ED 397 453 CS 215 435

AUTHOR Neumann, Bonnie H., Ed.; McDonnell, Helen M., Ed. TITLE Teaching the : A Guide to Using Stories from around the World. INSTITUTION National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana,

REPORT NO ISBN-0-8141-1947-6 PUB DATE 96 NOTE 311p. AVAILABLE FROM National Council of Teachers of English, 1111 W. Kenyon Road, Urbana, IL 61801-1096 (Stock No. 19476: $15.95 members, $21.95 nonmembers). PUB 'TYPE Guides Classroom Use Teaching Guides (For Teacher) (052) Collected Works General (020) Books (010)

EDRS PRICE MF01/PC13 Plus Postage. DESCRIPTORS Authors; Higher Education; High Schools; *; Literary Devices; *Literature Appreciation; Multicultural Education; *Short Stories; *World Literature IDENTIFIERS *Comparative Literature; *Literature in ; Response to Literature

ABSTRACT An innovative and practical resource for teachers looking to move beyond English and American works, this book explores 175 highly teachable short stories from nearly 50 countries, highlighting the work of recognized authors from practically every continent, authors such as Chinua Achebe, Anita Desai, , Kundera, Isak Dinesen, , Jorge Amado, and . The stories in the book were selected and annotated by experienced teachers, and include information about the author, a synopsis of the story, and comparisons to frequently anthologized stories and readily available literary and artistic works. Also provided are six practical indexes, including those'that help teachers select short stories by title, country of origin, English-languag- source, comparison by themes, or comparison by literary devices. The final index, the cross-reference index, summarizes all the comparative material cited within the book,with the titles of annotated books appearing in capital letters. (NKA)

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7 NCTE Editorial Board: Pat Cordeiro, Colette Myrtle J. Jones, Professor Emerita, Clark Daiute, Hazel Davis, Bobbi Fisher, Brenda Greene, University, Atlanta, Georgia Richard Luckert, Aileen Pace Nilsen, Jerrie Cobb Paul G. Lankford, Green Run High School, Virginia Scott, Karen Smith, , ex officio, Dawn Boyer, Beach, Virginia ex officio May Lee, Baldwin Senior High School, Baldwin, New York NCIE Committee on World and Comparative T. Markman, Fullerton , Fullerton, Literature Roberta Hoffman Markman, California State Bonnie H. Neumann, East Stroudsburg University, University, L:mg Beach East Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania Elizabeth Max, Professor Emerita, Oklahoma State Helen M. McDonnell, Ocean Township High School, iniversity, Stillwater Oakhurst, New Jersey (retired) Breon Mitchell, Indiana University, Bloomington James DeMuth, University of Wisconsin-River Falls Renée H. Shea, University of the District of (deceased) , Washington, D.C. Mary Alice Fite, Columbus School for Girls, Ron Smith, Professor Emeritus, Utah State Columbus, , Logan Daphne Gmbovoi, Silverado.High School, Las Vegas, Marilyn J. Strelau, Simsbury High School, Simsbury, Nevada Connecticut Judith A. Granese, Valley High School, Las Vegas, Donald Van Dyke, Glenbrook North High School, Nevada Northbrook, Illinois Hobart Jarrett, Professor Emeritus, College, Clifton Warren, University of Central Oklahoma, City College of New York Edmond

4 t5z. o.

Bonnie H. Neumann Editor

Helen M. McDonnell Associate Editor

National Council of Teachers of English 1111 W Kenyon Road, Urbana, Illinois 61801-1096 ,

Manuscript Editor: Michael Himick Production Editors: Michelle Sanden Joh las, Kurt Austin Cover and Interior Design: Doug Burnett

NCTE Stock Number: 19476-3050

© 1996 by the National Council of Teachers of English. All rights reserved. Printed in the of .

It is the policy of NCTE in its journals and other publications to provide a forum for the open discussion of ideas concerning the content and the teaching of English and the language arts. Publicity accorded to any particular point of view does not imply endorsement by the Executive Committee, the Board of Directors, or the membership at large, except in announcements of policy, where such endorsement is clearly specified. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Teaching the short story: a guide to using stories from around the world / Bonnie H. Neumann, editor; Helen M. McDonnell, associate editor. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN 8141-1947-6 1. Short story.2. Short storiesStudy and teaching.3. Short stories.I. Neumann, Bonnie H., 1942- . H. McDonnell, Helen M. PN3373.T43 1996 808.83'1dc20 96-12993 CIP


Introduction xiii Akutagawa Ryfmosuke () IN A GROVE 13 ANNOTATIONS 1 Alexiou, Elli (Greece)

Abrahams, Peter () THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED 14

EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP 3 Allende, Isabel ()

Achebe, Chinua (Nigeria) TWO WORDS 15

GIRLS AT WAR 4 Amado, Jorge (Brazil)

VENGEFUL CREDITOR 5 HOW PORCR-JNCULA THE MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK 16 THE VOTER 6 .Andreyev, Leonid () Agnon, S. Y. (Israel) LAZARUS 17 THE DOCUMENT 7 Andric, Ivo (Bosnia-Herzegovina) A WHOLE LOAF 8 18 Ahmad, Razia Fasih (Pakistan) A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH 19 PAPER IS MONEY 10 Asturias, Miguel (Guatemala) Aichinger, Ilse (Germany) TATUANA'S TALE 20 THE BOUND MAN 11 Aymé, Marcel () Aidoo, Ama Ata (''Thana) THE MAN WHO WALKED ThROUGH NO SWEETNESS HERE 12 WALLS 21 TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun (Iraq) Colette (France)


LA GRANDE BRETECHE 24 THREE WOMEN IN 41 Baykurt, (Turkey) Cortazar,Julio (Argentina)


Bjornson, Bjornstjerne (Norway) NIGHT FACE UP 43

THE FATHER 26 Cubena (Panama) Boll, Heinrich (Germany) ME AFRICAN GRANNIE 44

MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES 27 Curnali, Necati (Turkey)

Borges, Jorge Luis (Argentina) IN GOD'S PLAINS 45

THE GARDEN OF FORKING PATHS 28 Danticat, Edwidge (Haiti)

Borowski, Tadeusz () OF 46 THE MAN WITH ME PACKAGE 30 Daudet, Alphonse (France)

Buzzati, Dino () THE LAST LESSON 48

THE SLAYING OF 31 Desai, Anita ()

Calvino, Italo (Italy) A DEVOTED SON 49


Camus, (France) Dhlomo, H. I. E. (South Africa)

THE GUEST 33 ME DAUGHTER 50 Chekhov, Anton (Russia) Dib, Mohammed ()




Djilas, Miovan (Montenegro) Hahn Moo-sook (Korea)


WAR 56 Hamsun, Knut (Norway) Dostoevski, Fyodor (Russia) ME CALL OF LIFE 72

THE DREAM OF A RIDICULOUS Haris, Petros (Greece) MAN 56 LIGHTS ON ME SEA 73 THE HONEST THIEF 58 Hayashi Fumiko (Japan) WHITE NIGHTS 59 BONES 74 Dove-Danquah, Mabel (Ghana) Head, Bessie (South Africa) ME TORN VEIL 60 HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED .75 Ekwensi, Cyprian (Nigeria) Hesse, Hermann (Germany) THE GREAT BEYOND 62 ME POET 75 Feng Jicai () Heym, Georg (Germany) THE MAO BUTTON 63 ME AUTOPSY 77 Flaubert, Gustave (France) Hildesheimer, Wolfgang (Germany) A SIMPLE HEART 64 A WORLD ENDS 78 France, Anatole (France) Huber, Heinz (Germany) THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA 65 THE NEW APARTMENT 79 Fuentes, Carlos () Idris, Youssef (Egypt) ME TWO ELENAS 66 THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Gide, Andre (France) ENTERTAINMENT 80

THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Izgii, Muzaffer (Turkey) SON 67 WANTED: A TOWN WIMOUT A Gordimer, Nadine (South Africa) CRAZY 82

LITTLE WILLIE 68 Kafka, Franz (Czech Republic)




Kapadia, Kundanika (India) Lim, Catherine ()

PAPER BOAT 87 PAPER 100 Kariara, Jonathan (Kenya) Lo Liyong,Tahm (Uganda)

HER WARRIOR 87 11./.E OLD MAN OF USUM.9URA AND FilS 101 Kawabata Yasunari (Japan) Lu Xun (fliina) THE JAY 89 p!ARY OF A MADMAN 102 THE MOON ON THE WATER 89 Mahfouz, Naguib (Egypt) Kiwon So (Korea) THE CONJURER MADE OFF WITH THE HEIR ME DISH 102

Kundera, Milan (Czech Republic) THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER '104 NOBODY WILL LAUGH .91 Mann, Thomas (Germany)

Lagerkvist, Par (Sweden) DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW 165


Lagerlöf, Selina (Sweden) TRISTAN 108 ME OUTLAWS 93 Maupassant, Guy de (France)

La Guma, Alex (South Africa) ME NECKLACE 109 BLANKETS 94 Megged, Aharon (Israel)

Iandoifi, Tommaso (Italy) THE NAME 110 PASTORAL 95 Meleagrou, Hebe (Greece) Lao She (China) MONUMENT 1 1 1 GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE 97 Merimee, Prosper (France)

Laxness, Haldor (Iceland) THE VENUS OF ILLE 112 LILY 98 Mishima Yukio (Japan)

Lenz, (Germany) 113 THE IAUGHINGSTOCK 98 Moravia, Alberto (Italy)

Lim Beng Hap (Malaysia) THE CHASE 114


Mphahlele,Es'kia (South Africa) Papadiamantis, Alexandros (Greece)


Mrozek, Slawomir (Poland) Pavese, Cesare (Italy)


ON A JOURNEY 118 Paz, Octavio (Mexico) Murakaini Haruki (Japan) WIM THE WAVE 133


Naipaul, V. S. (urinidad) Pirandello, Luigi (Italy) 135 B. WORDSWORTH 119 CINCI WAR 136 THE ENEMY 120

Nakos, (Greece) Pontoppidan, Henrik (Denmark) 137 THE BROKEN DOLL 121 A FISHER NEST

HELENITSA 122 P'u Sung-Ling (China) 138 Narayan, R. K. (India) THE FIGHTING CRICKET


THE MIRROR 124 Rifaat, Alifa (Egypt) Neu), Martin Andersen (Denmark) ANOTHER EVENING AT ME CLUB 139 AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI BIRDS OF PASSAGE 125 HOUSEHOLD 140 Ngugi,James (Kenya) Roufos, Rodis (Greece) THE MARTYR 126 ME CANDIDATE 141 Nhat-Tien (Vietnam) Rushdi, Rashad (Egypt) AN UNSOUND SLEEP 127 ANGUISH 142 Nicol, Abioseth (Sierra Leone) Sand, George (Fiance) AS THE NIGHT THE DAY 128 THE MARQUISE 144 0 Yong-su (Korea) Santos, Bienvenido N. () SEASIDE VILLAGE 129 ME DAY ME DANCERS CAME 145


Sarang, Vilas (India) Tamasi, Aron (Hungary)

THE TERRORIST 146 FLASHES IN THE NIGHT 161 Saranti, (Greece) Tanizaki Junichiro (Japan)


Sartrejean-Paul (France) THE THIEF 163

THE WALL 148 Taylor, Apirana (New Zealand Maori)

Schulz, Bruno (Poland) THE CARVING 164 COCKROACHES 149 Theotokis, Konstantinos (Greece)

Sholokhov, Mikhail (Russia) VILLAGE LIFE 165 THE COLT 150 Tolstoy, Leo (Russia)

