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Copyright © 2013 by Aaron Mendelson

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Mendelson, Aaron American R & B: gospel grooves, funky drummers, and power / by Aaron Mendelson. p. cm. — (American music milestones) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978–0–7613–4501–5 (lib. bdg. : alk. paper) 1. —History and criticism—Juvenile literature. 2. Rhythm and music—History and criticism—Juvenile literature. I. Title. II. Title: Soul/. ML3537.M46 2013 781.644—dc23 2011045636

Manufactured in the of America 1 – CG – 7/15/12 www of 5 The Birth R & B www 17 Motor City Music

www 21 www 35 Transformations www 47 Into the Future

w 61 Source Notes w 56 Glossary w 62 w Selected Bibliography Timeline 57 w Further Reading, Mini Bios 58 Websites, w w 59 and Films 62 R & B Must-Haves w w 60 Index 63 Major Awards THE OF EVERY DAY, AROUND THE WORLD, PEOPLE LISTEN TO RHYTHM AND BLUES MUSIC, OR R & B. A fan might hear made exciting and original music. on an iPod, on They’ve also created new styles, RHYTHM a vinyl record, or Beyoncé on the such as soul and . But before it radio. R & B fans live everywhere, enjoyed worldwide, R & B was AND BLUES in places as far apart as Macon, a new genre. A handful of talented ; ; and from the American South AND Lagos, . They have danced played R & B’s first notes. They didn’t invent R & B by and sung along to R & B for more mixed together African American himself, but throughout the 1950s, than fifty years. styles including gospel, blues, big his music was the best example. As From to Janet band, and doo-wop. One of these a boy, Ray Charles Robinson was Jackson, R & B musicians have musicians was Ray Charles. known as R.C. R.C. grew in the Jellyroll neighborhood of Green- ville, Florida, during the 1930s. Jellyroll was the African American part of town. R.C.’s home was a

From Aretha OPPOSITE PAGE to Beyoncé LEFT and R IG H T, the artists of R & B have fused different styles of music to create some of the genre’s most listened-to tunes.

The BIRTH of R & B 5 wooden shack, where he lived with around the shop and listen when- his mother and brother. ever he could. He played the FROM R. C. R.C. went blind at the age of when Pit wasn’t using it, and R.C. seven. By then he was already a spun (played) and blues records TO RAY music lover. He learned to play the on the store’s jukebox (a coin-oper- piano in a nearby shop. The shop’s ated record player). CHARLES owner, Mr. Pit, played the piano R.C. left school as a teenager to In Seattle R. C. Robinson decided around Greenville. R.C. would hang play piano in bands around Florida. to shorten his name. He didn’t want After a while, he decided to leave to be confused with the famous the South. R.C. headed for Seattle, boxer Robinson. From Washington, because it was far then on, he was Ray Charles. But away from Florida. Charles’s name wasn’t the only thing that changed. He decided to front

Ray Charles, performing here in 1968, grew up listening to blues and jazz records. He became one of the first R & B greats.

6 The songs of Ray Charles borrowed elements from the of African American church services.

(lead) his own bands and started play which parts) himself. He be- called “My Jesus Is All the World making recordings. The record gan with his own style and to Me” into a new tune, “I Got a company Atlantic noticed his music. had a Top 10 hit with “It Should’ve Woman” (1954). The new lyrics were Charles began recording for Atlan- Been Me” (1954). about romance, not religion. This tic in 1953. In the mid-1950s, Ray Charles mixture of gospel music and secular At first, Charles imitated other had a revolutionary idea. He decided lyrics defined early R & B music. singers, like the popular crooner to borrow from the gospel music of Charles’s new sound was a . But he was deter- black churches. Gospel singers offer hit, but not everyone liked it. A mined to make music that sounded thanks to God in their , inspir- background singer on one of original. He wrote most of his ing churchgoers and musicians. But Charles’s songs walked out of the songs and always arranged them Charles made this style secular (not studio. She felt that mixing pop (decided which instruments would religious). He turned a gospel song and gospel music was wrong. And

