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Terrane processes at the margins of : introduction

ALAN P. M. VAUGHAN 1, PHILIP T. LEAT 1 & ROBERT J. PANKHURST 2 1British Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK (e-maik a. [email protected] ac. uk) 2British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK

Abstract: The process of is vital to the understanding of the formation of continental . Accretionary orogens affect over half of the globe and have a distinc- tively different evolution to Wilson-type orogens. It is increasingly evident that accre- tionary orogenesis has played a significant role in the formation of the . The Pacific-margin of Gondwana preserves a major , termed here the 'Australides', which was an active site of terrane accretion from to Late times, and comparable in scale to the Rockies from Mexico to , or the Variscan-Appalachian . The sector of this orogenic belt was one of the birthplaces of terrane theory and the Australide orogeny overall continues to be an important testing ground for terrane studies. This volume summarizes the history and principles of terrane theory and presents 16 new works that review and synthesize the current state of knowledge for the Gondwana margin, from through New Zealand and to , examining the evolution of the whole Gondwana margin through time.

Why this book? Two main types of orogenic belt of the upper parts of oceanic as it is have been identified on the : orogens of subducted. This may form at a continental the Wilson type (e.g. Wilson 1966; Murphy & margin or adjacent to an intra-oceanic arc and, Nance 2003), involving collision between conti- ultimately, may be displaced large distances, nents, and orogens of the accretionary, either across ocean basins or along continental Cordilleran type (e.g. SengOr & Natalin 1996; margins, during, or subsequent to, formation. Tagami & Hasebe 1999; Scarrow et aL 2002), Real situations are a complex mix of Wilson- where a more steady-state addition of smaller and accretionary types (e.g. Betts et aL 2002), crustal fragments occurs. In simplest terms, where full-scale oceans that form with or collisional orogens are assumed to be the end- without subsequent closure may have accre- point of cycles of ocean formation and tionary complexes on their margins, and destruction during continental break-up and experience subsidiary terrane and arc- re-amalgamation (the so-called ''); collisional orogens that themselves incorporate accretionary orogens are the product of more accretionary complexes. Even 'pure' accre- continuous processes of addition of oceanic, tionary orogens, such as the Uralide-Altaid island-arc and ocean-captured continental orogen that forms much of (Seng6r & material to oceanic margins during long-term Natalin 1996), where there is no evidence of , often without oceanic closure. -continent collision, consist of many Accretionary orogens are often characterized minor terrane and arc-coUisional orogens that by being much wider across-strike than colli- occurred on the margins of a long-lived ocean. sional orogens (Seng6r & Okurogullari 1991). The understanding of the relative significance of Overall, it would seem that collisional and Wilson-type and accretionary orogens has accretionary orogens form end-members of a changed with time. Historically, much early spectrum (Murphy & Keppie 2003; Murphy & work focused on Wilson-type orogenesis, Nance 2003). The Wilson-type end-member is particularly in the context of the circum- the 'aulacogen' (e.g. Zolnai 1986; Pedrosa- Atlantic orogens affecting NW and Soares et al. 2001), where there is little or no eastern from displacement of continental margins and the through to Late Palaeozoic times (e.g. Phillips ocean basin, which is often narrow, mostly et al. 1976; Williams & Hatcher 1982; Keppie closes up with jigsaw precision. The simplest 1985a; Ryan & Dewey 1997; Matte 2001; Young accretionary end-member consists of a complex et al. 2001; Bandres et aL 2002; Gower & Krogh or (e.g. Leggett 1987; Doubleday et aL 2002), which may have inflated its significance 1994; Kamp 2000), created through scraping-off in global terms. Williams & Hatcher (1982)

From: VAUGHAN,A. P. M., LEAT, E T. & PANKHURST,R. J. (eds) 2005. Terrane Processes at the Margins of Gondwana. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 246, 1-21. 0305-8719/$15.00 9The Geological Society of London 2005. Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