THE MT OF A MAN 151 166

Siddiqi, Shaukat (Pakistan) HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED 168 A MAN OF HONOR 152 Turgenev, Ivan (Russia) Sienkiewicz, Henryk (Poland) YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S WIFE 169 l'HE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER 153 Valenzuela, Luisa (Argentina) YANKO THE MUSICIAN 154 I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT 170 Siwertz, Sigfrid (Sweden) Vega, Ana Lydia () IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING 154 CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN 171 Solznenitsyn, Alexan er (Russia) Venezis, Elias (Greece) MATRYONA'S 155 MYCENAE 172 'ME RIGHT HAND 156 Verga, Giovanni (Italy) ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH 157 PROPERTY 173 Surangkhanang, K. () Villiers de L'Isle-Adam (France) THE GRANDMOTHER 158 THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN 174 Svevo, Ita lo (Italy) THE TORTURE BY HOPE 175 IN MY INDOLENCE 159 Weller, Archie (Australian Aborigine) Tagore, Rabindranath (India) GOING HOMF 176 KABULIWALLAH 160


Yahez, Mina () INDEXES 183

WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE 177 Title 185 Yehoshua, Abraham B. (Israel) Country 191 FACING THE FOREST 178 English-Language Source 195 Yizhar, S. (Israel) Suggested Comparison5Themes 201 HABAKUK 180 Suggested ComparisonsLiterary Devices 215 Zola, Emile (France) Cross-Reference 221 THE INUNDATION 181 299 NAN MICOULIN 182 Editors Contributors 300

xi , a


Teaching the Short Story: A Guide to Using Stories English. Generally, we have listed the translator of fmm Around the World is a unique resource for the English-language version used in our discus- teaching the short story at all levels of education. Its sions. If no translator is listed, either none was iden- format is designed to help teachers select appropri- tified in our English-language source or the story ate short works of fiction for study and to identify was originally written in English. Although we have universal experiences as they are variously selected the finest available, we have expressed in that genre throughout the world. The been forced to recognize their uneven quality, f:spe- text emphasizes the importance of recognizing cially when there is only one translation available national similarities, of distinguishing unique differ- and the translator's knowledge of English is obvi- ences, and of realizing that through the study of ously limited. great literature one can come to understand and Because all great art combines the universal respect systems and ideologies different from one's and the particular specific to an individual culture, own. The art of the short story, like all art, reflects we have attempted to identify themes that are uni- the values, basic assumptions, problems, ideals, and versally expressed, especially those regarding the philosophical, social, and political climates of the condition, and to suggest in the biographical world that created it. Certainly, if we are to have sketch and again in the synopsis of the story those world peace in its most comprehensive sense, it has aspects that reflect the particular world from which to come with the tolerance, appreciation, and the story originated. Similarly, our discussions respect founded on an exposure to, and an under- attempt to provide a clear idea of the styles as well standing of, the experiences of others.Ultimately, as the distinctive qualities of various representative we can see in the lowest common denominav from around the world. the universality of humanity's most basic concerns The comparisons that we have suggested for and of the human condition for which each story each story offer opportunities to enrich the experi- serves as a basic metaphor. At no time in the history ence of studying it. In addition to identifying and of art has such an had more crucial con- evaluating the various characteristics of a story, it is sequences. useful to develop analytical skills through compari- The short stories annotated in this text have son-contrast study. Teachers and students alike can been carefully selected to represent the best stories engage in both critical analysis and interdisciplinary from as many countries as possible, excluding the thinking. Ultimately, one can appreciate the value of English-speaking countries, since their stories are extensive reading when one realizes that the experi- frequently anthologized and fully discussed in readi- ence of any story is enhanced by its juxtaposition to ly available textbooks. Most of the stories included another and by its comparison or contrast with were thus originally written in languages other than works in other genres, the visual arts, , and


music. This comparative methodology also demon- and suggesting comparative approaches both to the strates the universality of particular thematic con- more familiar short stories of and North tent or techniques and provides a basis for contrast America and to comparable works of art in other by which one can see why, how, and to what extent genres, all intended to suggest viable and creative the different milieu, genre, or underlying assump- avenues by which stories can be made relevant to tions account for the particular angle of vision or each student's educational and personal experience. form of expression manifested in each work. One of the most rewarding experiences in The biographical material we include is teaching the short story is discovering language designed to provide succinct information regarding with students, the language of symbol and the fundamental conditions of life, thought, and var- metaphor capable of transmitting the human expe- ious religious, economic, and social experiences rience of the to the mind of a receptive read- that have shaped the literary expression of the er. Selected to reflect the experience of its creator, it author. Particular attention is given to those writers is a language capable of eliciting a fresh response whose biographical data may be limited or difficult from the reader and of making specific experiences to locate. in another time and placeor even a worldstand We have organized the text by author and have for a universal experience that can be shared with included several indexes to enable teachers to the immediacy and intensity of the original. The select stories by title, country, English-language means of achieving success in this joint venture we source, thematic and literary similarities, or compa- leave to the individual instructor, who, according to rable study with frequently anthologized and readily the requirements of the world of the story and the available literary and artistic works. To make abilities of the students, will analyze , plot, Teaching the Short Story still more helpful to its point of view, setting, , other tech- readers, titles of works annotated in the text are Mques, imagery, or tone with the primary goal of capitalized wherever they appear. making students aware of both the universality of Ultimately, Teaching the Short Story is designed the message and the distinctive features and impli- to entice teachers to work with the short stories cations of various cultural backgrounds, back- represented here by providing a superior multicul- grounds that are at once very different from our tural and comprehensive selection, presenting suffi- own, but at the same time an expression of a human cient biographical background to enrich the stories, experience that the reader can share.-RHM



16 ABRAHAMS, PETER. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP. South Africa Of Time and Place: Comparative World Literature in Translation. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman,1976.

Author: Peter Abrahams (1919-) grew up in the And underground his white man respected black quarters around Johannesburg. He experi- him and asked him for his opinion before he did enced poverty and the tensions of , fre- anything?' quent subjects in his fiction. After graduating from Returning to his own neighborhood ("It was all St. Peter's in 1938, he worked in Cape Town as a right here"), he joins a crowd in time to s.:!e a man teacher and magazine editor. After two years of trav- in from the police fall from a roof. Xuma is el as a ship's stoker, he settled in England. He has amazed by the scene and by the sudden appearance become South Africa's most prolific writer, penning of Dr. Mini, who is "dressed in the clothes of the , , many shorter pieces of fiction, and white people and behaved like the white people?' his autobiography, Tell (1954). He has lived Xuma helps Dr. Mini defy the police in to in Jamaica since 1959, where he has been editor of carry the injured man into the doctor's house, the West Indian Economist. which is "like the white people's place" and makes him uncomfortable, as does the doctor's wife, who Story: EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP illuminates the is "almost white and ... was dressed like the white social structure of South Africa, with poignant people." But Xuma stays for tea; the doctor wants insight into the ways in which personal relationships him as a witness when the police arrive. In spite of reflect unrelenting racial awareness and tension. the doctor's apparent friendliness, Xuma cannot rid Xuma, a new resident of Malay Camp, a black himself of the feeling that "he did not belong there community on the outskirts of Johannesburg, walks and it was wrong for him to be there." His instincts into the heart of the city. The areas through which are right. When the injured man escapes, the doctor he passes are increasingly dominated by whites. harshly dismisses him. "They did not walk or look like his people, and it Xuma is lonely. In Malay Camp "everywhere he Was.as if they were not really there." The evolving saw couples ... and they all seemed so happy." In city scene, from barefoot, cold, poorly dressed people to restaurants he sees "white people ... eating, talking glimpses into bright, warm restaurants, offers con- and smoking and laughing at each other." His closest trasts between the lives of the two races occupying approach to others takes place in his neighborhood, different sections of the same city. Xuma, stopped where he "rubbed against people and did not step by a policeman and made to show his pass, realizes out of the way. He bumped against , and felt that only at his job in the mines are men treated as their warmth and softness." Even from these Xuma individuals, not judged by their color. There "he was !'cds isolated, for they "drank and they fought and the boss-Env. He gave the orders to the other mine they gambled. And there were so many like that in


the city." In Dr. Mini he recognizes someone who from without ( by ), or could have been a ."No one Xuma knew could be a product of imagination ("The Secret Life of have done what this one had done. And yet this was " by James Thurber), or be induced by one of his people." But remembering how Dr. Mini guilt ("Markheim" by Robert Louis Stevenson). had dismissed him when Xuma was no longer of use, Often associated with isolation is a search for he realizes that the doctor has adopted not only the identity Camus and Ellison, for example, suggest that white man's clothes and furniture, but his attitudes to make meaningful contact with others, one must as well. find one's natural place in the world. Confusion between reality and façade is central to the theme of Comparison:The theme of isolation makes a EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP When supposed oppo- rich contribution to literature, whether it is encoun- sites come together, side prevails, perhaps tered in.the face of death ("The Open Boat" by because the "opposites" are not opposite at all. Stephen Crane) or in confronting a personal choice Perhaps Dr. Mini and his wife are as much the vic- (THE GUEST by ). It can be imposed tims of social circumstance as is Xuma. -BHN

ACHERE, CHINUA. GIRLS AT WAR. Nigeria Girls at War and Other Stories. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1972.

Author: Chinua Achebe (1930-) was born in east- lectual achievement, the National Merit Award. ern Nigeria. He was reared in the large village of Achebe lives with his wife and four children in Ogidi, one of the first centers of Anglican mission- Nigeria. ary work in eastern Nigeria, where his father taught school under the Church Missionary Society He Story: At a checkpoint on to Awkea, received his B.A. from lbadan University. He has Minister of Justice Reginald Nwakwo is stopped by held many important posts in the Nigerian a pretty girl with a somewhat defiant look. She is Broadcasting Corporation, including director of its vaguely familiar and finally introduces herself as the external service. He joined the Biafran Ministry of girl to whom he had offered a ride when she left Information and represented Biafra on diplomatic school to join the militia. and fundraising missions. In 1972, he was awarded More than a year , Nwakwo is on the road an honorary Doctor of Letters from Dartmouth again, this time to take food from a war distribution College. He has been senior research fellow at the center operated by an old friend. As his driver loads Institute of African Studies at the University of the car with food, Nwakwo is embarrassed by the Nigeria at Nsukka. wasted bodies and sunken eyes of the starving He has published novels, short stories, essays, crowd that jeers at him and shouts remarks. To clear poetry, and children's books. Among his major his conscience, Nwakwo agrees to share his sup- works are Christmas in Biafra (joint winner of the plies with the driver. first Commonwealth Poetry Prize),Arrow of God On his way home, he comes upon a beautiful (winner of the New Statesman- Campbell girl standing by the roadway and waving for a ride. Award),Anthills of the Savannah (a finalist for the When Nwakwo stops to pick her up, he is sur- 1987 English Booker), No Longer at Ease (winner prised to encounter, again, the girl "you gave a lift of the Nigerian National Trophy), and Things Fall to join the militia." Although Gladys claims to be on Apart (awarded the Margaret Wrong Prize). He is her way to visit a girlfriend, when she discovers also a recipient of Nigeria's highest award for intel- that her friend is not home, she is perfectly willing


to the night with Nwakwo. Although The next day, on the road to return Gladys to Nwakwo's first impu'tse is to dismiss Gladys as no her home, Nwakwo's car is caught in an air raid. more than a prostitute, he eventuallybecomes Gladys, Nwakwo, and the driver are all killed. more understanding."Giadys was just amirror reflecting a society that had gone completely rot- Comparison: GIRLS AT WAR is exemplary of the ten and maggoty at the centre. The mirroritself breakdown of family life and the position of women was intact; a lot of smudge but no more.All that in Nigerian society. For those characteristics, it can was needed was a clean duster.1have a duty to be compared to Bessie Head's "The Collector of her,' he told himself." Treasures." 33

Ammer CHINIVA. VENGEFULCREDITOR. Nigeria Girls at War and Other Stories. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett,1972.

