SD 397 p59 LONGLEAF C76 1987 ° A History of Man and a

Forestry Report R8-FR 7 October 1987 : A HISTORY OF MAN AND A FOREST Thomas Caidwell Croker, Jr. by 1720 PeachtreeAtlanta, RoadGA 30367-91 NWUSDA 02Forest PREFACE DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS THE VIRGIN FOREST THE INDIANS THE PIONEERS CHANGING TIMES THEFORESTBOOM SECONDGREAT TIMES FIRE DEPRESSION FOREST HERESY STEMMINGWORLDPOSTWAR WAR THE PARADOXII TIDE THOMAS CALDWELL CROKER, BIOGRAPHY ORN:DUCATION: August 19, Bachelor's 1911 in Forest of Science City, inNorth Foresty Carolina - North Carolina State (1 Graduate Studies: Journalism of Oklahoma Biometrics USDA Graduate School A PLACE IN THE SUN AREER: Forty Years - USDA Forest Service: Guayule.NationalSouthern Forest - Exp.Pisgah, St. Cherokee,- Project Leader Kisatchie, Flathead Shelte oct. South Carolina Forest Service North Carolina Forest Service Author of more than 50 technical publicationsForestry md Consultant - 12 years II Journal of Forest History. CONTENTS .2 Two Certificates of Merit. USDA, with cash awar Society of American ForestersSoutheastern Section Technical award .2 Alabama ' Hall of Fame .3 Alpha Zeta: North Carolina StateFellow .3 .5 .71310 B JR. 1816 E 933) 33262120 C r belt, I mber Production War Proj 36 OTHER: dsud ng articles for magazine and arnett,ass, Robert JamestainerStore D. F., 1976. Inc.andplanting Lexington,McGivrey,Swamp systems . SC.John Thefor M. theSandlapper 1981. South. Con- USDA FS hapman, H.H.regenerationSO-107. 1926. So. Factors ofFor. longleaf Exp. determining Sta. pine New in LaSalle Orleans, natural Parish, LA. Loui- siana. Yale School of Bulletin 16. row,larke, A. Thomas Bigler.pineWorld 1982. D.forests War 1986. Fire I. ofJour. Theecology the ofsouthernSouth. For. and Hist. Schoolfire pine useJanuary fleet ofin Forestrythe of 1986. and Mgt. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, roker, ThomasmethodLA. C., successfully Jr. 1956. Can regenerate the shelterwood longleaf pine? Jour. Croker, Thomas C., Jr. 1968.notatedof For. Lorigleaf 54:258-256. bibliography pine: 1946-1967. an an- USDA FS SO-35. So. For. Exp. Sta. New Orleans, LA. Croker, ThomasThomas C., C., Jr. 1979.RegeneratingJour. The of For.longleaf Hist. longleaf pine Vol. story. 23, pine No. naturally. 1 USDA FS- Jr., and Boyer, W.D. 1975. Lohrey,Lawson, Richard John. 1719. and Bailey,Lawson'sandGarrett Robert history stand andL. 1977.ofstructure Massie. North Yield Carolina. for Richmond, tables unthinned VA. ongleaf pine plan- Farrar. R.M., Jr. 1979. GrowththinnedUSDAS0-105. and stands FS yieldSo. S0-156. For. ofpredictions even Exp. So. aged Sta.For. for NewnaturalExp. Orleans,Sta. longleaf New LA. Orleans, pine. tations in Louisiana and Texas. USDA FS SO-104. So. For. Exp. Sta. New Orleans, LA. LA. Maple,Mann, WE.,William Jr. A.1970. 1970. Direct PrescribedUSDA seeding FS S0-57. winter longleaf So. fire For. pine.thins Exp. Sta. New Orleans, LA. Hickman,Harper, Francis. Nollie. 1958.1962. TheMississippiin Yalethe travels longleaf University ofharvest: William pine Press. lumberingbelt, Bartram. 1840-191New Haven, 5. Univ. CT. of Miss. dense longleaf pine stand. USDA FS SO-i 04. So. For. Press. Oxford, MS. Morris, D.J.; Mills, HO. 1948.seedbedExp. The Sta. Conecuh burn.New Orleans,Jour.longleaf of For. pineLA. 46:646-652. Schiff,Oates, Ashley John A. L. 1950.1962. FireThePress, andstory --scientific ofInc. Fayetteville Charlotte. heresy NC.Dowd in the Forest Service. Harvard Univ. Press. Cam- have been enacted. IndiansThe enjoyed of the a longleafcompatible pine home is a giantin these stage. stretching until defeated across andthe evictedlower South, by whites. where Spanish centuries of drama PREFACE Siggers, P.V. 1944. Brownspotseedlings,, needle MA. USDA blight Tech of pineBull. 870. So. For. Exp. Sta Conquistadores trampled the pineywoods in search of gold. Finding none, they were soon discouraged and left. Later, Snyder, Bayne; Dinus, RichardGeneticsNew J.: Orleans, Derr, of ongleaf Harold LA. pine.J. 1977. USDA ES WO-33. So. For. Scotch. Irish and other Europeans came seeking freedom from oppression and built permanent homes. Lumbermen, Exp. Sta. New Orleans, LA. haveturpentiners. beenwedded made foresters. me and to them. LikeTherelost. and many Red,I havemanyspend white,Southerners. been others much andtimes haveof black my of longleaf playedgreat youth. men rejoicing pinehave acollege significant forests sweated. and days, haveprosperity, role andbled, played in professional theand but drama.an died also important under grim forestry timesthe role longstraw career inwith my little . in them.crowns. hopeTales for of themy future.early ancestors Fortunes Wahlenberg,Stoddard, W.G.H.L. 1931.1946. longleafThePackScribner. bob pine. Forestry white NewCharles quail. Foundation.York. Lathrop Charles Washington, D.C. a personal viewpoint. ItBecause has, of course.of my association been fleshed with out the with land, gleanings people. history,from the and publications listed of inthe my forest, selected this story is written from Wakeley, P.C. 1954. PlantingAgri.LA. the Monograph southern . 18. So. USDA For. Exp. Sta. New Orleans, toBibliography love longleaf and pine. information AmongMy objective themsupplied isare to bythose provide others. whose a story livelihood for the enjoymentor that of their and ancestorsenlightenment has comeof people from who the loveforest; or can be encouraged those who have enjoyed quail and other in the parklike woods; foresters who have tackled the deman- ding task of managing the species; those who have battled to save this splendid natural from extinction; thatasany typical havingthreatened of a the personal theirSouth extinction.There relationshipasBasically, "grits are andmanyIn I thehavewith gravy." others,late longleaf another 1800s Also, among pine.more conservationistslumbermen them important lovers moved purpose ofanywhere the in andhistory for thisruthlessly might and . profit folkways Longleafclearcut from of reading mostpinethe South. forestsof this the story. Longleaf virginhave weathered pine people two crisesare timber with no thought of regeneration. Except for a few tracts conservatively cut by far-sighted lumbermen and land that was diverted to , millions of acres lay bare and bleaching in the sun. Forest workers, unemployed. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY destroyerswere left in moved hopeless in. Bypoverty. Largely1960 it appearedwithout the likely help that of man,it would a second be completely forest arose gone fromby the the mid-seventies ashes and debris with no of hopethe virgin timber But again of renewal. followed by heavy site-preparation guaranteed its elimination. Objective of the destroyers Thewas dangerousto replant the trend land wasAlarmed, with slowed slash lovers down or loblolly of and longleaf about pines pine 4 that million took could aggressiveacres be managedwere actionsaved easier to-- preventa paltry -- requiring itsremnant demise less of as theskill, an original important 60 commercial forest. edmillion interest acres in ofgrowing virgin timber.theBut species. a new day It has dawned. Unfounded prejudices against longleaf have gradually faded away and there is renew- is my belief that this story will help accelerate this desirable trend.

36 1 restsdedicated that the toworld a future h DEDICATION Roger Dennington, andSpecial Sharon thanksYoung. to Others members who providedof the Forest information Service and in encouragementAtlanta for editing were and Thomas publication: Stan Adams, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Ellis, director of the SOFES (Southern Forest Experiment Station); John F. Kelly, SOFES; A/eta Hayden. librarian, SOUTHFORNET: Dr. Larry Walker, Stephen F. Austin University: Dr. Arthur W. Cooper. North Carolina State University: L.M. Goodwin, Jr., Weymouth Woods. Southern Pines, NC; Dr. Claude Brown, stands are around 60-years-old and conversion to younger age classes is needed. Too rapid a conversion, University of Georgia; William Voit, Jr., Blackshear, GA; Lark/n Wade, Alabama Extension ; and however, would be undesirable. It would interrupt a sus- thisHarold publication. K. Steen, Editor,Also, Journal thanks ofto Forestthe authors History. of the publications listed in the selected Bibliography for material used in tained cash flow and be undesirable from the esthetic and game standpoint, besides creating an unbalanced age-class . forwilltingregenerating regeneration,be during left to the grow. sparse first a shelterwood 10To stands.Because yearsavoid Those the is systemof forexpenditure understocked with the is better purposeprescribed of stocking naturelarge of amounts of the forest, of capital all cut- 2 anwherereducing additional stand costs, and volume ground growth of conditions on high-quality the are suitable. material would Besides toprovide be toharvested determine in ifthe there early are years enoughBefore of cutting,management.seed trees a survey for a shelter-is made in each compartment system. If so, a seed cut is prescribed to begin the regeneration process. If the seed source is deficient, the seriouscompartment barrier is to scheduled regeneration.The thickfor clearcutting Fortunately,midstory of and unmerchantable a planting.contrac- material was a tor was found to chip the unmerchantable material for fuel wood to be used by a nearby mill. The job is done before with little damage to merchantable trees at no cost to the landowner. Chipping not only eliminated the need for windrows in planting operations, but site-prep costs were also reduced. In natural stands, chipping made prescribed burning much more effective and facilitated marking and logging. Game were have averaged about $25During per acre the per5 years, year. grossRevenue returns to the landowner in improvedshelterwood by standsthe operation. Well-timedestablished seedbed fully stocked burns stands before the 1983 cone crop was derived from stumpage of pine poles, logs, of longleaf pine on 376 acres. Also, 430 acres thehave site been was plantedprepared successfully properly. Whenduring theseed 5 yearstrees whereare , posts, hardwood logs and pulpwood. Cutting removed in the shelterwood stands, we will have 806 less than growth, we now have more and better timber acres of well-stocked stands free to grow. than before management began, and the forest has con- tributed materially to the landowner and the general managingeconomy. second-growthThis longleaftract clearly pine showsforests. the High- economic benefits of grade wood products can be produced, substantial dollar returns obtained, employment for forest workers furnish- ed, and the woods will abound with quail, , , theand hearts other of gamethose whothriving loveBut inthethere an ideal are other ofhabitat. the important land. Who intangibles that gladden thrillcanby describe ofsnow a quail white the hunt beauty pine through of a ablanketsearching parklike of grass forestfor the penetrated cooled sun; of by the a resinousrowheads breeze? buried in Rusting the sand, ancient churches cups and built ar- of gingheartpine, photos are magnificent reminders southern of centuries mansions, of human and drama old log- enacted on the forest stage. The historical attraction of longleaf pine is important to many people. hasonheritage, him not forbeen salvation. battered a lack of and technologyTheThen bruised most there seriousbut by is theman, attitudechallengethreat but dependent to of apeo- offuture salvaging for longleaf our forest pine ple. There were those who championed a cause that seemed destined to be lost; however most seemed bent ison real destroying hope for the the forest. future.Now The public magnificent opinion seemsvirgin forests to be changing, and there of the finest fo This book is as everfor known. longleaf pine, one are just a fond memory. But as long as trees grow and winds blow, the gentle breezes will ripple the longstraw crowns creating the sweetest music this side of the Mason-Dixon line. In the 1960's and 1970's a vigorous campaign of workshops, seminars, consulting and large-scale tests, was conducted to translate findings into practice. Prejudices against longleaf pine gradually began to fade away. carefullythere is prescribed, some evidence all of todaythese thatare legitimatethe practice uses, has butbeen overdone. Growth in sapling stands has been reduced todayreductionwith is burns beginning in that growth served to indicateof older no useful stands.that lirepurpose, Notmay only cause and should research some fires be carefully prescribed and executed, but it is well for definitelytheandfindings. forest planted shownmanager stands, that to longleaf keep isReliable available. abreast pine growthproduces of Recent the andlatest satisfactorilyfindings yield research information have for both natural withhave proper also management indicated the onsites suitable where sites. longleaf These pine data does quatebest. competition It grows well control, on a butwide in variety comparison of sites with with other ade- exceptenvironment.speciesresistance brownspot. does to bestIt damageis greatly Anon excellentLongleafthe by superiordeep fire, is producerinsects,sandy well to adaptedother uplands. andof high-qualitypines all to the in hazardsits of the southern material, especially poles and piling, it grows well on 24-year period in one study. Carefully prescribed burns sterile sandy sites. Geneticists have discovered that strains of longleaf are resistant to the brownspot and make faster for brownspot control Anotherfavor these development 'crop" seedlings. in 1986 has greatly brightened height growth than their fellows. Selections of such the future for longleaf pine. Roger Dennington, softwood strains, grown in seed orchards, provide seed for the specialist for Forestry in the USDA Forest Service's Southern Region, has organized an ambitious nurseryman to growVariation superior in seedings. genetic qualities is also an important con- sideration in natural stand management. Some trees in- transfer programRoger wasfor the a ranger species. in Mississippi when I visited his herently produce more cones than others and should be towasdistrict 1982LikeSrewton sincerely manyin when 1975 to Mississippi heinteresteddiscuss during assumed my the people, in regional statushispromoting present he ofconsultationwas longleaf longleaf position,eager topine pine. project. learnhe and came In and seedlingcodominantsselecteding operations forstands seed for areleave shouldtrees resistantResearch trees. in favorshelterwood to thehas brownspot best also cuttings. dominantsshown and that Thinn-make aand component of natural gramagreed is toaimed encourage not only managementRoger to stop has the come declineof the through species. in longleaf with flying colors. His pro- significantly better height growth--B more feet during a acreage but to actually increase it. He has recruited a large group of knowledgeable people to help, has money to do the job, and has secured the approval of his superiors and the director of the Southern Station. Pro- acreagespects are should extremely be devoted brightIn view tofor of longleaf success.Dennington's pine? goal Obvious- one many ask: How much ly, much of the original 60 million acres should remain in present uses such as agriculture. Also, other pines that replaced longleaf should continue to occupy a por- tion because of site quality and landowner objectives. longleafBut in my pine travels would definitely be the best choice. In many I have observed many sites where cases I have recommended a conversion to longleaf pine when the final harvest cut is made. It would be hard to estimate the actual acreage that could best be devoted to growing longleaf. I am convinced, however, that doubl- ing or even tripling the present 4 milhon acres now oc- forestcupied for by one the of species my clientsFive would suggestsyears' not results be a out desirable from of line. management pattern of a longleaf pine for nonindustrtal private landowners and companies as well. Eighty percent of the typical second growth forest was in longleaf pine with the remainder in slash pine- hardwood bottoms. Understocked, the forest had a dense midstory of unmerchantable hardwoods and rush. Site for longleaf pine was average: index about 70 feet height growth for the tallest trees at 50 years. in the uplands are well drained and suited to growing longleaf. The bottoms provide cover for game and make longleafgood . pine indicate Aa dollarfinancial return analysis of 15 of percent the growth an- potential of site 70 nually on the investment in well-stocked stands for the the10-year return periodwould dropfrom ageto 7 50percent. to 60. SoIn the a 60-year next 10 rota-years, tionments was boundedselected forby ,management.The forest branch was bottoms, divided and into proper-50 to 100 acre compart- pinety lines.stands Within will be each grown compartment on the uplands; even uneven aged longleaf aged dominated some 60 millionOpen and acres parklike, of the prehistoricthe virgin longleaf pine forest THE VIRGIN FOREST twoslash-hardwood methods. Volume stands removedCutting in the duringbottoms. in logs the and first poles 10-year (most- cycle is controlled by southern . Like huge wooden soldiers lined up lytrees 9.1 inch diameter at breast height [dbh] and up) in battle formation, the massive trees dotted the is limited to less than the estimated growth in board feet Coastal Plains in a sea of grass. Gentle breezes, laden regeneratedon the entire to longleaf pine is limited to one-sixth of its forest during the period. Acreage with a resinous , rippled the longleaf crowns and total acreage on the forest. Aim is to eventually develop generated music, soothing to the ear and slightly ages ranging from 10 to 60 years. Unfortunately, most mournful. Occasionally, the tranquil scene was disturbed by a killer hurricane that crashed ashore from the sea fellinghardwood many andveteran cane, trees.The provided forest, an laced ideal habitatwith narrow for deer, stream bottoms of Beginningturkey, at the extreme southeastern tip of present day quail, and many other and , Virginia. longleaf's natural range extended across the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains into east Texas, with brief excursions into the mountain and piedmont areas of Alabama and Georgia. It was hemmed in by aridity on the west and by freezing temperatures and heavy classifysoils on longleafthe north. pine Fireas a was"fire a climax' natural type, architect meaning of the forest. Ecologists speculatethat the that the species' affinity for sandier soils is is maintained by regular fires. They connected to a complex fire relationship. On such soils, the ground vegetation consists of coarse, flammable fuelgrasses.Indians, type. Fires, Longleaffrequently originally seedlings, spread set over byendowed thousandslightning by and ofnature acres later with in by this dependedsupremehardwoodhome inresistance thison and these environment. pine to fires. firecompetitors damage, Without In fact, wouldfound fires, their a choke aggressive verycompatible survival out the to products.longleaf.the clearing The Foresters open,action parklike Theof have fire. forest estimatednature was ofa bountifulthe thai forest the storehouse wasoriginal due of valuable wood timber stands contained over 200 billion board feet of the strongest material for homes and numerous other structures as well as timber for poles, piling, woodrailroad unsurpassed ties, and many for Inkindling, otherdead useful andtorches, down products. house timber, sills, an and abundance of pitchy heartwoodfenceposts to was waterproof storedAlso, on . the forestLater, and tarfloor.trees could wounded be derived by from longleaf turpentineresistancenaval stores and to rosinoperatorsfire, ,wereAdmirably exudedstilled. and adapted other hazards, to the from southern longleaf which environment by its pine stands were guaranteed continued renewal through The story of the first man to enter the longleaf pine THE INDIANS natural processes. Many seedlings established on the forest is lost in centuries of unrecorded history. Since the forest apparently dominated such a large portion of forest floor by infrequent seed crops escaped damage the and, we can assume that it profoundly affected the from light surface fires. When mature trees were killed earliest human inhabitants. We do know something of the activities of the Indians in this forest from journals by lightning or felled in hurricanes, seedlings sprang up of the first European visitors. Unfortunately,to repair breaks our in the storyWould canopy. will revealman wisely that this use has this not ? always been the case. 3