2 A.P.M. VAUGHAN ETAL. were the first to show that a Wilson-type model New Zealand, , the Trans- may not be appropriate for the case examples antarctic and large parts of southern associated with the evolution of the Iapetus South America (Fig. 1) (e.g. Bradshaw 1994; Ocean and this is supported by more recent Cawood & Leitch 2002). Several factors have lithostratigraphic, faunal and palaeomagnetic hampered reconstruction of this Neoprotero- data (O'Brien et al. 1983; Cocks & Torsvik 2002; zoic to Mesozoic orogenic belt - a time- Hartz & Torsvik 2002). Doubts about its extended orogen, finishing in the applicability to the Pacific Cordillera of western mid-, which will be referred to here North America came even earlier (Danner informally as the 'Australides'; Figure 1. These 1970). Although major, Wilson-type continental include dismemberment and dispersal of its collision can form long-lived continents such as components during Mesozoic break-up of the Gondwana (e.g. Unrug 1992; Boger et al. 2001), Gondwana, burial of large parts global syntheses (e.g. Seng6r & Natalin 1996) of it beneath ice (in Antarctica) and later sedi- have emphasized the importance of accre- mentary basins (in all other parts of the belt), tionary orogens, arguing that these were local submergence of continental margins responsible for growth and stabilization of (notably the continental margins of New millions of square kilometres of the continental Zealand) and partial obliteration and over- lithosphere from Archaean times onwards printing by continued subduction-related (Seng6r et al. 1993; Foster & Gray 2000; Polat and deformation (as in many parts & Kerrich 2001; Xiao et al. 2004). Accretionary of the and ). The size orogens are directly and indirectly host to of the reconstructed orogenic belt - over globally important mineral deposits (e.g. 7000 km long by over 1500 km wide - is larger Richards & Kerrich 1993; Sherlock et al. 1999; than the Mesozoic- orogenic belt that Kerrich et al. 2000; Goldfarb et al. 2001). For extends from Alaska to Mexico along the Pacific example, and back-arc margin of the North American continent and is form an important part of accretionary orogens comparable in scale to the Variscan orogenic and it is recognized increasingly that active, belt of Europe and eastern North America submerged arcs and back-arcs are sites of (Matte 2001). significant metallogenesis (e.g. Fouquet et al. The better-understood western North 1991; Ishibashi & Urabe 1995; Iizasa et al. 1999; American orogenic belt or 'Cordillera' (Fig. 1) Fiske et al. 2001). Submarine arc-hosted mineral was the first to be interpreted as a collage of deposits are not easily accessible in their sites 'suspect' terranes (as summarized by Coney et of formation because seafloor mining is chal- al. 1980) - terranes being -bounded blocks lenging technically (e.g. Scott 2001); however, of the Earth's crust characterized by a terrane accretionary orogenesis has an geological history distinct from that of additional importance in incorporating arc and adjacent terranes. This model has been applied seafloor mineral deposits in continental litho- widely and successfully to many ancient sphere, making them accessible to simpler orogenic belts. One important aspect of the extraction techniques. Finally, in this volume, model is that some of the terranes in a collage Vaughan & Livermore (2005) present evidence may have travelled great distances from their that accretionary orogenesis is not uniformly places of origin to their final location adjacent distributed in time, with implications for our to other terranes or the . understanding of Earth evolution. Vaughan & This may have occurred either across oceans Livermore (2005) show that two major pulses or along a continental margin by transcurrent of terrane accretion occurred in the Mesozoic, faulting (e.g. Keppie & Dallmeyer 1987; not just affecting the 'Australides' on the Mankinen et al. 1996; Cowan et al. 1997; Gondwana margin but with global extent, Takemura et al. 2002). The terrane model was possibly associated with major episodes of applied early in its inception to parts of the flood magmatism. Pacific margin of Gondwana (Coombs et al. The accretionary orogenic belt that formed 1976; Bradshaw et al. 1981; Weaver et al. 1984; on the palaeo-Pacific and Pacific margin of Murray et al. 1987). Now it is accepted almost Gondwana in Neoproterozoic-Mesozoic times universally that terrane-style are of (Fig. 1) (Ireland et al. 1998) is one of the largest major importance in the development of known orogenic belts in Earth history. The orogenic belts. orogen (the Neoproterozoic to Palaeozoic part Understanding of the 'Australide' orogen of this orogeny has been called the Terra (Fig. 1) and the role of terrane processes in its Australis orogen by Cawood & Leitch (2002)) development has progressed rapidly during the now occupies the eastern third of Australia, last decade. There are several reasons for this. Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

TERRANE PROCESSES 3

Fig. 1. Time-extended 'Terra Australis' orogen (cf. Cawood & Leitch 2002) or 'Australides', including Permo- orogenesis of the Gondwanian and Hunter-Bowen events (e.g. Collins 1991; O'Sullivan et al. 1996; Curtis 2001) and Triassic- and mid-Cretaceous deformation events (Vaughan 1995; Vaughan & Livermore 2005) depicted on 200 Ma reconstruction of Vaughan & Livermore (2005).

1. There has been increasing realization that Ireland et al. 1998; Fergusson & Fanning problems of tectonic correlation within the 2002; Herv6 et al. 2003; Schwartz & Gromet orogen are solved best by comparisons 2004; Wandres et al. 2004). Advances in the between the now-dispersed parts of the routine application of 4~ dating belt. Increasing knowledge of formerly less have also been beneficial to well known parts of the orogen and greater studies as well as the dating of deformation international co-operation in sharing such events (Adams & Kelley 1998; Vaughan et knowledge (notably through UNESCO- al. 2002). funded International Geological Corre- 3. Improved geochemical analytical methods lation Programmes, such as IGCP 436 for analysing trace and rare earth elements 'Pacific Gondwana Margin') have been in volcanic rocks (especially ICP-MS) and important. The formerly adjacent parts of greater understanding of their composi- the orogen may have been either tional variations has led to growing confi- sources or terrane sources (e.g. Adams et dence in assigning tectonic settings to the al. 1998; Cawood et al. 2002). volcanic arcs that are key elements in the 2. The advent of routine, accurate and precise orogenic belt for palaeotectonic recon- U-Pb dating of zircons has led to more structions (e.g. Glen et al. 1998; Spandler et refined correlation of events and provided aL 2004; Wang et al. 2004). information on the provenance of the huge 4. Increased use of techniques piles of quartz-bearing that and improved regional compilations of characterize much of the orogen (e.g. data, especially magnetic potential field, Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

