Locating in and : A fragment of greater ?

Peter A. Cawood1, 2, Yuejun Wang3, Yajun Xu4, and Guochun Zhao5 1Department of Sciences, University of St Andrews, North Street, St Andrews KY16 9AL, UK 2Centre for Exploration Targeting, School of Earth and Environment, University of Western , 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia 3State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China 4State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China 5Department of Earth Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China

ABSTRACT metamorphosed strata and From the formation of Rodinia at the end of the Mesoproterozoic to the commencement unmetamorphosed Sinian cover (Fig. 1; Zhao of Pangea breakup at the end of the , the South China fi rst formed and then and Cawood, 2012). The block is com- occupied a position adjacent to Western Australia and northern India. Early Neoproterozoic posed predominantly of Neoproterozoic meta- suprasubduction zone magmatic arc-backarc assemblages in the craton range in age from ca. morphic rocks, with minor Paleoproterozoic and 1000 Ma to 820 Ma and display a sequential northwest decrease in age. These relations sug- Mesoproterozoic lithologies. Archean basement gest formation and closure of arc systems through southeast-directed , resulting is poorly exposed and largely inferred from the in progressive northwestward onto the periphery of an already assembled Rodinia. presence of minor inherited and/or xenocrys- Siliciclastic units within an early Paleozoic succession that transgresses across the craton were tic zircons in younger rocks (Fig. 1; Zhao and derived from the southeast and include detritus from beyond the current limits of the cra- Cawood, 2012). One marked difference between ton. Detrital zircon age spectra require an East Gondwana source and are very similar to the Cathaysia and Yangtze blocks is that the for- the Tethyan Himalaya and younger Paleozoic successions from Western Australia, suggesting mer underwent a tectonothermal event in the derivation from a common source and by inference accumulation in linked basins along the early Paleozoic (460–420 Ma), which resulted in northern margin of Gondwana, a situation that continued until rifting and breakup of the an angular unconformity between post- craton in the late Paleozoic. cover and metamorphosed pre- strata with granites emplaced in Cathaysia and adja- INTRODUCTION al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2002). Uncertainties in cent areas in the Yangtze block (Huang, 1977; The confi gurations of the of paleogeographic reconstructions such as those Wang et al., 2013a). This led some research- Gondwana and Pangea are relatively well con- proposed for South China in Rodinia refl ect the ers to regard the Cathaysia block as an early strained (Veevers, 2004), whereas those of older incomplete nature of available data sets, result- Paleozoic folded belt bordering the southeast- supercontinents are debated; competing models ing in signifi cant gaps in the geologic record and ern margin of the Yangtze block (Huang, 1977), have been proposed (e.g., Li et al., 2008; Zhang allowing for multiple nonunique interpretations. although most researchers favor models that et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2002). This is particu- Thus, limiting the position of even one block regard Cathaysia as a discrete continental block larly the case with the end-Mesoproterozoic with respect to another in recon- that amalgamated with the Yangtze block in the supercontinent of Rodinia, the confi guration of structions is signifi cant, because changes in the early Neoproterozoic (see Zhao and Cawood, which remains controversial (e.g., Evans, 2009; history of one segment must be accommodated 2012, and references therein). In addition, some Li et al., 2008). At the heart of the controversy in the arrangement of others, and will ultimately of the to early Paleozoic rocks in is the position of in Rodinia; limit possible interrelationships between all the Cathaysia block were strongly reworked by the consensus model proposes that it occupied other blocks. In this paper we summarize geo- a Late –Early event, but its tec- an intracratonic position between logical, geochronological, geochemical, and tonic nature remains unknown or controversial and Australia (Li et al., 2008, and references detrital zircon isotopic data for the Neoprotero- (Zhao and Cawood, 2012). therein), whereas other models argue that it was zoic and Paleozoic rock units from the South either on the margin of Rodinia near Australia China craton. We show that throughout this time Yangtze-Cathaysia Boundary and Relation (Zhao and Cawood, 1999; Zhou et al., 2002) or frame it was fi rst assembled on, and then was to Rodinia occupied a position external to the superconti- adjacent to, the Western Australia and northern Establishing the nature and age of the bound- nent (Yang et al., 2004). The consensus model India margins of both Rodinia and Gondwana, ary between the constituent Yangtze and Cathay- assumes that the pre–850 Ma rocks in the South prior to rifting off Pangea and fi nally colliding sia blocks, generally considered to be delin- China craton formed in a collisional orogen with to achieve its current position. eated by the Sibao (or Jiangnan) orogen (Fig. 1; (termed the Sibao or Jiangnan orogen), coinci- e.g., Li et al., 2008; Zhao and Cawood, 1999), dent with the assembly of the Rodinia. Younger SETTING OF SOUTH CHINA is critical to understanding the setting of the 830–750 Ma igneous rocks in South China are The South China craton consists of the South China craton. Recent work has shown considered the products of anorogenic mag- Yangtze block to the northwest and the Cathay- that rather than a single boundary, the eastern matism in intracontinental basins related sia block to the southeast (Fig. 1; Zhao and portion of the craton can be subdivided into to plume activity during the breakup of Cawood, 2012). The Yangtze block consists of a series of structural blocks: eastern Cathay- Rodinia. In contrast, other models argued that Archean–Paleoproterozoic crystalline base- sia, western Cathaysia, and eastern Yangtze, early to middle Neoproterozoic igneous rock ment surrounded by late Mesoproterozoic to which are bounded on their western sides by assemblages exposed along the margins of early Neoproterozoic folded belts, which are the Zhenghe-Dapu-Gaoyao-Huilai system, the craton developed in arc systems (Zhao et locally unconformably overlain by weakly the Jiangshan-Shaoxing fault system, and the