Because of primitive cutting Indians had to use fire to furnished[el/largelife for trees. fuel br warming IndiansLongleaf of and the forests southeast.cooking provided fires. Heartwood many The of the necessities of warming fires were built on the ground in the center of thea wigwamhole in theor lodge, roof. Sootand the that smoke collected escaped on wallsthrough was scraped off and mixed with bear oil for war and otherilluminated ceremonial the way on night excursions. Small trees and painting. Lighterwood splinters bark from the pineywoods were used to construct corn cribs, lodges, and other small structures. Many village deerskinsstreets were became paved an with Deerimportant pine furnished bark. item Indians of trade with after , the shelter, clothing, and white man arrived. The longleaf pineywoods provided an ideal locale for hunting the plentiful deer, which, when threatened by enemies, would hide in the narrow branch bottoms that penetrated the open woods. Hunters soon learned to drive deer from their hiding places with fire, making death traps of the dense cane and hardwood bottoms. While their companions set the fire hunters hid behind tree trunks in open woods and killed the deer as flamesthey rushed spread out throughout to escapeWhen the the the uplands flames. Indians' until hunting stopped fires bywere not extinguished. a stream or by . These fires often blackened streams whenaspects ashes of washed Indian ceremonialintoIn them. addition, life: wood including products funerals. were important in many Mourners blackened their faces with soot mixed with frame,mixtures.bear coveredoil. The As with corpsesoon pine as was bark, the laid flesh and out treated wasin the cooked, withsun onvarious ita waspole oiled,removed and preserved. and burned. The bones were then cleaned, rarely extensive in longlealIndians' pine clearings forests. forThe gardens native and field crops were Americans favored richer soils near streams rather than the sterile soils of the pineywoods. Moreover, until white traders brought and other metal cutting tools, land clearing was a slow process. Larger trees could not be felled with primitive cutting tools, instead they were deadened by or killed by piling heartwood around the tree base and setting it on lire. No doubt many characterclearings revertedof the virgin naturally Onforest. balance, to Their pine. the widespread Indians did use not of materially change the fire helped maintain its open nature, and millions of acres theof white parklike man stands came. stretched across the Southland when

wereVirgin Spaniards forests of in longleaf searchThe firstpineof gold. white were Typical park/ike.men to was enter Hernando the longleaf pineywoods DeSoto, who in 1539 came ashore to Florida from his base in Cuba with a large company of armor clad soldiers. DeSoto traveled through the Carolinas, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. His brutal treatment of the Indians generated hate for whites. Several battles were fought and won by the Spaniards. The crude buried in the MississippiDeSoto River by died his on men the to western prevent leg of his trip and was weapons of the Indians were no match for the swords arrivedhostile Indiansat Charleston, from desecrating SouthIn 1708 Carolina John his grave. Lawson, and made an aEnglish trip gentleman by birth, herdsand spears of oF andthe mounted,hogs.To provide Some armor-clad hogsfood, escaped the soldiers. conquistadores and their brought along through Indian country in the Carolinas. He wrote a descendents, known as razorbacks, became a serious detailed description of his observations and relations with menace to longleaf pine seedlings. encounteredSewee, Santee, in the Coastal and Tuscarora Plains of South tribes Carolina and that he North Carolina. The Indians treated him kindly, guided 4 and hunted for him on his travels, welcomed him into their villages, honored, bedded, and fed him there. He was aghast to see the ravages that the white man's social diseases and whiskey had wrought on the "savages" especially their treatment of the women. tripLater, he was when captured, he returned tortured, to North and Carolina killed on aby second the Tuscaroras. Kidnapping of their children and taking them to England, presumably for and conversion to Pennsylvania,the Christian religion, touredWilliam longleafhad incensed pine forests the Indians. in the late Sartram, the Quaker naturalist from 1700's. His travels took him into the Carolinas, Georgia, airyFlorida, nature Alabama, of the virgin and pineywoods Mississippi. in Hethe praised sandy uplands the open, that he liked so much better than the mosquito infested, in cold storage a month before planting survived better dismal, cane brakes. During his trip he kept a detailed seedlings:than those good freshly versus dug.Our poor major grade. study cold tested storage Alabama versus versus Georgia journal of the , fauna, and lifestyle of the Indians: freshly dug stock, at five locations: Soperton, Albany, Creeks, Choctaws, Seminoles, and others. WhitfieldButler, Waycrossclipwheel planters,(DixonSeedlings Memorial Unfortunately, were Forest), planted theand in Georgia Valdosta. February 1980 mostly with forseedlingspruned Alabama sowere seedlingsthey greatly could varied over-sizedbe planted. from 63 andAccuracy percent were severelyofat plantingButler to 61 percent at Albany reflecting the difference between wereexperiencedExcept planted for longleafSoperton correctly pine wheremost planters planting 80 percent and of untrainedGeorgia of the seedlings stockmen. seedlingswas poor--less in May. than Alabama 60Survival percent. seedlings was determine averaged 82 for all correctly planted percent compared with 63 percent for Georgia seedlings. Alabama seedlings that were kept in cold storage survived somewhat better than those freshly dug: 86 poorpercent grade: versus 86 84 percent percent.Good versusgrade Alabama 58 percent. stock Overall did much better than the average for all Georgia seedlings was 64 percent. Valdosta.averagedinchesdrought. at 7 RainfallButler,inches 9at deficiencyinches Soperton,After theat Waycross, Mayfrom 13 inches exam,June and toatall SeptemberAlbany,plantations9 inches 7 at suffered a severe storagevaryingseason.75planted percent from Forsurvived correctly gooda at low Waycross. gradebetterof survival 30 Our percentAlabama than hadMarchAgain those droppedat seedlings 1981Albanyseedlings freshly exam to to 52 that a dug:revealedfrom highpercent; were 54 coldof the ravages of the dry deficiencypercent versus and poor49 percent. site Lowpreparation. survival Albanywas due had to atwo 13 major factors: rainfall inch deficiency of rain and seedlings were planted on a thickly sodded pasture that had the rows subsoiled. deficiency,Although Waycross survival was experienced surprisingly good--75a 9-inch percent. rainfall Good site preparation and excellent conditions paid newoff. study to find out ifAfter containerized the 1981 examinations, seedlings would I prepared a plan for a survive better than 1-0 nursery seedlings. James Barnett at Alexandria agreed to furnish the containerized stock and John Mixon approved the plan. But due to personnel plantingcircumstances research. I was Boyer unableMixon agreed toasked proceed and Bill came Boyerwith to the Brewtonto study.follow through on Georgia to discuss a follow-up study. His plan featured a comparison of containerized seedlings versus 1-0 published in the Christmas issue of the Southern nursery stock. Early results indicate that both growth and hadLumberman. achieved some significantBy the victories. early 1980's, The impending our "battle to save the longleaf" to forsurvivalthat planting for nurseryfor theunder containerized stock. circumstances Thus aseedlings method where iswillgood suggested be 1-0 superior stock doom of the forest in the 1970's had been averted and difficult.is not available or where the planting chance is unusually the tide that was rolling dangerously in the 1950's and Story was published in theIn FebruaryJournal of1979, Forest my History.article entitled It The Lon gleaf Pine pine"1960's is being had written,slowed a down newIn 1986, day to a has trickle.as dawned. the last chapterPrejudices in this "saga of longleaf A PLACE IN THE SUN covered the historical as well as the managment aspects against longleaf are fading away and there is a revival of the forest. Reprints of the article were widely circulated of interest in the species. Ed. Kerr, a prolific writer on among southern foresters. A revised version was of presidentforestrylongleaf subjects ofpine F & forests fromW Forestry Louisiana; of Georgia: Services; William Eley and Voight, Frazer others a native haveIll, conclusivelyduringwrittenbut there the articles 1960's is demonstrated a moredescribing and important1970'sWhy the for undoubtedly has trend.reason.regeneration this Successchange played practices, occurred? hasa role, been Our exhortations and there has been a significant increase in knowledge of the growth potential of the species and the important role of . A better understanding of longleaf has rigorouslybuilt the confidence tested. Where ofA many reliable properly people. natural applied regeneration on suitable system has been sites, a shelterwood system has proven reliable. Failures are generally due to providing too few seed trees, inadequate competition control, failure to coordinate systemburns where with seedsite and crops, standNatural or conditions other regeneration unwise are suitable,practices. provides and an attractive low-cost it meets the financial and other requirements of the pinelandowner. has beenDuring reversed. the last Now 20 years successes the dismal failure of longleaf have become the rule. Significant improvements in the forestry have been largely responsible. Nurseries are producing better stock--some introducing mycorrhizae into seedbeds. Grade one or better seedlings are used. Seedlings are handled with great care from the nursery bed to the planting siteoften with cold storage protection andSeedlingspreparation,all elimination are including ofcorrectly all sources a planted,drastic of reductionbrownspot usuallythe with of way. infection.competition , Particular emphasis is given to site speciesandlongleafat the survival inproper theirpine, underdepth.planting are confidently adverse Containerizedprograms.Even conditions. pulpmill using seedlings it foresters, Use ofare them formerlyshowing reluctantsuperior growth to in the mix of cutoversituations.promises tracts, to particularly be the wave inDirect Louisiana, of theseeding, future is now after for used special dramatic on success on large a more limited scale because of seed cost, predation, and unfavorable sites. But it still is a viable practice to seed spoilbanks, or for quick of graduallydisaster areas. developed into Sincestandard the practice1930's, firefor useseedbed in longleaf pine forests has preparation, brownspot control, competition control, Razorbackwere introduced hogs, a by serious DeSoto threat and other to longleaf Spanish pine con seedlings, quistadores. longleafWilliam pine Bartram, forests famous in the Pennsylvania 1770's. naturalist, explored the wildlife improvement, and hazard reduction. If palmetto required heavy disking that caused damage to seed trees. Apparently, such stands would have to be atclearcut IAuburn, referred and andthe planted problem they wherehave to the foundregeneration competition-control a way chemicallywas required. project to controllongleaf palmetto. pine based We estimated on a detailed 21,000 soil acres map suitablethat showed for height of watertables. A serious problem on the Osceola, Chickasawhay--enjoyedForest.however, was severeAll damagefavorabledistricts inby coastalMississippi cattle grazing.plains were soils on the DeSoto National The three--Biloxi, Black Creek and and a gentle terrain. We estimated 50000 acres of longleal for Biloxi, 125,000 for Black Creek, and 70,000 for Chickasawhay. Much of the longleaf had regenerated especiallynaturally when Black the Creek, virginWhere had timber made seed was admirable source clearcut. was progress adequate, all districts. installing shelterwood systems. Survival in plantations was good, but there was a serious brownspot problem with the nursery stock obtained from Ashe Nursery. The problem was referred to Albert Kais, a pathologist Evangeline.stationed at Gulfport,Kisatchie, for Onand help. fiveVernon, He found we estimatedand corrected about it. districts in Louisiana; Winn, Catahoula, pine115,000 than acresthe others. were Winn,Many in longeleaf ofthe the northern virgin pine. stands district, of longleafhad less land in longleaf had been replaced with loblolly and shortleaf pines. Near the Gum Springs tower, we inspected an excellent stand of longleaf that originated from the 1935 bumper crop had40 scalped years earlier. part of When the area I was for on seedbed the district preparation. in 1935, we longleafDalapanOn this sites:district or Simazine 20,000 acres to Evangelineprepare on Evangeline: the and site Catahoula for21,000 planting. acres were much alike, with good I suggested an administrative test of on Catahoula. Harvey Benson on Evangeline was successfully hand-planting containerized seedlings with longleafa dibble hestands invented. with aThe clean 'burning" --the Vernon District result had of many well-stocked 44,000Louisianarestrictions.many acres fires districts. ofand longleaf heavy Some Kisatchiewith cattle of the16,000 grazing. land had subject had a more Webeen to estimatedrugged militaryclassified terrain then the other Altogether,LIM and was there not were available 20,000 for acres commercial of longleaf management. pine on cattlethe district. and hog damage toIn contend Louisiana, with. every As elsewhere, district except Winn had severe theDistrict stand had was a highclearcut watertable for planting that caused or seeding. flooding whenAll much original longleaf type was now occupied by loblolly seedlings in a Hatcher Furrow seeded area died when and shortleaf pines. Some conversion back to longleaf water entered the deep furrows. Because such flooding Angelina--30,000werepine atsimilar the time but acresofthere harvest Inversuswas Texas morecuts 7,000. the was longleaf two Somerecommended, districts--Yellow pine of the type 40 on Pine and Angelina-- waspreferred lethal tosystem longleaf where seedlings, there was shelterwood sufficient seed was source. the yearburning old stands by Supervisor had been Bishop regenerated before the with 1935 seedbed crop. A easierregenerationFortunately, to regenerate. had a well-stockedSoils This on district the Wambah overstory. had done District some were better drained and most of the stands scheduled for Francisgopherunique damageMarion problem Nationalin someon Boththe plantations.Forest: Angelina districts however, I wasvisited severe soilsin South werepocket Carolina were on the successful precommercial . We estimated quite different on the two districts. Much of the Witherbee 24,000 acres of longleaf pine on this district--20,000 on