4 A.P.M. VAUGHAN ETAL.

has been highly effective in mapping and respect to adjacent terranes or continental characterizing terrane boundaries, margins (Coney et al. 1980; Coombs 1997). especially when submerged or covered by Terranes may be described as 'exotic', 'far-trav- surficial deposits or ice (e.g. Ferraccioli & elled' or 'allochthonous' (all meaning about the Bozzo 1999; Sutherland 1999; Direen & same thing) if there is sufficient evidence that Crawford 2003). they originated far from their present locations, Palaeontological discoveries and better often assumed to be hundreds or thousands of biostratigraphical correlation have been kilometres away; however, these distances need important in the recognition that terrane not be particularly large in areas of complex activity continued into the Mesozoic and geology (Coombs 1997). Problems of definition have provided qualitative estimates of have been discussed in the literature (e.g. terrane transport directions and distances Seng6r & Dewey 1991), mainly from perspec- (Benedetto 1998; Fang et al. 1998; Kelly et tives of recursion (i.e. is a in an accre- al. 2001; Cawood et al. 2002). tionary complex a separate terrane or just part of the complex?) and problems of lateral and/or This book is the first to provide an overview of vertical extent (i.e. how small, or large, can a understanding of the terrane model as it applies terrane be?; Seng6r 1990). to the Australide accretionary orogeny on the Pacific margin of Gondwana. It reviews the Development of the terrane concept work of research groups from North and South America, Europe and who are engaged Recognition that fragments of continental in active research on the nature of the margins had moved long distances came, in the Gondwana margin and the accretionary late 1940s and early 1950s, from the discovery orogeny ( covered by chapters of this that transcurrent faults had hundreds of kilo- book are indicated on Fig. 2). This volume metres of offset (Kennedy 1946; Hill & Dibblee offers a snapshot of current thinking and 1953; Wellman 1955). Coombs (1997), in a brief current research directions and is a guide for review of the terrane concept, pointed out that any researcher currently active or about to the term 'terrane' was in use as early as the embark on studies in this dynamic area of 1920s and 1930s, but that modern usage investigation. Now is judged the correct time to stemmed from the work of Irwin (1964; 1972) in summarize recent progress and highlight the the western Cordillera of the USA. Following scientific questions that are currently engaging further conceptual development in the 1970s in those active in the field and that will drive future western North America and New Zealand research. (Berg et al. 1972; Monger et al. 1972; Blake et al. 1974; Coney 1978; Howell 1980), the concept of Nomenclature terranes, or terrane collages, as possibly far- travelled, fault-bounded blocks with geological According to Coney et al. (1980), terranes 'are histories different from that of adjacent blocks, characterized by internal homogeneity and was crystallized by Coney et al. (1980). The continuity of , tectonic style and model was quickly tested in other orogens (e.g. history'. They stated that 'boundaries between Bradshaw et al. 1981; Williams & Hatcher 1982; terranes are fundamental discontinuities in Ziegler 1982; Pigram & Davies 1987) and large stratigraphy that cannot be explained easily by numbers of 'suspect' terranes were identified in conventional changes or '. most. In the case of the lower Palaeozoic The fundamental features of terranes are, there- Caledonian-Appalachian orogen in Scandi- fore, that (a) their boundaries are major faults, navia, the and eastern USA and and (b) they have different geological histories , terranes were sandwiched between to adjacent terranes. These features are continents on opposing sides of the closing summarized in the editors' preferred definition (Williams & Hatcher 1982; of terranes as 'a fault-bounded package of rocks Hutton 1987; Pickering et al. 1988; Rankin et al. of regional extent characterized by a geologic 1988; Hibbard 2000; Roberts 2003). This history that differs from that of neighbouring orogen, therefore, had a phase of accretionary terranes' (Howell et al. 1985; Friend et al. 1988). tectonics prior to continent-continent collision. Recognition of terranes is not based on any As outlined above, studies of the margin of the inferences about distance travelled or relative Pacific basin were instrumental in the creation movement between adjacent terranes (Parfenov of the terrane concept and have provided the et aL 2000). Terranes are 'suspect' if there is impetus for its continued development. In the doubt about their palaeographical setting with past ten , the fundamental importance of Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

TERRANE PROCESSES 5

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6 A.P.M. VAUGHAN ETAL. terrane processes in generating and stabilizing volcanic overlap sequences and emplacement of continental lithosphere has become apparent igneous complexes that 'stitch' terrane sutures from studies of the Altaid belts of Asia (SengOr and place time limits on terrane motion (e.g. et al. 1993; SengOr & Natalin 1996) and the Gardner et al. 1988; Raeside & Barr 1990; orogens that comprise eastern Australia (Foster Herzig & Sharp 1992). & Gray 2000) - a system comprehensively reviewed by Glen (2005) in this volume. Appli- Types of terrane cation of these ideas to older rocks indicates that terrane amalgamation and accretionary The common terrane rock types tend to be orogenesis may be the most important processes similar from orogen to orogen and have been in formation of the continental lithosphere grouped into several main associations. The through time (Polat & Kerrich 2001). most common types in orogens around the are marginal to the ocean basins and can encompass any type of continen- Terrane processes tal or oceanic lithosphere, either with or without The key processes of terrane formation are a root. There are five most common, accretion and dispersal. Accretion (or 'docking' non-genetic (i.e. what a would see at (Twiss & Moores 1992)) is the process by which outcrop in the field) where possible, terrane material incorporated in, or transported by, rock-type associations, based on the Australides oceanic plates is added to subducting margins, (this book (Vaughan et al. 2005) and references usually separated from the adjacent, overriding therein), western American Cordillera, Cale- oceanic or continental plate by a narrow zone donian-Appalachian, central and eastern Asia called a (Howell 1989). Sutures may be orogens (Coney et al. 1980; Williams & Hatcher marked by belts of ophiolitic (e.g. Johnson et al. 1982; Hutton 1987; Parfenov et al. 2000; 2003) or high pressure rocks, such as Badarch et al. 2002; Xiao et al. 2004). (e.g. Kapp et al. 2003), but survival of these rocks is not essential to the definition and 1. Turbidite terranes. These are volumetrically sutures may also be represented by strike-slip very significant, forming large parts of the faults, thrusts or zones of mdlange (e.g. Abdel- accretionary orogens in New Zealand (e.g. salam et al. 2003; Pavlis et al. 2004). Suture zones Leverenz & Ballance 2001; Mortimer are not exclusive to accretionary orogens (e.g. 2004), Australia (e.g. Foster & Gray 2000), Vaughan & Johnston 1992). Dispersal is the eastern Asia (e.g. SengOr & Okurogullari process by which fragments are detached or 1991), the western North American redistributed from the overriding plate at active Cordillera (e.g. Rubin & Saleeby 1991; margins during subduction or ridge crest-trench McClelland et al. 1992) and in Palaeozoic collision (e.g. Nelson et al. 1994; Keppie et al. orogens of NW Europe and eastern North 2003) by rifting (e.g. Umhoefer & Dorsey 1997), America (e.g. Keppie 1985b; Leggett 1987; strike-slip faulting (e.g. Cawood et al. 2002) or Lehmann et al. 1995; Ryan & Smith thrusting (e.g. Fritz 1996). Both accretion and 1998). They comprise thick piles of deep- dispersal result in new terranes, either by adding marine sediments, probably representing previously separate geological entities such as submarine fans, and are often imbricated oceanic plateaux or to oceanic by thrusting (e.g. Kusky & Bradley 1999). margins, or by removing pieces of existing They are commonly siliciclastic, particu- margins and transporting them elsewhere. The larly in the Southern Hemisphere (e.g. third main process is amalgamation (e.g. Bluck Adams et al. 1998; Ireland et aL 1998), but 1990), by which existing terranes are combined substantial calcareous complexes also exist into larger, composite terrane collages or (e.g. Robertson & Ustaomer 2004; Wilson superterranes, ultimately forming stable parts of et aL 2004). Parfenov et al. (2000) the continental lithosphere. Examination of subdivided these terranes into three types: Cenozoic to Recent active accrctionary orogens two accretionary complex types, with in SE Asia suggests that the interaction between greater or lesser proportions of basaltic accretion, dispersal and amalgamation can be rocks; and a non-accretionary type where extremely complex, with geologically very rapid the evolutionary history of the turbidite changes that may not be recognized in older succession is less certain (e.g. possibly orogens without high resolution dating (Hall dispersed from a passive continental 2002). Other important terrane processes margin but with no subsequent incorpor- happen after accretion, dispersal or amalgama- ation in a subduction complex). Turbidite tion. These are the formation of sedimentary or terranes are commonly metamorphosed Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

