A Journey to the Scientific World

Ramesh C. Samanta JSPS post doctoral Fellow Chubu University, Japan June 15, 2016 : Geographical Location and Description

 Total Area: 32,87,364 km2 (No. 7 in the world)  Population: 1,251,695,584 (2015, No. 2 in the world)  Capital:  Time Zone (IST): GMT + 5.30 hrs  Number of States and Union Territories: 29 States and 7 Union Territories India: Languages and Religions

In the history India has experienced several great civilizations in different part of it and they had different languages. This resulted several different languages: Majority from Indo Aryan civilization, Dravid civilization.

 Major Languages: Hindi and English  Official Languages: Total 23 languages with countless dialect

India is well known for its diversity of religious beliefs and practices. All the major religions of the world like Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity are found and practiced in India with complete freedom Weather in India Extreme climate of being tropical country !!! Hot summer (Temperature goes up to 50 oC)

Windy monsoon (average rainfall 1000 mm per year)

Pleasant Autumn Snowy winter in Northan part of India Indian Food

Indian Spices Indian Curry

North Indian Food South Indian Food Tourist Attractions in India Taj Mahal, Agra The Ganges, Varanasi

Victoria memorial Hall ,

Sea Beach, Goa India’s Great Personalities

Netaji Subhas Jawaaharlal Rabindranath Mahatma Gandhi Chandra Nehru Tagore

Swami Sarojini Naidu Vivekananda B. R. Ambedkar Indian Nobel Laureates

Rabindranath Tagore C. V. Raman Nobel Prize in Nobel Prize in , 1930 Nobel Prize in Medicine, Literature, 1913 1968

Mother Teresa Venkatraman Ramakrishnan Kailash Satyarthi Nobel Peace Prize 1979 Nobel Prize in 2009 Nobel Peace Prize 2014

Indian Scientists

 Sir (1858-1937): Known for pioneering investigation of radio and microwave optics and plant biology.

 Prafulla Chandra Roy (1861-1944): Extensive research on mercurous nitrite

(1894-1974) Known for Bose Einstein Statistics

(1893-1956): Known for thermal ionization, Saha ionization equation

Indian Scientists

(1887-1920): Mathematician, Known for his contribution in number theory

 Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobish (1893-1972): Statistician, Known for Mahalanobis distance

 Ashima Chatterjee (1917-2006): Significant contribution in synthetic organic chemistry and phytomedicine: Vincristine

 C.N.R. Rao (1934- ): Known for solid state chemistry, Material science

 Govardhan Mehta (1943- ): Known for remarkable contribution in synthetic organic chemistry

Indian Institutes for Science and Technology

Council For Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): This was established in 1942 and provide funds for science and technology.

Department of Science and Technology (DST): This was established in 1971 and provide funds to promote science and technology research.

Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) in Kolkata: This was founded in 1876 and the work for the Nobel Prize in Physics to C.V. Raman was conducted in this institute.

Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore: This was established in 1899 for higher educational research. Indian Institutes for Science and Technology

 National Institute of Technology (NITs): They are autonomous institute for studying engineering. There are 31 NITs located all over the India.

 Indian Institute of Technology (IITs): They are autonomous institute for higher studies in science and engineering. Total 18 of this type of institute are functioning and 5 new institutes will be established soon.

 Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER): Autonomous institute for advanced research in science. There are 6 of such institute are functioning now 2 more will be started soon.

 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR): Two of this type of institues are functioning now. They have been founded by Tata industrial group for advancement of science.

 Apart from those upper mentioned institution there are many more universities and institutes where students from abroad can study.

My Research Career

 Bachelor of Science (B. Sc): Vidyasagar University, India

 Master of Science (M. Sc.): Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (IIT- Kanpur), India

 Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. rer. nat.): NRW International Graduate School of Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany

 Current Position: JSPS Postdoctoral Associate, Chubu University Japan Europe International Students

 NRW International Graduate School of Chemistry Provides funding to foreign students to go to Germany and and conduct research in chemistry. They have similar graduate schools for Biology, Medicine and other branches of science also. Though deutsch is national language in Germany, English is well accepted from those programs!!!

