Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd esnfrtemv a aebe e eieto value 204 desire direct her more of been be would have Another which may British accept. work out move the to carry the happy with for was reason upon post Kingston Franklin a at Thames, Association up Research take Utilisation to arose one. been have strained well, to seems progress a Norrish not with relationship did her this and Chemistry However, Physical Cambridge. of supervision at of Professor the Norrish, polymerisation under Ronald the acid of initially on formic she and project acetaldehyde graduation research After to a Cambridge, on began 1941. College, went in Newnham and graduating London at in chemistry School study Girls’ attended Paul’s She few 1920. St July a 25 on family First, banking London DNA. on given. be work her should prepared details subsequent of biographical of made the studies also her for is which in assessment way of brief the many A of discoveries. relevance her continuing and the carbon, most demonstrate on the to work summarise Franklin’s to of is aspects a article highlighted. important this and be of ones aim carbon, important to main coal, most The believed on the papers with is her graphite, what of gives listing complete table become have early papers The her these of until classics. many graphite and 1958, and of in death carbon structure on the di papers studying write X-ray Paris then using she in and years coal on four war had spent the research during earliest important out Her carried out RNA. been and carried viruses Birkbeck on she to work where moved After she London, 1953, London. College, spent early College she in King’s King’s time at leaving short DNA relatively both on science the working of after well enduring areas and less and other before fundamental is several made What to she contributions (1987). that story’ is and ‘ known of (1968) film result helix’ BBC a double as the ‘The mainly book known, Watson’s widely James very structure is the DNA unravelling of in role Franklin’s Rosalind oaidEseFaki a onit prosperous a into born was Franklin Elsie Rosalind NEDSILNR CEC EIW,20,VL 6 O 3 NO. 26, VOL. 2001, REVIEWS, SCIENCE INTERDISCIPLINARY rpiiigcros e oko abnas rvddavlal akrudfrhrltrbooia work. biological later non- her and for graphitising background valuable between a distinction provided fundamental enduring also of the carbon number on identifying a work made notably She Her most graphite. carbons. and areas, graphitising carbon, these coal, of in studies contributions involved research earliest Franklin’s Rosalind UK Reading, of University Chemistry, of HARRIS Department F. J. PETER graphite and coal, carbon, on work Franklin’s Rosalind 1 hrfr,we h opportunity the when Therefore, ff ato.Secniudto continued She raction. Temlepnino ol n abnzdcoals’, carbonized and of expansion ‘Thermal 1945 thesis, PhD CURA materials’, special related with and colloids coal organic to relation of chemistry physical ‘The Cambridge marked of are University received, citations asterisk of an terms with number in the papers, important of most the graphite: and Cagsi h tutr fcro uigoxidation’, during carbon of 1957, structure the in ‘Changes graphite’, 1951, in dimension alpha ‘The carbon’, of Nature graphitization heterogeneous and ‘Homogeneous 1953, characteristics’, and structure compounds. Formation, carbon non-graphitizing and ‘Graphitizing Birkbeck 1951, carbons’, carbons’, 1951, graphitic of structure *‘The Rendus carbons’, nongraphitizable and ‘Graphitizable 47 carbon’, of diagrams X-ray Crystallographica diffuse of by interpretation X-rays *‘The of scattering the on carbon’, bonding Maggs) of P. ‘Influence A. F. and Hirst, Paris W. Bangham, H. D. (with substance’, coal 231–238 for model structural ‘A 45 II. Part by . coals’, apparent Carbonized carbonaceous and of true structure of fine measurements the of study Coals’, *‘A Society I. Faraday Part the by densities. of solids apparent Transactions carbonaceous and of true structure of fine measurements the of study *‘A coals’, and carbonized 46–49 composition, and chemical coals , of true structure the on note ‘A Bangham) H. D. (with Society Faraday the of Transactions ‘rsalt rwhi rpiiigadnon-graphitizing and graphitizing in growth *‘Crystallite carbon’, of structure ‘The oaidFaki’ ulse oko ol carbon, coal, on work published Franklin’s Rosalind 573–575 , 668–682 , 180 4 34 209 4 1956, , 1951, , 6–6 wt .E Bacon) E. G. (with 561–562 , 253–261 , 359–361 , Nature rceig fteRylSceyo odnA London of Society Royal the of Proceedings 1019 wt .D Watt) D. J. (with 1190–1191 , 196–218 , 177 232 1950, , 1950, , 239 , 232–234 , rnatoso h aaa Society Faraday the of Transactions 165 3 ora eCii Physique Chimie de Journal 107–121 , ,71–72 01IMCmuiain Ltd Communications IoM 2001 © caCrystallographica Acta 1949, , 1946, , caCrystallographica Acta Fuel Fuel Brennstoff-Chemie 45 42B 1949, , 1948, , 274–286 , Comptes 289–294 , SN0308–0188 ISSN 28 27 , 1950, , Nature 1949, , , , , Acta , , , Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd uebXrypcue hc nbe asnadca aei 92we h ondtesta the joined she when 1942 in came technology. coal and science coal in position strong and often laboratories, Watson new these enabled in out which carried at was pictures Franklin’s work time was X-ray Franklin’s it Ultimately Cheltenham, superb made one. near and unhappy up an two, set King’s of the was Following charge establishment British misunderstand- clear between in much research Surrey. the ing it produced be This of to in make work. was DNA 1938 not Leatherhead the Franklin in did or at up Wilkins letter at whether setting laboratories Wilkins Randall’s Maurice the and by to fibres. pioneered King’s, it DNA been led on had and In work which field should available, This sug- useful. instead her became she been to that solids wrote gesting have how- Randall of 1940s, however, would her 1950, and characterisation di which November coals 1930s in X-ray the research with of In on area experience research. work an coal solution, would in in intention proteins used she the that Initially was fellowship. Turner–Newall ), coal brown a London, (or College the are o of order, King’s increasing head who in at Randall, ranks, T. Laboratory John Biophysical to wrote She England. very a was fusinites during and accounts all taken as by one. was such which happy types France, 1 into Fig. in grouped time in are involved her shown which photograph analogy carbon, The (by ‘’ on as di des known work X-ray coal, of Central important constituents most Laboratoire under is working the which Paris, Me morphology in Jacques their l’Etat at on de chemist based Chimiques a position in French coals Services as obtained for leading a coal system she in the Mathieu 1946 interested with Through was Mathieu. She who of touch University Paris, science. Marcel in the in on in Weill at abroad. her lecture move botany Adrienne post in to friend put to a lecturer her seek appointed keen to to was wrote was began She she and research war, coal the in from contributions After fundamental area. overestimated. of and this number coal, be a of made porosity the hardly she on focused can work Franklin’s economy e war wartime the to rti ahrta ntecnrlcvt n httercpct oasr ae n aor,depend vapours, and gases adsorb extent. to lesser capacity or their greater a to porous are coals that All the its and than rather in cavity helix, coal embedded strand central of single structure was the a the was understanding in virus RNA at TMV than aimed that gramme showing rather in mosaic studies protein CURA, RNA tobacco on of the collaborated director the that She The of write project ). bombed). (TMV structure a to been began virus molecular having and continued tory DNA the on she on 1958 and there carbon to on While papers 1953 Laboratory Birkbeck. From Crystallography at structure. the in the worked Franklin solve to Crick oaidFaki naot14 (National 1949 about in Franklin Rosalind 1 y15,Faki a ed omv akt nteerypr ftecnuy pia microscopy optical century, the of part early the In to back move to ready was Franklin 1950, By otatGallery) Portrait ff rdhraps o he er upre by supported years three for post a her ered ff ato tde ftegahtsto rcs.amaueo h ereo olfiain hc in which coalification, of degree the of measure a process. graphitisation the of studies raction ´ ig twshr htsecridothrtsu eeldb pia irsoy ahtp of type Each microscopy. optical by revealed tissue her out carried she that here was It ring. ff r:ca’ motnet Britain’s to importance coal’s ort: ff ato of raction nclaoainwt nvriis iigteU a UK the giving universities, with collaboration in outstanding Much director. first its as Bronowski with further a 1946, in industry coal the of nationalisation methods new with (CURA), these Association Research exploit Utilisation Coal to desire a partly physical the was for techniques new of range wide a ever, methods main the were analysis chemical classical and . and