve with lime wedges and steamed rice. Historical Expeditions Project Digitizes Data By Shruti Dube The United States National Herbarium is the primary plant specimen repository for many government sponsored expedi- tions. The United States Exploring Expe- dition, the Geological Survey of Califor- nia, Stansbury’s Expedition, the Colorado Exploring Expedition (Ives Expedition), and the Western Union Telegraph Explora- tion Expedition are just a few of the his- toric expeditions found in the herbarium’s collection. Specimen US 3656200 (left) is a gourd collected in 1959 with georeferenced data. A year ago the Department of Botany Specimen US 3653070 (right) is a specimen of Chinese cinnamon sent by the United started a project called the Global Plants States Pharmacopeia. Initiative-Historical Expeditions which Page 10 distributions of plants and animals in the United States. Botanist Frederick Vernon Coville—the first curator of the U.S. National Herbarium—accompanied the expedition. He collected plants and, in accordance with the wishes of Congress, noted areas where different species flour- ished or faded. He organized his findings into a report entitled, “Botany of the Death Valley Expedition” where he first defines the term “zonal plant” as a “species or variety which is of value in determining floral zones.” This century old expedition is, to this day, the most complete survey of the flora of Death Valley. The entire origi- nal set of plant collections were depos- ited at US and currently includes 1,628 digitized records, including Calyptridium monospermum. A Second Red Algae Frederick Vernon Coville, the first curator of the U.S. National Herbarium, collected Saxifraga lyallii (left) during the Harriman Alaska Expedition in 1899 and Gloiotrichus Species Calyptridium monospermum (right) during the Death Valley Expedition in 1891. Discovered in the aimed to create digital data and images headed by Josiah D. Whitney, was created of historic specimens. The Department by the California state legislature in 1860. Caribbean focused on botanical specimens collected William H. Brewer and Henry N. Bolan- A most unusual genus of red algae, before 1900 in the United States and Can- der were the main field botanists, although Gloiotrichus (Liagoraceae, Rhodophyta), ada west of Mississippi, including Alaska. many other naturalists contributed to the previously known only from Australia These fragile specimens need special care collection and description of the survey’s and later Hawaii, has been found for the in handling. plants. From 1860-1864, Brewer was the first time in the Caribbean Sea.Katina As we approach the end of this project, Principal Assistant in charge of botany and Bucher, James Norris, and James Sears we digitized more than 21,000 specimens undertook extensive botanical surveys of describe a second known species, Gloiotri- (imaged and databased). These specimens unexplored areas in California. Brewer chus vermiculatus, based on specimens have been entered into the online catalog found many beautiful and unusual plants collected from subtidal waters from Belize program EMu (with approximately 1,000 across California. Our current digitized and the U.S. Virgin Islands (Caribbean more waiting to be digitized) and will collection holdings from this expedition Journal of Science 47: 98-113; 2013). eventually appear in the JSTOR Global exceed 4,000 specimens, such as Populus Gloiotrichus vermiculatus differs from the Plants website
Bucher, K.E., J.N. Norris and J.R. Sears. 2013. Gloiotrichus vermiculatus sp. nov. (Liagoraceae, Rhodophyta), a new species from the Caribbean Sea. Carib. J. Sci. 47(1): 98-113. Capik, J.M., M. Muehlbauer, A. Novy, J.A. Honig and T.J. Molnar. 2013. Eastern filbert blight-resistant hazelnuts from Rus- sia, Ukraine, and Poland. HortScience 48: 466-473. Chisholm, R.A., H. Muller-Landau, K. The hairy Cheilanthes pohliana is native to the Brazilian cerrado. (Photo by Eric Abdul Rahman, D.P. Bebber, Y. Bin, Schuettpelz) S.A. Bohlman, N.A. Bourg, J. Brinks, Profile Having such an important and large S. Bunyavejchewin, N. Butt, H. Cao, M. Continued from page 13 fern collection was the impetus to hire Cao, D. Cárdenas, L. Chang, J. Chiang, a fern specialist in the Department of G. Chuyong, R. Condit, H.S. Dattaraja, S. which he held for three years until his Botany. An active Curator of Ferns will Davies, A. Duque, C. Fletcher, N. Gunatil- recent move to the Smithsonian Institu- maintain the collection making it easier for leke, S. Gunatilleke, Z. Hao, R.D. Har- tion. visitors to access and extract information rison, R. Howe, C. Hsieh, S.P. Hubbell, At the Smithsonian, Schuettpelz will from it, especially if it is arranged phylo- A. Itoh, D. Kenfack, S. Kiratiprayoon, continue his research program centered genetically. With Schuettpelz on board, A.J. Larson, J. Lian, D. Lin, H. Liu, J.A. on elucidating the evolutionary history of the collection will continue to receive the Lutz, K. Ma, Y. Malhi, S. McMahon, W. ferns. In the near term, his work will focus attention it deserves. Within his first few McShea, M. Meegaskumbura, S. Mohd. on lineages within the Pteridaceae. He will continue his phylogenetic and biogeo- graphical studies of the xeric-adapted cheilanthoid clade. His research into the evolution of epiphytism will concentrate on the shoestring ferns (vittarioids), a pantropical group of