The BIRTH of R & B 7 Big Bill Broonzy, a blues singer, In the second half of “What’d I said, “He’s mixin’ the blues with WHAT Say,” Charles and his female backup [religious folk songs]. I singers, , sing to each know that’s wrong.” Many fans of RAY SAID other in “uhhs” and “ohhs” gospel thought that R & B was the One particular Ray Charles song— instead of full words. Many listeners devil’s music and banned it from “What’d I Say” (1959)—pointed felt the back and forth was very their homes. the way forward for R & B. Charles sexually suggestive. In fact, this This wasn’t how Charles saw first improvised the seven-minute linking of the spiritual song style it. Even at Mr. Pit’s store, he loved song to fill time at a in with feelings of physical attraction many different kinds of music. In fact, . A recording of the was bold at the time. It would Charles recorded jazz tune went on to sell more than one influence many later artists such as (songs with no vocals) as often as million copies. In “What’d I Say,” and R. Kelly. he made R & B records. But gospel Ray’s fingers quickly across , most R & B artists were was especially important, both to the piano. The song is built on a influenced by Ray Charles. Even churchgoing listeners and to Charles. jaunty melody from the blues tradi- the famous singer , He would say, “I love a good gospel tion and on the call-and-response who was outside the R & B genre, song if it is really soulful. And if you style of gospel music. Charles’s called Charles “the only genius in love something then it’s bound to rub combination of these styles was the business.” off a little.” pure R & B.

Gospel and the blues are . . . almost the same thing. It’s just a question of whether you’re talkin’ about a woman or God. I come out of the Baptist church and naturally whatever happened to me in church is gonna spill over. —Ray Charles, 1973

8 The Raelettes, pictured here in 1960, sang back and forth with Ray Charles R & B’S on hits such as “What’d I Say” ROOTS (1959). R & B came together in the songs of Ray Charles, but other artists were playing similar music. In the late 1940s, journalist created the term rhythm and blues to describe this new musical style. Dur- ing this period, R & B bands made music for dancing. They played instruments such as the , the piano, drums, , and the electric . Singer and player was an exciting early R & B performer. Jordan was known for the brightly colored ties, big hats, and oversize eyeglasses that he wore onstage. His band played CALL-AND- RESPONSE Call-and-response came to the United States with slaves from and from there moved into black churches. In the call-and-response pattern, one voice, often that of a preacher, calls out and invites a shout back from those listening to him. These responses can be words such as yes or no, singing, or moves.

Ray Charles’s song “What’d I Say” uses call-and-response vocals. When Charles sings out uh or oh, his female backup singers respond by singing back the same phrase.

The BIRTH of R & B 9 GLOSSARY : music that features only vocals and jukebox: a coin-operated machine that plays records or instruments compact discs

arrange: to decide which instruments play which parts of a melisma: a style of singing in which a vocalist stretches one song and to make other decisions about how a piece of syllable across many notes music will be performed mix: the combining and balancing of different sounds in a call-and-response: a vocal tradition in which one voice calls recording. In the mixing process, a producer or an engineer out and others respond by singing or dancing decides which elements (such as drums or saxophone or voice) will be louder or quieter than others. : a style of popular in night clubs that in- cluded strings, repeated rhythms, and electronic sounds : an aggressive form of funk music that brought hip-hop attitude into R & B : an electronic device that creates noises that sound like drums and other percussion instruments producer: the person who oversees the recording of a song. Modern R & B producers also write music. funk: a style of R & B featuring heavy beats and often includ- ing multiple rhythms at once : a keyboard that uses electrical signals to generate sound. can make many different noises. They : the combination of different notes to make a full, became an important tool for R & B in the . rich sound

hip-hop: a musical form that combines rapped lyrics with the sections of existing songs or instrumental music that a producer has created in the studio

56 TIMELINE 1954: Ray Charles begins mixing gospel music and blues styles. His song “” helps define R & B music and points the way toward soul.

1957: releases his number one hit “.” With this song, Cooke crosses over from gospel to pop.

1959: opens the in . The bouncy, catchy Motown sound is a hit with pop and R & B audiences.

