Form V 1. Website address(es) related to the project http://www.gondwana.geologia.ufrj.br and http://www.reeves.nl/Gondwana

2. Summary of major past achievements of the project The past three years of the IGCP-628 were focused on two major efforts: (1) developing cooperation around the in order to join efforts and thinking on the Gondwana tectonic evolution and (2) generating the new geological map of Gondwana by integration of data from all Gondwana-derived fragments. More than 250 participants are organised in thematic groups. There were thirteen meetings organised by the IGCP-628. The scientific achievements were concentrated on how to build up a paleogeological picture/map of this . During these years the actualization and digitalization of the geological maps of all the Gondwana-derived fragments were executed. This database was built in the Gondwana Digital Center of Geoprocessing (GDCG) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) in Brazil. Three drafts of the new Gondwana paleogeological map were published and presented to the community for evaluation. The oldest (1.1) was presented at the IGCP-628 workshop in February 2014 in Paris. In July of 2014, a more updated version (1.2) was presented during an IGCP-628 session at Gondwana 15, in Madrid (Spain). In 2015, the version 1.3 was presented and improved in a three-week IGCP-628 Gondwana Workshop, in Rio de Janeiro. The scientific community endorsed the drafts, but also made several comments and suggestions that were incorporated by the GDCG research team. It was necessary to homogenize one common legend. But the main challenge is to delineate the geological Gondwana map for the , before the initiation of the Gondwana break up. Besides the activities developed at the Gondwana Lab, two main scientific developments are here emphasized. First is the connection with other scientific groups abroad, fundamental for the integration of the geological research of East Gondwana (, and ) with the West Gondwana research through the cooperation between the geological communities of -Asia with America--. Many geological processes and main geological events that pre-dated Gondwana are quite similar in these continental landmasses. There is also the link with two other IGCP groups: IGCP-648 (Supercontinent Cycles and Global Geodynamics) and IGCP-592 (Continental construction in Central Asia). Second, the correlation between the geology of and Africa has improved with the research uniting IGCP-628 members. The main projects investigated are: “Evolution of the Gondwanides” (Sierra de La Ventana in Argentina, and in South Africa); "Onshore-Offshore connections along the Brazilian Continental Margin"; “Tectonic evolution of the Congo margin in Angola and the tectonic events in the Kaoko-Damara orogenic systems and the Ribeira-Dom Feliciano belts”; “Study of para- derived metamorphic rocks of the belt- correlating the Brasiliano-Pan-african mobile belts”.

3. Achievements of the project this year only 3.1. General scientific achievements The main scientific achievement of the IGCP-628 this year was the publication/ presentation of the Gondwana Map draft 2.0. This version is the best update, certainly the closest version of the first edition that will be published in the end of 2017 (Annex 2). After a long effort of homogenizing the legend and proposing a best fit of the Gondwanan landmasses, the map was very well received by the geological community. The paleogeography reconstruction of this was possible with the use of plate tectonic interactive softwares (G-Plates and Atlas) generating a new Gondwana reconstruction for the Jurassic (ca. 183 Ma). The 2017 first edition of the map will be delivered in the end of 2017, in scale 1:5M, as a paper copy (3m versus 3m size) and also Annual IGCP report 1 Form V digital version. One of the most striking achievements of this year was the resolution approved by the CGMW, deciding to publish the 1:10M version of the IGCP-628 new Gondwana geological map. The idea is to launch this publication during the IGCP/UNESCO meetings in February 2018 in Paris. After analyzing the Gondwana map version exhibited at the 35th IGC, on scale 1:5M, CGMW group concluded that no more than one month is necessary to transform it to a less detailed version, 1:10M (Annex 3). The cooperation between South American and African scientists through field trips improved this year also. Besides the four that were focused in the last years: (1) Sedimentary and volcanic units from Patagonia ( to ) related to the tectonic evolution of the SW margin of Gondwana; (2) Metamorphic medium grade units from northeast Uruguay and south Brazil at the Dom Feliciano Neoproterozoic belt; (3) Stratigraphy of the - Parnaíba basin and its correlation with the Congo Basin; (4) Correlation between Sierra de La Ventana belt (Argentina) and Cape Fold Belt (South Africa, the Gondwanides); we started a cooperation with Angolan-Portuguese scientists in the study of the geology of SW Angola and its correlation with the SE Brazilian (Annex 8). Two Master dissertations and one PhD thesis related directly to the Gondwana project were finished (see item 3.6). Four new PhD thesis and four Master dissertation projects started this year related directly to IGCP-628. In 2016 we also created a new website for the IGCP-628, incorporating several sub items, such as: research themes, field trips, meetings, downloads of the Gondwana Maps, news, and Gondwana for society, among many others (Annex 10). This modern website is easily updated by the IGCP-628 secretariat.