Project.the Witherbee. Here many slashIn South pine plantations Carolina had suffered I also visited the Savanna River severe damage. Foresters were clearcutting them and planting longleaf pine. Seeded stands of longleaf pine seedlings had poor stocking but fill-in loblolly pine reproduction raised stocking to adequate levels. We Uwharrieestimated in 47,000 the Piedmont acresIn of North had longleaf only Carolina. 1,000pine theon acres thetwo Project.suitabledistricts were quite different. werefor atlongleaf the northern pine. Mostlimit of of the the longleaf soils were pine toozone. heavy There and ofwas 20,000seedlings.the too conecuh much acres risksuitable ranger of frost-heavingThe for in longleafCroatan Alabam pine. District,of who fall-germinated Ranger made near Mills, thethe son Atlantic coast, had successful 1947 seedbed burn, pointed out a unique extremelyadvantageportions vulnerable ofof the the longleaf district to dangerous pine type. crown There and were ground large in pocosins, a forest type fires. Fortunately, they were surrounded by longleaf forests that could be prescribed burned creating a wide severalband of supervisor'sfire proofing. officesAfter the engaged regional me contract for follow was up completed in 1975, assistance. I worked 4 additional years in Alabama, 2 manyin Florida, others and on tl longleafBesides pine consultationproblems, Some on national of my forests, in Mississippi. I assisted ,Company.clients were T.R.Piedmont Koppers Miller Forester,Mill Company, Company, Victor AlabamaLoper Beadle Forest, River International Company, Huxford Trust. Auburn at University,Albany, Georgia, and Bennett hadEley and me Frazer Peters, provide Ill, forestrypresident training consultants. offor F his & W Forestry Services foresters and prepare silvicultural reports for seven of his clients. After a field examination of the , I wrote reports for Wiregrass, Aired, Wildfair. T.L. Tyler, GeorgiaMixon,Seminole, Forestry who H.B. was Commission,Wetherbee, then Onchief December ofand asked forest Gravel me research1978 toHill conduct Georgiaforests. for thea State Forester John chiefshis travelsat a Georgia through meeting IndianBartram that country.protected fortunately Purposeand secured smoothed of the blessing of several study. Its objective was to find a way to plant longleaf meeting. held at Augusta. was for John Stuart. the Indian seedlingsJanuarypine successfully 1979 from tothe investigate Reidsvillein Georgia.To get Nurserythe preliminary problem. in February ideas onfor the the study we planted I signed a contract in changedof agent,a large to the tract finalize lifestyle of theirarrangements of and Thethe tonaturalistIndians. white with settlers. theTradersnoted natives that brought comingfor sale of the white man had Dixon Memorial State Forest near Waycross. A survival wereaxes,their able hoes, crude to clearguns, possessions. larger and manyfields With Forother metalcorn, items potatoes, cutting-tools that replaced beans, they count in June revealed that shallow planting and and other vegetables. Lumber in their towns provided exposure of seedling to drying at the planting site material for building structures, which replaced the crude was the major cause of loss. Surprisingly, seedlings kept huts, cribs, and lodges of earlier times. He large herds of cattle tended by Indian cowboys mounted on ashorses their introduceduse of lighterwood by theBartram forwhite cooking reported man. and woods warming fires fires, set by Indians as well throughandIndians a few the structureshelped , him madeHe transportedwith was of his treatedIongleaf baggage, him with inpine leathercourtesy guidedtrees. boats wherever him he went. The and rafts across wide streams, killed game, and provided for his food. Besides , bear , hominy. and a wide variety of native food. he was probably fed splinters,the delicious bags, and of clubs, carrierHunters, located pigeons. equipped the pigeons with roosting a supply of hghterwood in large trees at night. Suddenly they would light splinters creating a blaze of light that blinded and typical.clubbedstunned Bitter to the death conflicts birds. and Many developed collectedBartram's dropped betweenin tofriendlythe the bags. groundthe relations two andraces. werewith the Indians was not The natives resented invasion of their homeland and Alabama.struck back 550 viciously. men, women, At Fort andMims children in were southwesl massacred in August 1813 by Creeks under William Weatherford, a half-Indian chief, known as Red Eagle. To protect settlers, walls made of pine poles had been set in ditches. But the gate, carelessly left open by soldiers, was stuck in sand and could not be closed when JacksonHorseshoethe warriors trapped Bendattacked. the and Creeks Later.wiped inout central most of Alabamavolunteers Red Eagle's at under General Andrew Seminolesmovewarriors.Indians to were in Florida defeated wereIn by pitched whites.undefeated battles Many andthroughout were fled forced to longleafa to pine country the arid in Arkansas and Oklahoma. and Huguenots from FranceHighlanders were among from theScotland! first white Scotch-Irish from Ireland, THE PIONEERS sanctuary in the vast EvergladeSoon after Swamp.the turn of the 19th century, most Indians (1746),settlerslongleaf theto establish pine.Highlanders' Most permanent Afterearlier clan defeatsystem pioneers homes inwas in thehad thedestroyed battle left. land of andtheCulloden in oldChoctawswereSeminoles fields, gone remnants in exceptMississippi,in Florida, of fortowns. andHere a Croatans few buriala and few Creeks theremounds, others. in Northvestiges in arrowheads Carolina, of the earlier residents remain: Alabama, landlords kept them from making a living on the land. and other artifacts. Ashes from warming and cooking The situation in Scotland became intolerable. Glowing fires have long been dissolved by rain, and the virgin reports from some who had emigrated earlier enticed longleaf forest was left, largely intact, in the hands of the hundreds of Gaelic speaking Scots to move to the Cape white man. S lowlandsFear River of ValleyScotland of NorthtoAlso, northern Carolina.Scottish Ireland Presbyterians by the English had been moved from the King to provide a buffer against the Catholics. But the wereinScots competition not were allowed persecuted with to sell English their by thecattlemerchants. Church and other ofDisgusted England produce withand them,religious known and as economic Scotch-Irish, persecution, braved great a dangerous numbers of crossing of the ocean, to seek freedom in America. Many werecame100,000 brutallyto Charleston, Calvinists murdered. South wereIn On . Carolina.killed. St. Bartholomew's Hundredsdominated ofby FrenchCatholicDay, rulers, Protestants Huguenots, to escape religious persecution emigrated sinkingbyto had Charleston,sail. to wasduring help a fearsome sailorsstorms. South man CarolinaCrossingCrowded adventure. pumps in thein the Oftenunsanitaryto Atlantic keep1700's. the theinpassengers quarters,leaky woodenfrom ships, powered with bad food and water, suffering with sea sickness and longother in ills, Charleston. many died After onBut theirthe the way fearful Scotch-Irish to thevoyage, promised and they Huguenots made land. did not remain arrangements to acquire tracts of land. purchased some supplies and , then continued inland to establish wereandmanyhomes dismal the rivers:main in swamps.a wildernesshighways Santee, The toBlack, forested Charlestonlowland PeeDee, with was and vast penetrated and Georgetown. pine others uplands bythat There were few roads, and ferries to cross the river were Plaguedmiles apart. by clouds of mosquitoes,Terror and hardshipsthey were terrifiedawaited at them in the forests. night by strange sounds: the scream of panthers, screech of owls, and booming of alligators. Rainstorms often doused their fires and left them wet and miserable, having to borrow live from neighbors. Brush arbors, wilderness.,elements.built.log shelters, Without More It wasand substantial lumberlean1oseasy to forbecome were homes coffins slim lost would theprotection in deadthe have trackless were from to be the Always there was the fear of Indians and nativeswrapped drifted in a blanket into their forBut burial, camps, they were were agreeably friendly, surprised and when some of the offered to exchange corn, and other needed supplies for bytradinguseful: girdling how trees; the to hunting startsettlers fire tricksKnowledgehad with thoughtfully so friction; they imparted could how brought supplementto byclear along. the land Indians was even more their food supplies with deer, turkey, and other woodland game; identification of useful , and much tationmore. they cleared homesitesSince near the riversthem werein soils their usually primary means of transpor- available.growinghomesricher thancrops replaced Lumber the and sterile wasthe gardens. cabinsAt pit pine first sawn landswhenthey from builtandrough logs logmore lumbercut cabins. suitablewith became axes Later, for more substantial frombefore virgin the longleaf more pines. efficient Over crosscut a century would could elapse be stoodinvented. on a trestle over Pitthe sawinglog, snaked was intoa slow, position laborious with process. One man oxen, and handled a saw that cut only on the dawn stroke. The other man worked in the pit and got a face full of . Only a few boards were produced in a portedhard day's from . Europe or hand-madeBuildings were by a constructedlocal blacksmith. with precious nails im- Heartwood, virtually immune to decay, was collected for beforehouse blockstheir homes and sills. wereThe completed. devoutly ChristianMany were settlers crude built churches even structures, fashioned from logs, without chimneys or any means of heating. The hardy pioneers did not believe that worshipers needed to be comfortable during services.hoes, although a fewGardens people andrigged-up crops werecrude tended plows mostlyto by hand with be pulled by oxen. The settlers planted Indian corn, following advice of their native friends, instead of wheat that did not do as well. With seed and transplants, ob- tained from the Indians or brought from Europe! a great variety of garden crops were grown: sweet and Irish potatoes, beans, English and blackeyed peas, squash, Carolina.melons, and Upon the arrival like. Highlandat Wilmington. Scots the migrated Scots arrang- to Wilmington, North ed for boats to them up Cape Fear River to Cross Creek (site of modern Fayetteville). Taking up land troublesome.South Carolina The lowlands fierce Tuscarora and mosquitoes Indians werehad been not as in Cumberland and adjoining counties, dominated by driven out, and there were not many Catawba and Croatans. So they probably had less contact with longleaf pine forest, they faced a wilderness experience Indians. like that of the settlers who migrated to Charleston. But but no doubt they plantedBuilding more oats.of homes Highland and planting Scots of crops were similar there were some differences. in the sandhills establishingwere inordinately a "beachhead" fond ofDespite oatmeal. in the hardships North Carolina suffered and by the pioneers was move liveable than the more humid summers in South Carolina , there was much that pleas- ed them. Many had been landless in Europe, and here 6 was abundant land for them to acquire. Everyone was free to hunt deer, turkey, and other game to supplement their food supply. Hunting in the old country had been strictly limited to the very wealthy who maintained theirshootinggrowing livestock. preserves. season There for their Thewas cattle longleaf sufficient and pine canebreaks grass woods during providedalong the the an ideal range for grassthecreeks greenunfit and to grass riverseat. that provided sprangSoon winter upthey following feednoticed when fires that frost set their bymade cattlethe were attracted to Indians. So they began to fire the woods to help locate their cattle and green up grass in the spring. Since the cattle grazed unrestricted on open range, rail fences had to be built to protect crops from them. Also, fence rows had to be kept clean and yards swept with dogwood edbrooms to flee for to protection the pine hills Hogsfrom when woodsfed on spring acornsfires. in the covered swamps, but they were forc- thenutritious bottoms. pine There seedling the hungry roots. Inbeasts later yearssubsisted cattlemen on fires and pineywoods hogs plagued foresters managing tielongleaf on the pine. open range. PioneersAt strategic became locations, superb pens horsemen were while working cat- built and cattle were driven, at least once a year, into them for branding or ear marking, castration of bull ofcalves, cur and and'ketch" bull steers that dogs. forhad HogsbutcheringThe been ketch were trained dogs orlocated sale. expertly were with usually to hounds fell a mixture and caught with goats,shoat by turkeys grabbing and him chickens.Besides by the leg cattleDepradations or snout.and hogs, by the wild settlers raised sheep, animals and hawks took a toll of them each year. Pan- thers and bears sometimes killed and ate calves and colts. Alligators caught unwary in the swamps, and wildcatsboldly attackedwere a constant chickens, menace. turkeys, Foxesand guineas and hawks around earlyfarm steads.settlers would haveWithout been cattle difficult, and ithogs not onimpossi- the open range, life for the ble. In addition to , , milk, cheese, and butter, they provided many other essentials: for boots, shoes, saddles, harnesses, whips, and shirts; tallow for and the Savannah RiverA project,written reportIn addition was submittedto a general for each ranger district candles; and many other items for home use. Also, there description of the district, including the acreage and was a surplus to trade for supplies that could not be pro- thinning,seeding,recommendationscharacter fire planting, use, protection, for and solutions to special of longleaf precommercial and commercial natural pine stands, regeneration. direct it listed by duced locally: rum, molasses, , , clothing, instructionsrecommendedproblems. on each for stepUse in of applying a two-cut the shelterwood system were system was generally natural regeneration. Detailed building supplies, tools, guns, powder, shots, flints, and given as well as criteria for deciding between natural and the like. The longleaf pinewoods were not only an ideal range for the settlers' livestock but also furnished heartwood seedingartificial methods.on the AppalachicolaExcept Nationalfor good Forest,results innot Florida, much particularly with row that could be used to make and pitch. These products successful direct seeding of longleaf pine was found, Because of this and my appraisal of the poor chance for directsuccess seeding. in the Inareas some visited, places supplemental seeding of I seldom recommended small areas in shelterwood stands on years of good seed crops was suggested. We did find an excellent catch of seeding on the Oakmulgee District in Alabama on an successfulexperiencearea devastated longleaf with by planting a tornado.My planting in Alabama, recommendations Mississippi, and generally followed my T.R. Miller Company and other North Carolina. Emphasis was put on complete site- preparation, high-grade seedlings from selected nurseries, extreme care in transit including cold storage, and accurate planting at the proper depth. Crew training and supervision were stressed. Containerized planting was discussed, but I usually recommended postponing its use until later. Fire-use covered burning strategy, estimates of probable damage, and other details of prescriptions. Solutions were also recommended for protection problems such as brownspot infestations, and standshog and of cattle saplings, damage. however,We found hadlittle moreneed forthan precommercial 2,000 thinning. A few recommendeddominant stems thinning per backacre. to about 1.000 stems per In such stands we acre using practical measures. A recently invented remote control , the 'Horse," may provide froma means below for leaving thinning the overstockedbestWe prescribeddominants natural andthinning codominants. stands. of commercial-sized stands A density of 60 square feet basal area per acre for younger stands was recommended; 70 square feet for older stands. Off-site planting of slash pine and invasion of good longleaf pine sites by slash and loblolly pines was frequently observed. I recommended that many of these areas be converted to longleaf pine at the time of harvest cuts. pineOakmulgee,132.000 zone. Muchacres Tuskegee, of in it longleaf wasShoalOn andon fivesteeppine Conecuh, Creek districts type. mountain was inwe near Alabama; slopesestimated the northern and Shoal limitCreek, of the Talladega, longleaf soils were generally too heavy for longleaf because of wood test. Stand conditionsOakmulgee were was similar the locale to Talladega for our Ebenezer shelter- the danger of frost-heaving of fall-germinated seedlings. with some mountains to deal with but considerable land We estimated, however, that 9,000 acres were suitable -- an estimated 45,000 acres--suitable for growing for the species. A special problem here was use of fire, longleaf pine. A tornado had destroyed timber on 100 moreand we land discussed suitable forstrategy longleafTalladega to pine--anminimize also estimatedhad mountain of damage. 25,000 slopes, but there was acres or so. Prompt direct seeding of the cutover area trees. Considerable good longleaf land is in LIM category with longleaf had established good seedling stands. In- prohibiting commercial management. terestingly, this area was visited in the early 1800's by Charles Lyell, the British geologist, who speculated that the excellent longleaf pine resulted from control of com- mountainpetition by districts, Indian fires.butTuskegee usually longleaf was at occurreda lower elevation in nar- than the three row bands along the top of ridges. This com- plicated the use of fire and other silvicultural practices. Also, there were open areas where seeding and plan- ting had failed on very droughty soils. We estimated on- longleafly 3.000 pine.acres It suitablecoveredConecuh forfavorable longleaf was coastal pineby far management.pine the soils best and district for growing a gentle terrain. We estimated 50,000 acres of potential longleaf land. Despite the fact the large portions had ex- cellent stands of second-growth stands suitable for use of shelterwood, an unwanted amount of regeneration had been done by clearcutting and planting of slash pine. I strongly recommended against such planting. Future regeneration should concentrate on natural regeneration using a shelterwood system where adequate seed trees Seminole.are available. Lake GeorgeOn five and districts Osceola, in Florida, we estimated Appalachicola. Wakulla, woods,86,000 whichacres werein longleaf consideredAppalachicola pine. by the had silviculturist much of tothe be area occupied by flat- judicedsuitableunsuitable against for for the longleaflongleaf, species. pine. estimated They The had forester, onlybeen 10,000 somewhatunusually acres suc-pre- cessful in row-seeding longleaf pine and much of their regeneration will be done by that method. At the time, they were considering allowing cattle to graze on the na- tional forest under a system. I suggested several measures to include in the that would help coor- weredinate not grazing as extensive with timberWakulla as management.on theDistrict Appalachicola. had some flatwood We areas but they estimated 35,000 acres suitable for longleaf pine. This Aoffdistrict smallharvestForbes site was plantingadministrative shelterwoodsof the the locale unthrifty of slash for test test. pinesthe pine.of Unfortunately,highly containerized and replantingsuccessful there planting with Lavender- was longleaf. wasmuch I recommended early wheresuggested. direct seeding andSeminole, planting the had most failed. southerly Due to district, had large areas severemended predator planting pressure instead and of seedling. droughty Improved soils, planting I recom- weenbacklogknownmethods thick locally ofstandswere failed as recommended. of "longleafplantations. sandLake pine. pine George BecauseHere islands"--sustained alsoDistrict of was the had asensitive large beautiful bet- longleaf on sites Thereunderstorymodificationnature were well-stocked palmetto of site preparation competition.Osceola stands of District measures longleaf At the had time, with for a unique controlplanting.severe regenerationof problem. of , I recommended some workshop,theForest, ground. to vieworganized and discuss Additionally,by the management Alabama Mooney problemsForestry Nalty sponsored on a longleaf pine Commission,by company that foresters was held from at Brewton.southwest It wasAlabama, attended AFC foresters, and other including Zebulon White, the Louisiana consultant. Convinced in the potential of longleaf, many pulp mill foresters began to include it in workshoptheirForestry planting that stationed programs.was held inBill atAtlanta, Mobile.Balmer, organized Boyer softwood and a specialistIongleaf presented pine with State and Private talks on longleaf pine to the large enthusiastic group of wasforesters. devoted They exclusively also touredAlthough to the longleaf BrewtonEscambia. pine, was there the only were project where research other people doing significant research on the species. We closely followed their publications and made visits to Louisiana;see their research Lake City and inOur discussFlorida; travels findings Cordele included with in Alexandria Georgia; them. Forestry Center in Savannah River Project and Charleston Center in South Caroline; and Genetic Institute in Mississippi. Also, we a technical committee. MembersTo guide wereour research, T.E. Maki we of Northwere given the advice of spent a day with Herb Stoddard, the quail authority, and Carolina State; Claude Brown of the University of Ed Komerek at Tall Timbers near Thomasville, Georgia. some research on longleafMoreover, pine andInternational provided Paperland for Company was doing Georgia. Bonninghausen of the Florida Forest Service; Georgia.ourSouthland Adams Tract Experimental shelterwood Forest test. Wenear visited Bainbridge, their Bigler Crow of Louisiana State University; Walter of Buckeye ; Bob Allen of ; and1974, Jim JimSabin, Sabin assistant hiredWhen meregional Ifor consultation forester in onAtlanta. regional retired from the Forest Service in December visitedstates.longleaf 24 Thisranger pine included problems. districts every on The 13 national nationalwork tookforest forests most in the inof seven longleaf1975. I pine belt where an estimated 725,000 acres of the onlongleafspecies problems was in andmanagement growing. to encouragePurpose problems. more was toconsideration giveIn my on-the-ground travels, of advice and training contacted 175 people in field sessions and dozens more at supervisors offices. Practically everyone, with a few notable dissenters, displayed a sincere interest in of andlongleafnationalmen, forest foresters,pineforest workers. and people werewildlife welcomed Aseager and a rule. otherto learn. me:two specialists, supervisors,days A broad were technicians,spectrum spent staff at each ranger district longleafbeginning pine with problems a get-acquainted and select fieldconference points to to visit. list were in active demand by mariners to waterproof their Most of the time was spent on the forest formulating sails and the seams of their wooden ships. Naval prescriptions, demonstrating techniques, working Out stores (tar and pitch) and livestock, products of the solutions to silvicultural and management problems. longleaf pine forests, played a major role in survival of thewoodstacked pioneers was it thenin the covered earlyTo produceyears. with sand naval and stores, set on they fire. gatheredSlow heartwood and ri conical piles in specially prepared pits. The combustion boiled out the tar, which drained into barrels quail forest,and othe prized or into another clay-lined pit to be converted into pitch. Pitch and tar were collected in oaken barrels. Sometimes huge due out canoes of cypress logs were used to transport the barrels to seaport shipping points. Some of these canoes were large enough to hold 500 barrels America.of .For example, Taras a haspunishment often been for minor featured in the folkways of or other antisocial behavior, victims were tarred and feathered. The sticky black liquid was first smeared over the victims' bodies, which were then coated with gobs of feathers. To add to the discomfort, the offenders were sometimes ridden on a rail snatched from a nearby fence.of their production of navalNorth stores. Carolineans A General were during dubbed the "Tarheels" because enemyfoundotherCivil War, fire,troops.that wishedthenoting European the for tenacitytheWilliam settlers "tar onofBartram, inthe their Carolina Carolineans heels" in the had tolatter not hold facing onlypart of the 18th Century. survived the rigors of the wilderness but had established a firm foothold in the new land. He visited a Huguenot planter on Santee River who had crisscrossed his level others,bottomlandsHe enioyed who had with the built dikeshospitality comfortable to grow of this valuable homes man, and ascrops well mansions, of as rice, many some of brick, with large libraries and elaborately furnished. Proceeds from rice and indigo crops, as well asSelectedhad from made large trees thisherds forpossible. of spars cattleSome and and largesettlersnaval logs stores were were operations.engaged harvested in timbering operations. for export Black slaves cut the timber, skidded it to the andtheriver.riverbank materialfloated There, down withwith the a aheartto bigbroad the wheel pine Atseaport , Cross timber rig and pulled forCreek, was dumpedexport. madeby trading oxen, itup into center intoshaped the rafts for the Highland Scots, aBartram tradinghad built foundcenter grist a forand bustling pioneers , village. who powered Enterprisingbrought by cattle, water. settlers naval It was permanent homes in the forested land between Santee stores,Wilmingtonmany skilled down people nearby in the Cape village: Fear blacksmiths, River. There coopers, were and other products for transportation to threatened.Georgeand PeeDee Ill A levied tyrannical rivers unfair when British taxes their government and hard-won in many freedomunder other King ways was tavernAlabama,carpenters, furnished and shoemakers. accommodationsMississippiBartram's andas well the fortravels aslike. travelers. the A tookCarolinas.comfortable him into In Georgia, Florida, persecuted them - a treatment they refused to tolerate. Carolinalivestock,his journals, settlers and he hadtimbering reported spread followedthat westward. the culturea similarHomes, developed pattern. farming, Heby In bitter resentment, they left their and enrolled did find a difference in naval stores operations near in armed forces organized by the South Carolina Mobile. Alabama. Huge iron pots were used instead of Continental Government to repel British forces sent to quell the rebellion againstFrancis the Marion,King's authority. the famous 'Swamp Fox," pursued clay-lined pits to convertScotch-Irish tar to pitch. and Huguenots had barely established 7 a relentless attack against Loyalists and the British during the Revolutionary War. After the War, he played a majorhad fought role in onbringing opposite peace sides. between Besides neighbors sponsoring who legislation to protect the Loyalists he counseled the rugged soldiers of his brigade to forgive them. In a final muster speech he said, "God has given us the victory. Let us show our gratitude to Heaven by refraining from Patriotcruelty causeto man." alive whileSince the Carolinasthe war Francis were dominated Marion's role in keeping the by the British has been widely acclaimed. For several years after the capture of Charleston his brigade was poems,the only andforce in against history the .Marion British Parentshas in beenthe Lowhave honored Country. proudly with many place names. in named their children after him. One-hundred-fifty-years afte the war, a National Forest in South Carolina was givenFrancis his Marionname during National the Forest, Great which Depression. contains The many acres of longleaf pine where the Swamp Fox and his men forestsfought forremained freedom largely isAt a the unbrokenfitting close memorial of except the Revolutionary tofor them. a few trees War the great virgin cut for farmstead uses and selected large trees near producingstreams harvested naval stores forAfter graduallyexport. the American replaced theRevolution, pioneering a new method of CHANGING TIMES process of boiling tar and pitch from heartwood collected on the forest floor. Gum was secured by tapping living receptacletrees.10 inchesFirst hackeda cavityabove into was the the cutground truck, in the waswith base designed a ofspecial the tree to . collect about This cavity,gum. called a box, and twoIn early streaks spring, in a V- the bark werewas smoothed above this cut into the wood through the bark with a bladed tool called a hack. Soon gum would ooze out and flow down into the box. Then once each week new streaks camewereabout hackedto threecollect weeks,above the oleoresin. whenthe first boxes Usingto keep were a paddle, gumfull, a flowing. dipping the crew crewIn a mule-drawnuntilfordipped shipment. fall the when,the exudate wagon gum forintoTree transport ceasedpails cuts, and called flowingto lugged the 'faces"still and it or to crystallized riversidebarrelswere worked on in this manner on the face. A puller was then used to scrape the solid materials into pails. This last colilection was called 'scrape" and was not as valuable as gum. At EnglandWilmington, for adistillation. barrel of gumAt About first, brought 1830,gum $2.25; and scrape scrape stills were$1 were .25. shipped in barrels to beauty,Mooney are Nalty, efficient a booster producers of longleaf of high-quality pine, hunted wood quailproducts on his on forestsandy nearland andBrewton, furnish Alabama. an ideal habitat 30 Longleaf for r wildlife.for their distillation.introduced into the permitting local brought to the boilingAt point. the still The the vapor, gum whenwas dumped cooled, into a kettle and thansiphonedcondensed water, off. the into turpentine a mixture in the ofbottom came water oftoand thethe turpentine. still top was and drained, Lighterwas wasstrained, determined and put by intoits color barrels light for shipment.colors being Value the of most rosin valuable. Dross from rosin was often used to make smudgehazardin naval fires Because stores to ward country of offanThe mosquitoes, accidental most highly of flammable the fire, a troublesomeyear. an ordinance naval stores was were a serious fire passed that prohibited storage of them in the city of greatFayetteville, store of naval North stores Carolina. on the Several loading years dock earlier, at the a pitchedproducedbarrelriver had ato match see beenin the if into setitCape would afiresome FearIn burn. andthe turpentine region earlydestroyed daysof North leaking most by Carolina.a of manfrom the who turpentinea In and rosin was spreadfact, until south 1830 from the there. gum Therenaval stores was a belief among had not turpentiners that longleaf pine trees would not flow gum south of the Cape Fear River. This superstition was, of course, unfounded and gum production gradually expanded throughout the longleaf pine belt. Before the Civil War, however, 90 percent of gum naval stores was onproduced flat boats, in the or twotimber Carolinas.Barrels rafts down of gum rivers naval to stores markets. were generally shipped Many useful products were derived from them and the supplementedoccurredturpentinershighways in hadof by the no roads earlytroubleDuring cut settlers, throughfinding the 1800's, hadbuyers. the beenwildernesses. drastic gradually changes in transportation longleaf pine country. Waterways, the OftenCarolinas, they herds followed of buffalo Indian had and wintered buffalo intrails. the coastal In the provinces but returned to the Appalachian Mountains for summer grazing. These migrations carved out well- marked passages through the forests and some became the route of early roads. Slow moving, canvas covered wagons traversed the one- roads laden with merchandise. and packages were delivered on horseback until stage coaches came into common use. Pioneers sometimes inserted axles through hogsheads filled with tobacco and other produce to be towed to campingbroughtmarket by equipment.along slaves cooking or Theymules.When supplies, would distances meet others required at favorite overnight travel, wagoneers tents, and other campgrounds and enjoy an evening of music and tall tales around crackling fires before bedding down for the meansnight. of long distanceIn transportation the early 1800's, of naval rivers stores, still provided the primary Wilmington and traversedIn longleaf 1835 the pine first country railroad through in North Carolina started at timber, and similar forest products. About that time, contributeWeldon to tothe the Virginia destructionThis line. new of the method virgin offorests. transportation In the would ultimately steamboats were built. Before they came, an inventor early days, rails consisted of metal strapping nailed to lost a fortune attempting to power his boats on the Cape heart-pine timbers that were set on top of crossties. But Fear River with horses operating a treadmill. Soon the straps would come loose and cause serious wheelsannouncingluxurious traveled steamboats their the arrival rivers. powered at landingsBlasts by rear-mountedof echoed steam through whistles paddle the accidents and were soon replaced by iron rails moulded pineywoods. 8 in a foundry. Passenger coaches were lighted with lamps and heated with stoves. Engine boilers in pine country were fired with lightwood collected from amusementfires.the forest. that the mostWithout valuable spark crop arrestors, for farmers locomotives in often set woodsA newspaper editor remarked with some the poor sandhills was money collected from railroad ofcompanies Fayetteville. for damages(The city,Railroads theyformed claimed hadof two a fromserious villages, these effect Cross fires. on the trade of the city Creek and Campbellton, was named for the Marquis DeLafayette who visited there.) For years it had been the major trading center for and forest products coming backwoodsmen.from the But all efforts by the city fathers to get west and for supplies needed by the a railroad connection failed, and trade dried up when a second line was built to intersect the Wilmington-Weldon werePlankandline builtatwas roadsGoldsboro radiatingimmediately drew and heavilyout Afteracted runfrom muchto onupon. theCharlotte, the headcity Aadjacent series to scratching, bypassingattract of pine trade. forests athem.roads unique idea developed awerefor firmplanksindustry. material dugbase 4 parallel First,feet andfor thelongcreated the toroad. right-of-way werethe a Onroutetemporary laid top of wasof travel. these boomcleared Then,planks in andthe 4timber trencheshewn inch ri the trenches to provide 6 inch by 8 inch stringers were placed. Across these announcingstringersloadedFinally, 8 awagons inch blanketthe planksarrival pouringof sand Completionof8 feetstage on long thecoaches formedoftop the completed roadsgladdened the roadbed. had the the the job. desired effect. Soon, into the city and bugles inhearts 12-mile of tavern relays operators on theseStage androads, coaches, merchants. competed drawn favorablyby teams of horses galloping with the slow-moving trains. Many people preferred them roadsover the did noisy, a booming dirty, railroadFrom business. 1858 coaches. until But the they advent rapidly of the Civil War, plank deteriorated with heavy traffic. Expansion of railroad lines, of course, sealed their doom. By the time war broke out, many of them had been abandoned. Sherman's army, however, followed a plank in his attack on Suitable thinning densities for longleaf pine stands were growinglifestyleFayetteville.1793 ofEli shortmany Whitney staple inhabitants invented cottonAn invention ofprofitable. longleaf a cotton of a Hispine Yankee gin device country. that created could made In a revolution in the accomplish as much in a day with one man as 100 developed. rushedpeople tocould buy doslaves before. andLured to clear by the land prospect and cultivate of wealth, the many entrepreneurs burn prepared the seed bed. On unburned plots, few to newprovide crop. farmland. Many virgin Soon stands profits of fromlongleaf cotton pine permitted were felled seedlings were established. Many people have marvel- ed at this beautiful young stand of longleaf pine at the ductednorthern a limitLongleaf of the Pine species.With Symposium Director Tomat Brewton Nelson's in encouragement,Oc- we con- tober. Nelson acted as master of ceremonies for presen- tations on brownspot, genetics, planting and direct seeding, growth and yield, site, and status of longleaf pine managementbelt attended andtheAbout meeting,regeneration. 175 people which from included states a throughout tour the longleaf T.R.of the Miller Escanibia Mill Company on theIn secondDecemberland near day. Brewton. 1969, Carl Where Mueller we and I put in a test on used superior seedlings, better than Wakeley's grade one, carefully protected in transit from the nearby Haus Nursery, and accurately planted at the proper depth, sur- vival and growth were excellent. A very important factor was site preparation. After clearcutting, any standing trees remaining were sheared, debris raked into wind rows and burned, and the whole area disked with a large . Our planting site was free of competition, and Leigh McMillan II agreedEncouraged to have his by crews the success make some with longleaf planting, Ed most important, any source of brownspot infection from local tests of natural regeneration using a two-cut shelter- plantingdiseased longleaf seedlings pine, had Soonand been foresters the eliminated. word began spread to oflearn Miller's the remarkable success wood system. Seven such tests were made on the key to a practice that had been largely abandoned in the Escambia: Red Branch, Cobb Creek, Highway-North, ecuhcameplesouth. Nationaleagerlyfor Becauseinstruction seekingForest; of in the Genevainformationplanting new development, Statelongleaf were Forest; pine.foresters many John Some onrequestsWhite peo- Con- Highway-South, Compartment 101, Lindsey North, and on DeSoto National Forest in Mississippi; foresters with Investment Three. The tests were very successful, and the North Carolina Forest Service; and others. soon T.R. Miller foresters began using shelterwood on an operational basis on Company land.