coal, , subbituminous plant fossilised the of structure the rock), on inorganic up depending make which the with containing carbon the system this In today. use in still classification a developed and woman material first plant fossilised the was she where Stopes 1904, in Marie BBC Manchester man’. of the ascent of ‘The presenter series for and television than (1908–74), writer, love’ Bronowski Jacob mathematician, ‘Married (1880–1958), and of work, Stopes scientific author her as Marie known as better such included characters these its century diverse twentieth optimising the to In scientists field. in brilliant the many its and attracted have understanding composition utilisation, in and involved the and challenges coal, of scientific importance economic enormous The Coal Brenda by prepared being number currently Maddox. A 37. is available, of are age biography of the sources died at biographical 1958 Franklin of April viruses 16 Rosalind bacterial on of cancer . DNA higher the in and found helix double undtrie h muto eti rdcs The produces. it heat of amount the determines turn ‘rank’, its of terms in classified further be can nti ooiy oeo h oe r macroscopic, are pores the of Some porosity. this and on reactivity their as such properties, their of Many porosity. and pro- density its a of to studies detailed Franklin through allocated Bangham, H. D. Dr tKnso pnTae teLahredlabora- Leatherhead (the Thames upon Kingston at oaidFaki’ nrdcint h td of study the to introduction Franklin’s Rosalind NEDSILNR CEC EIW,20,VL 6 O 3 NO. 26, VOL. 2001, REVIEWS, SCIENCE INTERDISCIPLINARY 1–4 ff n new a and fCURA of 205 Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd euto hscnlso,Bnhm rnln n ovdb h rgsi 1913. in Braggs the by solved based coal clusters. for colloidal model or a micelles, and forward on Franklin, put Bangham, colleagues conclusion, cm two this g of 2·26 is result graphite a pure of density the abni olcno egahtci aue ic a h elkonlyrdsrcuesonin shown structure layered known well the benzenelike hexagonal has in present a were published the Scherrer of since Paul nature, and in Debye graphitic be Peter cannot content 1917, coal hydrogen zero in of calculated carbon cm coal 1·85 She a be coals. of would fundamental these density in the the carbon that determine the use of to to nature attempted measurements also Franklin her coals, in behaviour oa,cro oeua ivsaeo ra au in value great of are carbon. sieves any demon- molecular in first carbon behaviour the Today, sieve probably molecular was of This stration exclud- ones. but sieve’, larger through ‘molecular pass ing a other to larger as molecules In small behaving the not. allowing was coal could but the molecules enter words, could and molecules hexane so helium constrictions, contained that that pores imply the to to taken entrances was the This densities. density lump di the the liquids from of these some using varied obtained Indeed, values lower. also in reaction being helium, cases densities using chemical most determined measured those no from density. the considerably benzene apparent but high and high occurred, a a hexane and in liquid, With resulting the coal, of the uptake with chemically reacts abni olwsicret n h iel oe hs abn otie eaoa abnrns the rings, carbon a hexagonal out contained carried carbons these Franklin coals, untreated of densities model credence. micelle any of the given and longer density no incorrect, the is was of coal in calculation carbon Franklin’s that know 206 air. in to oxygen used from are they things, separate other among where, industry methanol the that is explanation density The true solid. the the represent all of should density almost helium were the of densities case higher measured the In the revealing. using methanol, and surprising, obtained benzene. rather densities and were com- hexane, apparent values methanol, the water, resulting the with and deter- pared a were helium, anthracite, of using to densities lignite mined true from displacement coals, the best of of work the range case Franklin’s be the but to In In solid, believed medium. chemically. liquid the is it or helium of with gas coal, pores combine a the not is all will required penetrate is will What which challenge. more much a presents material of not porous the a does Measuring of mercury. density which as true liquid such pores, a fine employs penetrate one always that method, displacement ensuring using liquid determine density. to Archimedes easy ‘lump’ the