Chapter 12 Test Date: ______
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Animal Cell Differences: Plant Cell Differences: Lysosomes – breaks down food materials, Cell Wall – protects the cells of plants wastes, and old cells Chloroplast – green organelles that use Cytoskeleton – a network of threadlike light energy and make food by proteins that are joined together photosynthesis Vacuole – stores food, water, and waste
Plant & Animal Similarities: Nucleus – controls all the activities of the cell (largest organelle) Nucleolus – makes ribosomes Cytoplasm – gelatin-like material inside the cell membrane Rough ER – (has ribosomes) – site of protein production / carries materials through the cell
Smooth ER – (no ribosomes) – makes lipids and helps remove harmful substances Mitochondria – where the energy in food is stored/ produces energy through cellular respiration Golgi Apparatus (bodies) – flattened membranes that prepare proteins for specific jobs
Ribosomes – create proteins Cell Membrane – protective layer around all cells. Controls what enters and leaves the cell.
Organ systems- a group of organs that work together
Digestion System Circulatory System Circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins,
Path of Digestion delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs 1. The Mouth – Grinds food and cells and carrying their waste products 2. Esophagus – lets food pass through to the stomach away.
3. Stomach – stores swallowed food and liquid, mixes the food and liquid with digestive juice it produces, and Three Blood Vessels Arties – carry blood away from the heart slowly empties its contents, called chyme, into the small intestine. Veins – transport blood that contains CO2 4. Small Intestine – mix food with digestive juices from back to your heart Capillaries – enables oxygen to move the pancreas, liver, and intestine and absorbs the throughout the circulatory system digested nutrients into the bloodstream
5. Large Intestine - absorbs water and any remaining Gas exchange occurs between the Alveoli nutrients and changes the waste from liquid into stool. Spaces of the lungs and Capillaries in the 6. Rectum – stores stool until it pushes stool out of the circulatory system body during a bowel movement.
Digestion System: The Accessory Organs
The liver makes bile that breaks down food during the digestion process and removes waste from the blood and breaks down protein. The live removes waster in the form of urine. The pancreas produces a juice containing several enzymes that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in food. The gallbladder stores bile between meals.
Nervous System Collects and processes information The nervous system receives information from the senses via nerves through neurons throughout the body. and the brain and tells the muscles to contract to cause physical actions.
3 Things the Nervous
System does… Detect, respond and process
Respiratory System The lungs and the trachea bring air into the body.
Urinary System The system where the kidneys filter blood.
Skeletal System Bones support the
body and protect its organs. The skeletal system works with the muscular systems to move the body.
The skeletal system supports the
human body and produces immune cells.
Calcium is a mineral that is stored in bones.
Muscular System Enables the body to move using muscles.
Integumentary System Enables the body Endocrine System to move using muscles. Provides chemical communications within the body using hormones.
Melanin is the brown pigment that produces the various shades and colors of human skin
Reproductive System The sex organs required for the production First stage of of offspring. development – zygote
Final stage of development - fetus
Lymphatic System aka Immune System is composed of a number of primary and secondary organs and tissues widely distributed throughout the body – all with the purpose of facilitating the body’s immune response
Includes: lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and lymphatic vessels