1960: Father and daughter Rufus and record “Cause I Love You” for the Memphis record company that will soon be called Stax. Stax artists cut gritty in the and the 1970s.

1965: James Brown starts a musical revolution with “Papa’s Got a Brand New Bag.” By putting the emphasis on “the one,” or the first beat in a measure, Brown and his band pioneer funk music.

1972: International Records hits the charts with records by the O’Jays, , and Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes. The shiny Philly soul sound comes to dominate the 1970s.

1974: Philadelphia group MFSB get to number one with the disco song “TSOP.” Disco takes inspiration from Philly soul and funk.

1982: Michael Jackson’s Thriller arrives, dominating the music landscape with its songs and music videos. The kicks off an era of blockbuster, pop-oriented R & B.

1988: ’s “” is the year’s number one R & B track, introducing fans to new jack swing. This musical style merges hip-hop and R & B.

1992: Mary J. Blige drops the hip-hop soul classic What’s the 411? Hip-hop soul ensures that R & B and rap remain linked.

1995: D’Angelo releases Brown Sugar, a mix of modern styles and called neo-soul. In the next few years, , , and keep the neo-soul movement strong.

2003: T-Pain begins using a new technology called Auto-Tune. The software makes his vocals sound robotic. Across R & B, artists and producers use effects that lend R & B a futuristic feel.

2011: British singer Adele’s retro R & B song “” becomes the biggest crossover hit of the past twenty-five years. She sells more than five million copies of the track, the biggest of several singles from her blockbuster album 21 .

2012: dies on the eve of the 2012 Grammys. honors Houston’s memory by performing “” at the ceremony.

57 MINI BIOS Mary J. Blige (born 1971): The Queen of Hip-Hop Soul Beyoncé Knowles (born 1981): Beyoncé got her start with grew up listening to hip-hop in New York City. Blige brought the Houston Destiny’s Child. With her 2003 hip-hop toughness to her music, helping to define R & B in album Dangerously in Love , she became one of the most popular the nineties. Her hits include “Not Gon’ Cry” (1996) and solo artists in both R & B and pop. “No More Drama” (2001). (born 1958): Prince Rogers Nelson emerged from his James Brown (1933–2006): The “hardest working man in hometown of Minneapolis. In the 1980s, Prince rode a sexy show business” sang and danced for more than fifty years. fusion of R & B, funk, soul, and rock to the top of the charts. Raised in Augusta, Georgia, James Brown was an early R & B His hit include 1999 (1982), Purple Rain (1984), and star who helped create soul and funk. Brown’s were Sign o’ the Times (1987). He helped promote the Minneapolis famous for his high-energy performances and tight band. Sound with groups such as the Time.

Sam Cooke (1931–1964): Sam Cooke started his career as a (1941–1967): From Macon, Georgia, south- gospel singer in . He crossed over to white pop fans ern soul artist Otis Redding shook up R & B with his raspy, with his number one hit “You Send Me” (1957). Cooke cre- powerful vocals during his short career. He was ’ ated his own record label and had many pop and R & B hits biggest star. Redding died in a plane crash when he was before his death in 1964. only twenty-six. His single “(Sittin’ On) the Dock of the Bay” (1968) became a number one hit after his death. Aretha Franklin (born 1942): The Queen of Soul was a shy child who grew up singing gospel in Detroit. Franklin (born 1967): Teddy Riley, born in Harlem, New combined gospel and pop in her hits for , York, was the leading talent behind new jack swing. Riley including soul classics such as “Respect” (1967) and “” grew up on hip-hop and brought hard beats to R & B music. (1968). He was a member of the groups Guy and and produced for Keith Sweat, Michael Jackson, and (born 1966): The younger sister of Michael Boyz II Men. Jackson, the Indiana-born Janet was a child actor before she made music. She found her musical voice working with Jimmy (born 1944): From Detroit, Diana Ross started Jam and Terry Lewis. On albums such as 1814 her career as a member of , a popular Motown (1989) and janet . (1993), Jackson recorded classic pop and girl group. Ross left the Supremes to start a solo career in R & B that made her nearly as popular as her brother. 1970. Ross was as successful on her own as she had been as a member of the Supremes, singing R & B and disco and acting Michael Jackson (1958–2009): Michael Jackson and his in films such as Sings the Blues (1972). brothers were the popular Jackson 5, from Gary, Indiana. He became the biggest star in music history with his albums Off (1979), Thriller (1982), and Bad (1987). Jackson was famous for his dancing and innovative music videos.