woodlandsupporters,T.R. Miller manager Millhelped Company for save the ofthecompany, Brewton, longleaf. beforeAlabama, his anddeath other soon loyal Brooks Lambert, toafter fade the awayphoto wasand taken,gradually viewsIn forestersthe a superior 1970's, became 30-year-old sentiment interested longleaf. against longleaf pine began in favoring the species in their management. To en- courage the trend, we participated in workshops, made individual contacts and conducted tours of the Ex- perimental Forest. These activities were all aimed to andtransfer a strong research devotee findings of longleaf,Lamar into practice.Beasley, invited supervisorme to conduct of Kisatchie National Forest a workshop for his personnel. Response of the foresters was gratifying and spoke well for the future for Iongleaf. One nagging problem was destruction of seedlings by Forestsopen range and anotherhogs. strongLeon supporter Cambre, of oursupervisor longleaf pineof Mississippi National research, gathered up his men and came to Brewton for a workshop. After an indoor session, most of the two days was spent on the Escambia. This group was also longleafextremely belt supportive was also ofThe taken the group species. to selectedof foresters sites from on all the national forests in the Escambia, Miller plantations, and Conecuh National Escambia researchers conducted a regional study to determine the growth potential of longleaf pine. Alabama- His publication of results was a valuable accumulation of knowledge on growth and yield of natural stands and optimum thinning densities for Shoulders.fromvarious products. Lowery andDuring others. the Their 1960's data and exploded 1970's the growth and plantationsyield data in Louisiana were published by generally held myth that longleaf pine grew too slowly standto be consideredon Kaul Forest for A thatcommercial seedbed gave Bob burn management. Maple established an opportunity an overdense seedling to try to thin them with fire. Before his study. our careful survey had revealed that a medium stand of about 5,000 seedlings per acre might survive. These were seedlings germinated, which had been expected to die, on bare theyidealsizesoil were in usually weather contrast only one-year-old--.expected conditionsto others Mapleto established be and 1 killed. putinch suceeded in at a onthe carefully duff. in savingAt collar--a thecontrolled time the winter fire under 5,000 seedling density. Fire had done a good job of ofseedlings hadreducinggrass-stage been per thedone acre.longleaf undesirable to explore Daveseedlings Bruce thestocking during resistance had thoroughly theof some1950's. of seedlings 50,000 investigatedLittle tire mortality studyheight using growth thermocouples to fire damage. and Maple an on-site installed weather a basic densities.seedlings Although in a winter mortality Intire another under increased study,a range under he ofobserved overstoryheavier mortality of grass-stage additionstation to to determine the intensity damage of the to burn, such correlated seedlings. with In densities,optimum overall overstory damage densitiesA prep-cut was light in study a inshelterwood the area. winier established burns.system, earlier to determine weather, he found that seedling characteristics were was used for a fire study. In each density class there important. Those with thin bark, unprotected by green withwere a no-burn four treatments: check. Trees winter, in the spring, overstory and summerwere large fires straw, were more severely damaged. Opposites having -sawlogmanagement size--about system 60-years-old. compartments.In a younger stand, Maple which installed had abeen established on thick bark, protected by a sheaf of pine straw, were more withsimilar an unburned study testing check. winter, Overstory spring, trees and weresummer about fires resistant to damage. seedlings"concept25-years-old of usingto atdiagnose the time.I the need for a brownspotalso conducted burn. two fire studies. One tested the crop seedlings'S instead of 'average Normal procedure at the time was to select individual seedlings to estimate degree of brownspot infection and likelihood of seedling damage by the fire. In the crop seedling method, milacres were selected mechanically and the "best" seedling on the milacre was used for the sample. The study revealed that the new method could result in a drastic difference in prescriptions more suited resistto the needsdamage of thein a stand, burn.Little My was other known study of testedthe ability the of planted seedlings to survival of newly planted seedlings in hot, moderate, and cool burns. Such seedlings proved to be highly resistant werephaseto damage, completed, of our except battle our toin hot resultsPublication burns were near ofpublished a researchforest wall. in findings the was an important 'save the longleaf." As studies and other scientific and popular outlets. Forest Farmer ran an article on early results from bibliographyour shelterwood listed all tests. significant publications on longleaf In 1969 our annotated thepine shelterwood since Wahlenberg's system.Our were monograph findings published on innatural 1946.in a summaryregeneration. especially with bulletin in 1975. Coverage was comprehensive including basic ecological and biotic factors, an evaluation of several regeneration systems, and detailed coverage of encouragingand-yieldthe shelterwood study data system. in on a Farrarbulletin.the potential summed of up thinned findings natural from his regional growth- It gave reliable and stands. His publication was much more useful than the standard Miscellaneous Publication 50, which was based on unmanaged stands, giving growth and yield to low Thedescribingregenerationfor Joseph managed Springsamazing onstands. a steeparea1968 onmountain the was Heflin a slope year Ranger wasof significani published.District, progress. Our article results with shelterwood Talladega National Forest had been selected for a test of seedbed burning. The pine overstory had been cut back to about 30 square feet of basal area per acre, which is our current recommendation of density for the seed cut in a shelterwood system. The entire area of about 50 acres was burned during the summer before Saw crews clearcut the virgin timber. the good 1961 seed crop except for small plots protected from fire. Because of the steep slope, we had to get special permission from the Region to make the burn. the development of large plantations. Gleaming white Excellent reproduction was established everywhere the mansions at the end of the long tree-lined lanes hid rows tonof cabins gin, blacksmith in the black shop,The slaves larger grist quarters. plantationsmill, barns, were and relatedsell sustaining with a cot- facilities. Teams of mules and oxen powered wagons and plows; carriage horses drew surreys and buggies for the white owners. Spirited saddle horses were used for hun- portedting and the racing. Confederacy.Most Many Southerners regretted in that the theyland hadof the longleaf pine sup- to fire on the flag of the country their ancestors had fought to establish. But they felt that it was necessary to defend their homeland from an unconstitutional inva- returnedsion of their to a rights. homelandAfter where the war, their disheartened antebellum way Confederate of veterans life had been destroyed forever. Suffering was most wroughtacute inhis Georgia campaign and to the destroy Carolinas the peoples'where Sherman means ofhad armysurvival.returned was typical. from service ColonelThe as Samdismal an officer John future Montgomery,in thatthe Confederatefaced my his grandfather when he father, who was too old for active service, had died dur- ing the war. The was in shambles; most of his large work force of slaves were gone: livestock were but- chered or driven off; destroyed; and cropland youngwas growing veteran up set in out weeds. toEndowed rebuild. To with obtain inbred cash Scotch-Irish he sold, resilience, the for as little as 12 cents an acre, large tracts of land he 9 had inherited. Much of it was stocked with virgin forests that speculators later sold to lumber companies. He built a substantial two story home of squared pine logs that withstood the buffeting of storms for more than a century; prospectsfields were of plowed their homeland, andAfter planted the warmigrated in manycotton. west. men, Some discouraged of by the dim these were younger sons who had not inherited land from their parents. It was the custom at that time for all Historianpineproperty forests toNollie go of to Hickman the oldestMany described son.of these them migrants as inhabitants lived like pioneers in the virgin Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas. of forest wildernesses with no near neighbors and desiring none. They subsisted on open range livestock, others.hunting, Over , the andyearsTimbering small there gardens. had in thebeen longleaf many changesforest provided a living for in logging and milling. Pit sawing of pioneer days had been replaced by slash saws powered by water. Circular saws came into existence in the 1850's making slash requiredsaws obsolete. great enduranceThe basic and exceptional task of cutting skills trees with andthe squaring timbers axe. A day's work was from "kin til kant," from first light of day until dark. As long as the timbermen used axes, they cut stumps waist high. When the was thekerosenebecauseintroduced crosscut stumps toimpractical afterdilute were thethe but cutgum.war, soon lower. The sawyers Atkerosene first, learned pine kept gum tothe usemade saw less timber was wasted Centuryfrom sticking. and larger millsSteam with replacedgreater daily water production to power the mills in the 19th were built. These larger mills were generally located near rivers or creeks so logs could be ratted to them. Logging was done by independent operators. To move the logs to the river or stream, teams of oxen were used. The drivers were masters at getting maximum effort from their animals. They used rawhide whips to control them. . Rafting required considerable knowledge, and In the hands of an expert teamster, the whip would crack logmen were subjected to many difficulties. Log jams like a bolt of lightning near the ear of a stubborn beast foundthewerebottomlandshazards. other a had constant hand,to Logs be where skiddedthreat; floodscould many notdroughtscarried to thebe were movedstream. the and lost. logs floods during ThoseIn faraddition, were back droughts.that special couldinsome the On be causing him to change his direction or urging him to delivered.of the cut treesTo separate sank andMillmen one were man's paidlost. logs loggers from another'sby the thousand board feet greater effort. eareachin marks the log local had and acourthouse distinctivebrands. inbrand the samethat had manner been asrecorded livestock creeksCedarboxedBoard Creek to ditcheswith float Lumbera thetrough were logs CompanyAconstructed of uniqueto heart-pine the mill. methodat Brewton.in The boardsCedar of ditches waterlogging andAlabama.fastened Murderwere to was conducted by thecreekpondposts floodgate was was driven dammed filled was in with opened,the to logs,stream.collect andskidded a theAthead strategic logs there of floatedwater. with locations, oxen Whendown teams, the the wereditch.be exportedfloated down to Europe MurderAt theand Creek millother the markets.to logs Conecuh were These squared River deals to make "deals" to where they were assembled into rafts. A company man camped on the raft and piloted it to Pensacola Bay. After deliveringrailroadBrewton. logginghis timber toward Thehe hiked theriver end erathe of gradually60 the miles 19th back passedCentury. to with the advent of During this primitive period, longleaf pine forests had provided a livelihood for many thousands of southerners, but the impact on them was chiefly in a narrow zone near creeks and rivers. Large blocks of timber remained in the back country out ofAs reach the 19th of timbermen. Century waned, strange sounds were BOOM TIMES heard in the longleaf forest. The scream of locomotives, onat their the doctorates: University Boyerof Georgia. at Duke Karl University Wenger, and assistant Farrar din of power dragging Jogs to railroads, and the chant of track-laying crews signaled the start of a new director, transferred Bob Maple to help me with fire era. Railroad lumbermen had come South in force to onstudies. natural regenerationIn studies.the absence Shelterwood of my key systems researchers, I concentrated harvest a bonanza of yellow-pine timber. were tested in a regional study at 10 locations in North Carolina and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, owerfulinto skidders the longleaf an pin Mississippi, and Louisiana. Each shelterwood test, pine lumber. usually about 80 acres. was given a code name to consistedTrusteesimplify recordkeepingForest of pines moreOur and than first identification. 100 test, years Bicolor-109, old, probably was installed on Kaul in 1966. The seed tree overstory saved from cutting by the Kaul Lumber Company management plan prepared by the Forest Service in 1905. Our cooperators were Hugh Kaul and Lewis theregenerationWeaver. Centerville Kaul and wasRanger fire providedstudies.The District, same year, Talladega we established National the Ebenezer test on additional land for Forest, in Alabama. Study area was in a 70-year-old longleaf pine stand that apparently originated after the Civil War on an old cottonfield. There were some Forests,excellent helped five-log me trees locatedJoe in the Riebold.the stand. Lavender-Forbes trail on supervisor of the Florida National the Appalachicola National Forest south of Tallahassee. Riebold, a graduate of Mont Alto Forestry School in Pennsylvania, had successfully regenerated longleaf pine on the Francis Marion when he was supervisor of thebooster South Carolinaof our shelterwood National Forests. research. He wasIncidently, a strong Joe helped conduct the ranger school meeting I attended at wasGulfport, established Mississippi, in well-stockedThe in 1935.Spanish secondTrail test growth on the stands Blackwater State Forest that sprung up when the lumber company cut the virgin timber in the late 1920's. A strong booster of longleaf pine and the shelterwood system was Bonninghauser. assistant state forester, who often visited us and was wouldthoroughly have familiarpreferred with aBob better our Britt, Escambia site forester for our research. forOglesby Eglin AirDitch Force Base in Florida, test. It was representative of the lower Coastal Plain with Our John Hill test on the Kisatchie National Forest in provinceseverePaperI pointed gallberry Company'sfor out the that study,and we Southland palmettoOur heneeded agreed.Adams competition.Experimentalsuch Tract a critical test But, Forest wastest when inmade nearthat on International Louisiana was made in an area that had been part of Bainbridge, Georgia. It was a promising site with an an artillery range in World War II. Our crew used metal excellent overstory ol pines and clean understory. Even detectors to avoid striking unexploded shells while completewith the regeneration cycle in 20 years. Ourfavorable conditions we did not successfully test.regionalaccidentalForest,problem Despite in wastests. Mississippi,damagefire, a bafflingThe fromOn seed we thehurricanelack established treesBlack of seed wereCreekCamille production. thefruitful Ranger and Flat a and BranchsmallDistrict, the DeSoto National it was the most successful of all our setting control posts. During my Kisatchie visit, George Tannehill,me up to who see was people stil ranger and places of the WinnI had District, not seen invited since withfarunderstory frequent from the hadprescribed Wiggins been CCCkept fires. cleancamp The by thatstudy the I visitedNationalarea was in Forest1935. not CooperatorstheForest,Lakes Great State andDepression. were GrahamForest Claude near OurChamblee, Elizabethtown,RomeHood. Davissuperintendent assistant test North statewas Carolina. establishedforester.of the on the Bladen Our seed trees in the test were probably seedlings theInterestingly, study area. we found of an old tar in hidden in the grass at that time. the Society Hill test madeIn on South the Sandhills Carolina, StateJohn Tiller,Forest. state forester, approved Tiller was a district forester when I held a similar position applyingat additionmaintainedAiken in the 1942.to systemthe for Allregional 20 10 ahveyears shelterwood shelterwood accumulated and valuable test study,areas from guidelines haveI them.conducted been In for increasedregenerationreplicated seven-fold knowledge. byIn scalping a 1956 grass study, exposing seedling height growth had been plot research to add to our fund of soil with a BSW plow. Following this lead, I conducted a seedbed preparation study using an array 01 treatments fire,on chemical, two contrasting and mechanical sites. Included treatments. were combinations Dalapon was of furrowscountsusedposition toto ofcontrolmodify onflowers one grass;the side and seedbed ofTodisking, conelets the estimate seed mechanically. roto-tilling, tree.taken cone Sample from crop and a treesshallowlevels, single were we used binocular felled after binocular counts were made and total number countsfactorsrecorded. were on From derived.seed these per cone data,Effect were blowup of site,determined. factors seed forcrop Seedbinocular level, per tree age, and other cone was needed, along with cone crop forecasts and expected tree percent. for various sites to estimate the Craul'sprobable soil success and site of seedbed Whenstudies Bill treatments.and Boyer conducted returned somefrom Duke, he picked up additional regeneration research. He made a study of the effect of heat sums on the development of both male and female longleaf pine. His findings, used for his Ph.D. thesis, were very useful techniques for determining when cooperatorgrowthto Universitymake andcone-crop land, yield of Georgia.tested study forecasts. aBob widewhen Farrar array he returnedplunged of ages, into sites,from establishment andthe of his regional His plots, established on standinstalled densities. in natural stands,Besides Farrar his regional also conducted growth and yielda study, which was wereweTexas.representingplantation were located ableIn both yield to inmany offind eightstudy. these throughoutages, states Data regional sites, were from theandstudies, taken NorthSouth. degrees inI worked CarolinaallPlantations ofplantations stocking closely to with Farrar securing cooperator support and helping him whereassembledsoDuring cutting water the was"riverwa into I The practical skiddingera" oxenrange were did use d tozone hauloattonot along logs.fogs. be exceed floated Logsstreams 4 were miles,to the aboutmake 35some years of thefrom examinations. theFarrar Loxley also plots analyzed in Baldwin data County, that had accumulated for imited to a narrow s deeprafts enough on the to rivers f 10 bonanzaLumbermenwith locomotives, of yellowmoved p e belt in the late 1800's d loaders, to harvest a Joe Brady sponsored the of a dozen furrow seeders to be sold to interested companies for C) CD testing throughout the South. The machines were quickly developingboughtSouth andCarolina, modified also versions. developed John a furrow Hatcher seeder at Aiken,that was I assisted many in testing them and theused seeders widely. were usedThousands properly. Failuresof acres werewere usuallysuccessfully seeded where dueunsuitable to plowing sites, furrows failure tooto control deep, brownspot using them with on fire anderrors.infestedbefore quickly But seeding, areas. gobbleda serious The using uprodents limitation any poor seed were seed, occurred thai attracted and was other planted. into thesquirrel- avoidable furrows No way was every found to deter them. Aofpublished longleafinlocalseed, 1954. examplenursery hisplantationsDespite monograph--Planting practice, wasthe were invaluable thePhillip andmore failure out-planting,Wakely, common guidelines ofthe a Southern replication thana long-time forfailures successes. collection Pines ofin planting researcher, Wakely's regional seed source study in 1954 at Brewton. Our planting on an old field that was burned, under Wakely's personal supervision, succumbed the next succeeded.pineyear. failed Shipman inIn 1960the west reported Florida thatsandhills, overall every planting of longleaf on sites where sand and slash pine survival of longleaf in the South Carolina sandhills was only 35 percent There were so many failures of longleaf Wahlenberg's monographBy 1965, in despite the interest focused on Iongleaf by 1946 and siginficant riskyplantations1960's and thatswitched throughout most toforesters slash the and Southconsidered loblolly in the pine.the 1950's practice and too research findings in the postwar years, the species faced a dismal future. Regeneration failures, slow seedling height-growth,beliefs had prejudiced infrequent many seed foresters crops, and and unfounded landowners preparedpine,lob/oilyregenerationDespite pinewiththe accumulation seedlings.hugefailures. machines Thousands of knowledge and of planted acres for were managingwith clearcut. slash longleaf and sit e- foresters and landowners were discouraged by theagainst second the growthtree. forestA modern with a singlenessday army of of men purpose. and machines moved into to By 1960, our Brewtonsupport budget four was increased enough researchers. While Boyer and I concentrated on shelterwood and compartment studies, Their objective was to clearcut the longleaf and replace Bob Farrar analyzed the Loxley Plot data and began it with other pines. There was no hope of recovery from plans for a regional stand and growth study. Phil Craul theseremoved. operations. Unmerchantable Every merchantable trees and treelogging was debris cut and was managementbeganResearch basic knowledgesoil was studies accumulating. vitalinvolving to the use success of a neutron of longleaf probe. pine groundbutapushed new there with stand into were huge windowsof others treesmachines. bentplanted. Muchand on Theburned of destruction the area conversion or was crushed ofdisked the was longleafinto and done the by pulp companies forest. Even foresters on the southern national forests were following in the footsteps of the pulpmill foresters. Locally, sale of the magnificent Alger Sullivan Longleaf Forest for conversion into slash and loblolly pine plantations was particularly disheartening to us at longleafBrewton, pine forest wasIn the reduced 10-year from period 13 million between to 7 1955 and 1965 the million acres. Unless a change was made, longleaf pine as an important commercial species would disappear thewherefromIf forest,any the research significant South we beleived bywas actionthe aimedThe mid-1970's.it was was Brewtonexclusively up taken to us. tounit Butpreventat waslongleaf the the prospectdisaster pine.only placeto in the South was disheartening. There were rumors that Verne Harper would be coming soon from Washington to phase out our research. inspection visit to Brewton.On April Earlier in a meeting with STEMMING 24,THE TIDE 1965, Verne Harper came for an observersDirector were Zilgitt convinced and his staff that he would recommend in New Orleans, most closingand I wereBrewton's determined longleafDespite to pinemake research.our a final fears effort for theto save future, our my professional staff abandoned.programEscambiapineresearch forest and program. where emphasized and Boyer,its When dismal Farrar,the the importance fatevisitors and Craul came, of did the I outlineda longleafmasterful our After the conference we toured the if our research were andOrleans.jobBrewton ofpromoting presenting Assistant a full-fledged me their as Chief leaderAfter research. projectHarper Harper in charge. with had left nodecidedwe Needless ties got tosome to Marianna tomake amazingsay news from New the Lake States wereThe almost red and cut whiteover. pineNow foreststhe nation of New England and we were delighted with his decision and plunged into our looked to the vast pine forests of the South to satisfy longleafresearch pine,with renewedan aggressive zest.In order program to stem of theresearch tide that at was rolling against reachedurgent domestic in the first needs quarterThe and heyday ofa demandingthe of20th the Century. longleaf export Themarket. pine all- timber industry was Brewton was needed. But I was plagued with a shortage time peak of yellow-pine lumber production was reached of research scientists to do this. Phil Craul left the Service andin 1909. step-up productions.New To loggingreach great methods blocks were of timber needed to reduce costs for employment as a professor at a northern college. in the back country, railroad logging was introduced. Both Boyer and Farrar were gone for two years working Spur lines were laid into the interior at quarter mile intervals. Slow-moving oxen teams were replaced by powerful Clyde and Lidgerwood skidders that could handle five or six huge logs at a time. Skidders greatly increased production but destroyed young timber. There was a little left following a skidder operation but a scarred passedlandscape.McGiffert underneath. loader, straddling SpurThe truckslogs the wererails, were loadedpiled often alongside carelesslythe cars that the tracks where a bybuilt,movers great and throngs accidentssupplied of sawwith were crews.logs, frequent. Limber To house To stands keep them were the and power clearcut other forest workers, towns were hastily built in the longleaf pine belt, Many were shantytowns that were moved from place to place as timber stands were exhausted. Others were more permanent and some grew into modern towns and cities.