about 125 species that is almost exclusively epiphytic. Sister to the maidenhair ferns (Adiantum), these epiphytes are notable for their highly reduced morphology and fast rate of molecular evolution. Schuettpelz hopes to shed light on the evolution of this extreme morphological, ecological, and apparently genomic makeover in ferns. Schuettpelz’s previous fieldwork has taken him to the neotropics (Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Brazil), as well as the paleo- tropics (Taiwan and Malaysia). If collect- ing permits come through, he wishes to return soon to Southeast Asia to collect vittarioids, and to further build the impres- sive fern collection at the U.S. National This fern from Bolivia and Brazil is currently known as Adiantum senae, but the Herbarium. new combination to Adiantopsis senae is in review. (Photo by Eric Schuettpelz) Page 14 Razman, M.D. Morecroft, C.J. Nytch, btp.12064 for Vittarioid ferns is strong and not driven A. Oliveira, G.G. Parker, S. Pulla, R. by selection. Syst. Biol. http://dx.doi. Punchi-Manage, H. Romero-Saltos, W. Li, R. and J. Wen. 2013. Phylogeny and org/10.1093/sysbio/syt058 Sang, J. Schurman, S. Su, R. Sukumar, biogeography of Asian Schefflera (Arali- I. Sun, H.S. Suresh, S. Tan, D. Thomas, aceae) based on nuclear and plastid DNA Snow, N., P.M. Peterson and K. Rom- S. Thomas, J. Thompson, R. Valencia, sequences data. J. Syst. Evol. http://dx.doi. aschenko. 2013. Systematics of Disak- A. Wolf, S. Yap, W. Ye, Z. Yuan and J.K. org/10.1111/jse.12052 isperma (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Chlo- Zimmerman. 2013. Scale-dependent rideae). Phytokeys 26: 21-70. http://dx.doi. Li, R. and J. Wen. 2013. Phylogeny org/10.3897/phytokeys.26.5649 relationships between tree species rich- and biogeography of Dendropanax ness and ecosystem function in forests. (Araliaceae), an amphi-Pacific dis- Wagner, W.L. and P.C. Hoch. 2013. J. 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Universidad de Institutional votes for the 2017 nomencla- org/10.3732/ajb.1300008 Antioquia, Bogota, Colombia. ture section. Taxon 62(3): 648-649. http:// Novy, A., S.L. Flory and J.M. Hartman. Wasshausen, D.C. 2013. Acanthaceae, dx.doi.org/10.12705/623.33 2013. Evidence for rapid evolution of phe- pp. 1-328. In C. Persson and B. Stahl, eds. Diazgranados, M. and V.A. Funk. 2013. nology in an invasive grass. J. Evol. Biol. Flora of Ecuador. Vol. 89. Department of Utility of QR codes in biological collec- 26: 443-450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ Biological and Environmental Sciences, tions. Phytokeys 25: 21-34. http://dx.doi. jeb.12047 University of Gothenburg, Goteborg, Sweden. org/10.3897/phytokeys.25.5175 Paszko, B. and R.J. Soreng. 2013. Species Fan, D., J. Chen, Y. Meng, J. Wen, J. delimitation and name application in Dey- Wen, J., Z. Xiong, Z. Nie, L. Mao, Y. Huang and Y. Yang. 2013. Molecular euxia abnormis, Agrostis zenkeri, A. pleio- Zhu, X. Kan, S. Ickert-Bond, J. 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Evaluation dae: Eriosomatinae) on Rhus hosts (Anac- lar data reveal the biogeographic diversi- of the allelopathic, genotoxic, and antipro- ardiaceae). Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 69(3): fication of the eastern Asian-eastern North liferative effect of the medicinal species 1146-1158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Psychotria brachypoda and Psychotria ympev.2013.08.003 Nutt.). Plos One 8(7): e70449. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070449 birotula (Rubiaceae) on the germination Robinson, H.E. and J.J. Skvarla. 2013. and cell division of Eruca sativa (Bras- Lettowia, a new genus of Vernonieae sicaceae). Caryologia 66(2): 138-144. from East Africa (Asteraceae). Phytokeys http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.2013 25(2): 47-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/ .821832 phytokeys.25.5556 Frescura, V.D.S., H.D. Laughinghouse Romaschenko, K., N. Garcia-Jacas, P.M. IV, T. Canto-Dorow and S.B. Tedesco. Peterson, R.J. Soreng, R. Vilatersana 2012. Pollen viability of Polygala panicu- and A. Susanna. 2014. Miocene–Pliocene lata L. (Polygalaceae) using different speciation, introgression, and migration of methods of staining. Biocell 36(3): 143- Patis and Ptilagrostis (Poaceae: Stipeae). 145. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 70: 244-259. http:// Krupnick, G.A. 2013. Conservation of dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2013.09.018 tropical plant biodiversity: what have we Rothfels, C.J. and E. Schuettpelz. 2013. done, where are we going? Biotropica Accelerated rate of molecular evolution 45(6):693-708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ Page 15 Art by Alice Tangerini
This plate of ferns was made by Alice Tangerini for David Lellinger in May 1989. The drawing was proposed for the Flora of the Guianas to illustrate three species in the genus Pterozonium (Pteridaceae): A) P. reniforme (Mart.) Fée based on the specimen Mass & Westra 4331 from Guyana; B) P. paraphysatum (A.C. Sm.) Lellinger based on the specimen Maguire 24500 from Surinam; and C) P. scopulinum Lellinger based on the specimen Maguire & Fanshawe 23430 from Guyana. Pterozonium has yet to be published for the Flora of the Guianas, and this plate has not been used in any other capacity.
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