58 R & B MUST-HAVES Jackson 5, “” (1969) Must-Have Albums Lauryn Hill, The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill (1998) , “Let’s Stay Together” (1971) , At Last! (1961) D’Angelo, Voodoo (2000) O’Jays, “Back Stabbers” (1972) Ray Charles, Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music (1962) , Aaliyah (2001) Temptations, “Papa Was a Rollin’ Stone” (1972) James Brown, Live at the Apollo (1962) Beyoncé, Dangerously in Love (2003) , “Superstition” (1972) Ronettes, Presenting the Fabulous Ronettes (1964) Ne-Yo, Year of the Gentleman (2008) Parliament, “Flash Light” (1978) Otis Redding, Otis Blue/Otis Redding Sings Soul The-, Love vs. Money (2009) (1965) Janelle Monáe, The ArchAndroid (2010) Chic, “I Want Your Love” (1979) , High Priestess of Soul (1966) Michael Jackson, “Don’t Stop ‘til You Get Enough” (1979) Aretha Franklin, I Never Loved a Man the Way I Must-Have Songs Love You (1967) Sade, “Smooth Operator” (1984) , “Blue Monday” (1956) , (1969) Prince, “Kiss” (1986) Sam Cooke, “You Send Me” (1957) Marvin Gaye, What’s Going On (1971) , “” (1988) Ray Charles “What’d I Say” (1959) ,There’s a Riot Goin’ Blackstreet feat. Dr. Dre and , On (1971) Isley Brothers, “Shout” (1959) “” (1996) Booker T & the MGs, “Green Onions” , Superfly (1972) Mary J. Blige, “Not Gon’ Cry” (1996) (1962) Stevie Wonder, (1976) Erykah Badu, “On and On” (1997) Ronettes, “Be My Baby” (1963) Parliament, Funkentelechy vs. the Placebo Syndrome Lauryn Hill, “ (That Thing)” (1977) Nina Simone, “ Goddam” (1998) (1964) , Nightclubbing (1981) , “Fallin’” (2001) Supremes, “Where Did Our Love Go” Michael Jackson, Thriller (1982) (1964) Beyoncé feat. Jay-Z, “Crazy in Love” (1985) (2003) Whitney Houston, Whitney Houston James Brown, “Papa’s Got a Brand New R. Kelly, “Ignition ()” (2003) Prince, Sign o’ the Times (1987) Bag” (1965) , “Rehab” (2006) Janet Jackson, Rhythm Nation 1814 (1989) Aretha Franklin, “Respect” (1967) , “Crazy” (2006) Mary J. Blige,What’s the 411? (1992) Marvin Gaye, “I Heard It through the Grapevine” (1968) T-Pain feat. Akon, “Bartender” (2007) R. Kelly, (1993) Otis Redding, “The Dock of the Bay” Maxwell, “” (2009) II (1994) Boyz II Men, (1968) Adele, “Rolling in the Deep” (2011) CrazySexyCool (1994) TLC, Isaac Hayes, “Walk On By” (1969) Erykah Badu, (1997)

59 MAJOR AWARDS (AMAs): The AMA ceremony : The Grammys are prestigious music awards is broadcast each year on the ABC network. TV given yearly by the National Academy of Recording Arts host Dick Clark created the AMAs in 1973. Unlike the and Sciences. Many genres are recognized, but there are Grammy Awards, the AMAs are awarded based on polls of categories for Best R & B Performance, Best Traditional the public. Michael Jackson holds the record for most awards R & B Performance, Best R & B Song, and Best R & B Album. won, twenty-six. In 2011 ’s Loud won the AMA for Stevie Wonder has won twenty-two Grammys, including Favorite Soul/R & B Album. three for Best Album. In 2012 Cee Lo Green won both Best Traditional R & B Performance and Best R & B Song. (BMAs): The BMAs are awarded by Billboard magazine, which tracks the sales of . NAACP Image Award: Since 1967 the NAACP (National BMA winners are determined by the sales tracked on the Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Image Billboard Charts. and Rihanna were big winners in 2011, Awards have honored achievements by people of color in while Janet Jackson holds the record for most awards won, music, film, TV, and literature. Mary J. Blige was awarded thirty-three. Outstanding Female Artist in 2007, 2010, and 2011.