Great throngs of laborers were recruited to work in the woods generallyand mi//s. Manyprovided lived by in Groceriesthebox lumbermen'scar villages. and other commissaries. needs of their workers were Often they paid the workers with script that could only steelbe100,000 cashed mill was boardat builtthese feet by establishments. GreatinHuge a single Southern band 8-hour mills Lumber shift.were TheCompany erected first all- that could cut over cutat Bogalusa, by the timbermen. Louisiana. OftenAt first, turpentiners lumbermen worked believed the that trees before they were the turpentine face would weaken the timber, but this turpentiningClaya cleared cups replaced instrip the aroundearly the 1900's Toeachdistructive protect tree and turpentine control facesburned from the fire, operators raked "chop boxes" for goodwasand"chop disproved material; Charles box" method especiallyby H. Bernard Herty of But collectingwherewere E. aroundFernow successfulfaces gum the in had 1893. didend been inwaste of developingThe theburned. earlya 19th lot of Century, W.W. Ashe area. These fires destroyed many newly germinated more conservative methods. The new system employed seedlings because the block was usually burned annually. Sometimes there was a delay in burning, and a new crop of pines were established if the previous burn employers.had happened Groceries, to come work Navalbefore clothes, stores a good and laborers seed other crop. livedsupplies in camps provided by their were furnished at a commissary. Workers developed special skills, depending on their ambition and talents. Recruitment of labor was a special problem and each operator was alert to preventing "pirating" of his workers by others. Sometimes an unscrupulous turpentiner would send some of his men into another camp to lure destructiveshallowmetal cupschipping box. and A gu rst,d ars clay cupbecame cupsand popular. gutterwere used, replaced Use butof the later the cup and gutterlaborers system away. This was a dangerous business and the hieved widespread use after 1910. Americansrecruiter sometimes were not paidgreatlyIn with 1914, concerned his Worldlife for untilWarthis practice.GermanI broke out in Europe. Most submarines sank the Lusitania drowning many of their countrymen. President Woodrow Wilson was reelected in 1916 promising to keep the nation out of war and the nation hoped he would be successful. submarine warfare hadSince dried 1914, up export when marketsthe war started for in Europe. German southernchanged drastically. pine lumber. Carloads of lumber were needed In 1917. the situation was woodenforlumber wooden ships. was barracks requiredSouthern toAlso, forhouselumbermen railroad there soldiers was cars. assured an and urgent additionalthe demandnation to construct 1 000 that they would furnish timber needed to win the war. theW.H.predicted virgin Sullivan longleaf that of enough Great pine forests Southerntimber of could the Lumber South be produced Companyto turn outfrom building20 to 30 program.vessels a A day great fromBut number the southern lumbermen of timber, shipyards. faced 12" xmany 12" problems with the ship x 24', were needed. Wood-cut lumber did not furnish enough of that material, and suitable trees had to be hunted out, which reduced overall production. Changes in ship created other problems. Drafting of men for the armed services and migration of workers to other war jobs caused labor shortages. callingprotection. for modification It was approved of cutting by the nation'spractices chief and forester, fire During World War I huge longleaf pine trees were cut to build ;-. . ofGifford Forestry Pinchot. in the South,"Louisiana's cooperated Henry with E. Hardnter.Herman H. known as the Father a fleetbuilt ofuntil wooden the demand ships. slackenedDespite all in thelate difficulties 1918 when many steel wooden ships were Chapman of Yale University to find ways to regenerate givenbecamelumbermen available considered for shipIn regeneration the construction. skurry and highly bustle impractical, of the time, little thought wasto growing a second crop of trees. Most Iongleaf pine. At Bogalusa, Louisiana, Red Bateman, chief ranger with Great Southern Lumber Company, outforestersand, and indeed, get like out." Austinlocal tax Carey, policiesBut therewho encouraged braved were thea few, scorn them encouraged ofto their"cut by pioneering fellows and made some provision for a second crop. In designed a dibble, still used by many, and planted some Alabama,Company, the andAlger Kaul Sullivan Lumber Company, Company T.R. Millerwere earlyMill convertsUSDA toForest conservation. ServiceIn prepared 1905, at athe management request of Kaul plan Lumber Company the crop,20,0001920 suggested acresAustin of Carey, longleaf that Batemannoting seedlings a good burn he longleafthe grew seedbed locally. pine cone toIn prepare for a catch. His suggestion was taken and several thousand acres were seeded naturally. Bateman arranged that the company fence the area to protect the theandseedlings virgin the overstory area from did hogs wasnot and havelogged, keep to bethe fire planted. seedlings out of them. survived When

