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MODERN AND IDEAS 1 1882–1900 A Guide for Educators

Department of Education at The of POST- AND

Artists included in this guide: Eugène Atget, H. Blancard, Paul Cézanne, Hilaire-Germain-, , , François-Raoul Larche, , Georges-Pierre Seurat, , Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Édouard Vuillard

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. A NOTE TO EDUCATORS

2. USING THE EDUCATORS GUIDE

4. THE SCENE

5. LESSONS Lesson One: Modern Life

Lesson Two: Rise of the Modern City

Lesson Three: Portraiture

Lesson Four: Popular Culture

Lesson Five:

21. FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION

23. GLOSSARY

24. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES

28. MoMA SCHOOL PROGRAMS

No part of these materials may be reproduced or published in any form without prior written consent of The . © 2005 The Museum of Modern Art, New York A NOTE TO EDUCATORS

This is the first volume in the Modern Art and Ideas series for educators, which explore the 1 history of modern art through The Museum of Modern Art’s rich collection. While tradi- A

tional art historical categories are the organizing principle of this series, these parameters are N O

used primarily as a means of exploring artistic developments and movements in conjunction T E

with their social and historical context, with attention to the contribution of specific artists. T O

The guide is informed by issues posed by the selected works in a variety of mediums (paint- E D

ing, , prints, , film, and and design), but its organization and U C A

lesson topics are tailored to the public school curriculum, with particular application to social T O

studies, visual art, history, and language . Lessons are accompanied by writing, research, R S and hands-on, art-based activities that encourage students to make connections between the and other disciplines. The goal of this guide is to introduce students to Post-Impressionism and Symbolism, two movements in modern Western , and to demonstrate to teachers the variety of ways that art can be used in the classroom. The guide’s purpose is not just to explicate works of art, but to how images and historical information can be integrated into numer- ous subject areas and skill bases taught in the classroom. The works featured in this guide span the years 1882 to 1900. Post-Impressionism is a term coined after the fact in 1910 to describe a group of artists working in a variety of styles after the Impressionists. Symbolism was, initially, a literary term adopted by artists to describe their interest in objectifying their subjective experiences. Students be introduced to significant ideas in art and culture from this period. By comparing a variety of mediums and artistic styles, students will be able to practice observation, articulation, and discussion skills, and to further develop their visual literacy. This guide has been written with the understanding that the history of modern art is not simply a progression of hermetic styles; rather, a complex matrix of intellectual, social, and historical factors have contributed to the creation of art. Modern art is not solely the product of artists who seek to overthrow convention at all cost. As Kirk Varnedoe suggested, it “has been the product of individual decisions to reconsider the complex possibilities within the traditions available to them, and to on basic options that were, and remain, broadly avail- able and unconcealed.”1 Indeed, a may be viewed as a locus that invites numer- ous approaches and offers multiple ways of understanding the historical moment in which it was made and the individual who created it.

1. Kirk Varnedoe, A Fine Disregard, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990), 22. USING THE EDUCATORS GUIDE

The five lessons—Painting Modern Life, Rise of the Modern City, Portraiture, Popular Cul- 2 ture, and Landscape—that comprise this guide may be used sequentially or as independent U S

I units.An introduction to the key principles of each lesson is followed by a close examination N

G of each work, including formal analysis of the work, the work’s historical context, and T H biographical information on the artist. Discussion questions based on the information lead E

E students through formal analysis of the artwork and seek to create connections between D U

C information and visual evidence. The activity or project that concludes each lesson encour- A

T ages students to synthesize what they have learned about the works, and carries the lesson O

R into the broader curriculum or relates it to skills students are practicing in the classroom. S G U I

D Encourage dialogue and debate by asking your students to respond to each others’ observa- E tions and interpretations. Restating students’ responses, periodically reviewing students’ comments, and summarizing the discussion all help to validate students’ thoughts, focus the discussion, and generate additional ideas about the artwork

IMAGES All of the questions, discussions, and activities in this guide are based on the images on the accompanying slides and CD-ROM. Please examine the images carefully before showing them to your students. Your classroom should be equipped with a slide projector or com- puter and LCD projector.

ACTIVITIES The Activities sections are intended for students to make connections between their own experiences and the concepts presented in the lesson. Through these activities, students will begin to develop a language for discussing and looking at art. Please feel free to tailor the activities to the age level of your students.

RESEARCH PROJECTS In many cases, the materials in this guide will provide opportunities for in-depth research on specific artists or artistic movements. We have suggested some topics, to which we en- courage you to add your own. 3 USING THE EDUCATORS GUIDE historical terms (bolded upon first mention in each lesson) is included at is included lesson) in each (bolded mention upon first terms historical t ar f o y lossar g GLOSSARIES A The section “For Further Consideration” Further “For The section and re- additional questions discussion proposes projects.search teachers for section has also been provided and resources A bibliography research. use in conducting to and students further information on provide The resources the artists and artworks in this guide, topics, historical general activities. classroom and more ofthe end the guide. FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES AND SELECTED CONSIDERATION FOR FURTHER ore became closely associated with associated became closely a specificore geographical location. For f e r ne inhabiting a very different kind ofne inhabiting a very different environment. o i; van Gogh, Vincent and Saint Remy, with ; Toulouse- de and Henri and the me e ue surroundings in which they lived and worked. theyue surroundings in which lived periods extended for They worked so c ahit r o f e eas. if independently work may (Individuals photographs, Include preferred.) , ith T ETTING THE SCENE ETTING xample,Aix-en-, with associated is closely Cézanne Paul France; Gauguin, Paul e w Lautrec, with . these artists, Research they lived where to relationship their focusing on and worked. art and contrast artists by with Compare associated a citythose who and by in the countryside.worked think, you how influences environment your how Consider work, live, and . be imagine with to life would own experiences what you your Compare lik in a pla 2. ENVIRONMENT inspiration their took from artists described are as Post-Impressionist whose works Many the uniq or replicas of replicas or drawings (or of or in existence already important own your fair. in your include to like would that you inventions) The Universelle, 1889 Fair, new World’s and showcased or in Paris place took innovations, geographical and scientific discoveries, recent of and works art. Fairs, World’s Expos,or called today, often as they are various by countries. hosted and are place still take of Fair World’s the Paris Research learn about the themes, 1889 to events, and inventions and when country?Where in your Fair there. seen that were World’s been a ever there Has Research there? represented the important that were ideas were What place? did it take the globe. in countries across place taken that have Fairs World’s modern fair in the classroom. own mini world’s your Create a class, As up withlist of come a themes (i.e., fair should represent your ideas or technology, innovation, environment, politics, etc.). small groups.Form of one based on a presentation should create group Each or the themes id 1. WORLD’S FAIR S

