Jebmh.com Original Research Article
Effectiveness of Synovectomy in TKA- A Comparative Study between Complete and Partial Synovectomy
Mohan Babu Lebaku1, Suresh Babu Gangireddi2
1Assistant Professor, Department of Orthopaedics, Balaji Institute of Surgery Research and Rehabilitation for Disabled, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. 2Consultant, Department of Orthopaedics, M. S. Multi-Speciality Hospital, Pithapuram, Andhra Pradesh.
BACKGROUND Surgical management of late stage Osteoarthritis knee is Total Knee Arthroplasty. Corresponding Author: During this surgery, hypertrophied synovial membrane is noticed. In some Dr. Lebaku Mohan Babu, Plot No. 101, Tirupathi Towers, patients, total synovectomy was performed. In some patients, partial synovectomy Tirupathi, Andhra Pradesh. was performed. The main objective is to consider the amount of blood loss, assess E-mail: [email protected] recruitment rates and protocol adherence in these patients. DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2019/625
METHODS Financial or Other Competing Interests: We performed a single-centre pilot RCT. Patients with inflamed synovium were None. randomised to receive synovectomy versus a control group that did not undergo How to Cite This Article: synovectomy. By measuring patient enrolment, completeness of follow-up, and Lebaku MB, Gangireddi SB. Effectiveness safety via haemoglobin decrease and documentation of adverse events, feasibility of synovectomy in TKA- a comparative was determined. study between complete and partial synovectomy. J. Evid. Based Med. Healthc. 2019; 6(47), 2999-3002. DOI: 10.18410/jebmh/2019/625 RESULTS
We screened 187 patients’ eligible patients, who progressed through to Submission 04-11-2019, randomization. All made it to the 12-month follow-up, indicating good protocol Peer Review 08-11-2019, adherence. There were no major differences in adverse events or haemoglobin Acceptance 16-11-2019, decrease demonstrating acceptable safety. Outcomes relating to satisfaction were Published 25-11-2019. reliably obtained.
CONCLUSIONS Patients with inflamed synovium of the knee who are due to undergo TKA can be reliably recruited to a randomised trial and synovectomy can be performed safely. To assess whether routine synovectomy would improve outcomes in these patients, large number is needed to be screened to identify eligible participants, and therefore, a multi-centre trial would be required.
Osteoarthritis, Knee, OA Knee, Advanced OA Knee, Synovectomy, Effectiveness of
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Jebmh.com Original Research Article
BACKGROUND for 24 hours postoperatively. If a patient’s blood pressure
fell and remained low (<90 mmHg) with symptoms In the middle- to old-age population, osteoarthritis (OA) is consistent with hypovolaemia, which did not respond to the most common disease affecting synovial joints.1 Massive crystalloid volume expansion, then blood transfusion was health economic burden related to physical disability is OA administered. Low molecular- weight heparin (strength 100 knee.2 Severe pain not controlled with regular analgesic mg/ml, 40 mg/ 24 hours) was injected subcutaneously after medication accompanied by radiographic evidence of joint a delay of 24 hours as routine thromboprophylaxis. After space narrowing, osteophyte formation and subchondral three days the heparin was replaced by rivaroxaban (10 sclerosis is defined as Late-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. mg/24 hours), which was continued for four weeks. At 24 Common intraoperative finding in patients with osteoarthritis hours after the operation, the patients were permitted to (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the knee3 is synovial stand without walking and all patients subsequently proliferation. Following Synovectomy combined with other underwent the same rehabilitation protocol. Briefly, knee specific surgical procedures have reported favorable results flexion and extension exercises were started one day after in most of the studies.4 Surgery in the form of total knee the operation. These exercises were continued with the arthroplasty (TKA) remains the most effective method of addition of graduated assisted walking from the second day. managing late-stage cases due to a complete lack of The blood loss of all patients at 24 hours Recorded and blood disease-modifying osteoarthritis agents.5 It is the surgeon’s investigations were repeated. Concealed haemorrhage was decision to do synovectomy while doing total knee calculated by the Gross equation and according to Sehat, replacement.6 Minimal amount of synovium as possible Evans and Newman and Nadler, Hildalgo and Bloch. should be removed as recommended by Krackow et al.6 Ballottement of the patella was performed as a crude Because of improving knee implant designs and a lowering estimate whether residual synovial membrane was of thresholds for surgeons to offer surgery, there are an associated with an effusion. In order to perform this test, increasing number of patients receiving TKA.4 the patient lies supine and the examiner places their proximal hand over the suprapatellar pouch and the distal hand (mainly the thumb and index finger of the distal hand)