GEOLOGY, August 2013; v. 41; no. 8; p. 903–906; Data Repository item 2013248 doi:10.1130/G34395.1 | Published online 6 June 2013 GEOLOGY© 2013 Geological | August Society 2013 of | America.www.gsapubs.org Gold Open Access: This paper is published under the terms of the CC-BY license. 903

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B lt he-D West CA Jiangnan Zheng Cathaysia WPAB cheng Fau

Kunming Fault Nanling Anhua-Luo Ailaoshan Th Nb/16 -Huilai East Cathaysia East Yangtze Gaoyao Chenzhou-Linwu North China Yunkai B N-MORB Yangtze Shanghai Son Hong Kong NE Jiangxi Province gma Fault Jiangnan Domain 10

en rog o O Indochina Siba

fined Nb/Th E-MORB and OIB de ly- 20° N us Cathaysia evio Hainan Pr 0 360 km Arc volcanic rocks or crustal contamination 1 100°E 110 °E 0.1 1.0 10 Archean basement in Yangtze block Paleoproterozoic basement in Yangtze block Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata in Yangtze block La/Nb Neoproterozoic (970-750 Ma arc- and/or rift-related plutonic complexes and supracrustal rocks in Panxi-Hannan and Jiangnam belts 8.0 Early Neoproterozoic (850-825 Ma) metamorphosed volcanic-sedimentary units (Sibao Group and equivalents) in Jiangnan belt Depleted mantle +slab-derived fluid Middle Neoproterozoic (825-750 Ma) weakly metamorphosed cover (Banxi Group and equivalents) in Jiangnan belt 4.0 Late Neoproterozoic (750-542 Ma) unmetamorphosed cover in Yangtze block and Jiangnan belt 825-800 Ma granite in Jiangnan belt

Middle Neoproterozoic (820-750 Ma) Banxi Group and equivalents reworked by early Paleozoic ogogeny (460-420 Ma) in Jiangnan belt 0.0 Hidden early Paleozoic fold belt, Cathaysia block Paleoproterozoic basement, Cathaysia block reworked in Triassic (250-230 Ma)

