Satyendra Nath Satyendra Nath Bose (1894 – 1974) was an Indian from the state of West . He is best known for his work on , providing foundation for Bose-Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose -Einstein condensate . He is honored as the namesake of the .

S.N. Bose was born in Calcutta and was a student of outstanding merit . He joined the Presidency College of Calcutta and graduated in 1911 at the top of his class. He stood first in order of merit in both the graduate and post-graduate degree examinations in . Satyendra Nath Bose He came in contact with teachers such as and Prafulla Chandra Roy, a distinguished chemist, who provided him inspiration to aim high in life.

From 1916 to 1921 he was a lecturer in the newly created College of Science at Calcutta University. In 1921, he joined the Department of of the then recently founded University (now in Bangladesh and called ) as a reader. In 1958, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society.

In 1924, inspired by a discussion with his friend and colleague , S.N. Bose developed a logically satisfactory derivation based entirely on ’s concept. Bose sent his paper to the philosophical magazine but to his disappointment the paper was turned down. Then he decided to send the paper directly to Einstein with a request to arrange its publication in Zeitschrift für Physic.

Einstein himself translated Bose’s paper into German. The paper was published in August 1924 under the heading S.N Bose and Sir Albert Einstein Plancksgesetz Lichtquantenhypothese (its English title was Plank’s Law and Quantum Hypothesis ) with the following comment from Einstein: “Bose’s derivative of Plank’s formula appears to me to be an important step forward. The method used here gives also the quantum theory of an , as I shall show elsewhere.” This is how Bose-Einstein statistics was born.

Einstein adopted Bose’s idea and extended it to atoms. This led to the prediction of the existence of a phenomena which became known as Bose-Einstein condensate – a dense collection of bosons (particles with integer spins) , that was proven to exist by experiments . In 1995 , scientists Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman at University of Colorado, chilled a cloud of rubidium atoms in the laboratory to temperature barely above (170 nK), and created a type of matter that had eluded scientists ever since its potential existence was postulated seventy years ago. Cornell, Wieman, and Wolfgang Ketterle were awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics, for their achievements.

Nobel Prizes were awarded for research related to the concepts of the , Bose-Einstein statistics and the Bose-Einstein condensate in the years 1996 and 1997. Bose-Einstein Condensate