3.2. List of IGCP project meetings/symposia and IGCP related meetings/symposia with exact attendance (if possible) and number of countries (1) 35th International Geological Congress (IGC) – 27th of August to 4th of September 2016 -Cape Town, South Africa. Approximate attendance (to the IGCP-628 session): 350. Number of Countries: 25. (Annex 3,4,5). (2) 48th Geological Congress of Brazil (CBG)– 9/10/2016 until 13/10/2016- Porto Alegre, Brazil. Approximate attendance (to IGCP-628 lectures by project leaders Schmitt and Reeves): 600. Number of Countries: 7. (Annex 6,7).

3.3. Educational, training or capacity building activities related to the IGCP project and IGCP project participants. During the year, the Gondwana Digital Center of Geoprocessing (GDCG) received collaborators of the IGCP-628 that conducted work-meetings with the UFRJ Laboratory GIS staff (Annex 9): Dr. Jorge Tapiaz and his co-workers from the Geological Survey of Colombia visited the Lab and gave a great input on the digitalisation process; Prof. Carlos Sommer (UFRGS – Brazil) spend one week at the Gondwana Lab discussing evolution of northern Patagonia and correlation with South Africa; Prof. Elton Dantas (UnB - Brazil) helped on the revision of the São Francisco Craton; Prof. Victor Ramos (Universidad de Buenos Aires – UBA- Argentina) stayed one week revising the Andean geological map within the Gondwana map; Prof. Gideon Rosenbaum (University of Queensland – Australia) stayed one month at the Gondwana Lab revising the eastern Australian geology and also discussing a new project on the southern Gondwana margin evolution during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic; Prof. Colin Reeves (Holland) (IGCP-628 co-leader) spend one month at the Gondwana Lab working on the reconfiguration of the Gondwana for the final map, with the research group. This year, the graduate and undergraduate students continued to be deeply involved in the IGCP-628. As pointed out in the introduction, we started to work in SW Angola as a key are of correlation between South America and Africa (Annex 8). A master student Annual IGCP report 2 Form V started a project on Madagascar geology, focused on the comparison between Pan-African and Brasiliano belts. Collaborations continued in Argentina, Uruguay and Colombia with Prof. Victor Ramos (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Prof. Renata Tommezoli (Universidad de Buenos Aires), Claudio Gaucher (Facultat de La Republica) and Jorge Bossi (Facultat de Agronomia). Also cooperation with the team from Nelson Mandela University (De Wit and Linol) generated papers on correlation between the Paleozoic basins of Gondwana and another field trip in the Cape Fold Belt, South Africa. A paper on the comparison between this belt and the correlate South American Sierra de La Ventana system is being written.

3.4. List of countries involved in the project (please *indicate the countries active this year and make the distinction between: Argentina*, Australia*, Austria, Belgium*, Bolivia*, Brazil*, Canada*, Chile*, China*, Colombia*, England*, Ethiopia*, France*, Ghana*, Germany*, Holland*, India*, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar*, Mexico*, *, Kuwait*, Namibia*, Norway*, Portugal*, Russia, Spain, South Africa*, United States of America*, Uruguay*.