Henry E. Hardtner, known as 'The Father of Forestry in the South,"University cooperated to find ways with Professorto regenerate H.H. longleaf Chapman pine. of Yale a shelterwoodF.S. Ranger system. Jim Hutchins This she admires Iterwood seedlings system, where established applied by Texaslongleaf,Lumber who Company but made the virginan inThere Mississippieffort forest wereto generally get and others a secondGoodrich was like considered cropPosey Jones of Howellin of Dantzler correctly, proved to be reliable throughout the longleaf pine westwardFewfroma nonrenewable treeseast movement, toescaped west. resource reachingIntensityThe the railroadbattering to a ofbecrescendo cut minedloggers ofincreased the likein sweptskidders. Louisiana. iron with acrossore. theBy the longleaf belt beltstudies on federal, to confirm state and or rejectprivateIn thethe land. nextshelterwood few years hypothesis Walker, Bayer and I conducted 1930, it became apparent that the end was near. Only and develop knowledge and techniques for applying the system. We learned the best overstory density for preparatory and seed cuts, timing for removal cuts, methods to forecast cone crops, acceptable levels of cone crops and seedling stands, use of fire, logging damage and other basic knowledge. From our studies, we were convinced that the shelterwood system would work by using the techniques we had developed. It was siananot ready discovered for testing a over Billrepellent Mann a wide in and 1955range other that of researchers conditions.significantly at Alexandria, Loui- boosted the opportunity for regenerating longleaf pine. In several years of additional research they perfected guidelines, including more potent repellents, for direct controlseeding. where seed wasOne broadcast. objection Charlieto direct Lewis seeding built was the lack of space a machine in Louisiana for seeding in rows and John Cassady, officer in charge at Marianna, Florida, also built a successful row seeder. Both machines could only be used on site-preparedIn ground. 1957, I began development of a seeder that would simultaneously prepare the seedbed and plant the seed repellentsLouisiana scientiststhat made disco direct vere se edingd and ofperfected longleaf bird pine and practical. in rows thus reducing the overall cost. Next year Seaman Hudson secured a grant from Container Corporation to build a prototype machine that was later called the H-C Furrow Seeder. In 1958 the author 25 seed.that simultaneous ly preparedinvented the a seedbed HG Furrow and Seeder, planted a machineforest Sullivan. Ben May, Mashmeyer, MC. Stallworth,Mi//er Charles Mi/IMany C fares researchDixon,1953 McMiIlan and and helped installing Trust, outWith newandfor athe Senator regenerationyear money. writing Swift. we upstudies. hired a backlog Larry After Walkerof who came in Walker left, federal funds became available to hire Bill Boyer, construct an office-lab in Brewton, and hire some extra help. Encouraged by local supporters of our program, Congressmen Bob Sikes and George Grant along with Senators Lister Hill and John Sparkman helped get the federal money to keep longleaf pine openresearch range goinggrazing in ofthe cattle. Infifties. 1952, Miller an Alabamaofficials agreed state law to was passed outlawing furnishto organized fencing cattlemanmaterial and associations allow grazing who onwould their build land the fences for their cattle. We helped organize an association of four cattlemen to graze cattle on the Experimental includingForest limitation of stocking, use of good management in accordance with research requirements about problems and benefits of coordinating grazing with onOdom,practices, the forest. with and Cattle our keeping help, were Budbuilt ear-tagged,of recordsBrantley,the fence for rounded-up, Owen and us. put Carrol, 75 and cattle Yancy Odom and Earl timber management. Later, grazing began to interfere weighed twice a year, and data were recorded of costs with our studies and eventually all cattle were and returns. Much practical information was learned establishedremoved from well-stocked the forest.A stands in of 1947, seedlings before on severalthe bumper seed crop. management system compartments scheduled to be cut back later to seed trees. When the compartments were reproductioncut. and seedlings established from the seedI kept a record of the fate of the advance longleafpracticallyreproductiontrees. pine--a nothing shelterwood fromThis the suggested seed system. trees. aI followedrevolutionary up the new way to regenerateI was astonished to survived well, find butthat we the were advance getting lead by investigating the history of second-growth forests established on U.S. Steel land in Baldwin County and twentiesCompanyinformationon Geneva in aland like Stateon in themanner Louisiana. Forest. second on Also, ConvincedGreatgrowth Southern established that shelterwood Lumber in the I wrote Garrison for might offer a way to overcome many of the problems of a fewremained. tracts Many of the lumberman 60.000,000 closed acre down virgin their mills and forest natural regeneration I wrote an article, published in the Journal of Forestry in 1956, suggesting the possibilities moved to the West Coast to log virgin stands of Douglas- of bethe recommended system. It would with require confidence rigid testing for longleaf before pine. it could Most fir, ponderosa pine, and redwood. The finest hour of the foresters were highly skeptical. longleaf had come to a close. Shocked silence replaced the din that had greeted the dawn of the 20th Century. Four decades of feverish activity had ground to a halt. Thirties plumbed unusualThe Great depths Depression in the land that of plagued the the nation in theTHE GREAT DEPRESSION longleaf pine. Most of the big mills had cut out and many dependentoperators had on themmoved failed. on. Tax revenues for local and businesses remindersgovernments of better dried days. The landscape had drastically up. Ghost towns were tragic changed. Cool, green shadows of the virgin forest were only memories, and no longer did the resinous breezes sing through the tufted tree crowns. Instead the refuse of logging lay bleaching in the sun on millions of acres. delinquentbehind when company the mills landsSuffering and scratched was most outacute a bare among forest workers left left. Many stayed on tax- theExceptrazorback bare for land stumps hogs was andreminiscentrooted anScrawny occasionalout the of theremainingcattle western picked seedlings. plains. at the coarse grass and mule tail' pine existenceand scrub with livestock small garden Hard patches. cash for submarginal medical service farms or carcassBuzzards of a circledcow that overhead had succumbed and frequently to the twinfeasted hazards on the other emergencies was nonexistent. Stunned and of ticks and starvation. despondent, the people of the longleaf belt faced a grim future.student at North CarolinaI spent State, the enrolling early days as aof freshman the Depression as a forestry in 1929 the year the stock market crashe& After earning a degree n Forestry in 1933 and working almost two years in the Southern Appalachian I was transferred to the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. The cutover land was not as attractive as the luxuriant hardwood forests and clear streams of the mountains, but the opportunity to work in longleaf pine was especially

plantingappealing some to me. 2 million Mylongleaf first winterand slash there pine seedlings I supervised CCC enrollees in a bare "stump orchard" protected by a fence from razorbacks. Before planting began we were trained at the Stuart Nursery by nurseryman Arthur Reed and Phillip Wakely of the Southern Forest Experiment ompany personnel cooperated with Escambia researcher to develop improved methods for planting longleaf Station. The Nursery, largest in the South, was named ters, who came to see the successful plantations, were encouraged to plant. By the late 1920's most of the "railroad loggers" had to cut out leaving a bare and desolate land (Kisatchie National Forest) for Chief Forester Stuart, who had been killed in a tragic oneaccident junior in forester1933. to Onhead the up last planting day of the at trainingeach CCC school Reed designated camp. With two junior foresters to assist me, I was put crewsNatchitoches.in to us: each withSuperintendent a foreman, tree chargeCagle tender, assigned of and 1 8 about seven 20-man planting at Provencal camp near planters. After a few days of intensive training, produc- tion per crew began to average over 5,000 trees per day -- good compared with that of other camps. Later a staff man from the Supervisor's office came out and we work- ed with him to develop a more efficient crew organiza- thatmuchtion one that betterman considerably handling than the both steppedtwo-man dibble up unitsand production. planting we were tray We using. wasfound

