’s Nicomachean Aristotle: 384-322 B.C.

The Human is the ’ Activity that Expresses for “ Political science spends most of its on making the citizens to be a certain character, viz. good and capable of noble acts” [1099: 27-32].

I. Prolegomena Action of the that expresses II. of Character: Books III-IV: is distinctive of human beings; Book 1: the excellent man’s function is to Book 2: The Virtues & express reason well (8). Excellence is of two kinds: intellectual & moral. Intellectual excellence is Responsibilities: The good is that which all things aim (1) Though could be god- by birth and teaching (requires experience & time) and moral excellence given, it “comes as a result of comes about as a result of habit. Moral excellence does not arise in us by Virtue pertains only to voluntary & actions. Determine the highest good since excellence and some process of ; we are adapted by nature to receive them & are made perfect by habit; We forgive what is done non-voluntarily; what is everything is subordinate to it ; the learning or training, to be among the we become just by doing just acts, temperate by doing temperate acts, brave forced by something external is non-voluntary and highest good is political science (2) most god-like things; for that which is by doing brave acts [11031]. Habits distinguish between good & bad everything done by reason of ignorance is non- the prize end of excellence seem to be & between good & bad states. Habits are formed in voluntary. What is forced by something is external is Generalize political science principles by the best thing and something godlike formidable years of our lives (1). involuntary. What is IV.forced by Virtues circumstances & is well educated and experienced men since and blessed” [1099-10-15] (9). mixed because it is done willingly & is not something political science is not precise (3) Character is either promoted by discipline or destroyed by being the person would do [1110:10].Deficiencies: What one is doing Excellent activities determine happiness undisciplined. and temperance are two examples. abstaining from it to; what the result be; this is seemingly different Among well educated people contend or not. A happy man will never we become temperate; “by being habituated to despise things that from actions done in ignoranceBook (as when 3-4: one is that happiness (i.e., living well & doing become miserable because he always are terrible and to stand our ground against them we become brave ” drunk); one does not know what is right or wrong (1. well) is the chief political aim; among makes the best of circumstances and [1103:27-1104:1-3]. (2). others it changes: pleasure,wealth, or will not do a bad deed; he is Choice is voluntary but not identical to it. Children honor. Thus, only the best people completely virtuous (10). Pleasure and develops or diminishes Character Virtues. A temperate & other animals act voluntarily but do not make should determine since it is those who man enjoys abstinence itself. In fact, every action is accompanied by choices. choices is not appetite, emotion, wish, or have the best (4). Activities of people impact the lives of pleasure or pain. of pleasure and pain that men become bad. We belief; choices involve reason & thought (2). others including both the living and measure our actions by pleasure and pain. It is hard to fight pleasure. “The Three conceptions of happiness based on dead but in different degrees (11). whole concern both of excellence and of political science is with pleasure Decision is the outcome of rational deliberation. We the lives people live: and pains; for the man who uses these well will be good, he who uses them deliberate about what is up to us; it is done when it is (a) vulgar lead a life of gratification & Happiness or virtue is more than badly bad” [1105:10-13] (3). unclear which action should be undertaken; we identify happiness with pleasure (slavish praised, it is blessed because it is god- deliberate about the means by which we may bring in their ) but this is a life suited for like. It is also a first principle “ for it is It seems paradoxical to demand that we become virtuous by performing about our ends “We deliberate not about ends but animals; (b) cultivated people live an for the sake of this that we all do virtuous actions ( “for if men do just & temperate acts, they are already about what contributes to ends” [1112:12] (3) active life & identify happiness with everything else, and the first principle just & temperate ” [1105:18-20]. The solution is that we must be in a right honor but this secondary to goodness; (c) and cause of good, is, we claim, state to produce a virtuous act; we must produce the act as the just do them. We wish for an end, whose achievement is the goal of the contemplative life (5). something prized and divine ” [11021- Actions are not enough, we must have the disposition (4). deliberation. The good is not identical to what is 4] (12). wished, since one can wish incorrectly. The apparent The Platonic idea of Good cannot be Virtue or excellence must be one of three kinds arising in the soul: (a) good is not identical to what is wished, since then evaluated empirically (e.g., how can a Since virtue and happiness is an passions/feelings: appetite, anger, fear, confidence, envy, joy , hatred, nothing would be good by nature. The excellent weaver benefit by knowing this good activity of soul, we must study the longing, emulation, pity...the feelings accompanied by pleasure of pain; (b) person wishes the real good, while the base person itself); it is an empty pursuit [1096-20] (6) soul; the soul possesses an irrational Capacities/faculties: being capable of a like anger; (c) states: what wishes the apparent good. (4). and rational element [1102:26-27]. The we have when we have feelings such anger (strong or weak). Virtues are The end of actions are its ; virtue of the nutritive part of the human not feelings or capacities because they are not objects of praise or blame, If a person’s wishes follow from his character, they seem to be involuntary; but we praise & blame people Some goods are for the sake of other soul is shared with all living being and nor are they the the product of decisions. Virtues are the states of the soul for what they wish; character is acquired willingly goods; an end pursued of itself is the is not specifically concerned with (5). though it might not be shed willingly). So people are only one complete without reservation; reason; the virtue of character responsible for their ends; actions and states are not happiness is the only complete end (7). pertaining to the appetitive part of the Virtues causes the possessor to be in a good state & performs his functions voluntary in the same way “for we are masters of our soul are the results of obedience to well (e.g., horse). Just as science produces its product well when it pursues own actions from the beginning right to the end, if we reason. Excellence is divided into two the moderate approach between two extremes (too little or too much) (e.g., know the particular facts, but though we control the kinds: (a) intellectual: philosophic athlete), so is virtue; it is is a state concerned with choice between the beginning of our states the gradual progress is not and understanding and (b) extremes (6). obvious, any more than it is in illnesses; because it moral: practical wisdom being was in our power, however, to act in this way or not intellectual, liberality and temperance The Virtue of character aims at the means between the two extremes. in this way, therefore the states are voluntary.” [1114] moral [1103:4-10] (13). Courage is the means between between feelings of fear and confidence; temperance is the means between pleasure and pain; there is mean between (5) wastefulness and selfishness. There are a number of others they are www.prshockley.org enunciated (e.g., money, proper pride, ambition, anger, conversation, He who is called brave is one who is fearless in face of righteousness (7-9). a noble death (6) The end of courage is noble (7).