3.5. Participation of scientists from developing countries, and in particular young and women scientists: exact number and please describe how this project specifically benefited women scientists, young scientists and/or scientists from developing countries Total number of Number of male Number of female scientists scientists scientists Number of participating 250 190 60 scientists Number of young 56 26 30 scientists/students (<35 years old) Number of scientists 125 91 34 from developing countries

3.6. List of the 5 most important publications (including maps) of this year a) could not have been published were if not for this project Linol, B., de Wit, M. J., Kasanzu, C. H., Schmitt, R. S., Corrêa-Martins, F. J., Assis, A. 2016. Correlation and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Cape- Basin Sequences and Their Equivalents Across Central West Gondwana. Regional Geology Reviews. 1ed.: Springer International Publishing, p. 183-192. Reeves, C. V., Teasdale, J. P., Mahanjane, E. S. 2016. Insight into the Eastern Margin of Africa from a new tectonic model of the . Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 431, SP431-12. Schmitt, R.S., Silva, E.A., Collins, A., Reeves, C., Fragoso, R.A., Richetti, P., Fernandes, G.L., Benedek, M.R., Costa, R.L., Assis, A.P. Gondwana Map version 2.0, scale 1:5M. Gondwana tectonic evolution recounted through the Gondwana map - IGCP-628. In: 35th International Geological Congress, 2016, Cape Town. Schmitt, R. S., Trouw, R. A. J., Van Schmus, W. R., Armstrong, R. A., Stanton, N. 2016. The tectonic significance of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain in the SE Brazilian margin: a Paleoproterozoic through saga of a reworked continental margin. Brazilian Journal of Geology, v. 46, p. 37-66. b) related to this project Ganade, C. E., Cordani, U. G. ; Agbossoumounde, Y., Caby, R., Basei, M. A. S., Weinberg, R. F. ; Sato, K. 2016. Tightening-up NE Brazil and NW Africa connections: New U-Pb/Lu-Hf zircon data of a complete plate tectonic cycle in the Dahomey belt of the West Gondwana Orogen in Togo and Benin. Precambrian Research 276, p. 24-42.

Annual IGCP report 3 Form V Martins, G. G., Mendes, J. C., Schmitt, R. S., Armstrong, R. A., Valeriano, C. M. 2016 . 550- 490Ma pre-to post-collisional shoshonitic rocks in the Ribeira Belt (SE Brazil) and their tectonic significance. Precambrian Research 286, p. 352-369. Nascimento D.B., Ribeiro, A., Trouw, R. A. J., Schmitt, R. S., Passchier, C.W. 2016. Stratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic Damara Sequence in northwest Namibia: slope to basin sub-marine mass-transport deposits and olistolith fields. Precambrian Research 278, 108-125. Passchier, C., Trouw, R. A. J., Schmitt, R. S. 2016. How to make a transverse triple junction New evidence for the assemblage of Gondwana along the Kaoko-Damara belts, Namibia. Geology 44, 843-846. Full bibliography of this year (Annex 1).

3.7. Activities involving other IGCP projects, UNESCO, IUGS or others The IGCP-628 interacted with two other IGCP projects: IGCP-592 – Continental construction in Central Asia, and IGCP-648 - Supercontinent Cycles & Global Geodynamics. Leaders from the two IGCPs (628 and 648) met at the 35th IGC discussing the possibility of exchanging geological database. The IGCP-628 will provide to the 648 team the database of the new Gondwana map as soon as it is ready, to help improving the paleogeographical reconstructions of the . The IGCP-628 also had an interface with the CCMW-CGMW group at the 35th IGC. In the CCMW-CGMW general assembly, a resolution supporting the Gondwana map project and confirming the publication of the Gondwana Map version at scale 1:10M was approved (Annex 3).

3.8. Scientific Legacy: Is there a need for storage of publications, field data, and other results of the project? Do you have a clear vision concerning where the data would be stored and who will be the custodian? This IGCP-628 is strongly concerned about storage of material (publications, maps). The geological database of Gondwana is being stored at the UFRJ Lab in Brazil and IGCP-628 leaders. This data will be available online with open access in 2017 and could be shared and be stored also in other institutions (e.g. UNESCO).