TERRANE PROCESSES 7

(e.g. Herv6 & Fanning 2001), from 1985; Barker et al. 1988; Doubleday et al. anchimetamorphic up to and 1994). Mafic magmatic terranes are amphibolite grade, and associated commonly intra-oceanic and formed on brittle-ductile and ductile deformation is oceanic rather than (e.g. common (e.g. Wang & Lu 1997; Willner et Weaver et aL 1984; DeBari & Sleep 1991; al. 2004). Rubin & Saleeby 1991; Miller & Chris- Tectonic and sedimentary mOlange terranes. tensen 1994). Dominantly felsic magmatic These are associated commonly with terranes consist mostly of broadly calc- turbidite terranes, particularly those gener- alkaline, plutonic rocks that represent the ated in a subduction environment (e.g. interiors of volcanic arcs, although some Ernst 1993; Kusky & Bradley 1999), and may represent dispersed fragments of older often occur along terrane sutures (e.g. felsic continental crust, possibly - Aitchison et aL 2002) or at major bound- derived, reincorporated in later orogens aries within accretionary complex terranes (e.g. Boger et aL 2001). In addition to rocks (e.g. Silberling et aL 1988). They consist of the calc-alkaline suite, a common associ- commonly of altered and serpenti- ation in felsic magmatic terranes is the nite, chert, , greywacke, and tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite suite fragments (including (e.g. Smithies 2000). The Phanerozoic blueschist) in a fine-grained sheared and equivalents of these rocks are called cleaved mudstone matrix (e.g. Aalto 1981; adakites and their origin is controversial Cloos 1983; Carayon et aL 1984; Maekawa (e.g. Defant et al. 2002; Kay & Kay 2002). et aL 2004). They are thought to be generated by high Magmatic terranes. These can be predomi- heat flow in several subduction-related nantly mafic or predominantly felsic, settings where partial melting took place in reflecting the geological environment in the garnet stability zone, > c. 40 km depth, which they formed. Mafic magmatic with end-member models implicating either terranes are dominated by volcanic and young subducting slab or partial melting of plutonic rocks, usually pillow mafic lower arc crust (e.g. Defant et al. associated with volcanogenic and pelagic 2002; Kay & Kay 2002). Terranes with sediments (e.g. Takemura et aL 2002), rocks of this suite are typified by the subaerial flood basalts (e.g. Richards et al. 'Median ' and central magmatic 1991), sheeted dyke complexes (e.g. arcs of South Island, New Zealand (Muir et Lapierre et aL 2003) and mid-lower crustal al. 1998; Mortimer et al. 1999). Similar dominated by mafic and ultra- plutonic rocks are interpreted, from seismic mafic plutonic complexes (e.g. DeBari & evidence, to characterize some modern Sleep 1991; Shervais et aL 2004). In some oceanic arcs (e.g. Suyehiro et al. 1996). cases, related ultramafic rocks in mafic Some felsic magmatic terranes, or at least magmatic terranes may be of mantle origin some sequences within them, are domi- (Fitzherbert et al. 2004). Most marie nated by felsic volcanic rocks at exposure magmatic terranes are interpreted to have level (e.g. Clift & Ryan 1994; MacDonald been generated by either seafloor spread- et al. 1996; Bryan et al. 2001), which are ing, oceanic intraplate magmatism or in interpreted to be the erupted equivalents of volcanic arc environments, although arc and back-arc plutons, although terranes derived from dispersal of conti- dispersed terranes derived from continen- nental magmatic rocks are also tal rhyolite - known (e.g. Song et al. 2004). The products tism are known (e.g. Heatherington & of include and Mtiller 2003). other fragments of oceanic that Non-turbidite clastic, carbonate or evaporite were commonly produced in back-arc sedimentary terranes. These terranes fall settings (e.g. Bluck et al. 1980; Cawood & into two categories: well-bedded, shallow- Suhr 1992; B6dard 1999; Yumul 2003; marine, fluvial or terrestrial sequences, Piercey et al. 2004). Terranes derived from probably representing , margin seafloor volcanic eruptions include oceanic or shallow basin deposition, and a category plateaux formed by oceanic flood eruptions consisting of massive . Well- (e.g. - Richards et al. bedded terrane sequences often represent 1991; Hikurangi - Mortimer & dispersed fragments of continental margin Parkinson 1996), as well as seamounts and rocks, including clastic and volcaniclastic ocean islands (e.g. Jacobi & Wasowski sediments (e.g. Campbell et al. 2001; Noda Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