Nd(t) ( Ma) -4.0

Meso-Neoproterozoic basement, Cathaysia block (Baoban Group, Hainan Island) ε

Early Neoproterozoic (860-820 Ma) volcanic-sedimentary units reworked in early Paleozoic (460-420 Ma) in Cathaysia block and Jiangnan belt -8.0 Late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic volcanic-sedimentary units metamorphosed during early Paleozoic orogenesis (460-420 Ma) in Cathaysia block South China C sediment -12.0 Figure 1. Map of south China (after Zhao and Cawood, 2012) with inset showing Sibao oro- 0.01 0.1 1.0 10.0 gen (after Li et al., 2002). Nb/Y Figure 2. Geochemical plots for mafi c rocks along Wuyi-Yunkai, Shuangxiwu, and Jiang- Jingdezhen-Yifeng-Wanzhai-Anhua-Luochheng sources of the data is provided in the GSA Data nan domains in eastern South China craton. fault system, respectively (Fig. 1; Wang et al., Repository1 (Fig. 2; Shu, 2006; Wang et al., A: Hf/3–Th–Nb/16. B: Nb/Th versus La/Nb. C: ε versus Nb/Y. (Complete list of data and 2013a, 2013b; Xu et al., 2007). Immediately 2013b, and references therein). Mafi c rocks with Nd(t) data sources is given in the Data Reposi- west of each of these faults is a series of dis- mid-oceanic-ridge basalt geochemical affi nities tory; see footnote 1.) IAT—island-arc tho- rupted metamorphic domains, from from the Wuki-Yunkai, Shuangxiwu, and Jiang- leiite; CAB—island-arc calc-alkaline basalt; ε N-MORB—normal mid-oceanic-ridge basalt; east to west the Wuyi-Yunkai, Shuangxiwu, and nan domains have Nd(t) of 3.5–7.0, 3.2–8.7, and Jiangnan domains (Fig. 1). 3.6–9.4, respectively, indicating input from a E-MORB—enriched mid-oceanic-ridge ba- salt; WPAB—within-plate alkali basalt; OIB— The Proterozoic domains consist of mainly juvenile source and consistent with an accre- . mafi c-ultramafi c rocks with localized occur- tionary orogen setting. The age range of igne- rences of felsic igneous rock, notably in the ous activity within the domains, in particular the Jiangnan domain, and metamorphosed volca- age of termination of arc magmatism, displays niclastic sedimentary rocks (Shu, 2006). These an overall decrease from southeast to northwest. systems resulted in progressive northwestward rock sequences were considered to be Paleo- The Wuyi-Yunkai arc system ranges from ca. amalgamation of the various pieces of Yangtze proterozoic and end Mesoproterozoic to earli- 1000 Ma to 900 Ma with the end of arc - and Cathaysia to create the South China cra- est Neoproterozoic in age. However, all avail- tism marked by emplacement of peraluminous ton. Furthermore, their Neoproterozoic age and able geochronological dating has shown that (S-type) granites (our data). The Shuangxiwu convergent plate margin setting indicate that the Mesoproterozoic rocks are essentially absent and Jiangnan domains range from ca. 970–880 craton could not have occupied an intracratonic and the units are dominantly early Neoprotero- Ma and 870–820 Ma, respectively (Li et al., position during the end Mesoproterozoic col- zoic (Wang et al., 2013a, 2013b, and references 2009; Wang et al., 2008; Wang et al., 2013b). lisional assembly of Rodinia, but rather must therein). Elemental compositions and isotopic Formation and closure of these arc-backarc have been on the periphery of the superconti- systematics of igneous rocks within all three nent. Synchronous with this phase of assembly domains suggest input from a depleted mantle of the craton, subduction-related magmatism source modifi ed by subduction-derived melts 1GSA Data Repository item 2013248, a list of developed along the western and northern data and data sources, is available online at www. and fl uids in a series of arc-backarc systems (a geosociety.org/pubs/ft2013.htm, or on request from margins of the Yangtze block, along the Panxi- complete list of analytical data used to construct [email protected] or Documents Secretary, Hannan fold belt that was active from 1000 to geochemical and geochronological plots and GSA, P.O. Box 9140, Boulder, CO 80301, USA. 750 Ma (Dong et al., 2012), although Li et al.

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Downloaded from http://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geology/article-pdf/41/8/903/3546122/903.pdf by guest on 30 September 2021 (2002, 2008) proposed that the 830–750 Ma components derived from beyond the current A - 900 Ma Y magmatism along these margins resulted from a limits of the craton (Wang et al., 2010). The C Australia that led to the breakup of Rodinia. end Mesoproterozoic to earliest Neoproterozoic India Nth China age peak that dominates the samples, East Mad Ant LaurentiaLaur entia of Paleozoic Strata and Relation along with Hf isotope data from grains of this Asgard Sea to Gondwana age, matches source in the Wilkes- Kal Rio Mirovoi Plata Early Paleozoic strata extend across the Albany-Fraser belt between southwest Australia Ocean Amazonia Congo South China craton (Fig. 1). Facies relations and and the Rayner–Eastern Proto-arcs: Avalonian for and strata range from belt between India and Antarctica (our data). West Cadomian siliciclastic-dominated, shallow-marine succes- Zircon grains with ages (ca. 490 Ma) close to

N sions in the Cathaysia block to time-equivalent the depositional age of the samples were present orth I nd B - 450-500 Ma West ia


