Botany, (s), phytology, or plant is a of biology that involves the scientific study of plant . Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines concerned with the study of , and fungi, including , growth, , , development, diseases, chemical properties, and evolutionary relationships among taxonomic groups. Botany began with early human efforts to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest . Today botanists study over 550,000 of living .

Medicine and materials

Many medicinal and recreational drugs, like , , and come directly from the plant . Others are simple derivatives of botanical natural products; for example, is based on the pain killer which originally came from the bark of . As well, the narcotic such as are derived from the poppy.[2] There may be many novel cures for diseases provided by plants, waiting to be discovered. Popular like coffee, chocolate, tobacco, and tea also come from plants. Most alcoholic beverages come from fermenting plants such as (beer), rice () and grapes (wine).

Plants also provide us with many natural materials, such as , , , paper, , , some types of , and rubber. The production of silk would not be possible without the cultivation of the mulberry plant. , , soy and other plants with a highly fermentable or content have recently been put to use as sources of , which are important alternatives to fossil fuels .

Read the above passage carefully and answer the following questions ? 1- Translate the above passage into Arabic ? 2- Recognize the simple present simple tense and changes it to passive voice ? 3- Recognize the past simple tense and changes it to passive voice ? 4- Recognize the present continuous tense and changes it to passive voice ?