I belonged to this graduate school to pursue my doctoral study.  Berlin International Graduate School of Natural Science and Engineering Welcomes international students for higher studies in the universities in Berlin. All the programs are in English!!!

Learning english is the Key to explore the world!!! Chemistry for Mankind

Medicines for Fever, Headache, etc…

Famous Scientists from Japan

Professor Hideki Shirakawa Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000 “For the discovery and development of conductive polymers”

Professor Ryoji Noyori Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001 “For his work on chirally catalyzed hydrogenation reactions”

Koichi Tanaka Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002 “For development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules” He was born in Toyama City, Japan!!! Famous Scientists from Japan

Professor Akira Suzuki Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 “for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis” : Known as Suzuki Coupling !!!

Professor Ei-ichi Negishi Awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010 “for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis” : Known as Negishi Coupling !!!

Professor Takaaki Kajita Awarded Nobel Prize in Physics 2015 “for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass”

Chemistry Catalysis

Catalyst is a substance that helps to synthesize a molecule in a easy way

This lowers the activation energy of a reaction catalyst A + B C

Catalytic cycle A [A-catalyst] catalyst

B C [A-catalyst-B]

**At the end of the reaction catalyst structure remains unchanged Heterogeneous and Homogenious Catalysts

Heterogeneous Catalyst: Homogeneous Catalyst: Catalyst and reactants are Catalyst and reactants are In two different phase in one phase Heterogeneous Catalysis

**Catalyst facilitate the reaction but remains in different phase **Reaction takes place at the surface of the catalyst **Larger surface area will show high efficiency in catalysis

Haber-Bosch Process for Ammonia (NH3) Production Metal catalyst N (gas) + 3H (gas) High Pressure 2NH (gas) 2 2 High Temperature 3

Reaction on metal surface

product reactant catalyst catalyst

Advantage: Purification of product is very easy and reusable catalyst Homogeneous Catalysis

**Catalyst and reactants remain in one phase that means they are soluble in the given solvent. Example: Glucose and fructose are produced by acid catalyzed hydrolysis of sugar (sucrose)

**Catalyst substrate interaction is very good **The reaction rate is faster Different Types of Homogeneous Catalysis

Some other example of transition metal catalyzed reactions: Hydrogenation, Hydroformylation, …..  Advantages: High yield, Low catalyst loading  Disadvantage: Transition metals are toxic !!!! Different Types of Homogeneous Catalysis

Organocatalysis **Typical organic molecules serve as catalyst, no metal is actively involved in the reaction

Traditional Medicine from Natural Sources

 Quinine is extracted from the bark of cinchona is used for the treatment of Malaria. As this is extracted from natural source, this is called natural product.

 Representative example of other natural Marine Algae (Seaweed) products, isolated from marine algae (Seaweed) Catalytic Asymmetric Bromocyclization Analytical Instruments

NMR: For structure determination of organic molecule ESIMS: For determination of mass of a molecule

IR: Functional Rotary evaporator: Solvent HPLC: Determine the purity of a sample group detection distillation Acknowledgement

 Sincere Thanks to Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

 All my supervisors and colleagues for continuous support

 Toyama High School and Mrs. Nakamura Thank You Very Much for Your Kind Attention!! Demonstration of Suzuki Miyaura Cross Coupling Reaction

After Before reaction reaction

Procedure: 1) Take 5 mL of Solution A to the vial 2) Add 2.5 mL of Solution B into the same vial 3) Add 2.5 mL of Solution C into the same Vial 4) Shake the vial for 30 seconds 5) Check the color under UV lamp 6) Add 0.1 mL of Solution D into the same via 7) Shake it and check the color under UV Lamp 8) Appearance of Blue color Done