4 INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITIES LESSONS

LESSON ONE: Painting Modern Life

5 L E S S O N S

IMAGE ONE: Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas. IMAGE TWO: Paul Cézanne. French, French, 1834–1917. At the Milliner’s. c. 1882. 1839–1906. The Bather. c. 1885. Oil on 5 3 1 on paper, 27 ⁄8 x 27 ⁄4" (70.2 x 70.5 cm). canvas, 50 x 38 ⁄8" (127 x 96.8 cm). Gift of Mrs. David M. Levy Lillie P. Bliss Collection

INTRODUCTION The artists associated with the Impressionist movement chose to depict modern (meaning contemporary), everyday life over mythological, religious, or heroic subject matter. Post- Impressionist was a term assigned to a group of artists working after the Impressionists who wished not only to depict modern life, but also to its emotional and psychological effects. They achieved this in a variety of styles. The two art works in this lesson are distinc- tively modern but in very different ways. Hilaire-Germain-Edgar Degas’s At the Milliner’s focuses on a moment between two women in a hat shop, and with numerous details care- fully highlights the mundane activity of trying on the latest fashion in hats. The Bather, by Paul Cézanne, also captures a moment in time, depicting an adolescent boy about to take a step forward, but the painting includes no reference to late-nineteenth-century contemporary life and is quite traditional in its subject matter—a male figure in a landscape. Unlike tradi- tional painters, Cézanne did not use this unheroic body in its barren, ambiguous setting to tell a story; rather, this composition permitted him to explore new ways of painting.

LESSON OBJECTIVES • Students will compare and contrast two .

• Students will understand the term modern as used in an historical and art historical context.

• Students will become familiar with the terms foreground, middle ground, and background. . oup mediums In this image difficult to describe e background. Ask the students to tell you . and ecounts a story about a gr ound, to be a appears and there , awing. might they be? Where arnedoe r V At the Milliner’s middle ground in the middle gr , e es ar foreground the figur the art historian Kirk ent? Degas has intentionally made it mor ound, (1990), egr ound. they differ Ask them to describe the people in the dr e . oduce them to the terms eak a rule? What inspired you? What were the consequences? Would you do it again? Would the consequences? were What you? inspired What eak a rule? Fine Disregard A chair is in the for hurch or a wealthy person.hurch a biblical or mythological These artworks usually represented cene; intended to instruct the viewer.and were they told stories cen- During the nineteenth ury, people, art about many artists started to make places, them or ideas that interested the figure on the left.the figure Ask why and how he might have done that. hats,Inform the class that a milliner is someone who makes place in a that this scene takes hat shop, and that the woman on the right is trying on hats. The woman on the left works woman to try on.at the hat shop and is bringing hats for the first if knowing Ask your students this changes their initial ideas about the . them why or why not. Ask what they see of soccer players in England in 1823.of soccer players Ellis, one of the players, In the story Webb William decides to pick up the ball with his hands, which is not allowed in soccer.This, has it, is how the sport of rugby was born. inspired a time when you were Can you remember to br a Ask your students to focus on the figure to the right.Ask your students to focus on the figure with five words Ask them to come up each to describe the person. made them choose those words. Ask them what they see that to the left.Ask the class to focus on the figure Ask them what they can tell about this person just by looking. to the one on the right. the figure Have them compare they the How are same? How ar Give your class a couple of minutes to look at Give your class a couple of minutes to look In and of which they had direct experience. direct and of which they had led them to explore Sometimes these new subjects images.new ways of creating with color, They experimented technique, and different you see art—inThink about the places where , in libraries, on buildings,buildings in worship.used for religious do What Does the art tell a story or teach people about an idea? the artists? you think inspired Prior to the nineteenth century,Prior to the nineteenth a artwork for to make most often commissioned artists were c s t the established norm, from different This art looked matter. subject quite different and had Art, of Modern The Museum At is considered this kind of art made after 1880 “modern,” to a new way of thinking about making art. meaning that it is related Ask your class to brainstorm definitions of the word “modern.” of the word definitions to brainstorm Ask your class “Modern” related can mean times,to current set of ideas that, to a particular a relationship it can also indicate but the at development,time of their or even experimental. new were What might they be doing? To help students explain what they are seeing, help students explain what they are To they be doing? might What it may be useful to intr wall in the backgr • • IMAGE-BASED DISCUSSION • • • • INTRODUCTORY DISCUSSION INTRODUCTORY •

6 LESSONS 7 LESSONS At the similar and e . it is different. Ask how . a couple of minutes Ask them to take onsidered to be a modern painting. to onsidered Instead is c in this painting.a photograph from painted He n io The Bather is a painting, recognize to that is hard a difference ather At the Milliner’s mat r . at the foreground, Have your students look middle o The B inf h The Bather uc es (the woman trying on the hat and the bather) ar es (the woman trying on the hat and the bather) The Bather m udio in a suit rather than from something that he had seen ratherudio in a bathing suit than from e ud l al figur ory or representing a specificory place, representing or of a sense capture the painting to seems is a drawing and is a drawing is one ofis one why the reasons ling a st y l iguity uncertainty or that is typical of the modern experience. ound, and background. Ask them what they see that tells them what is in man standing in a st sk your class to imagine that they can see beyond the frame of this picture. of this that they can see beyond the frame sk your class to imagine else might What e hey see? Milliner’s t a in a reproduction. to look at the painting. Ask your students how they might convey an idea about life where they live (i.e., an idea about life where Ask your students how they might convey is it place or activity. and noisy or desolate and quiet?) without showing a specific crowded Ask how the centr Ask what is going on in Now show your students the image of Now show your students Ask them how the image is similar to A t encapsulating one aspect of their life. of a small scene a drawing make Ask your students to would they draw? What different. how they are gr the painting. f f o in real life.in real and who is. the person place the painting takes where tell to is hard It This uncer- taint ACTIVITY/PROJECT live. you where place that takes about a small scene us something tell that scene Write Could How? place? in that about life more o amb • Cézanne did not inc • • • • • • To Degas,To painting modern meant painting what life in Paris, happened every day he where lived. city the walks through for with went his friends, often He American artist as the such , trying woman the who is the model for hat. the on Degas thought depict- that specific,ing many detailed small scenes, shop, in the milliner’s as this moment such would of understanding a deeper create modern life. . " 8 ⁄ 7 6 x 6 1 ⁄ 3 1 Purchase Untitled (construction Untitled d. lancar B H. Blancard. (construction Untitled Eugène Atget.Eugène French, Coiffeur, boulevard de H. (15.6 x 22.1 cm). (22.4 x 15.6 cm). Purchase " " 6 8 ⁄ 1 ⁄ 1 11 6 8 x x 16 8 ⁄ ⁄ 1 15 f Tower). Eiffel the 1888. April print, Platinum artial gift of Shirley C. Burden IMAGE SIX: o 6 IMAGE EIGHT: of 1888. Tower). the Eiffel August print, Platinum 8 IMAGE FOUR: (22.4 x 17.5 cm). Collection. Abbott-Levy P 1912. print, silver Albumen 8 1857–1927. 16 ⁄ 15 hase c c. 1900. cast Painted . ur P (15.6 x 22.1 cm). Purchase " Hector Guimard.Hector French, H. Blancard. (construction Untitled 16 ⁄ 1 1 H. Blancard. (construction Untitled Entrance Gate to Paris Subway Subway Paris to Gate Entrance 8 x 8 ⁄ 1 (22.4 x 16 cm). ropolitain) Station ropolitain) " 8 ⁄ 1 6 f Tower). Eiffel the February 10, 1888. Platinum iron, glazed lava, and glass, x 13' 11" x 17' 10" 32" (424 x 544 x 81 cm). Gift of Régie Parisiens Transports des Autonome (Mét IMAGE THREE: 1867–1942. IMAGE SEVEN: x of Tower). the Eiffel 1888. June print, Platinum 8 o print, 6 IMAGE FIVE: LESSON TWO: Rise of the ModernLESSON TWO: City