relatively is or density pores, lump the The of including density associated the material, and is whole density, true coal or structure, as solid such di of two solid measurements with porous through to A was interest coals density. of of investigating porosity were of the method and which chief scale, Her micropores Franklin. molecular, Rosalind these finer, much was a it on are most but olwn e td ftetu n paetSm okr ugse htca ih aeathree- a have might that suggested workers Some apparent and true the of study her Following nadto odmntaigmlclrseeSldcroswr mn h rtmtrast be to materials first the among were carbons Solid sieve molecular demonstrating to addition In NEDSILNR CEC EIW,20,VL 6 O 3 NO. 26, VOL. 2001, REVIEWS, SCIENCE INTERDISCIPLINARY hntoemaue sn eim vnthough even helium, using measured those than ff rn este,tedniyo t purely its of density the densities, erent 3 hsldhrt ugs htthe that suggest to her led This . 7 oee,w o oe n hr oee,peetdmr fachal- a of more presented however, char, and , now we However, ff 6 rdvr little very ered 5 − h results The 3 atyas Partly . h tutr fgaht,soigteui cell unit the showing graphite, of structure The 2 -a ifato fcrosand graphite carbons of diffraction X-ray fnncytliecro aeil,sc ssoot, as such materials, carbon non-crystalline of i.2, Fig. rings. most that showed which carbons disordered of study bei e oko DNA. coal, on on work valu- work her proved her in also determinations, able of density aspects the stood Some as have such time. which of test microstructure of its the porosity into number a and insights achieve to density of able the was Franklin of Rosalind studies coal, her In even understood today. imperfectly remain which of features been not coals. had fresh the became kind in this pores observed of the porosity were Closed cases molecules helium excluded. even some that so In sealed, completely the reactivity. for responsible in was fall pores the of ‘accessibility’ the iesoa ewr tutr yn somewhere lying structure network unknown. dimensional remained together linked were these way that established had Scherrer and Debye While lenge. tde yXrydi X-ray by studied the found of was porosity porosity did the structure reactivity fine in to in the reduction loss indeed, a the coals; from at that result show aimed to not able was was work experimentation she careful Franklin’s Through this. and understanding coal loss of reactivity, a type by in accompanied the usually on is coalite process, Carbonisation depending of used. industrial or fuel, coke smokeless important either of type an formation the course in resulting of is 1600 at coal carbonised to been up had which temperatures coals on study similar oli ope n eactatmtra,many material, recalcitrant and complex a is Coal increase 9 10 n12,J .Bra hwdta graphite that showed Bernal D. J. 1924, In hl h tutr fdaodhdbeen had of structure the while nha ramn.Ised eraein decrease a Instead, treatment. heat on ff ato R) seryas early As XRD). ( raction ° C. 11 8 h abnsto of carbonisation The h ealdstructure detailed The Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd y,adsoe htterelationship the that ‘correct- showed oriented were the and determine which to ly’, line layers (112) of the spacings). of proportion intermediate shape the of graphite used range whether She whole or be a case, to exhibit the seems can is still this (it whether unclear structure turbostratic of with sample interspersed regions the graphite perfect that of showed phases two contained these between fell A which believed 3·354 or could Franklin 3·44 of 2. carbons spacings Fig. perfect graphitic the in rotated to that shown are other, structure each planes to ABA the respect which with randomly in structure, stratic’ A 3·44 to close very found all be were spacings to carbons (002) French interplanar of The the patterns . 