Gondwana r proto-T ethys

carbonate-dominated successions in the central in the Ordovician and Silurian successions with o g

e Ocean n Yangtze block, with a deeper water, mixed silic- source regions ascribed to igneous activity in the Congo India South China iclastic-carbonate succession in the interven- North India and orogens (Wang IC East ing eastern Yangtze block. Silurian siliciclastic et al., 2010). Furthermore, the overall age spec- Amazon Gondwana strata overlie the carbonate succession in the trum is very similar to those of time-equivalent Rio Australia Plata ? Mawson ? central Yangtze block (Wang et al., 2010). material from the Tethyan Himalayan and to a ? ? ? U-Pb analyses of detrital zircon grains from lesser extent younger Paleozoic successions the early Paleozoic siliciclastic strata indicate from Western Australia, suggesting derivation a range in age from ca. 3350 Ma to 460 Ma; from a common source and by inference accu- proto-Pacific

one grain yielded a Hadean age of ca. 4100 Ma mulation in linked basins (Fig. 3). These pro- Paleo- (Fig. 3; Wang et al., 2010; our data). All samples posed East Gondwana orogenic source regions Pacific C - 300 Ma contain end Mesoproterozoic and Neoprotero- along with their bounding also provide Baltica Nth China zoic detrital zircon ages, a characteristic feature a likely source for Hadean, Neoarchean, earli- Laurentia of detritus derived from a Gondwana source est Paleoproterozoic, late Paleoproterozoic, and Sth ChinaIC (e.g., Cawood and Nemchin, 2000; Myrow et Neoproterozoic detritus within the early Paleo- Paleo- al., 2010). Paleocurrent data indicate deriva- zoic . Thus, in the early Paleozoic Pangea T ethys tion of siliciclastic strata from the southeast, the South China craton was likely located at the South and the detrital zircon age signature includes nexus between India, Antarctica, and Australia, America Africa along the northern margin of East Gondwana. Paleomagnetic records for Neoproterozoic India Australia A South China and early Paleozoic strata from the South China 200 n 1278 craton suggest, on the basis of comparison with Figure 4. Series of schematic paleogeo- data from Gondwana, that the craton occupied a graphic reconstructions showing position location adjacent to the west coast of Australia of South (Sth; Nth—North) China craton. A: Rodinia ca. 900 Ma. Mad—; (Macouin et al., 2004; Yang et al., 2004). These Kal—Kalahari; Ant—Antarctica; C—Cathay- paleomagnetic constraints, although limited, are 0 sia. B: Gondwana ca. 500–450 Ma. IC—In- B W. Australia consistent with faunal data that suggest a close dochina. C: Pangea ca. 300 Ma. Gondwana 140 link in the early to middle Paleozoic, including reconstruction is adapted from Cawood and n 603 Buchan (2007), and Pangea reconstruction r the affi nity of Early Devonian freshwater fi sh in is adapted from Metcalfe (2011). Y—Yangtze. be south China, Vietnam, and the Canning Basin of


Nu Western Australia (Burrett et al., 1990). Geologic, paleomagnetic, and faunal data 0 suggest that South China rifted from Gondwana from 1000 to 820 Ma. Their Neoproterozoic C Tethyan in the Late Devonian to early age and convergent plate margin setting argue Himalaya 80 before drifting across the , and was against the craton occupying an intracratonic n 535 fi nally accreted to Asia (north China) along the setting between Australia and Laurentia during Qinling-Dabie in Permian–Triassic time collisional assembly of Rodinia at the end of the (Metcalfe, 2011). Mesoproterozoic. Subduction on the margin of an already assembled Rodinia, as represented by 0 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 CONCLUSIONS the South China craton arc systems, may have Age Ga A self-consistent set of geologic, geochemi- developed in response to the loss of convergent Figure 3. Detrital zircon age distributions for cal, geochronological, paleomagnetic, and fau- plate margins following collisional suturing of sedimentary rocks from south China, West- nal data indicates that the South China craton the constituent blocks of Rodinia (Cawood and ern (W.) Australia, and Tethyan Himalaya. was assembled and then maintained a position Buchan, 2007). Furthermore, the presence of (Complete list of data and data sources is off Western Australia and northeast India from multiple arc systems indicates that the Cathay- given in the Data Repository; see footnote 1.) Age peaks important in comparing data the beginning of the Neoproterozoic to the end sia and Yangtze blocks of the South China cra- sets between three regions are highlighted of the Paleozoic, along the periphery of both ton did not constitute two preformed, separate in color bands; n—total number of analy- the Rodinian and Gondwanan supercontinents entities that subsequently assembled along a ses. All data based on analyses with <10% (Fig. 4). Neoproterozoic igneous rocks adja- single suture zone (Sibao or Jiangnan orogen), discordance. Ages older than 1000 Ma were calculated using 207Pb/206Pb ratios, and ages cent to a series of sutures that transgress the but rather represent a series of discrete lithotec- younger than 1000 Ma were calculated using craton formed in a succession of suprasubduc- tonic units () accreted onto the margin 206Pb/238U ratios. tion zone arc-backarc systems over ~180 m.y. of an already formed Rodinia (Fig. 4A). The