8 LESSONS 9 LESSONS s e lik om additions st built? ange fr These could r ed it when it was fir who founded and developed a company aris lik . al work. railway The primary focuses of the company were avant-garde but Gustave Eiffel is also known for designing the Statue of Liberty’ but Gustave Eiffel is also known for designing , eactions the public might have had to the changing nature of their city. changing nature eactions the public might have had to the gun in July 1887,gun in July and twenty- the foundation build to months five and it took ower was named for Gustave Eiffel, e create as well as solidity elegance as well and durability?create [. . . .] Moreover, is an there T ower? Do they think everyone in P o T was b ion in the colossal,ion and a singular delight ordinary which to theories of art scarcely are the ek t t r c e e light rail system or a new museum to a new or enlarged shopping mall. system or a new museum to a new or enlarged light rail sort of impact What a tudents will be introduced to two new mediums:tudents will be introduced photography. industrial design and r w structural support. structural a affect the way people have on the look of ? How do these projects do these projects think about the place in which they live? Show students the four photographs of the being constructed (Images 5–8).AskTower of the Eiffel Show students the four photographs to the construction based on the photographs,your students to react it and to imagine what was being constructed.Tower while the to be a citizen of Paris Do they might have been like lik while continuing Tower information on the Eiffel Give your students some background to discuss various r Begin the conversation by asking your students to think about any recent changes that have by asking your students to think about any recent Begin the conversation or town. been made in the landscape of their city The Eiffel specializing in metal structur bridges and stations Students will consider the impact that the creation of public monuments has on a city of public monuments the impact that the creation Students will consider and its citizens. S the ways in which art,Students will consider architecture, their and design affect everyday life. here was a strong reaction to the Tower from the general public, from artists as well as from the Tower who to reaction was a strong here o ESSON OBJECTIVES The Eiffel Tower was conceived of in Paris. Fair was conceived The World’s Tower The Eiffel the 1889 during for preparation T one months to assemble the metal pieces (of the metal pieces assemble to months one 18,000). are there which T “stain”on . the Paris thought it was unsightlya and truly tragic“a One critic called it the criticism to interview, in a newspaper responded Eiffel lamp.”Gustave street saying,“For will possess its own . part that because believe that the Tower to I believe my we Are is an engineer,one does that one constructions or beauty by in one’s is not preoccupied one not se att • • • • DISCUSSION INTRODUCTORY L • • INTRODUCTION The turn of century the in Paris, knownBelle as the Époque, was a timeof modern inven- tion, art intense production, and its neighbors. France for peace and relative in Paris undertaken projects exciting many The new among are Tower and the Eiffel system subway at this time. applicable” (www.tour-eiffel.fr). Fair,Initially,World’s the 1889 after tower it gradually the demolish but the plan was to ofbecame icon a defining cityscape. the Paris as a artists Tower the Eiffel embraced Many symbol of and the , ask 2 ot only in n and ask them and ask them Coiffeur, boulevard , as an interna- created e—with the framing Entrance Gate to Paris Subway aphing this storefront window. aphing this storefront ntrance Gate to Paris Subway E to describe the entryway and write the word on a piece to describe the entryway and write the word how the image fits into the pictur Atget to photogr ead the sentences out loud. d — g acted is designed in the of amin (vol. IV: Times) Modern York: of (New The Museum Art, Modern 1985), 10. the fr Entrance Gate to Paris Subway (Métropolitain) Station e , by Degas. different? they they similar? How are In what ways are Eugène Atget.Eugène Give your students a moment to look closely at the image, by Ask the students to r . , The World ofThe World Atget Art Nouveau artists and designers,Art Nouveau curvilinear lines and pat- and the entryway’s r ry that the camera was an artistic instrument machine.” rather than a mere o f o e At the Milliner’s c ade in 1900, the subway was completed. the year that and designer architect The Parisian ector Guimard was commissioned to make to make was commissioned ector Guimard rder new of transportation this entry to the new subway but to help make to mark de Strasbourg

of of paper.Then of four or five, groups divide the students into a them to create and direct to see the entryway on the street,sentence describing what it would be like using all the words that they have written down. to form as they like Students may add as many other words their sentence them to come up with another wor to spend a moment looking closely at the image. moment looking closely to spend a that word to come up with one Ask them object.describes the his or her word. share Have each student o appealing to Parisians. Not much is known about Atget.Not much is known about that he was a documentary photog- Some people think modern and interesting. only later considered that were who took pictures rapher Others in an inventive andto use a camera how think that he was an artist who had discovered imaginative way. Ask them to compar Ask them what they think attr they think he was standing when he took the picture.Ask them where Ask them what they to encounter this shop window when walking down the street. think it would have been like Continue the exploration of the streets of Paris by showing your students of Paris of the streets Continue the exploration Now that students have discussed and are familiar with Now that students have discussed and are H Inform your students that the object is an entryway to the Paris Métro—or that the object is an entryway to the Paris Inform your students subway system— m so that it would stand designed the entryway consider how Guimard Ask your students to out. subway entrances, from Subway different Gate to Paris How is Entrance bus stops, your atten- use to capture devices did the designers What today? signs that you see or street your attention? design capture tion? How does Guimard’s Show your students Show your and then ask them what they think is going on in the work. and then ask them what they think is going John Szarkowski, John

2. • • at the turn spent of thirty Paris documenting Atget years Eugène century, nineteenth the thousands ofcreating images.After of a number his artists and journalists commented the city had captured ofAtget the artisticon that decidedly modern and way Paris. arti- An formulate to photographer first “the as Atget to referred newspapers York that rancle in New the the • • • • Entrance Gate to Paris Subway Paris to Gate Entrance • • tional style of in the 1880s and 1890s. and architecture decoration important was an Nature sour vines. by inspired were terns IMAGE-BASED DISCUSSION IMAGE-BASED •

LESSONS 10 • Divide the class into two teams. Ask one team to defend the position that Atget was a documentary photographer who was not interested in creating a photograph that would be considered a “work of art.” Ask the other team to defend the position that Atget was an artist who was using photography to capture many of the same ideas about that the class explored in the previous lesson. Have each team present their argument.