1000–1500 at XRD about at the these, prepared describing of she by paper, her one began In Temperature. to Haute fortunate de access Laboratoire was induction Franklin having scale developed. in small were first above 3000 of and the temperatures achieving result, of capable furnaces a in graphitis- use As in for interest renewed ation. graphite a to synthetic led research of nuclear quantities large for ulse e rtsuyo graphitisation. of study first her published h ereo efcino rpii abnfo i.4 hywr rtietfidi 95b Harry by 1985 in identified first were They 4. Fig. from carbon graphitic a the of of perfection measurements of degree the p A pcn sascae ihacag rma‘turbo- a from change a with interplanar associated the in is fall spacing This graphite. A 3·354 single approximately for to fall spacings 3000 the to up treatments heat further demand the however, war, the After temperatures. oicueha ramnsu o3000 to up study treatments such first heat the include was it to because work, important shown incorrect. were be structures, to network three-dimensional aoaoysaefrae aal frahn these reaching of capable colleagues furnaces and scale Riley laboratory L. H. Newcastle, of at those as such studies, o en iodrd ale oes ae on based models, car- the Earlier of about disordered. remainder only the 65% being but graphite with model, bon diameter, structure individual this in in in nm In 1·6 perfect contained char. rather is a layers, carbon of the model reliable structure of first the the di propose to the for able of char was she analysis a data, quantitative of rigorous chloride. studies By polyvinylidene polymer XRD the from prepared described in Franklin published 1950, paper a In 0·086(1 edrmie nsm iaryutlRosalind papers First until 50s. early and disarray 1940s late distinction some the in The in work Franklin’s The this. understood. remained not for also field was there coke evidence and but char direct diamond, between and no graphite was of those between ˚ hsepeso ssilwdl sdtdyt estimate to today used widely still is expression This . gtosadtepooto fdsretdlayers disoriented of proportion the and ngstroms hr ieltr ntesm ora,Franklin journal, same the in later, time short A − p 2 xse ewe nelyrspacing interlayer between existed ) 14 a enhmee ytelc of lack the by hampered been had d spacing. ˚ n htmaue values measured that and , caCrystallographica Acta ˚ h hncridout carried then She . ° na topeeof atmosphere an in C only ° ,adfudthat found and C, aeinterlayer have ˚ ° 13 h value the , .Earlier C. d = hswas This ff raction 3·440– d ° in in 12 C to a ee enceryetbihd hr sa problem is the to There key the established. that clearly however, feeling, been graphitis- growing of to never resistance has structure their for ation atomic reason the the and particular, incompletely In remains understood. carbons structural non-graphitising and best the materials. years these for many available for models provided since they carbons, non-graphitising and description complete Although graphitising a arrangement. represent of not parallel do models more these a into layers transformation The 3). Fig. of part the weak upper be and the to assumed in other, are (as each units carbon adjacent to graphitising between links a parallel in approximately units are cross- structural by the together The joined models, are links. which containing planes, these crystallites layer graphitic few In a small are 3). Fig. units basic she micro- in their material (shown for of models structures classes proposed and two identified, the had describe non-graphitising to and carbons carbons graphitising terms the h rcs aueo h rs-ik sntspecified, not is cross-links the of nature precise the stoi aeilwihol otie iydomains tiny contained only which material isotropic rt,o h nvriyo usx n Richard and Sussex, of University the of Kroto, C minsterfullerene, aecro atce fwihteaceyei buck- is archetype the which of particles carbon cage nw sfleee.Fleee r ru fclosed of group a are fullerenes. as known a i ntedsoeyo e ls fcarbons of class new a of discovery the in lie may ne admy(i.3 eo) n h cross-links the the and su below), contrast, ori- 3, are By are (Fig. carbons randomly facile. non-graphitising ented in relatively units be be structural would graphite to crystalline into expected structure a such of literature. carbon the of o h rttm h e itnto ewe cokes between distinction key the time first demonstrated the results for These structure. graphitelike of 3000 at graph- even crystalline ite, into transformed be not could chars nalntypprfor paper lengthy Society a in n chars. and ie yha ramnsaoeaot2200 about above graphi- treatments be heat results could by Franklin’s cokes the But tised while carbon. otherwise: solid showed of thermodynamically form most the stable be to known would is graph- which crystalline treatments ite, into carbons temperature disordered high the convert very these that series a out carried graphitisation. she of furnace, an induction studies was the previous Using work her This of extension non-graphitising. and phitising carbons non-graphitising and Graphitising fha ramnso ag fogncprecursors 3000 organic to