8 A.P.M. VAUGHAN ETAL.

et al. 2004), carbonates (e.g. Gaetani et aL the terrane and the adjacent continental margin 2004) and evaporites (e.g. Thomas et al. and other neighbouring terranes (e.g. Samson et 2001), but can also be deposits from arc- al. 1991); this is often in combination with related basins (e.g. Nichols & efforts to characterize a terrane. In most cases, Cantrill 2002) or aulacogens (failed ) especially in Palaeozoic orogens, it is easy to (e.g. Zolnai 1986). Massive limestones are designate a terrane as 'suspect', but difficult to often masses scraped off seamount summits prove that it is exotic to the continental margin in accretionary complexes (e.g. Kimura et and its immediately adjacent marginal seas. al. 1994; Stevens et aL 1997; Cawood et al. Several techniques exist for testing the origin of 2002). a terrane (Howell & Howell 1995). Where a Terrane collages. These consist of compos- terrane is suspect, techniques to determine ite terranes formed by amalgamation of qualitative or semi-quantitative estimates of some or all of the above terrane types (e.g. absolute movement include palaeontology (e.g. the Argentine Precordillera (Thomas et al. Smith et al. 2001; Belasky et al. 2002; Cawood et 2002) and (Nance et al. 2004)), al. 2002; Kottachchi et al. 2002), palaeomagnet- with the added complication of internal ism (e.g. Johnston 2001; Keppie & Dostal 2001) sutures as well as internal overlap and and palaeoenvironmental studies (e.g. Condie stitch assemblages. & Chomiak 1996; Monger 1997; Trop et al. 2002). Some techniques do not give movement Size of terranes information directly, but can determine what relationship a terrane has to adjacent terranes This is a difficult subject. As with many natural and/or determine its ultimate origin. These objects, it is easier to know what something is include petrology (e.g. Barr 1990; Restrepopace than it is to define it. Parfenov et aL (2000) 1992), isotope geochemistry (e.g. Samson et al. placed a lower size limit on terranes by defining 1990; Leat et aL 2005), (e.g. them as units that can be mapped at the Herrmann et al. 1994; Weber & Kohler 1999), 1:5 000 000 scale, although they admitted that provenance studies of (e.g. Ireland size limits are largely arbitrary. SengOr (1990) et al. 1998; Friedl et al. 2000; Adams et al. 2002; argued that and blocks in m61ange units Adams et al. 2005) and conglomerates should not be considered terranes, but more (Wandres & Bradshaw 2005) and sediment recent work would suggest that there is no effec- geochemistry (e.g. Willan 2003). Of the prove- tive lower size limit (mdlange zones, for nance techniques, U-Pb and Hf isotope dating example, can be argued to consist of an arbi- and fingerprinting of zircon are particularly trarily large number of faults (e.g. Chang et al. important because, in addition to age, they 2001) - any exotic block in a m61ange zone is, provide information about evolution of the therefore, fault bounded and could be crustal sources (Bodet & Scharer 2000; Friedl et considered a terrane, although this is an al. 2000; Knudsen et al. 2001; Griffin et al. 2004). extreme case). Composite terranes can be very A second approach to characterizing terranes large (e.g. modern New Zealand could be and identifying their origins comes from considered a composite terrane) and, although comparison with modern analogues. For composite terranes should be smaller than example, the Japan-Izu Bonin arc collision (e.g. continents, there is no arbitrary upper limit to Kawate & Arima 1998; Soh et al. 1998) is a terrane size. modern active example of accretion of a primi- tive magmatic arc to a composite microconti- Current research themes nental arc terrane. preserves an active arc-continent collision zone between the The study of tectonic plates in terms of terranes and the (e.g. is called 'terrane analysis' (e.g. Howell & Fuh et al. 1997; Chang et al. 2001). The situation Howell 1995). Once a terrane has been recog- in SE Asia is complex and shows evidence for nized, by identification of its bounding faults, very rapid changes in plate boundaries on the next component of terrane analysis is geological time-scales, commonly coeval characterization (e.g. Samson et al. 1990; compressional and extensional regimes and Lapierre et al. 1992), which uses standard abundant strike-slip (Hall 2002). Pigram & geological techniques such as mapping, Davies (1987) identified as many as 48 Cenozoic geophysics (e.g. Brown 1991; Ferraccioli et al. terranes in /Irian Jaya and 2002; Armadillo et al. 2004), sample collection the shows a long history of terrane and follow-up laboratory work etc. It is neces- processes (Metcalfe 1994). The arc-continent sary then to determine the relationship between collision between Australia and Indonesia/ Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