Black Entertainment Television (BET) Awards: This Music Awards: The Soul Train TV program began yearly televised ceremony began on the cable channel BET honoring R & B, soul, gospel, and hip-hop performers with in 2001. The awards honor African American achievement this award ceremony in 1987. The awards have continued in areas such as acting, sports, and music. Recent winners beyond the end of the TV show. Janet Jackson holds the of the Best Female R & B artist include Rihanna (2011) and record for most awards won, with thirteen. Jackson and Alicia Keys (2010). Recent winners of the Best Male R & B R. Kelly have both received a record nineteen nominations. Artist include (2010) and (2011). In 2011 won the Soul Train award for Best Female R & B/Soul Artist.

60 SOURCE NOTES Funk: The 36 , quoted in Craig Werner, A Change 8 Big Bill Broonzy, quoted in Michael 24 James Brown, quoted in Rickey Vincent, (New York: Is Gonna Come: Music, Race and the Soul of America (Ann Haralambos, Soul Music: The Birth of a Sound in , the People, and the Rhythm of the One Arbor: Press, 2006), America (New York: Da Capo, 1974), 101. St. Martin’s Griffin, 1996), 74. 199. 8 Ray Charles, quoted in Michael Haralambos, 24 , : Rhythm and Blues and (New York: Harper and 37 Rickey Vincent, Funk: The Music, the People, and the Soul Music: The Birth of a Sound in Black America (New the Southern Dream of Freedom Rhythm of the One (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, York: Da Capo, 1974), 101. Row, 1986), 334. 1996), 169. , 66. 8 Ray Charles, quoted in Craig Werner, A Change 25 Woog, From to Hip-Hop 39 Ibid., 246. Is Gonna Come: Music, Race and the Soul of America (Ann 25 LaShonda Katrice Barnett, ed. I Got Thunder: Black Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006), 29. on Their Craft (New York: Thunder’s 40 Ibid., 182. (De- Mouth Press, 2007), 142. 9 Adam Woog, Ray Charles and 48 Poison (Remix), YouTube video, 7:11, posted by troit: Lucent Books, 2006), 58. 26 Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music , 103. BellBivDeVoeVEVO, June 16, 2009, http:// youtu.be/RcbMW2-Goog (July 11, 2011). 11 , “Doo-wop,” All Music Guide 29 Respect Yourself: The Stax Records Story , DVD, dir. to Soul, ed. Vladimir Bogdanov, Chris Woodstra, , 319. and Morgan Neville (Memphis: 48 Werner, and Stephen Thomas Erlewine (Berkeley, CA: Stax, 2007). Backbeat Books, 2004), 839. 48 Ibid., 329. 30 Susan Straight, “Only His Voice Made Us Feel 13 , quoted in Adam Woog, From 49 Emil Wilbekin, “Very Mary,” Hip-Hop Divas (New This Way,” The Oxford American Book of Great Music Ragtime to Hip-Hop: A Century of Black American Music York: Three Rivers Press, 2001), 82. Writing, ed. Marc Smirnoff (Fayetteville: Univer- (Detroit: Lucent Books, 2007), 65. sity of Arkansas Press, 2008), 264. 49 Steve Huey, “Boyz II Men,” All Music Guide to 21 Craig Werner. A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race Soul , ed. Vladimir Bogdanov, Chris Woodstra, 35 5/6 , YouTube video, 10:15, posted and the Soul of America (Ann Arbor: University of and Stephen Thomas Erlewine (Berkeley, CA: by moonkeey, January 11 2007, http:// Michigan Press, 2006), 18. Backbeat Books, 2007), 72. youtu.be/lSACU9WlpLw (August 7, 2011).