Author: See GIRLS AT WAR. would have cost them their positions. The politi- cians rationalize about the man who is again unable that can Story:Mrs. Emenike, a social service officer and to send his children to school,"The worst wife of a minor civil servant, bemoans the recent happen is that his child stays which he introduction into the country of free primary edu- probably doesn't mind at all." The that the cation. She has personally felt the impact of the withdrawal of educational opportunity might have new law: within the last few weeks, shehas lost on the children is, of course, neverconsidered. three servants, including her baby's nurse, to the It is against this background that ten-year-old lure of education. Children in their early teens who Veronica goes to work for the Emenikes. The daugh- had migrated to the city in search of work, a source ter of Martha, a poor village widow, Verohad loved of cheap labor for professional people like the the one term of school she had been able to attend. Emenikes, were returning to the villages to register While negotiating for Vero's service, Mr. Emenike for school. The Education Ministry had estimated points out to Vero's mother that if Vero is obedient that 800,000 children would take advantage of free and good in my house what stops my wife and me education; 1,500,000 attended schools the first day. sending her to school when the baby is big enough Mr. and Mrs. Emenike, well able to pay for their to go about on his own? Nothing'.... Heknew that own children's education, are amongthose relative- the part about sending her to school was only a ly affluent citizens who suspect that free education manner of speaking. And Martha knew too.But for the masses could well be a communist plot, but Vero, who had been listening to everything from a their primary concern is for their own comfort. For dark corner of the adjoining room, did not." example, when the only "boy" available to carry her Vero goes happily to the city and works well for groceries to her Mercedes is a forty-year-old cripple, the Emenikes, every morning sending their older Mrs. Emenike hands him an insultingly small tip and children off to school while her envy of them thinks that she "never cared for these old men run- grows. In the context of her impatience,the baby Vero plays at ning little boys' errands That was what free pri- seems to grow very slowly. One day, mary education had brought." being an adult and covers her lips and fingernails After one term, the support for free public edu- with red ink. To impress her, Mrs. Emenike warns cation is withdrawn. The popularity of the program Vero that red ink is poisonous. A week later, Vero made it so expensive that politicians saw no means feeds ink to the baby. Mrs. Emenike beats Vero, and of supporting it without raising taxes, a movewhich Emenike dumps her at her mother's doorstep.


When Martha understands that Vero has tried It is also a political story, one in which the to ki/1 the baby, she too threatens to beat Vero. author uses the medium of fiction to express a per- Remembering Mr. Emenike's statement,"I have sonal opinion about a controversial issue or to intro- always known that the craze for education in this duce an unpopular idea. In this case, Achebe attacks country will one day ruin all of us. Now even chil- the Nigerian caste system, perpetuated because dren will commit murder in order to go to school:. greed and power have blinded those in control to stops her. A "slow revolt, vague, undirected, began to the humanity of those from a different background. well up at first slowly inside her. 'And that thing Achebe's weaving of a moral judgment into the fab- that calls himself a man talks to me about the craze ric of his story is similar to Hawthorne's use of the for education. All his children go to school, even the same technique in stories such as "Young Goodman one that is only two years; but that is not craze. Rich Brown" and novels such as The Scarlet Letten A con- people have no craze. It is only when the children trast can be drawn, however, between Hawthorne's of poor widows like me want to go with the rest works and VENGEFUL CREDITOR based on the that it becomes a craze.'" In the end,"she threw complexity of the characters' motivations. away the whip and with her freed hand wiped her Hawthorne's characters tend to be contrivances for tears." Veronica has been spared a second whipping, his moral themes, whereas the Emenikes, insensitive but her dreams have ended; she has been teturned as they are, have good reason to wish Vero out of to her life of hopeless poverty. their house. Finally, VENGEFUL CREDITOR raises questions Comparison: VENGEFUL CREDITOR is a story of about the future of a society in which people, espe- initiation, the innocence of childhood encounter- cially children, dare not dream. A village without ing, and being forever tainted by, the prejudices and hope becomes a society without hope, one in closed minds of adulthood. In that respect, the which the children of the future might be like those story resembles such popular stories as in Graham Greene's "The Destructors," taught by the Cather's "Paul's Case" and Ralph Ellison's "Battle world around them that destruction is the only Royal." form of creation. -BHN

ACHEBEr CHINUA. THE VOTER. Nigeria World Writers Today. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

Author: See GIRLS AT WAR. cy of the ballot system, Roof agrees. As soon as he takes the money, the men uncover an lyi, "a fear- Stoty:In order to ensure his re-election, Minister some little affair contained in a clay pot with feath- of Culture Marcus Ihe gives his campaign staff a ers stuck into it." They declare that the iyt will of shillings to distribute to prospective voters. Rufus know if Rufus does not keep his word. (Roof) Okeke,"a very popular man" in Ibe's home On the day of the election, Roof joins other village, works vigorously on the Honorable organizers enthusiastically promoting Marcus Ibe's Minister's behalf. Shortly after Rufus meets with the candidacy. When Rufus enters the polling booth, tribal elders to negotiate a price of three shillings however, his fear of the lyi proves too much for each for their votes, members of the opposition him. He carefully tears his ballot paper in two, party visit Roof late one night, offering him a five- depositing the first half into Maduka's box and say- pound bribe to vote for Maduka, lbe's rival. ing,"1 vote for Maduka," before putting the other Believing in Marcus's certain victory and the secre- half in Ibe's box.


Consparison: Corruption in politics and the con- est politician with whom Jagua, the heroine, flict between native and colonial values and cus- becomes involved. toms are central themes in much of Achebe'a writ- Many Nigerian writers use village proverbs and ing. In both his second and fourth novels, No variations in language to represent a hybrid culture, Longer at Ease and Man of the People, a civil ser- as does Achebe. In THE VOTER, pawerbs that vant takes bribes. Man of the People, published a reflect the tribal culture make wty comments on year after THE VOTER, presents a more fully devel- the action, and characters switch from English to oped portrait of the crooked politician seen here. .Pidgin in their conversations. Ibo words such as iyi M. A. Nanga, like Marcus Ibe, is a "not too success- and ozo are not given an English translation. Humor ful" village schoolteacher who rises quickly in underscores the mixture and adulteration of lan- national politics, becoming the Minister of Culture. guages. For example, the villagers say "corngrass" for Achebe contrasts the opulent lifestyle of the elected "congrats" to the winner. official with that of his impoverished constituents The corrupting power of greed is a basic theme as an ironic comment on the villagers' belief that of many well-known literary works. Several prime despite his success, the Minister has remained "a examples are Ibsen's An Enemy of the People man of the people; a phrase found in both works. and Twain's short story "The Man That Corrupted Characteristically, however, Achebe does not ideal- Hadleyburg." In Ibsen's play, public officials value ize the local tribal people in THE VOTER. They are making money more than they value the health of just as anxious to accept bribes as the national cam- the visitors to 's famous, but polluted, paign workers are to offer them. baths. In Twain's "The Man That Corrupted Parallels in and theme can be Hadleyburg," the townspeople's belief in the hon- seen in works by two contemporary Nigerian writ- esty of their prominent citizens proves to be a trav- ers. In 's novel The lnterpreten Chief esty when they lie in order to gain a bag of gold. Winsala, an old rogue, takes petty bribes as he Ironically, the villagers in THE VOTER believe that fronts for a supposedly incorruptible judge. "the people exercised power" in the national elec- Cyprian Ekwensi, in his novelJagua Nana, por- tion, even though they sold their votes to the high- trays Uncle Taiwo as a jovial but completely dishon- est bidder. -MAF

AGNONI, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT. Israel Twenty-One Stories. New York: Schocken Books, 1970. Translated by Joseph Moses.

Author:S. Y. Agnon (1888-1970) was born in and after the First World War, Agnon's later writing Buczaca, Galicia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian grew more universal, demonstrating a concern for Empire. Agnon wrote in Hebrew, and from the many of the spiritual issues that burden modern beginning his stories were deeply imbued with the individuals. His short stories, novels, and novellas traditions of Jewish thought and scholarship. At evoke the basic elements of human destiny: the the age of nineteen, he emigrated to Palestine, language Jf the common people, plots evolving where he lived for six years before returning to from darkness to light, and characters controlled Europe. Over the next eleven years, he participated on one side by and on the other by laws in the intellectual and cultural life of Germany. In and conventions. His international reputation grew, 1924, he made his permanent home in Jerusalem. and in 1966 he received the for Partially under the influence of the powerful Literature. Agnon continued to live and write in trends in contemporary European literature during Israel until his death. 21 7 TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

Stoty:In this brief, dreamlike story, a man receives The thematic threads of the story include the a letter from a distant relative asking him to go to a search for meaning in a confusing, bureaucratic, and certain office and obtain a document on which the impersonal world; the role of human compassion relative's life depends. The man is ill, but he never- and scholarship; the decline of the body in the theless undertakes to fulfill the task. He arrives early course of life; the inevitability of death; and the free- at the office, but soon finds himself pushed about dom of the spirit. Because the dream represents a by hordes of people, standing in long lines, and link between the inner mind and the external being sent from one room to another without world, the form of the tale suggests as well that life's result. This goes on for three straight days as the meaning cannot be restricted to purely rational man becomes increasingly ill. analysis. On the third day, things seem to going a lit- Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener" also deals tle better. By this time, however, the man has forgot- with the inevitability of death and freedom of the ten why he has come, why he is standing there, why spirit, as Bartleby goes through life apparently he is running from room to room. A man sitting aware of some great truth that eludes everyone behind one of the desks turns out to be an old around him. He cannot act on that truth, howev- acquaintance, a druggist he knew before the war. er, because he is a mere mortal trapped in a The druggist offers him a bar of chocolate. He human body. But his spirit is so much more; it meets a professor who, for no apparent reason, knows. A sense of relief is felt at the end when engages him in a discussion about the etymology of Bartleby dies in prison, for his spirit is now free. a word. Finally, as the story ends, the man finds him- Whatever lies beyond, if anything, only Bartleby self shoved by a mass of people onto an outside bal- knows. cony floating on an endless ocean. THE DOCUMENT is a of life in much the same way as Kafka's THE MEIAMORPHOSIS. Comparison: Agnon's dream narrative must be Gregor's symbolic and literal decline of body and seen in the context of a tradition that includes spirit and the nightmarish existence he leads both Talmudic scholarship on the one hand and the stories before and after his metamorphosis reveal the of on the other. The "document" may be absurd repetition inherent in everyday human life. the text we are reading. At any rate, it cries out for The latter concept is also expressed in Thomas interpretation, both as a dream and as a parable of life. Wolfe's "For What Is Man?" from You Can't Go As such, it may be fruitfully compared with other Home Again, an on the glory of human exis- dreams and in American and European litera- tence amid "the senseless nihilism of the universe" ture, from Kafka to Borges to and beyond. and "a million idiot repetitions." B M

AGN0111, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF. Israel A Whole Loaf Stories from Israel. New York: Vanguard Press, 1962. Translated by I. M. Lask.