ACTIVITIES/PROJECTS Research the development of other transit systems, such as the underground and New York subway. How did these cities entice riders to use their systems?

Document an existing building or renovation site, or research the creation of a civic symbol 11 or landmark. What is the history of the building/site/landmark? Why was it created? What is L E its function? What does it commemorate? What was the public’s reaction to it when it was S S first completed? O N S Think about how a piece of sculpture or architecture can change the look of a neighborhood or even a city. If you wanted to design something to change the way your city looks, what would it be? Think about what you would make and why. Where would it be located in the city? Write a statement like Gustave Eiffel’s (p. 9), about your vision for your creation.

The Paris Métro improved life in the city by making transportation cleaner and faster. Think about ways in which you might improve your city or neighborhood. If you did create some- thing new, how would you entice people to use it? Design an advertising campaign for your new idea for improving life in your city or neighborhood.

Research other projects that Gustave Eiffel was involved in, such as his design for the inte- rior structure of the Statue of Liberty. Mrs. f Mother Gift o Opus 217. Against . c. 1893. canvas, Oil on . 1890. canvas, Oil on 29 x ackground Rhythmic withackground Beats Rhythmic Édouard Vuillard. Édouard B a f Paul Signac. Paul (46.3 x 56.5 cm). o " l 4 ⁄ 1 2 2 (73.5 x 92.5 cm). Fractional gift of Mr. name x " 2 4 ⁄ ⁄ 1 1 ights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP,Paris ights Society (ARS),York/ADAGP,Paris New 8 aidie A.aidie May.Artists Rights © 2005 Society 36 the E and Angles, Tones, and Tints, of Portrait M. Félix Fénéon in 1890 IMAGE TEN: and Mrs. Rockefeller. David Artists © 2005 R and Sister ofArtist the 1 IMAGE ELEVEN: S (ARS), York/ADAGP,Paris New x 8 ⁄ 3 Portrait of Portrait and Mrs. E. Werner Josten, Oil on canvas,Oil on 25 . present individuals in many different ways. different individuals in many present They representa- can be literal Mr e 1889. n, . Vincent van Gogh. Vincent erson or they can represent a person symbolically. a person they or can represent erson the time that these Around io t p Bartos, The Sidney and Harriet can r c . a le f ol (64.6 x 55.2 cm). Gift of Mr. and Mrs. " 4 ⁄

ns o rtraits eph Roulin 3 mand P r ESSON THREE: Portraiture ESSON

o anis C os io and Loula D.and Loula exchange) Bequest (all by Lasker William A.William M. Burden, Mr. and Mrs. Paul Rosenberg, A. , Mr. and Mrs. A J J IMAGE NINE: 21 t created, paintings were three people was starting take artists to a shift in the way represented hold. appearance, physical the sitter’s capture seeking to than just Rather artists sought to , her his or represent disposition, psyche. inner and even such represent to order In INTRODUCTION P L

LESSONS 12 LESSONS 13 . , and sister ostume c . that sure Make mother s d’ om the painting. Ask them uillar V ait to you. face). them to consider the background Ask s Portrait of Joseph Roulin e’ ance of the figur and background. , ose es are posed. es are p , Vuillard’s painting (Image 11),Vuillard’s his mother and sister at which represents (the appear d that they support their comments with visual evidence fr that they support their comments with visual xpression ession” raits of Roulin. This picture, van which Gogh boasted of completed having e e t , (the way a figure is positioned),a figure way (the “gesture” hands), (the placement of the figure’s r sur o e. p and Roulin lived on the same street and became the same street friends. on close lived and Roulin Gogh painted Van e “expr eep these ideas in mind while describing the portr y h esture tudents will be introduced to some of the conventions of portraiture such as to some of the conventions of portraiture tudents will be introduced g they understand the terms “costume,” the terms they understand “expression,” “pose,”“background,” and and ask them to k Ask your students to take a moment to look at Ask your students to take Roulin by looking at this Ask your students what they think can be learned about Joseph pictur Ask your students to describe what someone looking at their portrait could learn about could learn about looking at their portrait Ask your students to describe what someone on their face. (their costume or outfit) or the expression wearing what they are them from Consider Édouar Students will consider how symbols can be used in a portrait to add meaning. to add how symbols can be used in a portrait Students will consider by asking your students to define portraiture.Begin the conversation Ask them if they have ever sat for their portrait. at school. taken they have had their picture Perhaps Ask them if they taken. for having their picture do anything special in preparation them why or why not. Ask S g information about a person. how the above elements can communicate Students will consider home, as seamstresses. they both lived and worked where portraiture, traditional Unlike as in capturing the likenesses his subjects’ precise in recording not so interested was Vuillard environment. and of their relationship nature at this Ask your students to look carefully work suggesting about and tell you what the painting seems to be against which the figur Mak and to note specifically how Vuillard communicates these ideas to the viewer.Vuillard the terms Introduce to note specifically how “pose” ESSON OBJECTIVES Joseph Roulin worked for a post office in the French town of town in the French a post office for worked Roulin Joseph Arles. car- a letter was not He rier rather held but a higher position sorting as an official mail at the train station. Van Go man • • IMAGE-BASED DISCUSSION • • • DISCUSSION INTRODUCTORY • L • • subjective and symbolic and aspectssubjective of subjects, their capturing to artists less attention paid often devices, compositional new developing than to facial features precise nonnatu- employing what and it might about the background very and making ralistic specific choices color about the subject. reveal quickly, in a single session,Arles. and left job a better-paying got Roulin after was painted memory think that this portrait rather but from Some scholars life or from was not painted previous portraits.from . a moment Ask them to take in the same manner. self-portrait different. e mmunicate about the person to the viewer. to person about the mmunicate think to ask them Then Opus 217. Against the Enamel of a Background Rhythmic with Beats o c o njoyed dressing eccentrically in silk top hats and capes. top in silk eccentrically dressing njoyed pointed His beard ove, people in which was an art Félix Fénéon the way critic who influenced t e e ab n d out the themes and ideas in the exhibition and the ways in which the works the works in which and the ways in the exhibition and ideas the themes out ne ab ommunicate this information.ommunicate a drawing, make them Have painting, of or io Fénéo y l ould lik nt while at the exhibition. they are about what they notes see, They should take thinking w ful est c lic viewed art. of some Research these critics ideas. and their r sk your students to think about the title.sk your students to think “opus” that the term they understand sure Make nds, y me efers to a musical movement,efers of to the background title refers of the and that the rest e and Angles, Tones, and Tints, Portrait of M. Félix Fénéon in 1890 e