EXPAND LEARNING BEYOND THE PRINTED BOOK. Download free, complementary educational resources for this book from our website, www.lerneresource.com.

61 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Barnett, Lashonda Katrice, ed. I Got Thunder: Black Women Songwriters on Their Craft . Jackson, John A. A House on Fire: The and Fall of . New York: Oxford New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 2007. University Press, 2004.

Bogdanov, Vladimir, Chris Woodstra, and Stephen Thomas Erlewine, eds. All Vincent, Rickey. Funk: The Music, the People, and the Rhythm of the One . New York: St. Music Guide to Soul: The Definitive Guide to R&B and Soul . Berkeley, CA: Backbeat Martin’s Griffin, 1996. Books, 2007. Werner, Craig. A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race and the Soul of America . Ann Arbor: Early, Gerald. One Nation Under a Groove: Motown and American Culture . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006. University of Michigan Press, 2004. Wilbekin, Emil, et al. Hip-Hop Divas. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001. George, Nelson. Post-Soul Nation: The Explosive, Contradictory, Triumphant, and Tragic 1980s as Experienced by (Previously Known as Blacks and Before That Negroes) . New Woog, Adam. From Ragtime to Hip-Hop: A Century of Black American Music . Detroit: York: Viking, 2004. Lucent Books, 2007.

Guralnick, Peter. Sweet Soul Music: Rhythm and Blues and the Southern Dream of Freedom. New ——— . Ray Charles and the Birth of Soul . Detroit: Lucent Books, 2006. York: Harper and Row, 1986.

FURTHER READING, WEBSITES, AND FILMS AllMusic Respect Yourself: The Stax Records Story. DVD. Directed by Robert Gordon http://allmusic.com and Morgan Neville. : Tremolo Productions, 2007. AllMusic is the most extensive music website on the Internet, with thousands This PBS documentary tells the story of Stax Records, Memphis’s greatest of entries on R & B albums, songs, and artists. label. It features interviews with Booker T. Jones, Isaac Hayes, , and others. Billboard http://www.billboard.com Richards, Marlee. America in the 1970s . Minneapolis: Twenty-First Cen- Billboard magazine has eleven charts devoted to hit R & B songs and albums. tury Books, 2010. Readers can check out the charts online and read music news and reviews at Learn more about James Brown, Sly Stone, and the music of Motown, as Billboard ’s website. well as some fun facts about the disco craze, in this book about a turbulent decade in American culture. Krohn, Katherine. Michael Jackson: Ultimate Music Legend . Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 2010. Soul Sides This biography follows Michael Jackson’s career from his start in the Jackson http://soul-sides.com 5 to his massive successes as a solo artist and untimely death in 2009. Learn Writer Oliver Wang’s MP3 blog presents new and obscure soul songs, as more about pop and R & B’s biggest star. well as thoughts about music culture.

Nickson, Chris. Usher: The Godson of Soul . New York: Simon Spotlight, Standing in the Shadows of Motown. DVD. Directed by Paul Justman. Santa 2005. Monica, CA: Artisan Entertainment, 2002. This is a biography of one of modern R & B’s biggest stars, covering his talent Director Paul Justman’s film introduced Motown’s great Funk Brothers to the contest beginnings and pop domination. world. Before this 2002 documentary, these Detroit studio musicians were unknown even to most Motown fans. Payne, Jim. Give the Drummers Some!: The Great Drummers of R & B, Funk & Soul . Katonah, NY: Face the Music Productions, 1996. Wagner, Heather Lehr. Aretha Franklin: Singer. New York: Chelsea House, Jim Payne’s book explores the stories behind the great grooves of the sixties 2010. Heather Lehr Wagner’s biography delves into Aretha Franklin’s life, from and the seventies. Learn about the beats that powered classic R & B songs. her religious upbringing and struggles with depression to her artistic triumphs.