Author: See THE DOCUMENT. to help overcome the bureaucratic delay that has been keeping them out of Israel. Feeling Story The narrator, who'se wife and children are guilty and ashamed, the narrator agrees to mail traveling abroad, sets out for a restaurant dinner. some letters for the old man to get back in his Passing through Jerusalem's old quarter, he meets favor. Oppressed by hunger and sorely tempted to Dr. Ne'eman (No Man), a "very considerable sage" stop for food, the narrator carries on a lively debate who criticizes the narrator for not working harder with himself over his priorities."It is easy to under-.


stand the state of a man who has two courses in is unlocked by the cleaners, he goes home, washes, front of him: if he takes one, it seems to him that he and goes out "to get myself some food:' In his pock- has to follow the other; and if he takes the other, it et are the letters, but "that day was Sunday, when seems to him that he ought to go along the first the post office was closed for things that the clerk one. But at length to his joy he takes the course did not consider important." that he ought to take." The narrator decides that complying with Ne'eman's request is more impor- Comparison: Agnon'. narrator can be viewed on tant than eating. the fundamental level as the Good Man, on the In front of the post office, the narrator sees Mr. philosophical level as the Existential Man, and on Gressler, whom he has known since childhood. the theological level as a modern Moses. Like Flattered to be given special notice by this impor- Archibald MacLeish's J. B., the Good Man rails tant man, the narrator climbs into Gressler's car- against the demands laid on him by God and sur- riage and forgets "all about the letters and the rounds himself with self-doubt. Yet the narrator as hunger." Suddenly, the carriage overturns, and, when the Good Man possesses a self-confidence inherited he finally extricates himself from the ruins, the nar- from God's covenant. Just as in the medieval play rator heads straight for the nearest restaurant. , when the hero confronts vice, he is sure The restaurant is crowded. When a waiter final- of the inevitable triumph of virtue through God's ly stops at his table, the narrator is so hungry that mercy. he notes,"I showed him the bill of fare and told him From another perspective, the meeting of a to fetch anything he wanted. And in order that he multiplicity of characters who define a country's should not think me the kind of boor who eats any- moral and ethical structure Vividly suggests James thing without selecting it, I added to him gravely, Joyce's Dubliners. The same use of choice to 'But I want a whole loaf One guest after another is define existential integrity is evident in Agnon's served, but not the narrator. Each time he passes the narrator. The narrator realizes that if he does not table, the waiter apologizes and promises him that choose God's strictures, he, and thus Israel, will "the whole loaf" will be right there. Desperate, the become the cat with green eyes, just as the young narrator barely restrains himself from grabbing food wife in Rosario Ferre's "The Youngest Doll" from other people's tables. New customers are became a grotesque doll with eyes oozing prawns. served, and still the narrator sits before an empty If the narrator chooses the green-eyed table. He notes,"I began rebuking myself for asking oozing capitalist envyillustrated in the story in for a whole loaf, when I would have been satisfied the character Hopnithe choice could destroy even with a small slice." his nation. This same symbol appears in Kafka's A Suddenly, the narrator remembers the letters in HUNGER ARTIST, where a panther replaces che his pocket. He jumps up to run to the post office. As starving artist in his cage. Agnon's green-eyed cat, he does so, he butts into a waiter carrying a tray however, would surely devour the narrator with- loaded with food and drink, and the tray and the out God's letterssymbolized by the letters waiter tumble to the floor. The tray had been Ne'eman asked the narrator to mailsealed next intended for the narrator. Again, he waits. All the to his heart. customers leave. The lights are extinguished. Still Finally, this wandering Moses portends a new the narrator sits patiently. The waiters leave. The Jerusalem rich in possibilities and alive to the Book outer door is locked. A rat appears and nibbles that God has entrusted to His people. Like succes- bones. A cat appears and ignores the rat. The narra- sive images within a Dali painting, each moment tor falls fatigued to the floor between them."The along the narrator's path elicits another part of cat's eyes shone with a greenish light that filled all Jerusalem's surreal growth in a materialistic twenti- the room." He lies there until dawn. When the door eth century. n v


AIIINAD. RAMA WA311111. PAPER IS MONEY. Pakistan Short Story International. April 1982.

Author: Razia Fasih Ahmad (1934-) is a leading Returning to his house, the narrator conies Urdu fiction writer, known for her novels as well as upon several sacks of trash representing Shanti's her short stories. She writes for both children and garbage collection for the week. Operating on adult audiences and occasionally writes in English. a desperate hunch, he empties the sacks and finds She has received numerous literary awards, includ- the pieces of his magazines, books, and ing Pakistan's highest, the Adamji Prize for manuscript. They were "not in one of the sacks but Literature. in all four, torn to pieces and smeared with all sorts of refuse." Shanti and her husband had seen the Stoty: This tale, subtitled "Values of a Manuscript," is papers as useless and had "torn them to make the story of a first-person narrator, a writer with edu- them still more useless so that nobody could sus- cation and no belief in superstition. He rents a sup- pect them of stealing." The narrator realizes that posedly haunted house with the intention of writing "my manuscript for which I was hoping to get a lot a novel in the manner of Thomas Wolfe. The house is of money had no value for them as such, but as a cleaned by a Hindi woman, Shanti, who is unable to torn and dirty pack of paper it meant money to count or read. She and her sickly husband are them." described by the narrator as "both old and ugly They were both poor and stupid, and only had each other." comparison: Severe poverty produces extraor- Over the next two years, the narrator's novel dinary, often perplexing, behavior, and writers grows, beginning as a series of recorded memories attempt to evoke compassion through understand- and recollections,"a large bulk of papers increasing ing for those in such dire circumstances. This is day by day." At the peak of enjoyment in structuring the case in PAPER IS MONEY and in the German these recollections into novel form, the narrator is märchen " and the Beanstalk" and "Hansel and perplexed by the sudden disappearance of the man- Gretel," collected by the . In the uscript. Looking everywhere, he notes that the man- former, the mother is forced to sell the family's uscript was "the most precious thing" he had:"Yes, it most precious possessiona cow. In the latter, the was precious to me. For others it would be a bundle woodcutter's children are given over to their fate of papers but for me it was everythingmy life." He in the woods with the hope of their being adopted becomes aware that some books and magazines by a new, more affluent family. In PAPER IS have also disappeared. The neighbors, of course, MONEY, the narrator's precious manuscript believe the disappearance of the manuscript to be becomes the means of survival for the inipover- the work of spirits somehow annoyed by the ished elderly couple. When the wr iter reconciles writer's living in their midst. himself to the loss of his book at the end of the Dejected, frustrated, and miserable, the writer story ("And that is how the novel which was to be becomes physically and mentally ex'iausted. Then, the greatest of the century got lost forever"), the one day, he notices Shanti's husband "ransacking the vianuscript, like the cow and Hansel and Gretel, is garbage in the back lane." Aside from the food sacrificed to survival. scraps, which Shanti and her husband eat, the old In each case, the sacrifice is noble, like that in couple sell the other rubbish for five paisas, an the film classic Stella Dallas, starring Barbara amount equivalent to practically nothing. The Stanwyck, and its recent remake Stella, starring awareness of his employee's desperate situation . Such is also true of 0. Henry's classic causes the writer to raise Shanti's salary. short story "The Gift of the Magi." J A G


ARIIIIIGER, ILSE. THE BOUND MAN. Germany Continental Short Stories: The Modern Tradition. New York: Norton,1968. Translated by Eric Mosbacher.

Author: INe Aichinger (1921-) was born in it and kill it. Unfortunately, no one believes that he Vienna and spent her childhood there and in Linz. is capable of this feat, and they force him to repeat Because of her Jewish ancestry, she was not permit- the performance in a cage. The proprietor's wife, in to continue her education, so she worked in a an attempt to save him, frees him from his ropes, factory during the war. After the war, she studied but realizing that his real freedom is now gone, he medicine for several semesters and then became a uses a gun to shoot the wolf and takes flight.Alone, reader for a publishing firm. Her novels include hiding from his pursuers, he realizes that all life is Herod's Children (1963) and several others that frozen within him. Even the memory of the experi- have not been translated into English. She published ence has disappeared. The Bound Man and Other Stories in 1953 and one translated miscellany, Selected Short Stories Comparison: The Bound Man is clearly an artist, and Dialogues, in 1966. In recent years, she has but as soon as his art comes under question, he is lived in Upper Bavaria with her husband, German forced to live according to the rules of society and poet Gunter Eich. She has won several literary his art is destroyed. The theme of a man finding his prizes, including election to the prestigious P.E.N. freedom within the restrictions imposed on him Club. In 1952, she won the prize of the "Group 47," by the human condition and by meeting the chal- an association of young writers representingthe lenges of transcending those restrictions is also best among the postwar talents. found in Kafka's story A HUNGER ARTIST. Kafka's Hunger Artist achieves a certain kind of freedom Stoty: A man suddenly becomes aware that he is by starving himself before an audience, thus gain- bound by ropes cutting into his flesh. Trying to free ing a peculiar from those restricting forces himself, he finds that he is able to move, but only affecting everyone else. His hunger strikes are with great restriction and considerable pain. A cir- essentially his will to power. But the crowd cus animal tamer watches the Bound Man as he becomes dissatisfied with this subtle art in favor of tries to cut his ropes with a broken bottle. Intrigued more blatant circus acts, just as the BoundMan's as the Bound Man "Lnelt, stood up,jumped, and audiences become uninterested in his artful turned cartwheels." the animal tamer decides to pre- manipulations. They cannot believe that these sent the Bound Man as an act in his circus. There, artist figures can transcend traditional notions of the audience too "found it astonishing as if they had freedom, so the art of both heroes is destroyed seen a bird which voluntarily remainedearthbound, because, the audience is unable to understand or and confined itself to hopping." People are fascinat- appreciate it on its own terms. Unauthentic people ed that he is always bound, even when he is not cannot share the experiences of the creative artist performing; he seems to be helpless. Other perform- and must destroy what they cannot understand. ers are jealous and try to free him, but the propri- The Bound Man loses his reason for existence etor prevents them."He could have freed himselfif when he loses his freedom, and the new kind of he had wanted to whenever he liked, but perhaps fieedom he gains is an insufficient substitute. So he wanted to learn a few new jumps first." There we see him at the end, frozen withinhimself, are even times when he does not seem to be aware under a moon that resembles death. that he is bound. One is also reminded of Camus's Sisyphus, One day, a young wolf escapes and confronts whose freedom is removed and whose will is frus- the Bound Man, who is able to hurl his body again.3t trated. He too is devoted to an absurd cause, but


like the Bound Man, he finds freedom within the audiences that once encouraged and admired restrictions that have been imposed on him. them. Although he accepts these restrictions as part of The technique of the story is one used by many his existence, he knows that he need not be surrealist artists who portray nature as a reflection destroyed by them. Sisyphus's freedom exists in of the interior world of consciousness. Giorgio de his mind, which his punishment cannot destroy. In Chirico and René Magritte, for example, emphasized fact, he gains a sense of freedom'in the very act of the ilexplicable character of human experience by pushing a boulder up a mountain in spite of the juxtaposing familiar and unfamiliar objects and envi- inevitability that it will forever roll down again. ronments in an unexpected or dreamlike manner, The Bound Man and the Hunger Artist, however, resulting in a kind of irrational horror that we can- are both destroyed by society at the point when not escape. One also thinks of the painting; of they are able to bring their art to perfection and Francis Bacon, such as Lying Figure (1959), which achieve a degree of creativity beyond the under- invariably portray people and animals trapped with- standing and emotional sophistication of the very in very strict limitations of movement. RHM

AIDOO, AMA ATA. NO SWEETNESS HERE. Ghana African Rhythms: Selected Stories and Poems. New York: Washington Square Press, 1974.

Author: Ama Ata Aidoo (1942-) was born in understand a great deal about the family's every- Ghana and educated at the University of Ghana. day life. She received her A.B. degree in 1964 while serving Contrary to tradition in culture, when as research fellow at of African divorce is granted to Maami, she and her family must Studies. That year, she completed her first play, pay. The judge even decrees that Kwesi should go to Dilemma of a , which won critical recogni- his fatherjust as the formal proceedings are ending, tion. Since , she has given seminars at the news comes that Kwesl has been bitten by a snake University Colleges of Dares Salaam and Nairobi. and is despaately ill. Despite many attempts at cures She has published two plays and has been lecturer by the villagers and medicine man and prayers to at the University of Cape Coast. Her first short the gods and spirits, Kwesi dies. Ironically, Kodjo Fi story collection, No Sweetness Here, was pub- cannot get Kwesi after all. Maami Ama has lost lished in 1970. everything: her marriage, her material possessions, and her son. The villagers' verdict:"Life is not sweet." Story: NO SWEETNESS HERE portrays family life in the African village of Baniso, which "is not real- Contparison: Despite its sad ending, this story is ly a big village." Conflict has arisen between Kodjo a celebration of womanhood. Maami Ama is strong. Fi,"a selfish and bullying man," and his wife, "Life has taught me to be brave:' she says. Her char- Maami Ama, who arc parents of one son, Kwesi. acter may be compared with Edzi in Francis The story is told from the point of view of Selormey's The Narrow Path. In tone, there is the Chicha, a schoolteacher and friend of Kodjo H. As customary morbidness often thought to pervade marital discord mounts, the reader comes to much of black Afiv.-an literature.