3.9. What tangible improvements has your project obtained? (Besides publications, we are interested to hear about improvements to research, scientific contacts, policy implications, etc) 2016 was a big step into the conclusion of the new Gondwana Jurassic paleogeological Map. We highlight here the input of the scientific community on the version 2.0, in updating the geology (especially African continent), reconstructing paleo-Gondwana (the Malvinas/Falklands position and other peripheral ), drawing subsurface geology on covered regions (e.g. - Dr. Ferraccioli – BGS; Brazilian continental margin – PETROBRAS team), undoing the post-Gondwana deformation (e.g. Himalaya – Dr. M.Searle – Oxford Uni), and many others (Annex 3). The support gained from CCMW- CGMW for the publication of the Gondwana Map in scale 1:10M was also a major achievement.

3.10. What kinds of activities in respect to the benefit of society and science outreach has your project undertaken? This year the IGCP-628 advanced on the creation of the Gondwana Memory Center (GMC). The Gondwana Lab gained a museologist (MSc. Jessica Tarine) that is finishing the project of a Gondwana exhibition room at the Geodiversity Museum of UFRJ (http://www.museu.igeo.ufrj.br/) to be inaugurated in the end of 2017. The GMC include also the bibliographical digital/analogic database of the Gondwana project. Two high school students are working also at the lab organizing this legacy. The integration of students from very distinct levels is a very enriching experience. Dr. K.Mansur and Dr. Annual IGCP report 4 Form V R.Schmitt are working on a proposal of a booklet about Gondwana (with a simplified map) to submit to CCMW-CGMW and UNESCO for publication to schools in developing countries. The renovation of the IGCP-628 website also improved the social impact.

3.11. What kind of public information (media reports, etc) has your project generated? And how do you evaluate their impact? Until now the best media of the project is the new website, interactive with downloads. We evaluate the impact through the e-mails and social network (Facebook, LinkedIn).

4. Activities planned 4.1. General goals 2017 will be dedicated to the publication of the first edition scale 1:5M of the new Gondwana Geological Map. The consensus on the paleogeographical model must be achieved by April in order to get the publication ready to the launch in the end of the year. The IGCP-628 will submit in the first semester a manuscript to the journal Episodes, about the methodology of the Gondwana map (Annex 11). The publication of the version at 1:10M scale and the three volume books of the Gondwana evolution will not be ready this year. So we anticipate that an extension will be asked for the IGCP-628 to continue until 2018.

4.2. Tentative list of specific meetings and field trips (please list the participating countries) The most important meeting will be the Gondwana 16, held in Thailand, in November 2017. The new Gondwana map will be presented to the scientific community during this event in a workshop regarding future projects and scientific issues that arised from the project.

5. Project funding requested (more information in form IV) The IGCP-628 financed accommodation/transportation for researchers in two meetings: (1) 35th IGC (Cape Town), to M.Vargas, P.Richetti (Brazil), E.Raimundo (Angola), B.Linol (South Africa), V.Ramos (Argentina), Gonzalez-Maurel (Chile), B. Alessio (Australia); (2) 48th CBG (Porto Alegre), to E.Alves, R.Fragoso, G.Lamounier, I.Vasconcelos (Brazil) and C.Reeves (Holland) (Annex 3,4,5,6,7,8,9).

6. Request for extension, on-extended-term-status, or intention to propose successor project - N/A

7. Financial statement ($ USD only) The IGCP-628 2016 budget (3,500.00 US$) was spent on the following items: Transportation (250.00 US$); accommodation (2,820.00 US$); administration, bank and secretariat expenses (430.00 US$)(see forms III and IV- and list of participants in item 5).

8. What additional funding besides the IGCP seed funding has your project obtained thanks to the IGCP label? This project is supported by the Research Center of PETROBRAS (CENPES). The budget used for 2016 was at ca. US$ 250,000.00, including funding of meetings, research and personnel wired to work at the Gondwana Lab.

9. Attach any information you may consider relevant Attached to this annual report there are 11 Annex.

Annual IGCP report 5