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Gondwana source that included Western Aus- uangxiwu volcanic rocks: Precambrian Research, Wang, Y., Zhang, A.-M., Cawood, P.A., Zhang, Y.-Z., tralia–Antarctica and northeastern Indian rock v. 174, p. 117–128, doi:10.1016/j.precamres Fan, W.-M., and Zhang, G.-W., 2013b, Geochro- units (Fig. 4B). The link to Gondwana argues .2009.07.004. nological and geochemical fi ngerprinting of an against any models invoking the South China Li, Z.-X., Li, X.-H., Zhou, H., and Kinny, P.D., early Neoproterozoic arc-back-arc system in 2002, Grenvillian in south South China and its accretionary assembly along craton as occupying a separate plate that rifted China: New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon results and the margin of Rodinia: Precambrian Research, off the supercontinent or formed part of Lauren- implications for the confi guration of Rodinia: v. 231, p. 343–371, doi:10.1016/j.precamres tia. The inferred location of South China at the Geology, v. 30, p. 163–166, doi:10.1130/0091 .2013.03.020. nexus between Western Australia and northern -7613(2002)030<0163:GCCISC>2.0.CO;2. Xu, X.S., O’Reilly, S.Y., Griffi n, W.L., Wang, X.L., Li, Z.X., and 16 others, 2008, Assembly, confi gura- Pearson, N.J., and He, Z.Y., 2007, The crust of India means that it was along strike from, and tion, and break-up history of Rodinia: A syn- Cathaysia: Age, assembly and reworking of two could thus represent a preserved fragment of, thesis: Precambrian Research, v. 160, p. 179– terranes: Precambrian Research, v. 158, p. 51– greater India lithosphere, which elsewhere has 210, doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2007.04.021. 78, doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2007.04.010. been lost due to India-Asia collision. Its pres- Macouin, M., Besse, J., Ader, M., Gilder, S., Yang, Z., Yang, Z., Sun, Z., Yang, T., and Pei, J., 2004, A long Sun, Z., and Agrinier, P., 2004, Combined paleo- ervation refl ects separation from Pangea in the connection (750–380 Ma) between South China magnetic and isotopic data from the Doushantuo and Australia: Paleomagnetic constraints: Earth late Paleozoic and drifting across the Tethys carbonates, South China: Implications for the and Planetary Science Letters, v. 220, p. 423– Ocean prior to accretion onto the North China “” hypothesis: Earth and Plan- 434, doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(04)00053-6. craton and establishment near its current loca- etary Science Letters, v. 224, p. 387–398, doi: Zhang, S., Li, Z.-X., Evans, D.A.D., Wu, H., Li, H., 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.05.015. tion within Asia (Fig. 4C). and Dong, J., 2012, Pre-Rodinia supercontinent Metcalfe, I., 2011, Tectonic framework and Phanerozoic Nuna shaping up: A global synthesis with new evolution of : Gondwana Research, paleomagnetic results from North China: Earth ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v. 19, p. 3–21, doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.02.016. and Planetary Science Letters, v. 353–354, We thank the Natural Environment Research Myrow, P.M., Hughes, N.C., Goodge, J.W., Fanning, p. 145–155, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.07.034. Council (grant NE/J021822/1) and the National Nat- C.M., Williams, I.S., Peng, S., Bhargava, O.N., Zhao, G., and Cawood, P.A., 1999, Tectonothermal ural Science Foundation of China (grants 40825009, Parcha, S.K., and Pogue, K.R., 2010, Extraor- evolution of the Mayuan Assemblage in the Ca- 41190070, 41190073, and 41272120) for funding dinary transport and mixing of sediment across thaysia Block; implications for Neoproterozoic support. Reviews by Paul Hoffman, Brendan Mur- Himalayan central Gondwana during the Cam- collision-related assembly of the South China phy, and an anonymous reviewer are gratefully ac- brian–Ordovician: Geological Society of Amer- Craton: American Journal of Science, v. 299, knowledged. ica Bulletin, v. 122, p. 1660–1670, doi:10.1130 p. 309–339, doi:10.2475/ajs.299.4.309. /B30123.1. 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