AKUTAGAIIVARylitiosuus. IN A GROVE. Japan ROshornrn and Other Stories by Akutagawa Ryiinosuke. Tokyo: E. Thule, 1983. Translated by Takashi Kojirna.

Author: Born in Tokyo to a merchant-class father night. A woodcutter tells of discovering the body and a mother of samurai stock who clung to past flat on its back in a grove the next morning. glory and dying traditions, Akutagawa (1892-1927) Tajomaru, the brigand, tells of tying and later releas- showed schizophrenic tendencies early in life. ing the husband from the root of a cedar, dishonor- Except for his literary success, the circumstances of ing the woman, and killing the husband in a his life brought him no comfort or . Even fight when the woman cries out that one or the his own theory that the creation of art was the other man has to die because both have seen her meaning of life did not give him satisfaction. In shame. She runs off during the fight. 1927, he committed suicide by taking an overdose The woman tells of the brigand raping her and of barbiturates. disappearing with sword, bow, and arrows while like many literary figures of his era, Akutagawa she is in a faint. When she sees a look of hatred in was well read in contemporary Japanese and her husband's eyes, she decides to kill him and her- European literature. He was particularly fond of self. She stabs-through the lilac kimono into his Ibsen. In his short career as a short story writer, breast" while he is still tied to the tree. After waking Akutagawa produced over a hundred stories and a from a second faint, she unties him, but does not few essays. His observations on the ludicrousness have the strength to kill herself. of people unaware of their own contradictions The victim, speaking through a medium, tells of took on a gloomier tone in his later works. Among his wife asking the brigand to kill him after the his hest-known stories are "The Handkerchief" rape. Shocked by the request, the brigand asks (1916),"Reishomon" (1917),"The Puppeteer" whether to kill or save her. She shrieks and runs off. (1919),"Hell SCreen" (1927), and "Kappa" (1927). The brigand releases the husband and disappears. "Röshomon" was made into a motion picture of the The husband then picks up his wife's small sword same title. and stabs himself in the breast.

Story: A man in a bluish silk kimono and a wrin- Comparison: To reconstruct the truth by corrob- kW Kyoto-style headdress is murdered in a grove. orating evidence and testwaony is as difficult in Seven parties are questioned. Each gives a unique Akutagawa's IN A GROVE 'is it is in "Twelve Angry account of the event. In the end, the truth does not Men" by Reginald Rose and in countless mysteries emerge. as the major renditions differ inessential and detective stories. Despite the conviction of details. one's own integrity, truth emerges as a distinctly An old woman tells of her spirited daughter individual perspective, as shown in the ancient para- leaving for Waka with her husband. A traveling ble of the blind men and the elephant. Each person priest tells of seeing the couple with a horse on the describes the whole elephant as an extension of the road at noon the same day, the woman in lilac and part he touches. The issue of fidelity, suspicion,and the man armed with sword, bow, and arrows. A jealousy between husband and wife is a timeless policeman tells of arresting a brigand with sword, theme, such as depicted in the ancient parable how, arrows, an, I a horse on a bridge that same retold by R. K. Narayan in THE MIRROR. 51 1.


&Lamour ELu. THEY WERE ALL TO DE PITIED. Greece The Charioteer: An Annual Review of Modern Greek Culture. No. 22-23. New York: Parnassos, Greek Cultural Society of New York, 1980/81. Translated by Deborah Tannen.

Author: Distinguished writer Elli Alexiou marriage, unable to take her daughter along and (1894-1988) was born in Herakleion, Crete, into an doomed never to see her again, for the father will extraordinary literary family. Both she and her older not allow it. Then an incident happens that appears sister, Galateia Alexiou, became writers. Elli, a mem- to typify her childhood. Her little friend, who has a ber of the "Generation of the 1930s," wrote in the heart condition, falls in love with the narrator's demotic, or vernacular, of the Greek language and beloved mama-doll, given to her by her father. The was for a time married to writer Vasos Daskalakis. narrator's reaction is to tear the doll apart. She divorced him when she was fifty-one years old At this point, the reader learns that the narrator and went to to study. During her career, she is sixty years old, that her papa and mama have taught at an orphanage school and spent thirteen died, and that she is lonely and helpless, an old years supervising Eastern bloc countries' woman who realizes that she has never been called post-Greek Civil War schools for Greek children. "mama" by anyone. She cries for mama and papa, for Although she was usually occupied with matters of , and for her little friend; they were all to be politics and quality of life, she used the insight pitied. But she cries even more for herself. gained through her teaching to write Hard Struggle.; for a Humble Life (1931) and The Third Comparison: Alexiou achieves a keenly distress- Christian Girls'School (1934). In these works, she ing tone in this brief story even as she comments portrayed in a nonstereotypical way the vulnerabili- on a society that arranges marriages and gives ty of children. Alexiou wrote over a hundred short absolute control of children to their father. Set in stories, six novels, and numerous articles, plays, this century, THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED pre- translations, and memoirs. She established herself as sents a picture of entrapment different from, but as an outstanding figure in Greek letters and as the clear as, that of the main character in Tillie Olsen's center of left-leaning literary activity in . Her "I Stand Here Ironing." A request she receives from acclaimed Thursday evening salons attracted both her oldest daughter's teacher, saying that the daugh- established and aspiring writers and artists. ter needs help and that the teacher hopes she will come in, sets Olsen's mother to remembering. The Stoty: Alexiou once said that her stories came from daughter was born when the mother was nineteen, her life experiences. She organized this short story as the two of them were deserted by the baby's father, a to the narrator's childhood; the age of the and the girl was brought up with all the horrors of tiarrator is not known until the end of the story. poverty. The mother concludes that her daughter The narrator is thinking of one of her few child- should be "let be." In spite of eNerything, she still has hood friends, the sickly daughter of her family's car- enough spirit to survive. The best that can be done riage driver, and is remembering herself as a child for her is to let her know that she is not as power- when the storY begins. Her memories are not pleas- as the dress on the ironing board. ant. She was, she rem.:tmbers, a mean child who did In 's "A Wagner Matinee," a music and said spiteful and unkind things, one who teacher returns to Boston and hears classical music mocked the maids and her nanny. Yet she believes again for the first time since she exik d herself thir- that her nanny loved her very much and that her ty years earlier to the Nebraska plains and a farm parents would have loved her too, except that they life. As she hears the music, the extent of her years were just children themselves. Their marriage had of entrapment and agony burst upon her, and she been forced upon them. Her mother finally flees the doesn't ever want to leave.


James Joyce writes in "Eve line" about a young set new rules for their favorite game when the woman who has trouble deciding between what need arises. she sees as her only two choices: a marriage and The family relationships explored in THEY exile to a South American country or continuing to WERE ALL TO BE PITIED are as dynamic as those take care of her old and disagreeable father. In the explored by in "Barn Burning," end, she is trapped by the promise her mother where a young boy fights the battle of being loyal extracted from her to stay. to his father even when he knows that his father is In sharp contrast to Joyce's powerless woman doing something wrong. D. H. Lawrence, in "The are two good friends, Annabel and Midge, in Rocking Horse Winner," writes of a family that Dorothy Parke-7's "The Standard of Living." needs money and a son who thinks he can furnish Although they are trapped in low-paying jobs, they it. Finally; Bobbie Ann Mason's wife-husband team in do not recognize their situation, and their sone "Shiloh" set about tackling the problem of a dis- friendship and delight in being with each other in abled truck-driver husband trapped both at home is as refreshing as their ability to and in life. M

ALLENDE, ISABEL.TWO WORDS. Chile Secret Weavers. Fredonia, New York: White Pine Press, 1992. Translated byAlberto Manguel.

Author: (1942-), the award-winning Allende focused her journalistic skills on a scheme novelist from Chile, began her career as a journalist to murder one of the girls. Even though her story for various magazines and as a weekly columnist for inevitably descended to horror, Allende sustained a El Narional She continued as a TV interviewer, warm, confiding style essential for blending the movie editor, lecturer, and creative writing teacher. magical and the real. In her third novel, In 1973, her uncle, President S. Allende, was assassi- (1989), the plot traveled from personal to political nated."In that moment I realized that everything is and from realism to fantasy in combining two corn- possible.... That violence was a dimension that was ing-of-age stories. always around you." Fleeing to , she began a several-year hiatus from writing. Later, she received Story:Belisa Crepusculario, a name this peasant a letter from her grandfather, who believed that girl "dressed herself up in," goes through the coun- "people died only when you forgot them." tryside selling words. When she first saw "flies legs" To prove that she had forgotten nothing, she drawn on newspaper, she immediately had to know wrote her first novel, House of Spirits (1985). what they meant. Seeing words "fly loose with no Combining Gabriel Garcia Marquez's magical real- master and that anyone with a little cunning could ism with politics, the novel added a touch of humor catch them," she paid a priest to teach her how to and a woman's perspective. Her second novel, Of write. With the skill mastered, she becomes an itin- Love and Shadows (1987), proved her a master at erant wordsmith, setting up her tent and selling weaving the political history of America with poems for five cents, dream elaborations for seven the lives of everyday characters. She skillfully cents, and insults for twelve cents. For fifty cents, brought forth the horror of daily existence under a she sells two-word secrets for buyers to keep in military dictatorship and the subtler terror in the their heart. "shadows" of life. By intertwining two stories, a plot One day, a revolutionary general's mulatto hatched from the bizarre sWitching of two babies, whisks Belisa away to his superior, who asks that


she create a speech. He wants to become president in the of two secret words acting as a mantra by using her words to win the hearts of the people. upon the mind. Each recipient holds fast to these She composes words that "could reach men's words like a potion whose charm can drive even the thoughts and women's intuition" and reads them bloodthirsty into becoming tenderhearted. (One won- three times. The general buys her work, and, in addi- ders whether Belisa's initials,"B.C.," refer to that peri- tion to the speech, Belisa gives him his own two- od out of which words evolved.) Nonetheless, word secret. With his memorized speech, the gener- Allende's ending shows how the charm of words has al campaigns from village to village, winning the a civilizing effect on people. By referring more than hearts and minds of the people. Yet the two secret once to the general as a puma, she gives a twist to words keep ringing in his head. Back and forth the Kafka's panther in A HUNGER ARTIST. Instead of the sleepless general paces until his followers fear he general's dissipating into a darkly malevolent beast, will not survive to become president. however, Allende's puma reaches out to Belisa to To relieve his leader, the mulatto goes in search become a whole person. The power of words trans- of Belisa. When she appears before the general, he forms those who choose to claim them. demandswith rifle at her throatthat he give back Like Water for Chocolate presents an interplay the two secret words so his manhood will return. between the sexes similar to that in the Allende Unless she takes them back, he "would not be rid of story. Another depiction of the effect of the sexes the charm of those two cursed words." Yet the gener- upon one another occurs in How the Garcia Girls al with the bloodthirsty eyes of a puma softens before Lost Their Accent. In both stories the power of Belisa as she forward to take his proffered hand. women develops over time, and their strength alle- viates the beast within men. Out of two words can Comparison:"Fantastic" literature has bred magical evolve a nascent hope for a more civilized reaction, realism, and one strand of this genre comes out of the not only between the sexes, but among various cul- Kafkaesque. The "absurd" as "real" in this story resides tures as well.

AINADO, ZORGE. HOW PORCIIINCULA THE MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS RACK. Brazil The Eye of the Heart:Short Stories from . New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.