b out the costume,out expression, pose, portrait in their include to they and background intend Ask what aspects of their subjects the artists have chosen to highlight. Ask what aspects of their subjects the artists Ask your students to look at these two paintings again.Ask your students to look at these two paintings Ask them to describe how they are similar and how they ar A r Show your students Show your at this portrait, Fénéon by looking learned about Félix they think can be Ask them what in mind costume,keeping expression, pose, and background. to look at this portrait. to look at the painting as “rhythmic with beats and angles,“rhythmic the painting as tones, and tints.” Write this part of the title on the chalkboard, while describing the students to consider the words and ask your background. painting’s ie s

erson. what describe personality her to his or and consider write them words a few Have o are installed.are write each to a review use these notes of to them Ask the show. the have Then a published review the exhibition. on read students the review ideas does their add to How help furtheror of understanding their Do they the exhibition? disagree agree with or the reviewer? the person. a create to students your Ask and thought ofunderstood about the work artists write to he chose about. other were There people about art who wrote the in which at this time who also had an impact the way on pub art who are write criticsThere today reviews of and artists’ exhibitions museum in shows and magazines.newspapers visit to on it either students and ask your Find a local exhibition as a class. owntheir or the visit, Before con- to about should brainstorm questions students sid car ab t A • ACTIVITIES/PROJECTS plan a portrait to students of your Ask they someone know. they selected this why Ask p the • Félix Fénéon was an artFélix Fénéon Paul for and literary critic and advocate who as a spokesperson acted Seurat as Georges and . such Signac and contemporaries the term coined He “Neo-Impressionist” the Impressionists, from distinguish work their to the and explicated artists’ theory, in optics and color interest informed which use of their small brush- many pictures. their compose to “”) style (a dots or known as ofstrokes many Like his fr • Sam. Uncle to his resemblance to contributed • •

LESSONS 14 LESSONS 15 " 8 ⁄ 7 23 x 8 ⁄ 5 (80 x " . 1893. 16 ⁄ 9 4 2 x 8 ⁄ 7 31 eate a list of definitions t: e Divan Japonais Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. de Henri she Ask them to cr . (80.3 x 60.7 cm); IMAGE THIRTEEN: French, 1864–1901. Lithographed , composition: 31 62.4 cm). Publisher: Fournier, Édouard Paris. Printer: Edward Ancourt, Paris. Edition: unknown. of The Museum Art, Modern New Fund,Aldrich Rockefeller York. Abby 1949 x 8 ⁄ 1 with your students e . c. 1900. Bronze, 18 DISCUSSION . Y François-Raoul Larche. François-Raoul al public was a fairly phenomenon, was a new al public in a variety and artists images created r (45.7 x 25.5 x 23.1 cm). Gift of usso ne " e R 8 ⁄ 1 y 9 n x the g 8 ⁄ 1 Discuss the idea of popular cultur Students will be introduced to one new medium and one new technique:Students will be introduced sculpture bronze and or disseminated is recorded Students will consider the ways in which popular culture in society. in may be integrated Students will consider the ways in which art and popular culture advertising. or examples of popular culture that they have seen.or examples of popular culture How do we learn about popular culture? Ask your students to consider the idea of celebrity. of the media (TV, is the role What news- papers, the idea of celebrity? the Internet) in creating r ESSON FOUR: Popular Culture FOUR: Popular ESSON ntho f of and techniques mediums celebrities and of culture. popular enjoying iful age”) because ofiful age”) at that time. that occurred the high cultural development o INTRODUCTOR • • • • o LESSON OBJECTIVES INTRODUCTION ofThe end is known as the Belle century the nineteenth Époque (literally, in France “beau- t f L A 10 IMAGE TWELVE: Fuller,Loïe the Dancer go , . . the Begin ely visual ones pur e .owner of the Inform them that the commissioned Toulouse-Lautrec to make Toulouse-Lautrec commissioned , Loïe Fuller, the Dancer aponais Divan Japonais are in the styleare of Art Nouveau. described As p. on 10 of Ask them to list all of the similarities they can find between Ask them to list all of the similarities they . s Once they have come up with a number of similarities Once they have come up with a number of the Divan J . graph. Lithography, in 1798, invented is a form of in umes, organic, creating Art Nouveau the forms that embody fluid ound information and how many ar Divan Japonais ost c hich is sent through a press to create the image. create to a press through is sent hich information more (For y Divan Japonais and is a litho w e, film eady been stated, so they must listen closely to each other. How many similarities and r al female figure was a famous cancan dancer.Theal female figure onstage, figure whose he et depicted in the work, h elated to backgr it adheres only to the actual the artist image to only has drawn.it adheres placed Damp paper is then r the plat Loïe Fuller Loïe eak your students up into pair number of artists created images of her in a variety of mediums. number of artists created e e, o oug

this poster to celebrate the cabaret’s reopening after it had been refurbished. after it had been reopening the cabaret’s this poster to celebrate Ask your in the poster.These figures students to examine the three people would have been recog- nized by the public at the time. magazine. and founder of a literary The man was an The centr is cropped, was a well-known singer.Although her face is not visible, she would have been accessory. her signature by the long black gloves that were recognized around the room and have each pair name one. and have each the room around an idea students that they cannot repeat Tell that has alr ar conversation by asking your students to describe what they see. by asking your conversation a list them create Have to describe the sculpture. of words Br Loïe Fuller Ask your students to look closely at Inform your students that this is a sculpture of a well-known American dancer named Loïe of a well-known that this is a sculpture Inform your students Fuller, performer at a famous music hall called a regular and become who moved to Paris Bergères.the Folies for her twirling and flowing, She was celebrated silky costumes. A Give your students a moment to look closely at Give your students a The poster created by Toulouse-Lautrec (preceding page) was commissioned as an adver- was commissioned page) (preceding Toulouse-Lautrec by created The poster tisement. (or focus the conversation of a commercial your students a videotape Show have all seen), that they a commercial on magazines or from have some advertisements or newspapers available for review. that is being the product the students to identify Ask product. used to sell the that is being and the strategy advertised them to consider the Ask and popular culture. link between advertising cabar ivan Japonais ivan

nt MAGE-BASED DISCUSSION MAGE-BASED DISCUSSION and to see a demonstration ofand to this process, see http://www.moma.org/exhibitions/2001/ whatisaprint.) D of the surface onto an artistwhich directly can draw aluminum usually (now limestone withplates) medium. an oily “fixed” drawing is The artist’s of the surface to with the plate of the areas an acid. cover used to is then Water that the artist the plate has not drawn so on not mix). do and oil (water the medium repel as to Thus, the when to the medium is applied plat o Both this guide, artists and designers.VinesArt Nouveau for was an important nature source and the curvilinear inspired vegetation typical lines and rhythmic patterns of the style. The characteristic ofwere that swirlingunique movements dancing extended Fuller’s Loïe thr sensibility. • • • I • •