TERRANE PROCESSES 9

Papua New Guinea (e.g. Abbott et aL 1994), separated from late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic which is complicated by interac- accreted terranes of an Eastern Province by a tions (e.g. Hall 2002), shows features of terrane Median Tectonic Zone or batholith (Mortimer dispersal even as terrane accretion is underway et al. 1999) that consists of late Palaeozoic to (e.g. Milsom et al. 1999) and includes an active Mesozoic igneous rocks. The first-accreted collision zone between a submarine plateau Eastern Province terranes include ultramafic (Ontong-Java) and the Melanesian arc (e.g. Hall rocks (such as the type of Dun 2002). Many of the features that developed : Coombs et al. 1976). Wandres & during the Cenozoic development of the region Bradshaw (2005) review New Zealand's of SE Asia and the southwest Pacific are at odds terranes and present new data on their origins with interpretations of older accretionary using provenance of clasts in conglomerate orogens (R. Hall pets. comm. 2004) and the deposits, arguing that the Antarctic Sector of reasons for this mismatch are unexplained so the Gondwana margin is a major source of far. The Lesser Antilles, by showing a system detritus. Similarly, Adams et al. (2005) use Sr where sediments derived from a primitive arc and Nd isotopes of metasedimentary sequences mix with sediments that are derived cratoni- in the 'Australides' from Australia to southern cally, provide a modern analogue that illustrates South America to characterize Gondwana the potential complexities of provenance margin accretionary complexes and the nature analysis based on sediments (e.g. Marsaglia & of their sources. A simple conclusion of this Ingersoll 1992; Faugeres et al. 1993; Leitch et aL work is that at any one time material of different 2003). Aerogeophysical techniques provide origins was being deposited and accreted in powerful tools for identifying terrane extents different parts of the orogen and that the accre- and boundaries in areas of ice (e.g. Ferraccioli tion history of West Antarctica and southern et al. 2002) or thick sediment cover (e.g. Cher- South America is distinct from that of New nicoff & Zappettini 2003). Another approach in Zealand. characterizing and sourcing terranes is to deter- mine the composition and gross structure of the terrane deep-lithosphere. This can be done by Australia examining the compositions of deeply sourced The Tasman orogenic system 'Tasmanides' of such as primitive mafic dykes and the Australia occupies the eastern third of the compositions of any xenoliths they may have Australian continent. It consists of several carried from depth (e.g. Yu et al. 2003; Leat et orogenic belts whose age of deformation and al. 2005), or by quantifying the structure of the accretion decreases from west to east (Murray lithosphere using from distant seismic et al. 1987; Coney et al. 1990; F16ttmann et al. sources such as (e.g. Reading et al. 1993; Glen et al. 1998; Ireland et al. 1998; 2003; Reading 2005) or magnetotellurics (e.g. Fergusson 2003; McElhinny et al. 2003). The Ledo et al. 2004). Early Palaeozoic Delamerian orogeny formed as Neoproterozoic and sedimentary Terrane studies on the margin of and volcanic arc terranes were accreted along the formerly of the western Gondwana Australian continental core. This orogen is an along-strike correlative of the Ross New Zealand orogeny in Antarctica (Stump et al. 1986; New Zealand was one of the places where the F16ttmann et aL 1993). To the east, the Early terrane concept was developed (Blake et al. Palaeozoic Lachlan and Thomson belts 1974; Coombs et aL 1976; Howell 1980; Coombs represent accretion of Cambrian to 1997) and one of the first parts of the Gondwana volcanic arcs and dominantly siliciclastic sedi- margin where the terrane concept of Coney et ments to the margin (e.g. McElhinny et al. 2003). al. (1980) was applied (Bradshaw et al. 1981). The eastern New England orogeny represents The terrane model has proved highly successful accretion of terranes during late Palaeozoic to in understanding the pre- evol- early Mesozoic times. In this volume, Glen ution of the region. It has been well tested (2005) comprehensively reviews current models (Bradshaw 1989; Adams & Kelley 1998; for the development of the Tasman orogenic Cawood et aL 1999; Sivell & McCulloch 2000; system and identifies three supercycles of sedi- Mortimer & Cooper 2004) and there have been mentation and deformation. His proposed no competing models for the last twenty years. model is one of essentially continuous accre- Early Palaeozoic terranes form a Western tionary orogeny at the Pacific margin of eastern Province of Gondwana affinity, which is Australia since Neoproterozoic times. The deep Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

10 A.P.M. VAUGHAN ETAL. structure of terranes is also important. Reading Puncoviscana basin to show that the rocks (2005) presents a new technique for imaging the represent a peripheral succes- deep roots of southwestern and southeastern sion to the . As a counter- Australian terranes and terrane boundaries point to terrane interpretations of southern using seismic data. South America, Lueassen & Franz (2005) present an alternative history for the early Palaeozoic of the Central Andes, proposing a South America non-terrane, tectonic situation similar to the The first ideas that the South American margin present day. might consist of accreted terranes was presented Attempts to view the rest of South America in relation to a carbonate fragment in in terrane terms were advanced by Bernasconi southern known as the Madre de Dios (1987) for the Precambrian and Ramos (1988) terrane (Mpodozis & Forsythe 1983). Subse- for the Phanerozoic. The current stage is one quent work on most of the metasedimentary where the identification and characterization of rocks of the southernmost Pacific Andean terranes in poorly exposed or poorly studied margin has shown that they do not represent areas, which potentially include , has Palaeozoic Gondwana basement as once not been demonstrated convincingly. Geo- supposed, but are best interpreted as Mesozoic physical evidence is crucial in such circum- accreted material (Herv6 1988; Fang et al. 1998; stances (e.g. Chernicoff & Zappettini 2003). Herv6 & Fanning 2003). East of the Andes, the Rapalini (2005) reviews southern South Argentine Precordillera is regarded widely as American terranes from east to west and a large-scale exotic terrane derived from provides new insights into key events during and accreted during the Early Palaeo- Gondwana assembly in the Neoproterozoic to zoic (e.g. Ramos et al. 1986; Moore 1994; Astini Late Palaeozoic from the perspective of palaeo- et al. 1995; Thomas & Astini 2003). Much magnetic data. Rapela et al. (2005) identify a research has been focused on refining models previously unknown Early Jurassic magmatic for the history of this Precordillera or arc and show that magmatism in the terrane. Nevertheless, others have disputed its Triassic-Jurassic interval reveals a rotational Laurentian derivation, preferring an autoch- tectonic regime which should be a major thonous origin within Gondwana (Acefiolaza et constraint on the plate configuration of Patago- al. 2002). It is notable that geochronology and nia and the relationship between southern detrital zircon analysis have been central to the South America and the Antarctic Peninsula in development of both sides of this controversy pre-break-up Gondwana reconstructions. (Casquet et al. 2001; Thomas et al. 2004; Finney et al. 2005). In any event, it is becoming increas- Antarctica ingly obvious that western South America retains a fragmentary record of high-grade The ice cover of most of both East and West Proterozoic metamorphic rocks coeval with the Antarctica has hampered regional correlations. Grenville belt of North America (e.g. Thomas Nevertheless, it is becoming increasingly clear et al. 2004). Cordani et al. (2005) present new that most of consists of a evidence for Proterozoic, Grenvillian fragments collage of Archaean blocks and Proterozoic in the Columbian Andes, and Casquet et al. belts that were finally stabilized in their current (2005) have identified Grenville-age massif configuration during the Pan-African orogeny anorthosites in western Argentina, comparable (c. 700-500 Ma) when the Mozambique Ocean to those of the Grenville province. This separating East and West Gondwana closed to 'southern Grenville belt' may well represent a form the Gondwana continent (Fitzsimons common orogeny linking Laurentia and 2000a, b; Boger et al. 2002; Jacobs et al. 2003). 'Western Gondwana' within . Closure of this ocean around the end of Another aspect of importance in terrane Precambrian times formed the continuous accretion is the tectonic history of the collision Pacific margin of the Gondwana continent, zone. Miller & Siillner (2005) present evidence along which the Palaeozoic to Mesozoic that the Famatina Complex represents orogenic belts developed (Fig. 1). During the autochthonous arc-continent collision on the Mesozoic break-up of Gondwana, West Gondwana margin in Late Proterozoic to Antarctica behaved as several crustal blocks times, which could be related to separated by rift and strike-slip deformation accretion of the Precordillera terrane. Zimmer- zones (Dalziel & Elliot 1982). Stone & mann (2005) uses new provenance data from Thomson (2005) present evidence that Late Proterozoic to Cambrian sediments of the supports rotation of the Falklands microplate Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