Author: The son of well-to-do cocoa farmers, Jorge Amado's life and literature have centered Amado (1912-) is among the best known of all around the concerns of the Brazilian people and South American authors in this century. The place of their needs. Because of this, he was imprisoned in his birth, Ilhéus, Brazil, is the backdrop for many of 1935 for political activities. When the Vargas his stories, including this one. The city is also the set- regime began in Brazil in 1937, he was forced to ting for Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon; The take refuge in the River Plate countries. From there Violent Land; Doña Flor and Her Two Husbands; he traveled to Mexico, the United States, and then Tereza Batista; and Home from the Wars. back to Brazil, where he was once again impris- Amado received his secondary education in oned. Salvador, the capital of Bahia, returning to Ilhéus In 1941, Arnado went into exile, remaining in during the summers to work on his father's planta- Argentina and Uruguay for two years. Returning to tion. In 1930, he settled in Rio, where he began his Silo Paulo in 1945, he was elected a federal deputy literary career and published his first book, 0 Pais and took part in the drafting of the existing do Carnaval. Brazilian Constitution. Because of his Marxist


beliefs, Amado was Once again forced into political Comparison: This story hinges on the garrulous, exile in 1948. He lived in Paris and Czechoslovakia unnamed storyteller, a man who (possibly) com- and traveled in western Europe and Asia. For a time, pletes one tale and provides hints of many others. he settled in Rio and in Salvador. His technique is that of the spinner of oral tales in preliterate days. Instead of having his audience Story: HOW PORCIONCULA THE nuLArro GOT grouped around a primitive campfire, however, this THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK, published in 1962, storyteller's listeners are grouped around kerosene deals with the common people along the water- lamps at a local bar. front of Bahia. The main character is a mulatto who The garrulous storyteller's technique can be is in love with a woman, Maria of the Veil. She is a compared with that of Jim Baker in Mark Twain's beautiful young girl whose lather, discovering that "Baker's Blue-Jay Yarn" or Simon Wheeler in Twain's she had lost her virginity, threw her into the streets, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County." condemning her to the life of a prostitute. It also lends itself to comparison with the tales of The mulatto, unlike the rest of her acquain- Amos Rituola, a Nigerian whose style and language tances, never uses her as a whore. Their relation- are probably the closest we have to those of the ship is purely Platonic. Her one obsession in life is ancient storytellers. Tutuola's best-known work is with weddings, the one event truly denied her. The PalM-Wine Drinkard. She tells the mulatto of her enjoyment at watch- Amado's technique of repeating key phrases, ing each wedding that takes place in the commu- evident in the border ballads of , nity lends itself to comparison with those ballads and a When Maria dies, she is married to the mulatto discussion of how these gifted early storytellers in a mock wedding ceremony and buried in a wed- managed to memorize so many ballads and stories. ding gown. When Porchincula tells his tale in a tav- The theme of the loss of a loved one through death, ern, he, in effect, unloads the corpse, or weight, in this story is a common theme in the liter- from his shoulders. ature of all countries. c w and H M M

ANDREYEIG LEONID. LAZARUS. Russia A Treasury of . New York: Vanguard,1943. Translated by Avrahm Yamolinsky

Author: Leonid Andreyev (1871-1919), whose ries and Dostoevski in his later ones. Although hon- stories are most noted for their morbidity, did most ored in 1905 for his writing, he later fell into gov- of his writing in prerevolutionary Russia, where he ernmental disfavor. Due to his reactionary beliefs, was the product of a bureaucratic family and a his popularity had greatly diminished by 1908. hereditary alcoholic disposition. His years at the When he died in of a heart attack, caused University of Petersburg and the University of partly by damage done when he shot himself in the were marked by broken romances and sui- chest in an earlier suicide attempt, he was consid- ckle attempts. He lived his life in a rather haphaz- ered an enemy of the Soviets. ard, although extravagant, fashion, at various times practicing law, reporting crime, writing newspaper Story: LA7ARUS is the macabre sto:y of the life of copy, and editing a reactionary neWspaper. Hisshort Lazarus after being raised from the grave by Jesus story, novel, and writings were achieved by Christ. Although greeted with cheers, festivity, and his writing nonstop for days at a time. He was great- celebration, Lazarus is taciturn and gloomy. His death- ly influenced by Chekhov and Gorki in his early sto- ly appearancebloated with a "cadaverous lividness"


of face,"cadaverously blue" fingertips, long finger- analysis, nothing has meaning; the absolute does nails, and cracked lips "shining as though covered not exist. with transparent mica"contrasts sharply with the Augustus orders Lazarus blinded, and the unfor- rich colors of the garments and decorations around tunate man returns to the desert, falling over rocks him at his homecoming. A guest asks,"Why dost thou where "his black body and outspread hands would not tell us what happened in the beyond?" He is form a monstrous likeness to a cross," until, one day, answered with silence and a "deadly gray weariness," he does not return. He who "had risen miraculously for"through the black disks of the pupils, as through from the dead" has finally been claimed by death, as darkened glass, stared the unknowable Beyond." all the living are ultimately claimed. Eventually, no one talks to Lazarus; no one takes care of him. Even his sisters forsake him, and Lazarus is Comparison: The of LAZARUS is much left to spend his days indifferent and passive, walking like that of Franz Kafka's THE METAMORPHOSIS always directly into the sun. All those who converse and Herman Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener." In with him are labeled "madmen" by others, for they each, the central figureLazarus, Gregor, and come away prattling about loneliness, eternity, and Bartlebyapparently possesses knowledge of some despair. But "surely, much more could have been told eternal truth about life's futility that only he knows. by those who wished not to speak, and died in Death, for each, becomes a release from the torment silence." Such is the case with Aurelius, a Roman of that realization and its resulting alienation. sculptor; when others talk of art and beauty, he The theme of life's transience is, of course, a replies,"But all this is a lie." common one, but a distinction can be made between One day, the Emperor Augustus, curious about those works, like LAZARUS, dealing with the totality the stories he has heard, summons Lazarus to the of life's impermanence and those dealing with the imperial palace. First, he commands Lazarus not to impermanence of certain aspects of life, as, for exam- look at him, pronouncing Lazarus's imminent exe- ple, and beauty. The former are less common, cution for being the embodiment of the denial of including such works as Benjamin Franklin's "The life. Then he seeks Lazarus's gaze, and, in that gaze, Ephemera," a didactic, whimsical allegory, and Percy "Time stood still.... The throne of Augustus ... Bysshe Shelley's sonnet "Ozymandias," in which crumbled down and the Void was already in the Ramses H fails to realize all that I2zarus does. place of that throne and of Augustus. Noiselessly Finally, Lazarus is delineated as an unnatural did itself crumble into dust and a new city creature, something less than human, fully at odds stood on its site, and it, too, was swallowed, by the with the cosmos. Change and death are natural void.... and with utmost indifference did the insa- occurrences. To return from the dead breaks the tiable black maw of the Infinite swallow them." laws of nature. The same premise is the basis of Augustus realizes, through Lazarus, the transient much vampire fiction, particularly the young-adult nature of existence and the fact that, in the final novel Silver Kiss by Annette Curtis Klause. -JAG

ANDRIC, ill/0.THE SCYTHE. Bosnia-Herzegovina Nobel ParadeGlenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1975. Translated by Joseph Hitrec. _. Author: The first Yugoslav to be awarded the youth, ninety percent of the Bosnian population Nobel Prize for Literature, Ivo Andric (1892-1975) was still illiterate and most literature was orally was born in Travnik, Bosnia, when Bosnia was still a transmitted. By 1914, Andric had made a reputation part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During his for himself as a gifted poet and was president of the


Young Bosnians, a literary club of youthful revolu- day with the primary objective of buying a new tionaries. At the outbreak of , Andric scythe. After carefully selecting a hardware store, he was arrested; he remained in prison until the war tests an entire bundle of scythes, deliberating ended. Putting his time in prison to good use, he lengthily before making a choice. Other prepared two volumes of poetic prose for publica- offer advice, 's apprentice hovers around tion shortly after his release. After studying history him wearing a knowing grin, and the storekeeper is at and Krakow Universities, he finally driven nearly to distraction by his bargaining. As received his degree from Graz University in Austria. Vitomir rides home, the scythe fastened to the sad- Becoming a member of the Yugoslav diplomatic ser- dle behind him, Andric draws a subtle analogyfor vice, Andric served in many countries; he was the which he has cleverly paved the way throughout the Yugoslav ambassador in Berlin when World War II storyto a bridegroom taking his new bride home. broke out. Prudently returning to Yugoslavia, he spent the war years in retirement, writing the three Comparison: As a depiction of the character of novels that make up the Bosnian Trilogy. Largely for the Slav peasant, Andric's Vitomir may be compared one of these, The Bridge on the Drina, he received with Matryona and Zakhar in Solzhenitsyn's MATRY- the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1961. His citation ONA'S HOME and ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH. He can reads,"For the epic force with which he has traced also be compared with soldier Trofim in themes and depicted human destinies from his Sholokhov's ThE COLT De Maupassant's "A Piece of country's history" String" offers a similar view of a villager. Andrie's works were influenced by the oral lit- To appreciate the extent of Andric's artistry, erature of his homeland, especially epic folklore and this story may be compared with his A SUMMER IN legends. Perhaps from the tumultuous experiences THE SOUTH. In the latter, there are more characters, of his lifetime, he often dealt with the absurd, with the setting is totally different, the characters are human isolation, and with humanity's desire for more sophisticated, and plot is uppermost. Its end- security in an insecure universe. ing, sudden and puzzling, contrasts with that of THE SCYTHE, which is more a character study and light- Stoly: This quietly humorous short story centers ly humorous tour de force than a gripping, plot-ori- on Vitomir, a peasant who goes to town on market ented story. it M m

AMOR IC II/O. A SUMNER IN THE SOUTH. Bosnia-Herzegovina Russian and Eastern European Literature. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1970. Translated by Joseph Hitrec.

Author: See ThE SCYTHE. into town to shop. Increasingly, Norgess finds him- self becoming lost in reveries induced by his sur- Stoty:Set in an unnamed town On the Adriatic roundings. He daydreams while intently watching coast, this deceptively straightforward story ends in the sea and sky. Soon he begins to question the a mystery. On their , Professor Alfred nature of realityof time, place, relationships, gravi- Norgess and his wifc Anna are at first disappointed ty. At one point, the local fruit vendor, seen in rever- with the town and their lodgings, but soon become ie, takes on the appearance of Philip II and invites enchanted by beauty of the place. Norgess to enter into 'Ile landscape. Norgess Professor Norgess is revising a monograph on accepts, enters, and feels himself become one with Philip II of Spain. While he reads galleys, Anna goes it and its partstl,e sea, the shore, the mountains,


the sky. He even feels that he can step off the Artist of the Beautifur Melville's "Bartleby the mountain and float. His wife's voice, as she returns, Scrivener," Henry James's of the Screw, recalls him to reality. One morning, however, his Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher," and reverie takes over completely, and, feeling himself DuMaurier's "The Blue Lenses." weightless, he begins walking toward the heights. To show the range of Andric's artistry, the story He is never seen again. The townspeople hope that may be compared with his THE SCYTHE. Language, his body will wash ashore, because without an structure, and setting are simple in the latter, far explanation of his disappearance, none of them can more complex in A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH. have inner peace. Andric may also be compared with his compatriot, Milovan Djilas, who writes a more bitter and emo- Comparison: In its mysterious ending, leaving tion-charged type of fiction. readers to deduce the outcomeif they canthis Finally, in its ability to paint impressionistic story may be compared with Stockton's "The Lady, landscapes, this story may be compared with or the Tiger." As a story that may be dealing with the Sholokhov's THE FATE OF A MAN and THE COLT, supernatural, however, it lends itself to comparison with Solzhenitsyn's MATRYONA'S HOME, and with with more sophisticated works: Hawthorne's -The Mon Tamasi's FLASHES IN THE NIGHT. -HMM

ASTURIAS, MIGUEL. TATUANA'S TALE. Guatemala The Eye of the Heart: Short Stories from Latin America. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.