LESSONS 16 LESSONS 17 ACTIVITIES/PROJECTS at school.hangout student a popular advertising a poster create to students your Ask Will people they make they think how could Ask people they that they can all include recognize? withoutrecognizable faces. showing their different using many poster their Theymake can mediums, drawing, as such painting, collage. and/or of being a pioneer addition to In modern , in stage patents held several Fuller Loïe lighting design. costume and impact and her these various on aspects Fuller Loïe Research of . " 8 ⁄ 5 x 4 ⁄ 25 1 x ” (52 x 8 16 ⁄ ⁄ 5 15 25 x gh. Dutch, 2 ⁄ h. Norwegian, 1 . 1889. Oil on 1902. unc . an Go M d nt v e ar Port-en-Bessin, Entrance v Georges-Pierre Seurat. Georges-Pierre (73.7 x 92.1 cm). Acquired inc " Ed V 4 ⁄ 1 lancholy III lancholy he /Thehe Munch e . 1888. canvas, Oil on 21 The M 2005 T (37.5 x 47 cm); sheet: 20 © " 2 ⁄ n. 1 unch-Ellingen Group/Artistsunch-Ellingen Rights Society ith gouache additions,ith gouache composition: 14 io 1853–1890. through the Lilliethrough P.Bliss Bequest canvas, 29 x 36 IMAGE FIFTEEN: M (ARS), York New to the Harbor to IMAGE FOURTEEN: French, 1859–1891. (54.9 x 65.1 cm). Lillie P.Bliss Collection 65.8 cm). Publisher: the artist. Printer: M. W. Lassally, . Edition: 100 in approximately variations. and compositional color several ofThe Museum Art, Modern York. New The B.William A. and Evelyn Jaffe J. Collec- Hall t IMAGE SIXTEEN: w 18 1863–1944.

ESSON FIVE: Landscape ESSON

L

LESSONS 18 INTRODUCTION Landscape was a popular subject for many artists throughout the nineteenth century. While interested in painting modern city life, a number of artists in the late nineteenth- and early twentieth century were averse to the intense of modern society. For artists who wished to paint , the country—made more easily accessible by the new railroads—offered a retreat from growing industrialization.

LESSON OBJECTIVES • Students will become familiar with the term “landscape,” and will revisit the terms “foreground,” “middle ground” and “background.”

• Students will consider how an artist’s painting technique impacts a viewer’s interpretation 19 of a painting. L E S S O N IMAGE-BASED DISCUSSION S • Begin by showing your students Port-en-Bessin, Entrance to the Harbor. Ask them to take a moment to look at the image carefully. Ask the students to describe what is in the foreground, middle ground, and background.

• Inform your students that this is a landscape. Ask them to define “landscape,” or help them to define it based on what they see in this image. A landscape is an image that has natural scenery as its primary focus.

• Ask your students to write down five to ten words that describe this painting. (Emphasize to older students the use of adjectives as opposed to nouns.)

• Ask your students to choose their favorite words and share them with the class. Direct them to use visual evidence from the work to explain their word choices. Make a list of the words on the chalkboard or on chart paper.

Georges-Pierre Seurat, like Impressionist painters before him, was very interested in painting light, and studied optical theory to develop his painting technique, known as “pointillism,” or Neo-Impressionism (see Lesson Three, p. 14). Seurat created this image by carefully placing small dots of color side by side. When viewed up close, one is aware of the many small dots of varied color. When viewed from a distance, the dots fuse together to create the image. Neo-Impressionist artists believed that this painstaking method of painting was the most scientific and precise way to record color and light.

• Ask your students to look carefully at . How is it similar to Port-en-Bessin, Entrance to the Harbor ? How is it different?

• Ask your students why—based on the definition they came up with earlier—this painting is considered a landscape.

• Ask them to write down five to ten words that describe this painting. (Emphasize to older students the use of adjectives as opposed to nouns.)

• Ask the students to choose their favorite words and share them with the class. Ask them to use visual evidence from the work to explain their selection. . 4 . and con- to compare Ask them , Elderfield et al, John eds.York: (New The Port-en-Bessin, Entrance to the Harbor . a location and choose to ask them First III (New York: of(New The Museum Art, Modern 2004), 35. cityscape But the painting is more about real- then the painting is more But 3 . they different? they similar? How are How are . ModernStarts: People, Places, Things John Elderfield,John ed.York: of (New The Museum Art, Modern 2003), 29. . A woodcut carving is a print by that is made a onto an image The Starry Night ist chisels away at the block leaving a raised leaving at the block image. away ist chisels ink is rolled When t woodcut The Starry Night believed that working in an expressive mode and capturing was emotion in an expressive that working believed is a he ar h Visions ofVisions Art, Modern T This approach to creating images is called images Symbolism. creating to This approach The Symbolists included 5 oodblock, the raised it lands on image. the block, on is placed Paper is then which unc k. c M lo d the w several photographsseveral of it. moving on before Then they sketches can begin creating by db e. ar o e o

v it trast this image to trast Ask your students to take a moment to look at Ask your students to take How many words do the two lists have in common? How many are different? different? many are in common? How do the two lists have words How many Make a list of the favorite words on the chalkboard or on chart paper and compare this list and compare or on chart paper chalkboard on the favorite words a list of the Make came up with for that the class of words with the list tists and writers who sought to communicate their subjective reaction to the world around the world to reaction subjective their tists and writers who sought communicate to r description of shown and a description in the images the places of the that comes o MoMA Highlights: 350 Works from The Museum ofThe Museum from Works Highlights:MoMA 350 Art Modern Rewald,John in Wendy Weitman, “Landscape as Retreat,” in Wendy

emonstration of this process, see: http://www.moma.org/exhibitions/2001/whatisaprint.) nt 5. 3. 4. Museum ofMuseum Art, Modern 1999), 212. Have your students create a landscape a or create students your Have ACTIVITIES/PROJECTS again. images the three students your Show review closely.Ask them to a moment them Give “postcards”from of each write to them landscape scenes. the three both They should include a image. in each across as they there spend a day to imagine be like to what them it would Ask w tak painting the scene. to Melancholy III Melancholy Ed important of images more than making realistic the world. wrote, He is not some- “Nature alone—it the eye thing that can be by seen lies also within the , the by seen in pictures eye.” inner ar depictions of realistic create ratherthem than to it. w o the image. create to a printing through sent press see a information to and more (For d • “This morning I saw the country from my window a long time before sunrise, time a long before window “This the country my morning from I saw with nothing the morning star,but very big,”wrote looked which van Gogh his brother, to Theo, describing the inspiration for ism. it is true this landscape that is of While night a real sky van Gogh observed while living ofin the South France, fictional elements, also contains it spire, the church such did which of is reminiscent which but his window the small in from villagenot exist saw that he a as he saw Holland. about painting a scene passionately Gogh in his native spoke church Van it,be rendered: to not as it was expected “[. . .] those mountains, they [. ? were . . blue,were They .] they? Good—make all!” and that’s weren’t blue them •