of up range temperatures a at on treatments heat of notodsic lse,wihsecrsee gra- christened she fall which materials classes, organic distinct of two pyrolysis into the carbons by that demonstration prepared her was science carbon to contribution important most Franklin’s Undoubtedly oa,tedsicinbtengraphitising between distinction the Today, rnlnsmaie e tde fgraphitisation of studies her summarised Franklin ffi ulse n15,wihi n fteclassics the of one is which 1951, in published , inl togt meemvmn fthe of movement impede to strong ciently NEDSILNR CEC EIW,20,VL 6 O 3 NO. 26, VOL. 2001, REVIEWS, SCIENCE INTERDISCIPLINARY ° .Ised hyfre porous, a formed they Instead, C. 60 hs tutr ssonin shown is structure whose , 15 rceig fteRoyal the of Proceedings ° nti ae h coined she paper this In .I ol eexpected be would It C. ° ,the C, 207 Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd ege,drn xeiet ntelsrvaporisation graphite. laser col- of the their on experiments and during Houston, leagues, University, Rice of Smalley, h icvr fawoerneo e ulrn hnsemvdt igsCleeLno n1951, in London College King’s to moved she When new 208 of range and whole including materials a to carbon led of related which research discovery arc, of carbon deluge the simple a a stimulated using this bulk and in prepared be could C , 4 graphitising of representations Franklin’s 3 aoe n o-rpiiigcarbons non-graphitising and (above) NEDSILNR CEC EIW,20,VL 6 O 3 NO. 26, VOL. 2001, REVIEWS, SCIENCE INTERDISCIPLINARY 16 usqetyi a on htthey that found was it Subsequently 60 hes otiigpnaoa n etgnlrings carbon heptagonal curved structure and randomly a pentagonal of has containing fragments sheets, of that up believe made now field the Toyohashi coal. demon- C the also that at have strated Japan colleagues in Technology and of this University Osawa for support Eiji provided a idea. have using techniques studies of subsequent in variety and present carbons, been original have the may suggested elements This fullerenelike were structure. that which in fullerenelike nanoparticles, apparently carbon planes, layer structure closed graphitic faceted including a and curved produced of up temper- made treatments at heat 2600 treated temperature to heat up were atures polyvinylidene sucrose and from chloride prepared carbons graphitising nanotubes. car- non-graphitising of structure the of Model 5 ae work to later research carbon of Relevance univer- means no by is idea accepted. this sally However, 5. shown Fig. as in network, hexagonal a throughout dispersed microscopy resolution high a study in of came indication first this The elements. may fullerenelike carbons contain microporous that evidence growing also etapsil ikwt ulrns oee,teeis there However, fullerenes. with link sug- soot possible immediately on a shapes centred gest spheroidal speculation whose this particles, first, forms At known well carbon. in of present that be speculation might to structures led such stable highly be can the pentagons a that structure. such closed states into a produce pentagons law will twelve lattice Euler’s precisely of and pro- inclusion pentagonal pentagons curvature, These contain hexagons. they duce to that addition in is rings carbons new these oaidFaki nwltl ilg n a never had and biology little knew Franklin Rosalind h icvr htcro tutrscontaining structures carbon that discovery The osbsdo ulrnlk elements fullerenelike on based bons 19 18 sarsl fteesuis aywresin workers many studies, these of result a As ulse n19.I hswr,non- work, this In 1997. in published 17 h itnusigsrcua etr of feature structural distinguishing The 60 a eetatdfo odchar- wood from extracted be can ° .I a on httehigh the that found was It C. Published by Maney Publishing (c) IOM Communications Ltd tde rvddu ihnwadfundamental and important elements. new most all the of carbon, with of nature it the us into that her insights Instead, say provided nuclear impact. to the commercial studies misleading enormous in be any would and had it fibres but the carbon industry, in important of was work development her that said It sometimes skill. is experimental clear- achieve and of determination, to combination sightedness, a able through was results she fundamental materials, Working carbon. recalcitrant on undertook’, work with her she to applies everything clarity certainly this in extreme by perfection scientist distinguished a and ‘as was that stated Franklin Bernal Miss D. J. obituary, his In Conclusion the through but