Author: Born in Guatemala City, Miguel Angel For eight years, Asturias lived in Argentina and Asturias (1899-1974) ranks among the most noted worked as a correspondent for El Nacional, during of twentieth-century South American writers. He which time he wrote TATUANA'S TALE, published received a Doctor of Laws degree from the in 1957. In 1966, he returned to Guatemala follow- Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala in 1923 ing the election of a new president. From 1966 to and studied at the Sorbonne in Paris from 1923 to 1970, he served s ambassador to France. 1928. Asturias was both a diplomat and writer. He Asturias authored many novels, short stories, was cofounder of a free evening college and editorials. His numerous awards include the (Universidad do Popular de Guatemala) in 1921 and Lenin Peace Prize in 1966 and the Nobel Prize for of a Unionist Party group. In 1923, Asturias left Literature in 1967. Guatemala for political reasons. He journeyed to Paris, where he studied South American cultures Story: This story is told primarily by an omni- and religions. scient author. It deals with Father Almond Tree, Asturias was a European correspondent for who is able to change himself into objects of nature Central American and Mexican newspapers from and, with this ability, to thwart the blackness that 1923 to 1932, when he returned to Guatemala. exists in the world. He is first seen as a tree, having There he worked as a journalist and founded a peri- separated his soul among the four roads leading to odical, El Diario del Aire. Although he was elec:ed the four quarters of the sky: Black, Green, Red, and deputy to the Guatemalan national congress in White. The Black road sells his part of the soul to 1942, he was later stripped of Guatemalan citizen- the Merchant of Priceless Jewels. ship and forced into exile during the regime of Upon discovering what has been done, Father Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas. This provided the Almond Tree returns to human form and goes to background for his first novel, El Setior Pres/dente. the city to retrieve the missing piece of his soul.


The Merchant refuses to sell it back, saying it is to guards come for them, they find only a tree with be used to buy the most beautiful slave in the slave almond blossoms. market. After he makes his purchase, while return- ing to the city, the Merchant and all but the newly Comparison: This work can best be compared to bought slave are killed in a storm. tales of folklore and mythology. Because of the Meanwhile, Father Almond Tree has remained names and images used, however, the comparisons in the city, still hoping to reunite the pieces of his that work most favorably are those involving soul. When he finally knocks on the Merchant's Eastern myths. Herman Hesse's short story "Piktor's door, it is answered by the beautiful slave who sur- Metamorphosis" shows a similar Eastern influence vived the storm. The two are immediately arrested. and includes the transformation of Piktor into a He is accused of being a warlock and she his tree. The original source for both transforrinations accomplice. They are condemned to be burned may well be 's famous tale of Daphne and alive. On the eve before their death, Father Almond Apollo. TATUANA'S TALE may also be compared to Tree tattoos a boat on the arm of the slave, Tatuana, numerous other stories, including Kafka's THE and tells her to trace the boat anywhere, climb in, METAMORPHOSIS, that tell how the body may be and let her spirit go. She does as he says and imme- imprisoned while the mind and spirit remain free. diately disappears. The next morning, when the c w

Aysa, MARCEL. THE HAW WHO WALKED THROUGH WALLS. France Harper's Magazine. January 1947. Translated by E. and M. Teichner.

Author: Marcel Aymé (1902-1967), a prolific two pills annuallyand vigorous physical activity. French author, produced novels, plays, children's Dutilleul takes only one pill, and since his sedentary books, and short stories. He was also a screenwriter, habits preclude much exercise, he retains his unusu- literary critic, and journalist. His upbringing in rural al power. He refrains from using it for a year, until a Burgundy is reflected in much of his early work. A new boss, Lecuyer, introduces reforms that the clerk best-seller published in 1933, The Green Mare, firmly finds intolerable. After much tension and humilia- established his literary career. Despite continued suc- tion, Dutilleul rebels against M. Lécuyer's tyranny by cess, he shunned publicity. By then a confirmed using his gift to scare his superior into insanity Parisian, he lived a bohemian life in Montmartre with This success inspires Dutilleul to undertake a his artist friends, some of whom appear as characters series of spectacular burglaries that he autographs in his fiction, including the painter Gen Paul in THE under the pseudonym Garou-Garou. His extraordi- MAN WHO WALKED THROUGH WALLS, published nary crimes fascinate an admiring public. After hear- in 1943.1n much of his work, sophisticated tar- ing :Us colleagues constantly praising the gets people's vices and illusions. Witty humor and burglar, he reveals the true identity of Garou-Garou, the fusion of fantasy with reality are distinctive stylis- but is disbelieved and ridiculed. He then allows him- tic features of his short stories. self to be captured by the police at the scene of a crime, proving to the world that he is the celebrat- Story:At the age of forty-three, Dutilleul, a meek ed thief. He easily escapes through the prison walls, civil servant, suddenly finds himself able to walk but in order to avoid arrest again, he dons a dis- through walls. Considering this faculty annoying, he guise.While in this role, he meets and falls in love visits a doctor who prescribes special medication- with a beautiful blonde. Two nights of vigorous love


making cause Dutilleul to suffer a severe headache. sexually attractive is similar to the protagonist's fan- Thinking some pills in a drawer are aspirin, he acci- tasies in Thurber's story. Mitty's dreamworld disinte- dentally takes the special medication prescribed a grates when his wife's nagging yanks him back to year earlier. That night, while leaving the tryst, he reality; Dutilleul's abrupt loss of his extraordinary suddenly loses his power and is trapped inside a power leaves him stranded inside a wall. The wall, lamenting the end of his career and love life. humorous tone of each work lightens the effect of the protagonist's final predicament. comparison: T'HE MAN WHO WALKED Hidden beneath the comedy and magical inte- THROUGH WALLS can best be compared with gration of fantasy and reality in Aymé's story are Ayme's other works. Dutilleul's duality is paralleled satiric barbs. Aymé shares these elements and oth- in Aymes novel Aller-Retour and numerous short. ers with the absurdists. THE MAN WHO WALKED storks. In these works, ridiculed characters who THROUGH WALLS and Eugene Ionesco's escape boredom, mediocrity, and anonymity Rhinoceros bear some interesting commonalities. In through either psychological or physical transfor- Rhinoceros, lonesco uses the ridiculous and fantas- mations act out humanity's hidden desires and aspi- tic to convey a caustic commentary on the absurdi- rations. ty of the human condition, especially people's need The desire for a second self found in THE MAN to conform. In both works, insensitive bureaucrats WHO WALKED THROUGH WALLS also invites com- impressed with their own importance are mocked, parisons with "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by and there are comic scenes that treat the absurd as James Thurber. Dutilleurs wish to be famous and commonplace reality. MAF

AMUR, Dimu'L Num. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL. Iraq World Writers Today. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

Author: One of Iraq's most prominent fiction too feels a spark, and he follows her into writers, Dhu'l Nun Ayyoub (1908-) writes stories a park, where they speak and she raises her veil. She about the clash of modern and traditional values in is lovely, breathless, young, and in search of a harm- the Arab world. His stories deal with personal, reli- less adventure. They flirt, and lhsan tells her that he gious, and political conflict. merety wants a companion to share his evening strolls. She is pleased to accompany him, or, as she Story:Ihsan is a good-looking eighteen-year-old puts it, he may want "to accompany me on these who loves to flirt, a natural pastime for a young man innocent walks." Yet he must never try to follow her of his age. He prefers, however, the of home or ask who she is. Ihsan concludes that she is young women who are veiled and thus more myste- a virtuous girl from a good family rious and unattainable. Siham is atypical of old-fashioned girls, however. Siham is a young girl who ventures out for a She tells Ihsan in no uncertain terms that she knows stroll each evening. She has seen Ihsan and even they are committing a crime by even sitting togeth- walked up beside him, protected by the anonymity er, hut she realizes that a strict society like theirs fos- of her veil. But lately, something has begun to hap- ters deceptive acts, acts that she is ready to commit pen when she sees him: her heart pounds and she in order to "break its shackles." Their relationship grows nervous. She trusts that her reaction is con- grows, but still she conceals her identity from him cealed by her veil. and does not reveal his existence to anyone.


Siham's father reads to her a newspaper article ceed by using the same kind of quiet rebellion about a young girl who has abandoned her veil. To Siham employs. please her father, Siham acts indignant; she In Paul Marshall's story "Barbados," the protago- renounces the girl who breaks with tradition and nist, Mr. Watford, asserts his masculine possessive- the conventions of society. Her father is pleased ness over his young servant, an unnamed girl. She, beyond words. Siharn goes to her room and bursts like Siham, leads a double life, but, unlike Siham, into laughter. She has learned to use the veil to "hide Marshall's character confronts her male "protector" faults and scandals." It has provided her with a with the truth about herself. In both stories there is means to an adventure and a way to experience life also an element of class division. Although the that only veiled women can appreciate. She has young girl in "Barbados" is a servant and Siham is a only contempt for those who use the veil to hide member of the upper class, both are constrained by behind. For her, a veil is a means to freedom. their place in society. Two novels dealing with similar themes are The Comparison: FROM BEHIND THE VEIL is a por- Color Purple by and Their Eyes Were trait of a young girl growing up in a strict Muslim Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston. The protago- society. The story suggests that, ironically, the more nists in both are Mrican American women who will strict the social rules, the more challenging the not accept their lot in life and who strive to suc- bending of those rules becomes. 's ceed in areas previously closed to them. Hurston's collection of stories, House on Mango Street, con- Janie asserts her independence even though she tains vignettes dealing with the same theme. Here must deal with more than her share of problems. the narrator, Esperanza, is a young girl who Walker'S Celie succeeds in a business world not usu- dares to want to be a writer. Culturally, everything is ally open to women, and certainly not to women of against her, but, little by little, she Manages to suc- color. G

BALZACr HONORE DE. THE ATHEIST'S MASS. France French Stories/Contes Francais: A Bantam Dual-Language Book. New York: Bantam, 1960. Translated by Wallace Fowlii.

Author: Born in Tours. Balzac (1799-1850) lived quarter of the nineteenth century. Although he did and wrote during the Romantic Age in France. His not complete the series, he completed close to a ambitions as a writer were not those of a Romantic, hundred of its works, the great majority of them nov- however, and he is remembered as the first great . els. THE ATHEIST'S MASS was published in 1836. realist in fiction, an to writers from As was the case with Moliere, Sir Walter Scott, Flaubert to Henry James, who called Balzac "the Mark Twain, and many other writers. Balzac often master of us all" wrote simply to pay off debts. He was, however, usu- Balzac's lifetime output as a Writer was prodi- ally sufficiently dissatisfied with what he wrote in gious. Like the dramatist Lope da Vega and the com- haste to spend endless hours revising and polishing, poser Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Balzac spent most frequently at great expense, since the manuscripts of his waking hours creating. He planned to write a had already been typeset. His legacy at its best is broad series of 138 novels and shorter works under one of good humor and graceful expression, of the umbrella title The Human Comedy a body of fic- barbed satire at times, and of solid . It is tion that would comprise a sweeping record of also a splendid legacy of highly memorable, sharply humanity and French society during the second drawn characters from all walks of life: the comic


but thrifty Big Nanon in Eugenie Grandet, the mentor's visits to church. When he asks for an Lear-like old Goriot in Pere Goriot, the beautiful but explanation, Desplein responds with a story. Back scheming and vicious Valerie Marnefe in Cousin when he was a poor student, he and an old man Bette, and the omnipresent and ever-curious Dr. named Bourgeat had been thrown out of their lodg- Horace Bianchon in THE ATHEIST'S MASS. ings. Bourgeat, a devoted Catho+, used all his ener- gy and what little money he had saved as a Su:fly:Dr. Horace Bianchon is the student and water-carrier to see Desplein through medical assistant of the famed physician Desplein. Knowing school. Before Bourgeat died, he asked Desplein to Desplein to be an atheist, Bianchon is surprised one do what he could to have the church help him in day to find his mentor hearing mass. Later, without the afterlife. True to his promise, Desplein paid the revealing to Desplein that he had seen him in the church to establish a schedule of masses for the old chapel, Bianchon tries to solve the puzzle of an man, and four times a year he attends to offer his atheist attending miss. Instead of providing an prayers on behalf of his benefactor. answer, De,..nlein launches into an anti-mass tirade. Bianchon lets the matter rest until, three months Comparison: THE ATHEIST'S MASS, as a story later, he overhears another doctor asking Desplein with the mysterious activity of a character at its why he had been in church. Desplein's reply is that core, invites comparison with works like Joseph he was attending a sick priest. Conrad's Heart of Darkness, Henry James's Daisy Bianchon decides once and for all to solve the Millen F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatslry, and puzzle. A year from the day he saw Desplein in 's "The Minister's Black Veil." church, he witnesses the renowned physician in As a story of friendship and loyalty, THE ATHEIST'S church again. He finds out from the sacristan that MASS can be compared with Bret Harte's Desplein comes to church four times a year to hear "Tennessee's Partner," Fyodor Dostoevski's THE masses that Desplein himself has ordered. HONEST THIEF, and 's THE DEATH OF It isn't until seven years later that Bianchon IVAN ILYICH. R S finally confesses to Desplein that he knows of his

BALZAC. HONOR* DE. LA GRANDE BRETiCHE. France The World in Literature. Rev. ed. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1967. Translated by Clara Bell.