LESSONS 20 FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION 21 not? y h e? Describe the different mediums used by the artist. the mediums used by e? Describe the different con- and Compare w ct a work by one of one by ct a work in this guide. a work it to these artists and compare Do r le o e S y h these works with a later work by another artist another in the guide. by with not included work these works a later Do you e. f she mak W er the works of the works er viewing. are art you the one installed around com- you would How r d? ne o e nsid o vements. instance, For painter Austrian Gaudí and the Antoni the Spanish architect C Research artists associated with Post-Impressionism and Symbolism who are not included and Symbolism who are artists with associated Post-Impressionism Research ast o isit The Museum ofisit The Museum Art in this guide. an artwork and locate that was included Modern OR FURTHER CONSIDERATION OR FURTHER hang r notice any similarities or differences? Were there any factors that played an important role that played factors any there Were similarities differences? or any notice work, artist’s in the later example, (for events as historical such the impact of I) War World also may at the time? (You work her his or to did people react How experiences? personal or series.) Art and Ideas in the Modern guides other to refer want to Looking Ahead Select of one the artists in this guide. 1900. after career the artist’s Follow kind of What art did he o t Contemporaries is focusedThis primarily guide of decades during artists on the last two in France working century.the nineteenth artists countries in other at that time, working Investigate and other mo in the style of Klimt worked Gustav Art Nouveau. pare the works? Why do you think they were chosen to be exhibited together? be exhibited to chosen think they were you do Why the works? pare RESEARCH PROJECTS Looking Back artists the Impressionists. to relationship and their discusses Post-Impressionist This guide Manet, and Édouard artists Monet as Claude such Impressionist Research and think about in this guide. these artists between the connections referenced and the ones you notice any similarities or differences? Why do you think these two artists were identified artists think these two were you do Why similarities differences? or any notice you as part of the same group? V looking at the actual work, are that you Now and scale. think about its size you would How Are in the classroom? saw that you with the reproduction in the Museum the work compare about this work ideas your earlier? Have notice didn’t that you see now details you any there c After completing the lessons, completing After a list of make to students ask your that they questions still any about an artist artists or have this guide. in categories different into questions their Organize their own research.so that they can conduct can include: Categories biographical questions; of about a specificquestions work art, the artist as why it and what made types such of mate- rials the artist used; at a certain time during events the historical regarding and questions life. artist’s in this guid CONCLUDING QUESTIONS F nt? mine

As partAs of research, your of works two or one choose Americanartist. art an by Describe o

r f this work? Explore connections with in this connections the artists contemporary writers to Explore presented who were guide, Chopin, as Kate such , Mallarmé, Stéphane Twain, Mark Wilde, Oscar Yeats. Butler and William Looking at American History during States this period with of that the artisticthe United in Compare climate France they were .and/or American artistsWhy time? at the prominent some were Who p detail as possible, in as much the work art critics from reactions historians or and include was made. the time the work around from disagree agree with or Do you published opinions o Literary Connections

FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION 22 GLOSSARY 23 ry as its primary focus. ne e hands. s ’ e ban sc hnique based on the repulsion of based the repulsion on hnique and water. oil in- more (For c e figur a f nt o that has ur making t e me int e the part of and background. the foreground that is between the picture r int.) c cial aspect indicating an emotion. figure is positioned. figure r p group that is innovative and inventive in its technique, and inventive that is innovative group particularly in . rint.) an international stylean international of begun and in the 1880s and architecture decoration fa a the part of the viewer; that appears furthest the picture from also, the area an individual’s representation of representation an individual’s herself. or him- a the part of the viewer. to that appears closest the picture a a y printmaking technique involving an image in relief an image involving printmaking technique wood. on infor- more (For an image that has natural that an image scenery as its primary focus. term used to refer to the material or materials used in a work of used materials in a work or the material to refer used to term art. y: isap an imag representation ofrepresentation a particular individual. isap a what a figure is wearing.what a figure h a a the pla e: and for a demonstration and for ofsee http://www.moma.org/exhibitions/ this process hat ap hat e: r n the wa g ession: scap io y LOSSARY it ose: itho ormation and for a demonstrationormation for of and see http://www.moma.org/exhibitions/ this process Self-portrait: Woodcut: mat 2001/ w Middle ground:Middle Portrait: P L Medium: Foreground: Gestur Landscape: f 2001/w C Costume: Expr 1890s. garde: Avant Background: Art Nouveau: is placed. scene or against a figure which G . w e w e ne/N g ne/N olo g C . a/Rizzoli, 1990. olo C kir . S k: r . York: /New o Y w . Essen, Germany: Museum e .York: New of The Museum N Modernism . f o r ionee New York: of Museum New The Metropolitan . ion: 1870–1910 at r eal: of Museum Montreal Arts/Washington, Fine ne r e 1839–1906: P .York: of New The Museum Art, Modern 1986. nt o M list G Post Impressionism: the Rise of the Rise Impressionism: Post Art, Modern 1880–1920 . . York: New Abrams, 1988. ignac 1863–1935 ulouse-Lautrec, 1864–1901: The Theater of Life mbo S o y T uillard Cézanne and the Dawn ofArt Modern aul Cézanne, de V P i The S d nr e Post-Impressionism: Movements in Modern Art in Modern Movements Post-Impressionism: uar H ouis. The Symbolists Toulouse-Lautrec: and Prints of the Collection from Posters Toulouse-Lautrec: and Irene do E Post-Impressionism, Gogh van Gauguin to from e-L r . : of High Museum Art, 1998. ny, Ulrike. r r atthias. Pie alo Studies in Post-Impressionism Studies M u, al, Guy. v e ks-M g

nold, c athie o ELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES BIBLIOGRAPHY ELECTED r e ocquillon-Ferretti, Marina.

ork: Taschen, c. 2000. Howard Stein Howard C Folkwang/Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany: D.A.P.,Dis- (distributed by Publishers Cantz Hatje tributed Art Publishers, Inc,York), New 2005. B D.C.: Gallery of National Art, Press, University 2003. Yale in association with Baumann, Andreas. Felix MONOGRAPHS A Y York: Taschen, c. 2001. B READINGS ON SYMBOLISM Gibson, Michael. Modern Art,Modern rev. ed. 1978. ———. Thomson, Belinda. M Parson, Gale. Iain Thomas and READINGS ON POST-IMPRESSIONISM Press,Cambridge University 1998. Press, University Haven:Art/New 2001. Yale Castleman, Riva. S London: Studio Editions, 1992. Rewald, John.