way, Crick. and this Watson of in exercises solved building model not was before struc- the days ture course, an the of Ultimately, method, in computers. electronic used Patterson process the to laborious using extremely attempted structure Franklin the Instead, solve be problem. cannot of This because the methods arcs. Fourier using or di directly spots interpreted a discrete of gives consisting which situation structure the defined molecule di large very other is any sample. or carbon DNA the For about some inferences draw structural and to basic her computed enabled then the patterns of then experimental Comparison and method. sheet, Fourier graphite di single theoretical the a computed of struc- simple consisting a ture assuming by began Franklin patterns, di di of consist disordered, whose a have structure straightfor- we carbons more polycrystalline the much of case also the interpret- was In ward. the results the and of samples, ation crystal single out di none mounting carried involved the was therefore work and of later samples, carbon her powder The than using DNA. demanding on less work much generally di was X-ray recognised, the be should that It however, technique. this X-ray of the experience while density structure, make the di elucidating to in came proved crucial which would she measurements coals DNA, when on of measurements useful density the biological been of her have studies for Her background research. valuable carbon on crystal a work her single provided however, ways, on some crystallography In samples. X-ray out carried ff ato okwudhv ie e oeuseful some her given have would work raction ff ffi rn.Hr ehv ope u well but complex a have we Here erent. ute soitdwt rprn and preparing with associated culties ff s ig rbns oitrrtthese interpret To bands. or rings use ff ff ato td fcarbons of study raction ato atr sn the using pattern raction ff ff ato patterns raction ato pattern raction 2 and 14. 16. 10. cited Literature 19. 18. 17. 15. 13. 12. 11. 9. 8. 7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1. 456–461. carbon’, . . o rpi n mrhrKohle’, amorpher coals’, und Zeitschrift Graphit Carbonized von II. and Society Part true Faraday the of of Transactions densities. measurements by apparent solids carbonaceous 1949,  1995, applications’, and properties and true Coals’, Society of I. Faraday Part measurements densities. by apparent solids carbonaceous Cambridge, 1996, 267–282; Press. University Blacker), Cambridge Carmen and Oxford, 1993, Nichols); S. Press. University C. Oxford (ed. persons’, missing 1958, Norton. W. W. NY, York, Technology ’, commercial and soots carbons’,  non-graphitizing of A Magazine Philosophical studies 1999, microscopy century’; twenty-first the Press. University for Cambridge Cambridge, materials new –  1985, . . A London of Society carbons’, non-graphitizing Crystallographica Acta carbon’, 3 of diagrams A A London of Society Royal the of .  . . . .  . .  . .  . .  . . Shils Edward (ed. portraits’, twelve women: ‘Cambridge .  .  . .  . .  . . . .  . . .  . . .  . .  . .  . . diamond’, . . 107–121. , 1913, , NEDSILNR CEC EIW,20,VL 6 O 3 NO. 26, VOL. 2001, REVIEWS, SCIENCE INTERDISCIPLINARY 28 4 182 318 Dtcino ukisefleeei usual in buckminsterfullerene of ‘Detection : Asrcua oe o olsubstance’, coal for model structural ‘A : 407–433. , 231–238. , n‘h itoayo ainlborpy– biography national of dictionary ‘The in : Rsln rnlnadDA;17,New 1975, DNA’; and Franklin ‘Rosalind : 89 , 154. , 162–163. , 1917, , ora fteCeia Society Chemical the of Journal and Rsln rnln12–98,in 1920–1958’, Franklin ‘Rosalind : . . rceig fteRylSceyo London of Society Royal the of Proceedings 1999, , , 277–291. , Croei oeua ivs synthesis, sieves: molecular ‘Carbogenic : , btayo oaidFranklin, Rosalind of Obituary : Tesrcueo graphite’, of structure ‘The : Cro aoue n eae structures related and nanotubes ‘Carbon : . . and .  . . 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J. Peter Dr ...arsrga.kUiest rs n1999. in Press University [email protected] ohCmrdeadOfr nvriis n currently and universities, Oxford at and work chemistry postdoctoral state Cambridge out solid carried both He in science. various problems materials of to and application microscopy the Since on of trans- materials. focused forms on has catalytic research working of his University, then microscopy Oxford electron study at to mission read doctorate on and went a Gloucestershire He for University. in Birmingham up at brought chemistry was Harris Peter