62 INDEX Adele, 5, 26, 55 Haughton, Aaliyah, 49, 53–54 Prince (Prince Rogers Nelson), 44–45 , 39 Hayes, Isaac, 29 Professor Longhair (Henry Byrd), 10 Akon, 54 Hill, Lauryn, 52–53 Atlantic Records, 7, 12, 24–25, 29 hip-hop, 47 records, 44 , 29 (Kenneth Edmonds), 49, 51, 55 Hot Buttered Soul, 29 Redding, Otis, 27–28 Bacharach, Burt, 25 Houston, Whitney, 43, 48 rhythm and blues (R & B): and, Badu, Erykah, 52 Hudson, Jennifer, 55 13, 22; influences, 11; naming, 9, 12; politics Baker, Anita, 44 Huff, Leon, 35–36, 41 and, 21; race and, 11–12, 14, 19, 22, 38; rock Bell, Thom, 35–36 ‘n’ roll, 15 , 30 Impressions, the, 21–22 Richard, Little (Richard Penniman), 15 Blige, Mary J., 47, 48–49 Richie, Lionel, 43 blue-eyed soul, 26 Jackson, Janet, 43–44, 45, 51–52 Rihanna (Robyn Fenty), 54, 55 b l u e s , 11 Jackson, Michael, 33, 34–35, 41–42, 43, 49, Riley, Teddy, 47, 52 Booker T. & the MGs, 27, 28 51–52 Robinson, William “Smokey”, 17, 19 Boyz II Men, 49–51 Jackson 5, 32–33, 41 Ross, Diana, 18, 32 Brown, Bobby, 48 Jam, Jimmy, 43, 45, 51, 55 Brown, James, 20–21, 22–24, 38, 39 Jones, Grace (Grace Mendoza), 40–41 Sade, 44 Burke, Solomon, 11, 25 Jones, Quincy, 35, 41–42 Simone, Nina, 25 Jordan, Louis, 9 Sly and the Family Stone, 30–32 call-and-response, 8, 9 Songz, Trey, 55 Carey, Mariah, 51 Kelly, R., 8, 47, 49 soul music, 21 Charles, Ray, 5–9, 12 Keys, Alicia, 53 Soul Train, 37 Chic, 40, 47 Khan, Chaka (Yvette Stevens), 39–40 Spector, Phil, 14–15 Chi-Lites, 22 Knowles, Beyoncé, 5, 54, 55 Springfield, Dusty, 12, 25, 26 Chitlin’ Circuit, the, 14, 23 Kuti, Fela, 39 Staples, Mavis, 28 Clinton, George, 38–39 Staple Singers, 28 Cooke, Sam, 12–13 Legend, John, 53 Stax Records, 26–29 Cornelius, Don, 37 Lewis, Terry, 43, 45, 51, 55 Summer, Donna, 40–41 Supremes, the, 14, 18, 32 D’Angelo (Michael Archer), 52 Martha Reeves and the Vandellas, 17 Sweat, Keith (Keith Crier), 47 David, Hal, 25 MFSB, 36 Del-Vikings, 11 Mitchell, Willie, 29–30 The-Dream, 55 Destiny’s Child, 54 Monáe, Janelle, 55 Thriller, 42 disco, 40 –41 , 19 T-Pain, 54 Domino, Antoine “Fats”, 15 Motown Records, 17–19, 32 doo-wop, 11, 14 Usher (Usher Raymond), 54 neo-soul, 52–53 Franklin, Aretha, 5, 12, 24–25, 43 , 48 Vandross, Luther, 44 funk, 24, 38 new jack swing, 47–48 Funkadelic, 39 Ne-Yo, 55 Warwick, Dionne, 25, 43 Wexler, Jerry, 9, 12, 24, 26 Gamble, Kenny, 35–36, 41 Ocean, Frank, 55 Wilson, Jackie, 13–14, 17 Gaye, Marvin, 8, 17, 18, 32 Wonder, Stevie, 17, 18, 19, 32, 39 Gordy, Berry, 17–19, 32 Parliament, 39 gospel music, 7–8, 11 Philly soul, 35–36 Green, Al, 11, 29–30 Pickett, Wilson, 12

63 ABOUT THE AUTHOR Aaron Mendelson is a lifelong music fan. Originally from Ames, Iowa, he lives in Oakland, . He loves eating vegetarian food, writing for his blog Rockaliser Baby , and listening to Prince.