Civilian Conservation Corps crews replanted some of the plantedcutover land. seedlings on someBy March 2000 weacres finished of bare our cutover assigned quota having land. They would grow into a productive forest to sup- supervisor.port future Thegenerations. Forest ServiceAfter the was planting in the season,process Iof got buy- exciting news from the Winning and125,000 Natchitoches acres from parishes. Bodcaw This Lumber land, alongCompany with in someranger smaller district. purchases, A new rangerwould be would organized be appointed into a new and theI wasjob he considered had arranged a prime attendance candidate. at a To ranger groom school me for to be held in Mississippi by Supervisor Raymond Con- delightfularro and his"quail assistant. on toast"After Joe supper Riebold.a week at aof CCC training camp at near Gullport we enjoyed a Wiggins. Surrounding the camp was a great cutover area so flat that you could see a cow for over a mile. Little did we suspect that millions of longleaf pine seedlings were hidden in the grass and would grow there into fully stocked second growth stands on the the DeSoto Na- title to the land. Where improvements were found the purchasetional Forest. unit that gaveAfter me valuable the school knowledge I was assigned of forest to a job on the new title.ownerpermit. Each was If application askedhe did, to this sign had was an to evidence applicationbe accompanied that for he a special-use didby anot map, claim conditions, management problems, and above all, con- Cunningham,which I prepared a retired with Toa company plane help find table. landthe land agent, and and people, local I arranged for George survey."tacts with Before the people government inMy the work lawyersarea. was could officially complete known the as an "occupancy man stationed at the camp, to help. During the next 3 Bodcaw sale a Forest Service official had to thoroughly months, we found 175 cases of occupancy, mostly by examine the and map any buildings, fences, or unemployed company workers who had either "squat- other improvements owned by people who might claim ted" on the land or fenced company property next to their small farms. Only one man refused to sign for the per- mit and decided to claim title. Everyone treated us courteously. Many invited us in for dinner and we ac- cepted provided they would share our GI sandwiches mentfood.that and apprehension.But Often there they was spoke a deep-seated of theI did shock undercurrentnot consider of as resent- tasty as their home-cooked of losing their timber jobs and many felt that the com- pany was to blame for their predicament. Also, there was fear that the Federal government would make them tkthey mit.move.and could Buthogs They probablya naggingwere were importantstay somewhat fear by still signing toremained, relievedtheir for alivelihood. special-use whenOpen-range I told Could per- them cat- greenthey still up grazethe grass. government WouldEvery this landspring be unmolested?permitted? for years theyThe com-had burned the range to pany had been very lenient about them cutting and "board" trees for buildings. They even looked the other way when crossties and ash logs were cut for sale. There were rumors that no cutting would be permitted Kingfisher,on government who wasland--even a Almostnative for of everyone firewood.Winn Parish. was Theyan admirer were of Huey Long, the outterplantedLonglooking lifewith with hadthe forwardby hisadministrationsupported the "Share CCC." to his Roosevelt, theToelection andthe Wealth" people,vowed next but program. year then"tothe eat Forestbringing he any hadIn Service1932trees fallena bet- fered.nearrepresented Her Saline dwelling Bayou,their wouldpolitical wasA widow,havetypical enemy--Roosevelt. been livingof the considered in plight a small many clearing poor suf- on a scrub oak ridge shelter for a mule. It was framed with scrub oak poles; Theresideda dirt andwas floor. roofed an Inside, ancient with the boardsstove, furnishings arived rusty from wereiron a bed evenpine with tree,more a cornover pitiful. shuck mattress and a wobbly table covered with worn oilcloth. On a few board shelves were some rusty cups, featuretinmostly plates of andmeal,the interiorother fatback utensils; was and a large also coffee. campaigna scant The supply most poster importantof show- food; smalling the garden smiling patch. face Courteously,ofWhen the Kingfisher. we drove she brewed up, she coffee was hoeingfor vegetables in a us, after wiping out the cups with a greasy rag, and helped us make a survey of her improvements. Besides the shack, there were fences around the garden patch and a small cornfield, and a well. She readily signed the deputy" to trap the animalsSheriff and "Doc" collect Fountain fines from agreed the to appoint a "hog owners. Albert Harris, the deputy, built a dozen wooden acres,application devastated for special by a Our use.skidder most operation, perplexing known case ofas occupancy the was in 3,000 Chandler Camp. In the center of the clearing there was traps with material furnished by the government. He successfully trapped many hogs. Owners, alarmed by thehastily loss of built their fences hogs andthat pennedalways 'died" their animals.in the pound, A few, angered by the program, stole traps, and set vandalismwildfires.Nationalranger, But graduallyandForest, vigorous a cooperative noticed to action dieIn 1947,adown. byheavy GeorgeFBI HO. crop agent Mills, Ward. of longleaf causeddistrict the state pineranger the on the Conecuh cones. He, along with Don Morris, assistant supervisor, theirdecided confidence, to try a seedbedthey called burn on that the summer. station toTo have bolster someone come over and help them decide. Dave Bruce, shouldforemostat several be fire attempted. candidateinvestigator, stands. Mills and successfullyI metWe allwith agreed them established andthat lookedthe burn organizationseedlings on occurred. 26,000 acres EdIn Gaines that1951, he transferred aburned drastic that changeto summer. Arizona, in the Brewton Branch devotedBranch,known toas andfinding "Deserts I was a way responsibleinBrewton the to regenerateRain." became for the thea longleafsubunit sandhills of pine the new East Gulf Coast and Walt Hopkins came to head up a new branch station theresearchers.research Brewton there. program, Only A drastic $15,000which retrenchment had was been available planned was essential to for pay four the in centeredcombiningheadquarters on Brewton the atChipola Marianna, and Experimental Marianna, Florida research Forest wouldand be be Florida, with wassalaries barely forenough two technicians, for salaries withme, littleand lefteverything for operating else. It expenseWheeler, including New Orleans rental Withdivision of office the chiefs, blessingspace. we set of outLew to Grosenbaugh"boil and Phil the fat" out of the program. The management systems study was abandoned, so we had the 24 compartments available as a locale for silvicultural studies. Farm 40 and Investment Forest studies were kept. Other studies such thinningresearchmaintenanceas seed tree program and basis. forest was Obviously,to wall, be continued.timing additional of oak Since control, funds no Federal Loxleyhad to be found if a viable plots, and a few others were put on a funds were available, Walt Hopkins and I contacted T.R. Miller Mill Company people to see if private money could Annualby hundreds harvests of from visitors. the Farm Forty study, demonstrating a management system for pine , were observed each fall be found. They agreed to head up a program to collect private donations. We were gratified by the response of 23 local people. Contributors were T.R. Miller, Alger this &SCAMBIA in SouthagedIn 1947 compartments.Alabama the Escambia for long/eat ExperimentalDependent pine research. variables Forest was were established growth and yields, logging and management costs, and value of products. Also, it was expected that knowledge on longleaf regeneration. stand management, and the like ofcompartments.would studytime accrue.for took 100 24 percentWith of thefour Eachinventories, Experimental yearly year replications, this marking, study Forest's supervisionrequired the 40 huge acre an enormous amount thiscostof largeloggers, comparedand journals--one value. scaling, with collecting designated theEach company log and andstand posting pole scale and had ofstock; at data to the be the in mill.scaled twoother in the woods and Pulpwood had to be scaled after loaded on railroad cars at Brewton and compared with the company tickets. Volume of all products had to be compared with the tree panyestimate did themade logging during under Contractthe ourmarking close loggers process.supervision. hired by Brooks Detail- Lambert or the Com- ed costs were collected for truck miles, equipment costs, upkeep of mules, labor rates, as well as stumpage and Jack Neal, son of Miller President Tom Neal, in a 26-year old thousandsduringdelivered the of value nextvisitors 15of viewedproducts.years.My Itresults"Farm was a an castForty" annual study Study field simulating days was very popular and long/eat pine stand on Co. land planted with PlC Furrow Seeder. management of a farm owner of a typical longleaf pine . All activities including logging and turpentine farmattached equipment to the including PlO of a thewheel tractor. tractor, and cut-off saw operations were to be done by the owner with average represented by empty Eachbarrels, tall wereall harvested stacked productson a yard except naval stores, for visitors to see. The annual harvest of wood products was limited to 2/3 of the computed growth on the 40 dur- concepting the year. of managingThe a main forest value like ofa cropthe study for annual was in demonstrating the yields. We emphasized that after logging there was always more and better timber left than before manage- a haphazard collection of boxcar shacks that housed a stationtypicalcontractment investment personnelbegan.Forest. crews It and owner.stimulated including management MyLogging third practicalcruises, compartmentwas activities done managementmarking, by were companystudy timber done wasby by a known as the Invest- stand improvement, and prescribed burning. The dozen or so unemployed forest workers and their management plan specified a 60-year rotation and the families. There were no large fields but several garden bordered640-acre by tract branches, was partitioned roads and boundary lines for ap- into compartments, patches. A herd of goats grazed on the coarse grass and allplication activities of and prescriptions. results were Careful analyzed records and reported were kept in of somein the chickens sun. scratched in the bare yards, bleaching despondencycalledannouncementlivestock a meeting and as families ofwell the created as men removed,Obviously,anger. to adiscuss But cloud and no the the onetrees clearing situation. claimed planted. would Ourtitle We have to be fenced. of gloom and tionpublications. of longleaf pine seedlingsA critical by protection hogs roaming problem at large was created by destruc- to the land and all signed up, hoping that some way they whose owners were in violation of State law. Appeals to would be able to stay. Later, arrangements were made enforcementhog owners of did the not law. work, so we decided to arrange for with the Resettlement Administration to find homes Winnelsewhere unit. Infor the them. early years,Forest Bodcaw conditions Lumber were Company unexpectedly favorable on the had cut conservatively leaving a fair stand of young timber. In many places there were enough longleaf pine seed trees for natural regeneration, and some well- andstockedChandlerIn closethe secondlast the Campfew mill. growthyears, andThis however, Gumthatoperation would Springs, they leftsoon decidedtwothat support largewould to atracts, clearcut havesale. to gotbe fenced startling and news. planted. ThereWhen was I submitted a new supervisorthe signed occupancy in statement I Alexandria, and George Tannehill would be the new anassistant.ranger.our official host with on mythe 1933 UraniaFrom trip Lumber withthe firstthe Company, INorth got along Carolina had well been withState George. His father, I would remain on the Winn District as his seniors. We had similar backgrounds and knowledge of Hardtner.forestry problems president and Aof few people.Urania days Lumber later we Company, received had tragic news. Henry been killed in an accident at a railroad crossing south thehelpedof Winnfieid. occupancy dig Hardtner's George surveyTannehill andgrave.of the people, valued andthe knowledgemanagement I had gained during I attended the funeral and problems. I took him to meet many of the people, and we spent several days driving together over the district, discussing the situation, and making plans. But there was not much time for planning. Two CCC Camps had been established, Calvin and Chestnut, and we had to .take the lead inWe formulating constructedA first work two projects temporary for them. lookout priority was to perfect our fire protection points and a steel tower. In north Winn Parish, one crew built a wooden cabin of rived pine boards on a high hill known as Eagle Mountain. Within the Chandler Camp area, another crew built a lookout cabin set on pine poles cut from the forest. on a high point known as Bandit Hill. trees.Inoted organized Stuart a bumper nurserya CCC crop crew had Inof to beenSeptembercones collect "crying on them. longleaf 1935, for Local cones," soon pine fishermen after seedso the death of Long, we The steel tower, along with Gum Springs tower, which used white cedar poles to fish for buffalo () fish. had already been built, completed our detection system. Thesesecured poles a few were of them surprisingly and bolted light a strap and strongmetal hookso I thewassteelNext fire-suppression assassinated towerwe selected and a maninthe crews. the towerInwas capitol the A permanently men dwellingmidst building and of wastrainedthe in stationed Batonflurry built them atofRouge. there.theconstruction, and Huey Long at each end. My climbers used them to dislodge the ripe Death of the Kingfisher hardened the local people cones for others on the ground to collect. We harvested against the Forest Service and made more difficult our and sent several dump truck loads to the nursery. relations with them. Tannehill suggested that we scalp grass from the seedbed under seed trees near Gum Springs tower to see if it would increase the catch of seedlings. We found otthat the it twodid. clearcut areasJunior that foresters winter. at I thehelped CCC train camps and supervised planting organize the crews but could spend very little time with them. My main activity was investigating unauthorized cutting.permits Fortunately, to local residents we were for able firewood to issue but free cutting use- of merchantable trees for crossties and ash logs for sale had to be stopped. At the time, ash logs delivered to $50.00forforeslShreveporl haul per [or roads. 1,000.them. were One Cutters bringing Toclever spot were culprit, theunauthorized diligently unbelievable knowing searching cutting. this, price tried thewe oftoscouted the district hide his road by skidding his crossties down the railroad happenedtrack with ato mule find histo Coldwaterlogged area . while Fortunately,scouting for a I comparedland corner. them with the ties that had not been taken up. I cut several sections from stumps. and found the name of the seller from the agent. When stumpageTannehillathe night readily and soto avoidI accepted I spentconfronted a FederalseveralWe the the had optioncase.cold thief been nights with of told paying our trying that evidence, the topenalty ashcatch loggers were working wereinthem. thelogging daytimeApparently in the and, daytime. we luckily, had So been caughtwe stakedmisinformed, them out loading the andcutting logs. they theclearedUnfortunately, title for fromthe land Bodcaw we where were Lumber they not wereable Company. tocutting prosecute hadWe notwere because been able, however, to get the company to deduct the value of the to logsreduce from the the loss land of price. timberWith strict to thieves. law enforcement, Stopping ofwe were gradually able wildfire,timeplagued was 'rockdeliberately us. strict andWe exclusion awere hard set, caught place."was of fire anotherbetween Forest from longleaf problemService the proverbial woods, policy that at the except for a trail of prescribed burning approved for ofanother greening district. up the grassMoreover, for their our cattle cattlemen and the friends lack of pointed out the value damage to the longleaf forest. Too, some wanted a small treatburn their near cattle dripping for Texas vats wherefever ticks. they periodicallyThe green grass had to triedthemdistricts,requestson tothe easier set burn especiallyfiresfor towould burns. anyway.catch. attract whereThis But madethe weourforesters open hadfire them problemrangeto had angrydeny sheepcattle andallwas makingtheirmen somemuch to lighter than other dealusually with. small, We averaged because we only had about good 30detection fires a and year, well thetrainedinran CCC the into CCC act enrollees. hundreds ofcrews. throwing On Luckily, of southern bigdownWe fires. dida lightedsurvey havedistricts onematches crew fire grudge caughtoccurrence while fire him theyset by an old man to spite were sitting in the grass eating lunch. George and I spotted the smoke from Eagle Mountain lookout. When Theyawe knife hadarrived when beaten the they himCCC ran because menhim down. were he Georgethreatenedsitting on took the them him old to with man. town for treatment and arrest by the U.S. marshal. Because of his age the judge gave him a two year suspended woodsclimaxSouthland.longleaf hadduring pinebecome Cattlementhe forests thirties. a firmly Beginningand used established those fire towith opposed green the practice first up reached thesettlers, in grassthe aannual burning of the ionists and control burners was won by the burners in the 1930's. Afterwards prescribed sentence. 16 and help control movement of open range cattle. 21 collectsevenplanting daysdata Iand organizedfora week. athe mangement other After themFire activities the into plan.junior a timber kept foresters me survey busy, finished crew often to suppression, investigating timber trespass, between people advocatingRegarding use of a forest controlled management, fire in the a pitched battle FOREST FIRE HERESY Turpentiners raked straw from around faced trees and tofires. tolightwoodcontrolfind. open Hunters There theup swinged theburnedwere drove woods numerous offarea game themaking to grass withprotect other travel tofire reasons makethem easier;and thefromcollectors for to wood burning:accidentalkill snakes easier of supportedalwaysand ticks; meanta anddesirable justsmoke role inBesides forthe fire pineywoods. inthe the local longleaf residents, woods. there were others who for the hell of it." Coming of spring ecamebattle standard between practice. the fire excius As early as 1850, Charles Lyell, a British scientist and traveller, noted that the hills near Tuscaloosa, Alabama, were covered with pine seedlings. He speculated that exploredtheyunder resulted control longleaf From and forestsIndian-sec favoredIn on1908 longleaffiresKaul Herman that Company pine. kept H. hardwoods Chapman,lands in a Yale professor, After much delay, approval came back but it was too late. Alabama. From his observations he concluded that fire The equipment had been moved and was no was beneficial to the forests. stroke.longer availableSymbolically, to do he Onthe died Apriljob. at Warm 12, 1945, Springs, President Georgia, Roosevelt died of a in the South where his conservation policies had done thousandsso much forof acres forestry. of cutover land with pine, several new His CCC boys had planted expandednational in the longleaf pine belt. forests were established, and old ones practicallymasterful longleaf everything pine that Inmonograph. January had been 1946, written W.G. on Wahlenberg the published his POST WAR PARADOX It documented species for 40 years. Coverage was comprehensive properties,including , fire relationships, protection, and the longleaf problem, , uses. itsmanagement. comprehensive documentationDedicated to of a published future for materiallongleaf pine, the book, with and a scholarly evaluation by the author, was hailed by Raymond Pack and H.S. Graves, as a significant boost for the management of the species. In a more subdued note, Wahlenberg described it as being useful to many people but ponted out gaps in knowledge requiring more threeresearch. decades He because recommended much of a the major material revision was inbased two or on virgin stands whereas the need was for management of second growth stands.The author began by summarizing the longleaf pine acreageinherentmismanagement.problem: in thelimitations the second reduction encroachmentof gorwth Inlongleaf the forest as wellwas by asonlyother its a attributes. third of Resources" section, he estimated that the in torest acreage, years of species, the original. At the time of his monograph, that acreage was less than 2 million acres, and the virgin stand of detailtenthItsstands.some valueasof 200wellthe for original,billionas navalmilling board practically storespractice,Uses feet is hadand preservation cited. all beenproperties in secondEcology reduced and ofgrowth drying.covered theto one- wood are described in botanical and commercial range, stand associates, soils, including seed procurement, nursery practice, care of theseedbeds.generallybiological, ofproclaimed seedlingand seed human development! classification, toRole influences.be beneficial. of fire dissimination andin regenerationThe development knowledge of seed, is was describedon in detail. It is throughlyregeneration. documentd. He beginsWahlenberg this section was with pessimistic the statement for the success of natural hogs,planting brownspot, stock, seedling and otherProtection grades, minor and isproblems. covered planting Inin practice. general,two sections including fire, irregularaccomplished."that seed crops, Following slow height-growth, and many 'deliberate regeneration is a litany of problems: has rarely been thelongleaf southern pine environment is pictured if as given resistant a reasonable to the hazards degree of statesoperations!,of protection. flatly growthandthat longleafharvest and yield, Inshouldcutting a timbermajor be is divisiongrowncovered.stand improvement,in called even-aged The Management,"author naval stores generallyunexplained predicts failures. failureHe for cites this one technique. case of Usually successful the direct seeding but stands and recommends either clearcutting and planting large, nutritious seed is gobbled up by birds and other or a scattered seed-tree system. In view of earlier regeneratepredators. longleaf pine.He He believed lists a wealth that planting of knowledge, is the only viable way to sectionsnot hold of theout book,much however, promiseDespite the for obvious seedsuccess. tree gaps system in knowledge, does the monograph developed in recent years, on the entire process set the stage for more research that promised a bright concentratingdevelopedfuture for longleaf on major pine. forestryIndeed, inproblems 1946 a new in a conceptdefined for forest research was in the South. Local research centers territory was established. Each was in effect a branch of the Southern and Southeastern Forest Experiment stations. Seven were established in the longleaf pine andbelt:Brewton, Charleston, Alabama; South Lake Carolina.It wasCity, myFlorida; good Cordele, fortune Georgia; to obtain employmentAlexandria, as a Louisiana; Gulfport, Mississippi; langleafresearch1946, pine forester management. on the Brewton T.R. Miller Branch. Mill CompanyIn December had I began work to investigate the mysteries of offered the government 3,000 acres of their land for an experimental forest to serve the Branch. My first job was to make a reconnaisance survey of their 200,000 acre forest to select candidate areas for research meeting criteria established by the Station. Arnold Mignery, a young junior forester, and I spent several weeks on the survey and picked out three suitable areas. We all Newagreed Orleans that anto makearea wetheDirector calledfinal selection. 'Dixonville" Charles This Connaughton wascommittee best. sent a committee from was composed of John Curry, Bob Campbell, and Wall Bond. They looked over the three areas and agreed with findingsus that weand should get a decision try to Nextget from Dixonville. day them. we met Representing with Company the officials to present our Company were Tom Neal, Sr.; Ed Leigh McMillan; John OrleansMiller,Lambert. Sr.; committee, hisRepresenting son Johnwere EdRichard the Gains, Station, Miller; officer besides and in charge Brooks the New of signedofthe Nealthe Brewton long announced,a lease office Branch, giving and 'The conferred Mignery,Afterthe land government our is presentation yours."andbriefly. I. Later,Thenuse theof inPresident the officials1947 land they moved to the far end without cost for 99 years. So the "Dixonville Area" itbecame into 40-acre known compartments as theAfter Escambia we beganExperimental the work Experimental on Forest. three Forest and dividing compartment-sized studies and one regeneration study of Forestsmaller management plots. The and management economic aspects Systems of threeStudy, airmed to test years),rotations and for long Iongleaf (80 years) pine: inshort even-aged (40 years), and medium uneven- (60 Carolina to work forWith a few the monthsbeginning in ofthe World land War of the II, WORLD WAR II I returned to South longleaf pine. As district forester I was located at Aiken, therea resort to city enjoy located polo at and Manythe edgefox people, hunting. of the including fall Fox line hunters,sandhills.Gary Cooper the actor, came mounted on spirited horses, galloped through the organizedpineywoods fire behind protection. their MyIn hounds. the district organized included counties seven there counties, but only four had was a ranger, four wardens, several lookouts, and a fire crew for each warden. Also, each warden had several "retainer fee" crews. There were selected key men in each who were paid a small annual wage mainlylines asto thea fire ranger's prevention Weoffices. had measureS steelThere lookout were notowers shortwave hooked up with telephone radios or fire plows. Crews were equipped with council couldtools,example,because impedeflaps, of aand orlargethe seriouslybackpack war. fire Ther threatenedFire affect pumps were prevention defense many forthe fire ammunition waysoperations. and suppression. controlthat wildfire dumpFor were given high priority at Columbia Airbase. It was more than our organization could handle, so we had to call on the military to send soldiers to reinforce us. With several hundred of them under our supervision, we were able to stop the march andof perpendicularsurburbanthe threatened flames woods.before to homes the serious Fortunately,Apath crown that of damage the firehad flames jumped been was and builtthedone. our U.S. backfire highway south of Aiken a woods road ran in the intensivethatalong popped this timber road up, andstopped management weOur kept skeletonthemajor a spread. sharp program. contribution organization eye out For for a was to firebugs.fee. the busy we war controlling effort was wildfire an marked and cruised forests for landowners, computed the volume and value, and helped them with the sale State-markedof timber needed timber by the Whenwas armed a I majorbegan forces. problem. work, a boycott We had by local lumbermen of several tracts already marked that could not be sold, and landowners were refusing to sign up for our assistance. Our efforts to stimulate production of wood products were blocked. To overcome the boycott, I managed to get buyers from companies in Goergia to bid on several this,foreststracts local containing on buyers my district, resumed materialAlthough some bidding.ordered were there as by good were the as military. many those poorly foundAfter stocked longleaf measuredanywhere plotsin the that South. contained On the 43,000 Hitchcock of prime Estate, timber I In southwest Alabama most sawmills were large but board feet per acre.Forest products were critically needed by the armed there were a few peckerwoods mills. Power units on forces for ammunition boxes, crating, dunnage and for small mills were usually inadequate, and much time was many other purposes. As a district officer employed by lost as the sawyer gingerly had to feed the log into the the Forest Service on the Timber Production War Project, saw to prevent the motor from choking down. A specialist it was my responsibility to help lumbermen, pulpwooders, from the Forest Products Laboratory had given us special problems.and naval My territory covered the southwest part of stores operators with their production carriagetraining infeed finding rate andand Usuallycorrectingthe RPM the on small RPM the powermill on problems.the unit saw was was too fast for the Alabama. tooseveral slow to mills, build changing up enough saw horseand power power. unit mandrels to I analyzed theindustrialist,notoften proper reporting size. contacted Operators a 25 percent meAnother wereand increaseproposed attemptdelighted intothat withproduction.increase we results conductturn forest out product so well. output did Joe Brady, a Birmingham demonstrations to promote use of saws. He predicted that the usual quota fo 50 logs per day for wascrosscut skilled saw in usecrews of chaincouldFortunately. saws.be quadrupled. He was also a master I had assigned to me a technician who mechanic. We conducted a series of demonstrations ButoverLumbermen the the saws district werewere that heavy,delighted, confirmed weighed and Brady'smany over purchased 100 prediction. pounds, saws. requiring two operators, and suffered frequent breakdowns.untrained crews Parts was were far hard below to what get. myProduction technician with and whenI had a demonstrated.'widow maker"We struck tried my to shoulder help train while crews, and I almost got killed a largereturned pine. to Many crosscut discouraged saws. Edward lumbermen A. Haus, gave presidentup and of Alger Sullivan Lumber Company said, "Anyone smart enough to use that contraption is too smart to work in stumpage,werethe woods." successful. we marked. WhereBut cruised, many operators of andour projectshelpedwere short aimedsell key to stimulate production of tracts for them to cut. Assistance in procuring tires, , trucks, parts, and other scarce items was appreciated. Once a lumberman in Choctaw County, Alabama, complained that his workers could not get enough meat to sustain them on the job because a bureaucrat would not issue permits to kill hogs. This was remedied. We helped train German prisoners of war for woods work and tackled the many other problems Paperholding Company up production askedToward of me critical to the help war end on material. of a the wood war supplyan official with International problem. There was a large block of timber in Baldwin County, near the Forst Mims site where Red Eagle had massacred whites over a century earlier. The tract was inaccessible to rail traffic and too far for truck haul to Mobile. Wood could be brought economically down articles between 1911Roland and 1914 Harper, pointing an Alabama out the naturalist, wrote several dredgedTensas to River Boatyard to the Lake Togethercity by Landing. barge we contacted if a channel the couldArmy beEngineers and found that they had equipment to do the job but would need successionbeneficial and allowing the fire-resistant longleaf to role of fire in setting back hardwood approval from Washington. To get approval, we made survive. He speculated that lightning kept the woods a survey of the channel, estimated the cost of dredging notedburned longleaf before pine'sthe Indians abilityIn tocameaddition withstand with to thesethe fire hunting damage men's therefires. and were other people who and got signed statements from landowners agreeing to foresters,saw a possible mostly beneficial from the North. role for were fire. shocked at the Professional sell timber and loggers who would cut the wood. All of widespreadInfluenced occurrence by disasterous of forest crown fires fires in in the , South. this was combined in a report and sent to Washington. forestMichigan, fires. To and them, the West,the first they essential had a morbidof forestry fear was of all exclusionby Southerners of fire from who the considered woods. They woods were burning dismayed normal, like the coming of spring, and believed that controlled atfires the did forest some fires. good. TheirSo missionary these forests work mounted was stow a vigorous and campaign aimed discouraging but gradually some progress was made. State forestry departments, with the primary objective of controlling forest fires, began to emerge. Laws against setting fire in the woods, although weak and largely ignored, were passed. Crows nest lookouts to detect fire were mounted in the tops of trees and sometime on other high points such as silos. Fire wardens were hired and equipped with primitive tools to suppress fires. Speeches were made asking for fire prevention, and signs were againstposted.minded them. lumbermen Often their Itbestlike was friendsHenry an uphill wereHardnter, battle conservation- because who didthe public was generally joinedexclusionistsopposedrecognize in tothe somewildfire, longleafand valueadvocatesThe pine for stage forests of controlled was where set fire.forthe awoods battle between the fire tire, but was vigorously It was burning,burnersHerman stirredhad Chapman, the up strongesta great a strongcontroversy case advocate for within the useof the prescribed forestryof fire. profession by proclaiming benefits for fire. With the cooperation of Henry Hardnter, he had investigated the possibility of naturally regenerating longleaf pine. Using Yale forestry students as assistants, Chapman's studies stronglywerebeneficially.north conducted Louisiana advocated When on for Urania several several aIn good 1926Lumber waysyears. cone he fire Companypublished crop could appears, be landsa bulletinused in he on his findings. He October.pinerecommended needles Such burning, and burning allow he said, thein summer seed would to remove reachbefore mineralgrass seedfall and soil. in weightOnDeSoto a grazing on National burned study Forest, thanhe conducted onhe unburnedfound onthat the cattle pastures. McNeil gained Tract, His more seedlingsHis research on those plots that supported were burned. this, He for also he speculatedfound more findings were embarassing to foresters who contended thatdangerous hardwood buildup invasion of fuel could in unburnedbe suppressed; areas could that a be that burning damaged the range. Because of the radical AfterfrominFrustrated,nature American someUSDA of delay his officials he Forestsfindings, bitterlyhe was for magazine. condemnedpublicationheable was to getnot an theablefor article fireseveral to exclusionists.get published approvalyears. reduced: and that fire might help control brownspot, a to membersmanagement,benefit these of the alsoupland Forest preachedNotHerbert game allService foresters birds.aStoddard, gospel added were of awoodssupport fire recognized exclusionists. burning to the authority Two respected on quail condemnedseedlings.fungus disease the foot especially draggingSustained damaging of by more his research,conservative to Chapman mercilessly longleaf burners. Cap" Eldredge, a native southerner and first foresters, especially state foresters and the Washington supervisor of the Choctawhatchie National Forest in Greene,Office of anthe employee Forest Service. ofAnother the Bureau activist of Animalon the sideIndustry. of the burners was SW. Florida, advocated the use of fire for hazard reduction, southernespecially forestry where theand Austinfire-control the people, Carey, organization was widely converted respected was toweak. the for his knowledge of use of fire in longleaf pine forests. Of course, he strongly State,advocated agreed prevention with Roland B.W.and Harper controlWells, that anof wildfire.Iongleafecology pine professor was at North Carolina Theya fire subclimaxdeplored statements type dependentFire exclusionistsin favor on fireof fire for were itsby existence. respectedhorrified by the turn of events. foresters and scientists. These opponents of any fire in theuntold forest damage felt that to this forestry. division So in they the ranksredoubled was theirdoing fire greatlyprevention exaggerated efforts. theCaught damage up from in the fire. fever One offorester the battle, some people proclaimed that tires were killing large virgin Iongleaf pine, which cluttered up the woods and made travel difficult. This view was directly opposed to the contention of burners that fire had created the open parklike woods H.N.of valuable Wheeler timber to make immune Toa series promote to fireof lectures damage.fire prevention, in the South. the Forest Service hired Son of a minister, he had been a ranger on a national forest in California. Wheeler blasted away with 'Billie emotionsSunday" againsttype woods burners. Even Forest Service lectures aimed to promote strong officials, opposed to control burning, were somewhat firesembarrassed was begun by the in 1927.forcefulnessAnother Dixie major Crusaders,of campaignhis remarks. aagainst select the menace of forest company of uniformed foresters, toured the south with an intensive tire prevention message. Using movies, talks, and other types of publicity they were extremely effective. The young men visited schools, country churches,Many people anywhere were theyeducated could toassemble despite woodsan audience. burning. One newspaper editor, influenced by fire prevention messages, condemned as unpatriotic those who would burning.prescribe They fire in.thefelt that forest. publicityState foresters on beneficial were usessolidly of fireopposed to controlled theorypreventionwouldBunker, thatbe State misunderstoodefforts.lightning Forester Heading and ofIndian Alabama. their and fires opposition undercut helpedHe poked wascreatetheir fun Page atthe the fire virgin forests. In his opinion, fire was an unmitigated evil. Demmon, director of theGoaded Southern into Forestaction Experimentby Chapman and others, EL. Station, began research on use of fire in longleaf pine forests. Many of the studies were conducted on three experimental forests that he organized: Harrison on the DeSoto National Forest in Mississippi, Olustee on the Osceola National Forest in Florida, and Palustris on the Kisatchie National Forest in Louisiana. Work was also ofdone the oncontrolled other areas. burning.Findings After aby comprehensive the researchers study swung the battle in favor Journalbeopinionof brownspot,done of that withoutForestry fire P.V. couldserious inSiggers 1932 Heywardbe damage used confirmingpublished toand tocontrol Barnettsoil. an Chapman's In thearticle foundfact, disease. itin that was the control burning could slightly beneficial to the in the soil. Other studies explored the damage of fire to seedlings and trees; effect on the range; seedbed burning benefits; and other fire relationships. Research supported the contention that properly controlled fire could be used as a helpful Chapmanswungmanagement many arranged foresters tool inthe Asoverlongleaf 1935In President 1932 to annualhazard-reduction pine a disastrous offorests. meeting the Society 12,000 at burns. Lake of acre American fire on Foresters, the Osceola longleafCity,Emphasis Florida. forests. was The Speakerson topic the waspossible were 'Southern desirableDemmon, Forest use Greene, Fires." of fire in administrative tests ofAfter prescribed the meeting, burning the onForest national Service decided to permit a usefulStoddard, tool Hardtner,For management Wahlenberg,It was the of longleafconsensus and Eldredge. forests of those but attending that fire was forests in the longleaf type. Arthur Hartman burned about publicity should be handled carefully. Wildfire prevention Texascrop.900Forest. acres Results and to burningin prepare thewere Red was very theDirtSupervisor also good. seedbed Pasture, done byL.L. forKisatchie Raymond Bishopthe bumper NationalputConarro in 1935 two burns that year in and control were still vital for southern forestry. usein"prescribed of fire and burning."many otherSome people state foresters foundMississippi. that began it was He to wasadvocatea the originatorthe planned of the term practicepowerful spread management to other toolforest types from its beginning if carefully applied. The in the longleaf forest. Acceptance of prescribed burning was a significant milepost in the longleaf pine story that argued well for the species. Lack of fire, perhaps more destructive than fire, had prevented the establishment of seedlings by the invasion of brush and other pines less resistant to fire. froma third the ashes of the of original the virginLike acreage, timber. the fabled It aboutcovered Phoenix 20,000 only bird,about acres a second forest sprung THE SECOND FOREST standsaccording were poorlyto the foreststocked survey and sometimes of the 1930's. nothing Often but the scattered "mule tail" pines overlooking a wilderness of grass and stumps. A lot of the land had been converted Before the advent of man, the virgin forest had held its to crops or other uses. Also, hardwoods, other pine own by natural processes. Openings caused by lightning species, and razorback hogs had prevented regeneration or bugs were small and healed rapidly by seed from of longleaf pine on millions of acres. nearby mother trees. When hurricanes crashed ashore, ripping gaps through the forest, they were rapidly healed in like manner, or by seedlings that had already been didestablished the early under pioneers. the Indiansvirgin Destruction trees. made oflittle the inroad magnificent on the virgin acreage, nor virgin forest was done during the railroad era when most whengrasshappen?loggers cattlemen,and grewclearcut Many into hunter, seedlings without merchantable Despiteor turpentinerany were provision man, accidentlystands. millionsfires forHow happended establishedthe of did seedlingsfuture. this emerged from the futureto notcome reburnedfires. just These before for seedlings, a a yeargood or conestored so, thecrop. under seedlings If the shelteringarea survived was tree crowns of the virgin timber, grew to occupy the site when the old trees were felled in a hurricane or were clearcut by loggers. In south Alabama, many excellent hurricanes.second-growth On thestands DeSoto originated Forest in Mississippi good in this way after stands came from seedlings stored in the understory when the loggers swept through clearcutting every Companyestablishedexcellentstandsmerchantable were examplelands the tree. inresult Louisiana. was ofAlthough deliberatethe These few action and came farby between,people. from a An some second growth naturally on Great Southern Lumber longleaf pine stand seedbed burn prescribed by Austin Carey before the bumper 1920 cone crop. Subsequent protection of clearcuttingestablished of seedlings the virgin timberfrom hogsreleased and the advance fire, and cropreproduction. established severalPrescribed thousand burning acres ofon seedlingnational forests before the 1935 CCCstandsSprings crews. on thearea Scattered Red in Texas,Dirt herePastureIn and the and othersthirties,in there Louisiana, inacross many Mississippi. the thebarren Boykin South blocks were planted by ina few Alabama. successful Urania plantations inT.R. Louisiana, Miller were Millestablished and Company other by andlumber others. Kaul Lumber Company companies made an effort to protect young trees when the original timber was cut. Some of these grew into standsmerchantable generally second-growth understockedDemise forests. ofand the fragmented virgin forest into left most second-growth smaller tracts, a far cry from the massive thousand acre blocks of prime timber that greeted the railroad loggers. The powerful skidders. loaders, and locomotives were gone by the Thirties along with most of the big double- band mills. of skilled loggers and mill men had been disbanded. Company commissaries were no longer needed. rubber-tiredharvesting thelogging second-growth truckSlowly replaced a new forests. the technology steel tracks was and developed adapted to Notably, the hauledLater, logs them and pulpwoodonto shortMule were body loadedteams trucks. with skidded power Pulpwood equipment.logs to was "landings" and cross logging locomotives. Small skidders like the 'loggers saws.usually Gradually loaded by chainhandUntil onsaws World "bobtail" were War trucks.introduced II most logs and were cut with crosscut dream" replaced the Clyde. They were used to extract replaced later by tree shears. Pulpwood was cut with one small log at a time from narror branch bottoms that crosscut and bow saws. Later, crews used a circular saw penetrated the longleaf woods. mounted on bicycle wheels and powered by a small producedsawn.gasolinemachine At motor.infirst, that the cutwoods Pulpwood andSome by bundled portable waslogs thewerealso "peckerwood" wood. harvestedtrucked to themillsby astationary mills to be however, much of the lumber was wasthatin movedhauledtheir wake. byfrom truck Rough place to central togreen place lumberconcentration leaving from piles these yards of sawdust little where mills it was stacked in triangular piles for drying. After drying it was dressed in the planer mill for shipment by rail or to be sold to local markets. Presently, most logs and pulpwood are cut tree length and hauled to central stationary mills, Rubber tired skidders, compatible with inselective the second logging, forest have stillDespite replaced provided the mules. radical a living change for many in technology, lumbering southern people. In many cases, the forest workers are andalsomuch operatorspart change time farmers continued in technology. livingTurpentiners to onsupply smallIt was their movedsubsistance still workers labor-intensive, into thefarms.with second a forest without commissary. As long as there was virgin timber, most gum naval stores were produced in longleaf pine forests. disappearedOperations from longleaf woods and are not centered in second-growth forests have almost toin Florida.thethe slasheconomy pine ofare southern stumpsThe last Georgia that contribution are and pulled northeastern of thefrom virgin the longleaf pine forests ground and are hauled to plants that extract rosin and theturpentine second from growth them. longleafOpen pine range forests. ranzing Where has graduallygrazing disappeared from loadedThe secondby hand growth and mule forest teams was acrosshauled far cry from logsthe virginon trucks. forest, and logging technology had to be changed. At first pulpwood was is permitted, it is coordinated with timber growing. loadedThe secondby hand growth and mule forest teams was acrosshauled far cry from logsthe virginon trucks. forest, and logging technology had to be changed. At first pulpwood was 0M ionists and control burners was won by the burners in the 1930's. Afterwards prescribed 16 21