METHODS over the patella. The examiner compresses the suprapatellar pouch with the proximal hand and then compresses the
patella into the femur. A positive result would be downwards This study was undertaken at BIRRD hospital, Tirupati movement of the patella then rebounding once the pressure between September 2010 and September 2011, a total of on the patella is removed; hence the appearance of a 187 patients with primary OA undergoing TKR were included floating or ballotable patella. in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to a random number table generated by a
computer (Microsoft Office Excel 2003; (Microsoft Corp., RESULTS
Seattle, Washington). All patients and the clinicians who assessed them before and after the surgery were blinded to the randomisation. Group 1 (synovectomy plus TKR) There was a decrease in mean haemoglobin levels observed comprised 96 patients (66 women and 30 men) with a mean in both groups from pre-operatively to day one post- age of 65.4 years (53 to 83). Group 2 (TKR alone) comprised operatively. No patient received a blood transfusion. There 91 patients (73 women and 18 men) with a mean age of were 5 adverse events reported during the study. One was 64.9 years (50 to 88). Exclusion criteria were bilateral TKR, serious adverse events due to hospitalisation of the patients with a history of oral antiplatelet medication, fasting participants, in the synovectomy group. In this case, the blood glucose > 10 mmol/l, and revision TKR. Routine blood participant had developed a superficial wound infection. This tests and coagulation screening were completed before the was treated with antibiotics only and did not require surgical operation. Stature, body weight were evaluated pre- intervention. In synovectomy procedure, these serious operatively for all patients. The KSS comprises two sub adverse events were not classified. All the randomized scores, one assessing the knee joint itself and the second patients completed follow-up to the 1-year end point. From assessing function. All operations were performed by a 6 weeks, there was a significant improvement in knee range different surgeon (SK) using an anterior midline incision and of motion medial parapatellar approach with a tourniquet (pressure of Post-operatively to 1 year post-operatively for both 260 mmHg for all patients). All operations were performed groups there was a significant improvement in mean under Spinal anaesthesia. WOMAC scores for the no synovectomy and the In group 1 the synovial membrane was excised. Apart synovectomy group. There was no significant difference from this, the operations in both groups were the same. The between groups in mean WOMAC scores for pain (p= cemented PS TKR implants of various company were used, 0.448), function (p= 0.131) and stiffness (p= 0.531) at 1 and no patellae were replaced. A drain was implanted and year post-operatively. There was no difference between then removed at 24 hours with the volume of drainage groups in terms of patient satisfaction reported for pain recorded. The tourniquet was not deflated until a pressure relief, return to activities of daily living (ADL), return to bandage had been applied. Continuous monitoring was used recreational activities and overall satisfaction from at 1 year
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post-operatively. We found no marked differences in the CONCLUSIONS
immediate post-operative period, except that in the synovectomy group there was a statistically significant In our study, we randomised the participants intra- increase in both visible (mean drainage) and invisible blood operatively after confirmation of the macroscopically loss (concealed loss) inflamed synovium and performed a meticulous
synovectomy technique retaining the vascular layer. Large
multi-centre surgical studies are warranted to assess the DISCUSSION
potential benefits in larger patient cohorts, regarding synovectomy during knee replacement. Objective measures The evidence of an inflammatory component of knee OA at of inflammation both in the joint tissues and systemically the early to late stages of disease is increasing and can even should be included in future trial design. A combined be tracked systemically.7 At the knee joint, apart from the approach using arthroscopic synovectomy and medical synovium, there are studies indicating that other tissues therapies may avoid the requirement for joint replacement such as the fat pad can be a source of inflammation.8 Further in patients with severe pain likely related to synovitis but studies of various joint tissue types from patients with knee with minimal changes on the plain radiograph. Close OA have implicated epigenetic effects that result in the up collaboration between orthopaedic surgeons and regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines9 and the link from rheumatologists is required to define these treatment inflammation to the stimulation of pain pathways in knee OA strategies. is well established.10 TKA remains the treatment of choice for late-stage disease but the significant proportion of
dissatisfied patients continues to be a challenge. Accurate REFERENCES
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