TERRANE PROCESSES 11 during Gondwana break-up and has impli- Some suggestions for the future cations for the extent of the Gondwanide ice Geological mapping, augmented by geochron- sheet. Siddoway et aL (2005) show new evidence for strike-slip movements affecting ology, geochemistry, palaeontology and aero- West Antarctica during the Cretaceous just geophysical methods, continues to be the foundation stone of terrane analysis. New tech- prior to the rifting-off from Gondwana of New Zealand (Laird & Bradshaw 2004). West niques, such as 1D seismic analysis, Hf-isotope Antarctica appears to consist mostly of crust investigation of zircon and xenolith studies, accreted to the Antarctic margin during promise to provide further new insights into Cambrian to Cretaceous times. Terranes were terrane deep structure and provenance. first identified in the of the Geophysical studies, integrated with geological where Cambrian field data, are allowing better prediction of sedimentary and volcanic arc terranes were what lies beneath the ice of Antarctica. Despite accreted to the margin in Cambrian times the many recent advances, there are still some (Weaver et al. 1984; Stump 1995). The extent to significant gaps in knowledge. One-dimensional seismic studies would benefit from increased which these terranes are exotic to the Gondwana margin is a matter of current debate Antarctic coverage of permanent seismic data and Tessensohn & Henjes-Kunst (2005) recorders, which is low relative to other conti- present a review of the most recent results and nents. Hf-isotope studies are currently models. hampered by incomplete sets of representative West Antarctica appears to consist of Early Hf data from potential source rocks for Palaeozoic to Mesozoic provinces, at least some Gondwana terranes. In a sense, there is a need of which are 'suspect' (e.g. Pankhurst et al. 1998; to know the 'Hf of the world' to provide more Vaughan & Storey 2000; Millar et aL 2002). confidence in the interpretation of Gondwana provenance data and, to this end, it is recom- Rocks of Proterozoic age (1176 _+ 76 Ma, Millar & Pankhurst 1987) crop out in just one location mended that all zircon mounts that have been in West Antarctica, at Haag Nunataks. There is dated by the U-Pb SHRIMP method are continuing uncertainty as to whether this is an analysed in situ for Hf. In regional terms, isolated far-travelled terrane derived from a linking the Australia-New Zealand sector of continental margin, a fragment of the the Australides with the South American sector Gondwana core or whether it represents more is made more difficult by a gap in geological extensive Proterozoic basement to West and high-resolution aerogeophysical data in the Antarctica, as indicated by isotope studies of Pine Island Bay area of Ellsworth Land. This and xenoliths (Millar et al. 2001; area is currently a target of glaciological Handler et al. 2003). Lear et al. (2005) shed research, but it needs to be made a key target for geology and aerogeophysics. It is clear that some light on this by using lithosphere-derived mafic magmas to determine differences in the long period of Phanerozoic subduction beneath this margin had a large impact on lithospheric mantle composition beneath Antarctica. mantle evolution of the Southern Hemisphere. However, there is a need for more robust regional models - building on excellent local Other parts of the Gondwana margin datasets - for the origin and relationship of the Studies of the interaction between Gondwana diverse mantle reservoirs that have sourced magmatism in the Australides. A deeper and Laurentia have been an important driver of orogenic theory. When Wilson (1966) asked if understanding of terrane processes is likely to the Atlantic had closed and then reopened, the result from closer comparisons between the closure he referred to was between Gondwana Australides and the Cenozoic accretionary and Laurentia. Williams & Hatcher (1982; 1983) orogens of SE Asia and the southwest Pacific, demonstrated that this closure had incorporated by re-assessing data and interpretations of many exotic terranes in one of the first demon- older orogens in the context of the well- strations of the utility of the terrane collage constrained processes and events described model of Coney et al. (1980). Hibbard et aL from Cenozoic margins. In simple terms, one (2005) present a re-examination of the should look for analogues of Mesozoic, and Gondwana-Laurentia terrane-collision orogeny older, processes in younger, better-constrained in the Carolina Zone of the Appalachian belt Cenozoic orogens. and present a new model for middle Palaeozoic interactions of the Appalachian peri- Gondwanan realm with Laurentia. Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