Annualby hundreds harvests of from visitors. the Farm Forty study, demonstrating a management system for pine woodlots, were observed each fall

23 ompany personnel cooperated with Escambia researcher to develop improved methods for planting longleaf ters, who came to see the successful plantations, were encouraged to plant. By the late 1920's most of the "railroad loggers" had to cut out leaving a bare and desolate land (Kisatchie National Forest) repellentsLouisiana edingd and ofperfected longleaf bird pine and practical. rodent

25 ly preparedinvented the a seedbed HG Furrow and Seeder, planted a machineforest C) CD skiddingera" oxenrange were did use imited to a narrow s deeprafts enough on the to rivers f 10 bonanzaLumbermenwith locomotives, of yellowmoved p e belt in the late 1800's d loaders, to harvest a longleafGeneral pine William belt of T.Georgia Sherman and wrought the Carolinas havoc in through 1865 the C., C1 beauty,Mooney are Nalty, efficient a booster producers of longleaf of high-quality pine, hunted wood quailproducts on his on forestsandy nearland andBrewton, furnish Alabama. an ideal habitat 30 Longleaf for r wildlife.for their Ancient Old Bluff Church was built on the east of the Cape Fear River with timber from the surrounding virgin forest.

Razorbackwere introduced hogs, a by serious DeSoto threat and other to longleaf Spanish pine con seedlings, quistadores. longleafWilliam pine Bartram, forests famous in the Pennsylvania 1770's. naturalist, explored the c3 of the finest fo This book is as everfor known. longleaf pine, one SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

36 CONTENTS .2 .2 .3 .3 .5 .71310 B JR. 1816 E 933) 33262120 C r belt, I mber Production War Proj 36 OTHER: dsud ng articles for American Forests magazine and