PHOTO ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The images in this book are used with the permission of: © Upimages/Dreamstime.com, p. 1; © Dwphotos/ Dreamstime.com, p. 2; © Sandy Jones/Digital Vision/Getty Images, p. 3; © Frank Driggs Collection/Archive Photos/Getty Images, pp. 4, 25; © Kevin Mazur/WireImage/Getty Images, pp. 5 (left), 5 (right); © David Redfern/Redferns/Getty Images, pp. 6, 22, 26, 33 (top); © Ed Clark/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images, p. 7; © Gilles Petard/Redferns/Getty Images, pp. 9, 21; © Michael Putland/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, pp. 10 (left), 41 (left); © Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images, pp. 10 (right), 11, 13, 16, 17, 18 (top left), 18 (top right), 23, 24, 27, 28 (left), 28 (right), 29, 37 (top), 37 (bottom), 41 (right); © GAB Archive/Redferns/Getty Images, pp. 12, 31; © CBS Photo Archive/CBS/Getty Images, pp. 14, 20; © iStockphoto.com/hudiemm, pp. 15, 19, 33 (bottom), 45 (right), 55 (bottom), 57, 59, 61, 63; © RB/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 18 (bottom left); © CA/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 18 (bottom right); © Tony Russell/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 30; © Ebet Roberts/Redferns/Getty Images, pp. 34, 43 (left), 52; © Charlie Gillett Collection/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 35; © Gems/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 36; © Richard E. Aaron/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 38; © David Corio/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 39; © Echoes/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 40; © Optimus Productions/The Kobal Collection/Art Resource, NY, p. 42; © Neal Preston/CORBIS, p. 43 (right); © David Montgomery/ Hulton Archive/Getty Images, p. 44 (left); © Stephen Wright/Redferns/Getty Images, p. 44 (middle); © Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images, p. 44 (right); © Frank Micelotta/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, p. 45 (left); © Waring Abbott/Getty Images, p. 46; © Catherine McGann/Hulton Archive/Getty Images, p. 47; © Raymond Boyd/Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images, p. 48; © Kevin Winter/Getty Images, p. 49; © Chris Carroll/CORBIS, p. 50; © Chris Polk/FilmMagic/Getty Images, p. 51; © Clarence Davis/NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images, p. 53; © M. Von Holden/WireImage/Getty Images, p. 54 (top left); © Featureflash/ Dreamstime.com, p. 54 (bottom left); © Soul Brother/FilmMagic/Getty Images, p. 54 (right); © Linda Rosier/ NY Daily News Archive via Getty Images, p. 55 (top).

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64 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK he crowd. t to t ls ou A singer cal t a be ps ou at. thum An tric bass elec strings swir e and l. Horns blar THESE ARE THE SOUNDS OF

Rhythm and blues music evolved from all sorts of sounds: swinging jazz, gritty blues, and African American spiritual songs. The music’s smooth mix of styles made it unique, and its passionate performers made it a sensation. Ever since Ray Charles hit the charts in the 1950s, R & B fans have held it down on dance ƒ oors. And R & B singers have belted out messages of love and calls for social change.

Find out what drove R & B’s earliest performers to stand up and sing. Follow the music’s path from gospel choirs to wild funk bands. And learn more about legends such as James Brown, Aretha Franklin, Michael Jackson, and Beyoncé.


AMERICAN POP: Hit Makers, Superstars, AMERICAN COUNTRY: Bluegrass, - and Dance Revolutionaries Tonk, and Crossover Sounds AMERICAN R & B: Gospel Grooves, Funky AMERICAN HIP-HOP: Rappers, DJs, and Drummers, and Soul Power Hard Beats : Guitar Heroes, Punks, AMERICAN : Rumba and Metalheads Rhythms, Bossa Nova, and the Salsa Sound