12 A.P.M. VAUGHAN ETAL.

Conclusions from 4~ dating of detrital micas. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110, Accretionary orogenesis is a key process of 422-432. stabilization and formation of the continental ADAMS, C.J., BARLEY, M.E., FLETCHER, I.R. & lithosphere. Terrane theory and terrane analysis PICKARD, A.L. 1998. Evidence from U-Pb zircon represent the framework for understanding the and 4~ muscovite detrital mineral ages in processes of crustal accretion. The 'Australides' metasandstones for the movement of the Torlesse are one of the largest and longest-lived orogens suspect terrane around the eastern margin of Gondwanaland. Terra Nova, 10, 183-189. on Earth and have been a key testing ground for ADAMS, C.J., BARLEY,M.E., MAAS, R. & DOYLE, M.G. the origination and development of terrane 2002. Provenance of Permian-Triassic volcani- theory. Terrane studies continue to be a vibrant clastic sedimentary terranes in New Zealand: and active area of research in the 'Australides', evidence from their radiogenic isotope charac- with new techniques and insights emerging on teristics and detrital mineral age patterns. New a regular basis. Many research groups from Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 45, North and South America, Europe and Oceania 221-242. are active in the region and their work has ADAMS, C.J., PANKHURST, R.J., MAAS, R. & MILLAR, provided deep insights into the Proterozoic and I.L. 2005. Nd and Sr isotopic signatures of metasedimentary rocks around the South Pacific Phanerozoic evolution of the orogen and the margin, and implications for their provenance. In: fundamentals of accretionary orogenesis. The VAUGHAN, A.RM., LEAT, P.T. & PANKHURST,R.J. 'Australides' are a key area for terrane research (eds) Terrane Processes at the Margins of and this contribution has attempted to capture Gondwana. Geological Society, London, Special the current state of ideas and provide an intro- Publications, 246, 113-142. duction and benchmark for future research. AITCHISON, J.C., ABRAJEVITCH, A., ALI, J.R. ET AL. 2002. New insights into the evolution of the The papers in this volume stemmed from work Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone, Xizang (), presented at the 'Terrane Processes at the Pacific China. Episodes, 25, 90-94. Margin of Gondwana' meeting held in Cambridge, ARMADILLO, E., FERRACCIOLI, E, TABELLARIO, G. & UK in September 2003 and at the 10 th Chilean Bozzo, E. 2004. Electrical structure across a Geological Congress held in Concepci6n in October major ice-covered fault belt in Northern Victoria 2003, as well as invited contributions. This volume is Land (East Antarctica). Geophysical Research a contribution to the British Antarctic Survey SPARC Letters, 31 (10), 14, L10615, 10.1029/ project of the programme Antarctica in the Dynamic 2004GL019903. Global Plate System and a posthumous contribution ASTINI, R.A., BENEDETrO, J.L. & VACCARI,N.E. 1995. to International Geological Correlation Project 436 The Early evolution of the Argentine 'Pacific Gondwana margin'. The Editors thank Robert Precordillera as a Laurentian rifted, drifted, and Hall and Brendan Murphy for thoughtful reviews that collided terrane: a geodynamic model. Geological improved the manuscript substantially. Society of America Bulletin, 107, 253-273. BADARCH, G., CUNNINGHAM,W.D. & WINDLEY, B.E 2002. A new terrane subdivision for Mongolia: References implications for the Phanerozoic crustal growth of Central Asia. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, AALTO, K.R. 1981. Multistage melange formation in 21, 87-110. the , northernmost Cali- BANDRES, A., EGUILUZ, L., IBARGUCHI, J.I.G. & fornia. Geology, 9, 602-607. PALACIOS, T. 2002. Geodynamic evolution of a ABBOTT, L.D., SILVER, E.A., THOMPSON, P.R., Cadomian arc region: the northern Ossa-Morena FILEWICZ, M.V., SCHNEIDER, C. & ABDOERRIAS, zone, Iberian massif. Tectonophysics, 352, R. 1994. Stratigraphic constraints on the develop- 105-120. ment and timing of arc-continent collision in BARKER, E, JONES, D.L., BUDAHN, J.R. & CONEY, P.J. northern Papua New Guinea. Journal of Sedi- 1988. Ocean plateau-seamount origin of basaltic mentary Research, 64, 169-183. rocks, Angayucham terrane, Central Alaska. ABDELSALAM, M.G., ABDEEN, M.M., DOWAIDAR, Journal of Geology, 96, 368-374. H.M., STERN, R.J. & ABDELGHAFFAR,A.A. 2003. BARR, S.M. 1990. Granitoid rocks and terrane charac- Structural evolution of the Neoproterozoic terization: an example from the northern western Allaqi-Heiani suture, southeastern Appalachian orogen. Geological Journal, 25, Egypt. Precambrian Research, 124, 87-104. 295-304. ACElqOLAZA, EG., MILLER, H. & TOSELLI, A.J. 2002. B~DARD, J.H. 1999. Petrogenesis of boninites from the Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic evolution in western Betts Cove , Newfoundland, Canada: South America: a discussion. Tectonophysics, Identification of subducted source components. 354, 121-137. Journal of Petrology, 40, 1853-1889. ADAMS, C.J. & KELLEY, S. 1998. Provenance of BELASKY, P., STEVENS, C.H. & HANGER, R.A. 2002. Permian-Triassic and Ordovician meta- Early Permian location of western North American graywacke terranes in New Zealand: Evidence terranes based on brachiopod, fusulinid, and Downloaded from http://sp.lyellcollection.org/ by guest on September 28, 2021

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CHANG, C.P., ANGELIER, J., HUANG, C.Y. &; LIU, C.S. Early Paleozoic tectonism within the East 2001. Structural evolution and significance of a Antarctic craton: The final suture between east melange in a collision belt: the Lichi Melange and and west Gondwana? Geology, 29, 463-466. the Taiwan arc-continent collision. Geological BRADSHAW, J.D. 1989. Cretaceous geotectonic Magazine, 138, 633-651. patterns in the New Zealand region. Tectonics, 8, CHERNICOFF, C.J. & ZAPPETTINI,E.O. 2003. Delimita- 803-820. tion of tectonostratigraphic terranes of the BRADSHAW, J.D. 1994. Brook Street and Murihiku southern-central region of Argentina: aeromag- terranes of New Zealand in the context of a netic evidences. Revista GeolGgica de Chile, 30, mobile South Pacific Gondwana margin. Journal 299-316. of South American Earth Sciences, 7, 325-332. CLIFT, RD. & RYAN, RD. 1994. 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