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES 24 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES 25 . . York: New Harry N. York: of The Museum . /London: ven:Art University Yale w a e H N .York: New of TheMuseum . w e N . les: of University Press, California 1968. e . Detroit, Michigan: Institute The Detroit ng A os L beville Press, 1988. . Rimini, : Idealibri, 2003. . b A . York: New Taschen, 2001. (vol. IV: Times). Modern York: New of The Museum k: Art in Theory: in 1900–2000,Art ofAnthology An Changing r rn Art rn o Y de o rnStarts: People, Places, Things w e M de f N o . M d as: Defining the Modernist Edge g ies o e lar Modernity and Modernism: French Painting in the Nineteenth Century in the Nineteenth Modernity Painting and Modernism: French uil ar D V Fine Disregard: What Makes Modern Art Modern Art Modern What Makes Disregard: Fine Theor The Work ofThe Work Atget dg A ,Georges ofThe Master 1859–1891: Pointillism E Edvard Munch,Edvard 1863–1944 Edgar Degas 1834–1917 Van Gogh Face to Face: The Portraits The Face: to Gogh Face Van linda. e B rschel B. rschel e nnifer. n, e H J , field, et al, John eds. . Oxford: Publishers, Blackwell 2003. p r mso e rams, 1990. oss, r hip b ho Modern Art, Modern edition). 2004 (second Varnedoe, Kirk. MoMA Highlights: 350 Works from The Museum ofThe Museum from Works Highlights:MoMA 350 Art Modern Gallery, 2003. Growe, Bernd. OTHER SUGGESTED SOURCES C Eld Art,Modern 1999. Frascina, et al. Francis Press, University Haven:New 1993. Yale Harrison,Wood. and Paul Charles Ideas A Szarkowski, John. Art/: Society/Little, Graphic Modern York New and Company, Brown 1985. T Dorn, Roland. Taschen, c. 1999. Fagioli, Marco. G of Arts, in association with Thames & Hudson, Ltd, 2000. Düchting, Hajo. nnecticut: o C etropolitan . . York: New he M iking/T V k: r . Woodbridge, Connecticut: o . York: New Scholastic Library Y w . York: New Scholastic Library e N . London: DK Publishers, 1993. as? g e reat Artistsreat Series). York: New Barron’s (G as a D g e es a D ak What M ing to Know the World’s Greatest Artists: Georges Seurat Georges Artists: Greatest World’s the Know ing to d. Paul Cézanne (Artists in Their Time) Their in Cézanne (Artists Paul tt Toulouse-Lautrec: The Moulin Rouge and the City of and the City Rouge The Moulin Toulouse-Lautrec: Light yewitness Art: Post Impressionism yewitness Post Art: e Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: Artists, and Post-Impressionism: Impressionism and Composers Writers an Gogh: Art and Emotion Art an Gogh: har ies, 1997. G V r ic World’s Fairs and Expos (A New True Book) True and Expos (A New Fairs World’s e The Eiffel Tower (Building World Landmarks) World (Building Tower The Eiffel R 1991. , r , f Art, 2002. e Mike. nal S rg io e um o lishing

ucat ence, David. nezia, uhlb use

e ub Publishing, 2003. M Ed V Press,Children’s 2003. Wiggins, Colin. E (Who and When? series).When? and (Who Austin, Publishers, Texas: Steck-Vaughn Raintree 1997. Harris, Nathaniel. Burleigh, Robert. Sp FOR YOUNGER READERS Harry N. Abrams, 2005. Greene, Meg. Press,Blackbirch 2003. Fowler, Allan. P Halliwell, Sarah. M

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES 26 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY AND RESOURCES 27 tment of and preserve in 1989 to was established at MoMA Archives par e xhibitions/2001/whatisaprint d A rg/e ists. ors,curators,and various artists,call e-mail [email protected] (212) 708-9617 or t t ma.o c ar cessible to the public historical documents about the Museum and modern con- and about the Museum documents historical the public to cessible e c n mo a r dir . e e y d l look and discuss primary through of documents the Museum’s between correspondence o ear ABOUT MoMA ARCHIVES ofThe Museum Art and rich has a long history of Modern of in the careers involvement many mo temporary art. If archivist with students for a Museum set up a workshop to like would you t The Grove Dictionary ofThe Grove subscription) Art Online (requires www.groveart.com mak The Museum ofThe Museum Art, Modern York New www.moma.org of site The official Tower the Eiffel www.tour-eiffel.fr a Print? Is What www ONLINE RESOURCES out Distance Learning programs,please Distance out call e-mail (212) 333-6574 or ab n io uide is made possible by the Citigroup Foundation and by public funds public and by Foundation the Citigroup possible is made by uide G s mat r r o o [email protected] Editor: Sarah Ganz Blythe inf lear n e ucat e r io ANCE LEARNING mo ox”—a teaching kit containing color reproductions for everyox”—a for participant, reproductions color kit containing teaching a CD-ROM,

oMA SCHOOL PROGRAMS PROGRAMS oMA SCHOOL reproducing the images contained in this publication,the contained images the reproducing obtained the permission Museum r ucat B his Ed

uthor: McCullough Susan o n No part ofNo form without prior of written published in any or consent be reproduced may these materials The ofMuseum Art. Modern ofDesign © 2005 The Museum Art, Modern York New Ed T City Department ofYork the New from Affairs. Cultural I of the rights possible. whenever holders not locate could the Museum where those instances In the rights holders, notwithstanding good faith efforts, information contact that any it requests rights such be forwarded,so holders concerning editions, future for be contacted that they may to: the Department of Education, of The Museum Art, Modern 53 Street,West 11 York, New NY 10019-5497 CREDITS A Editor: Cassandra Heliczer Designer: Ingrid Chou Hsien-Yin manager:Production Corey Claire worksheets,Educator Guides, passes—is and Museum with included class. each classes Some in Spanish. available are F DIST live, for environment an ideal fosters inquiry-based approach teaching interactive MoMA’s video-conferencing. with “Looking MoMA” multipart provide classes video-conference area.“MoMA metropolitan in York the New outside and students teachers programming for a distanc PLANNING A MUSEUM VISIT PLANNING A MUSEUM classroom, in your or at MoMA Educator with discussion a guided schedule a Museum To Programs, information about School more for or Services Group at (212) please contact 708-9685. only. phone can be by Reservations made M RESOURCES TEACHER in all subject areas. available are K–12 teachers for resources Educational guides Educator with CD-ROMs, or slides as well as videotapes, the year. loan throughout for available are these resources.All to access unlimited free have be borrowed may All schools may materials of charge. in person. up and returned be picked must Videotapes information, more For materials, purchase or borrow to consultation, for or please call (212) e-mail [email protected] or description of form and a complete an order For educator at www.moma.org/education. site Web and videos,guides visit MoMA’s

MoMA SCHOOL PROGRAMS 28 CREDITS

AUTHOR: Susan McCullough EDUCATION EDITOR: Sarah Ganz Blythe EDITOR: Cassandra Heliczer DESIGNER: Hsien-Yin Ingrid Chou PRODUCTION MANAGER: Claire Corey

This Educators Guide is made possible by the Citigroup Foundation and by public funds from the Department of Cultural Affairs.

In reproducing the images contained in this publication, the Museum obtained the permis- sion of the rights holders whenever possible. In those instances where the Museum could not locate the rights holders, notwithstanding good faith efforts, it requests that any contact information concerning such rights holders be forwarded, so that they may be contacted for future editions, to: the Department of Education, The Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53 Street, New York, NY 10019-5497