Author: See THE ATHEIST'S MASS. Bianchon, a romantic, was attracted all the more to the story, and, by interrogating Rcgnault, the for- Story:Dr. Horace Bianchon is persuaded to tell some mer maid at La Grande Breteche, and his Own land- ladies the story of the Count and Countess of Merret. lady, he was gradually able to piece together what who lived in a home known as La Grande Breteche. had gone on. The Countess had apparently been Bianchon became especially interested in the mystery having a love affair with a Spanish captive named of that great abandoned home when Regnault, a notary, Count Férédia. One evening, her husband, the told him to stop walking in its overgrown garden. Count, came home and, hearing a suspicious noise, Trespassing there was against the will of the deceased accused his wife of hiding someone in her closet. owner, the Countess of Merret, who had left explicit She swore there was no one there, but, to test her instructions that the home remain unapproached and honesty, he had a mason begin walling up the closet untouched for fifty years following her death. while she watched. Although the Countess was able


to talk the mason into breaking a pane of glass on what we learn of Bianchon's interests, and later, of the closet door so the Spaniard would have air, her the reaction of the ladies who listen to him, marks husband insisted on staying alone with her in the the frame as realistic, while the interior narrative is room for twenty days. There was one opportunity Romantic. for her to help her trapped lover, but her husband The interior narrative, because of the reminded her,"You swore on the cross that there walling-up motif and other features, makes the story was no one in there." worth comparing with 's "The Fall of the House of Usher" and "The Cask of Comparisom LA GRANDE BRETECHE is a frame Amontillado." The gothicism of the story and story in which both the telling of the story and the Bianchon's romantic nature will encourage compar- story itself are of importance in understanding the ison with many gothic tales, not the least among author's purpose. As such, it is linked to frame narra- them Henry James's The Turn of the Screw. Dr. tives like Arabian Nights, Boccaccio's Decameron, Horace Bianchon also apikars in a number of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, Melville's Moby Dick, Balzac's other works, including THE AThEIST'S and Conrad's Heart of Darkness. In Balzac's story, MASS, Cousin Bette, and Pere Goriot. R S

BAYKURT, FAKIR. FRECKLES. Turkey Short Story International. April 1982. Translated by Joseph S. Jacobson.

Author:Fakir Baykurt (1929-) is a well-known daughter" on her. Luckily, explains Uncle Kadir, she Turkish writer of novels and short fiction. Born in has been asked for hy another family in another vil- Akcha, he writes works of social commentary about lage, and Uncle Kadir has given his word that she the villages and peasants of his home country. will behave. The narrator becomes caught up in sensory Story: FRECKLES deals with the harshness of vil- perceptions: "the smell of poverty ... the grass lage life in Turkey. The narrator, passing through a smell ... Selver's odor." He sees Selver's "flock of par- village, decides to spend a night with Uncle Kadir, tridge freckles" and her sweetness. He reflects that an old friend of his father. When he arrives at the she should have a good, hot bath with soap and gate, the old man comes out to welcome "Our Veli's "plenty of lather" arid romanticizes the effect of the son His two wives, however, are not quite so eager bath, which would make her hair shine "as if dipped for a guest, since poverty is so severe that food is in a gold rinse." cOunted by the mouthful. Through the dinner con- Finally, he asks the question:"Is it absolutely cer- versation, the reader learns that the narrator is tain, Uncle, that you'll give the girl?" He already equally poor. Uncle Kadir explains that the summer knows the answer is yes, but again asks,"So they'll crop was ruined by hail, that two sons sent to take Selver away today?" Uncle Kadir explains how Ankara have not found work, and that three of the important it is for him to get the 400 lira for her; it girls and one of the boys have been married off His will buy sugar, coffee, and tobacco, as well as a coat freckled-faced daughter, Selver, captures the narra- for himself, some shoes for"the evil wife's feet: and tor's attention. She had been given to a man in a sandals for the other children. The narrator imag- neighboring village, but she ran away and came ines the scene of departure. Maybe he w ill sleep in back home three times in a year. Her family beat her Selver's bed and dream that he could have Selver for and heaped the humiliating title "unmarriageable his own, that he would "grasp Selver by the wrist"


and take her home. But of course it is not to be. also a certain romanticism that only youth possess- Reality intrudes as the first dog announces the es, as found in James Joyce's "Araby." But the disillu- arrival of Selver's new family. sionment is not so harsh in FRECKLES, since the narrator already realizes that life is hard and that Comparison: FRECKLES is a slice-of-life story giv- dreams are just dreams. The two stories also share a ing the reader a glimpse into Turkish village life. We great deal of sensory imagery, but "Araby" is more can compare it perhaps to Nikolai Gogol's "Taras subtle. The boy would never imagine Mangan's sis- Bulba," which also records the ways of village life. ter in a bath, perhaps because he lives in the com- There is a sense of dignity in the characters paratively civilized society of Dublin. In the Turkish because, even though they are poor, they have village, life is hard, and there is no time for sub- strict values and a strong sense of faith. There is tleties.

18111612111SON, B3öR4ST3ERINE. THE FATHER. Norway Fifty Great European Short Stories. New York: Bantam, 1971. Translated by R. B. Anderson.

Author:Bjärnstjerne Björnson (1832-1910) was for greater religious tolerance to the cause for the third winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. advanced education for women. His best-known He is known as the first Norwegian writer of inter- novels include Sunny Hill, A Happy Boy and On national stature. In fact, his many activities as jour- God's Paths. Among his most successful plays are A nalist, public speaker, poet, lyricist, dramatist, novel- Bankruptcy The King, Between the Battles, and ist, and humanitarian earned him respect around Beyond Our Power the world. Even today he is viewed as the one per- Björnson died in Paris. Perhaps the Norwegian son mist representative of the Norwegian spirit of government's dispatching a warship to bring home his time. his body for a period of national mourning best Björnson's fame as a writer was initially estab- speaks for the reputation Björnson maintained as a lished with his stories of peasant life. He deplored writer, citizen, and international personality. the formal Danish of the grammar books and deliber- ately wrote in the language of everyday people. In Stoty:In this deceptively simple story, Björnson doing so, he fostered the development of a more dis- chronicles a father's relationship with his son, from tinctly Norwegian literary language. Though in his the pride at that son's birth to the grief that over- day critics accused Björnson of using themes and whelms him at the son's sudden death some years details too crude and lifelike for literature, his insis- later. tence on realistic phrases and details stirred in his Presented as a series of brief scenes between readers nationalistic feelings of pride and unity. Thord Overaas, the wealthy and influential father, Loved for his poems so much that he became known and Overaas's priest, the story offers a rich- as the poet of Norway, Björnson was equally revered ness of character development despite a paucity of for his personal and patriotic songs, one of which details. Whether making plans for the baptism or for was declared the Norwegian national anthem. the posting of the son's marriage banns, Overaas One persistent trait in his works is an effort to determines that all matters concerning his son will awaken within the reader a sense of self-worth and be handled with exclusivity. His son is always to be direction. Ever the social critic, Björnson addressed recognized as someone special, a son apart from specific problems in Norway, ranging from the need other men's sons.


Years after the son's death and the father's' Comparison: Because of its treatment of the long mourning, a visibly changed Overaas appears father-son relationship, this story works well as a com- again before the priest to offer money from the i)lement to longer works exploring this subject, such sale of his estate as a legacy to his son's name. The as Gunther's Death Be Not Proud, Agee's A Death in priest interrupts the silence that follows Overaas's the Family, and Guest's Ordinary People. The length pronouncement with a simple question:"What do of THE FATHER would allow it to be effectively paired you propose to do now, Thord?" The reply, in one class period with another brief story, "Something better; reveals Overaas's growth as an Pirandello's WAR, in which parents speak to fellow individual. In fact, these two words,"Something passengers on a train about the valiant nature of their better," represent a major leitmotif in Bjiirnson's late son's life. But when someone inquires as to the work: the reality of one's obligation to the world son's actua, death, the parents dissolve into an aware- and to life. Thord Overaas appears at the end of ness of grief they had never before allowed them- the story as someone genuinely human, someone selves to experience. Djilas's WAR provides yet anoth- who has moved from false pride through grief er point of comparison. Parents try to save their sol- toward awareness. In the priest's suggestion that dier son by putting him in a coffin, only to have their Thord's son may have at last brought his father a deception discovered and the son killed. All these true blessing, the full implication of Björnson's title authors examine the dualities of love and pride in the becomes clear. parent-child relationship. PGL

NeumnICH. NURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES. Gertnany Great Modern European Short Stories. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1967. Translated by Leila Vennewitz.

Author: Heinrich Boll (1917-1985) was born in Story: Every morning when Murke arrives for and served in the German army from work at the Broadcasting House, he performs an 1939 until he was taken prisoner by the Americans existential exercise. He takes the kind of elevator in 1945. Two years later, after training as a publish- known as a paternoster"open cages carried on a er, he devoted his full time to writing. He was conveyor belt, like beads in a rosary" that move up known as a "left-wing" Catholic and a sharp critic and down and across the top of the elevator shaft. of the materialism and hypocrisy of contemporary But instead of getting off on his floor, he continues life and the stupidity of war. In 1951, he received on to experience the terror of moving acrossthe the prize of the "Group 47," an association of writ- shaft before it makes the descent."He needed this ers who started the new German literature after ." Without it, he is irritable and restless. World War II. In 1972, he was awarded the Nobel His present job is to edit audiotapes according to Prize for Literature. Among his best-known novels instructions given by Bur-Malottke, who had made art The tiuguarded House (1954), Billiards at them on the subject of the nature of art. Bur-Malottke, Half-Past Nine (1959), and The (1963). He a professor who converted to Catholicism in 1945,is also wrote a novella, The Bread of Our Early Years now concerned that he might be "blamed for con- (1955), and several volumes of short stories, includ- tributing to the religious overtones in radio; so he ing Absent Without Leave and Other Stories decides to omit God from his lectures and replace Him 958), in which WAKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES with the formula "that higher Being Whom we revere; appears. He agrees to tape this formula thirty-five times so that


Murke can splice it into his speeches and make the Comparison: B011's criticisms of a mechanical appropriate substitutions. Murke, however, points out world that has deleted God and ignored the spiritu- several complications; making the changes will not be al values of art are shared by another Catholic simple. While Bur-Malottke repeats the nominative and writer of short stories, Graham Greene, in such genitive forms of his formula, Murke realizes that "he short stories as "The Destructors," in which he por- hated this great fat, handsome creature," and he tor- trays the encroachment of a mechanized, materialis- tures him by having him repeat and redo his empty tic. insensitive culture on the old order that it phrase in each correct grammatical form. destroys. Later, as he walks to the coffee shop, Murke is The substitution of silence for meaningless irritated by the lack of anything spiritual in his envi- noise for mass audiences poses an interesting ques- ronment, so he hangs on the wall a sentimental pic- tion. Is it Hemingway's "nada" in "A Clean, ture of the Sacred Heart that his mother had sent Well-Lighted Place," or is it an existential nothing- him. In the coffee shop, he is further annoyed when ness, or is it the essence of spirituality? One thinks he repeatedly hears the word art, which recurred of the composer John Cage's preoccupation with without meaning throughout Bur-Malottke's talks. the relationship between sound and silence and of He yearns for silence. Later, he admits to a friend his theory that silence is simply "sounds not intend- that he collects scraps of tapes that contain any ed.:' His piano piece 4'33 (1952) is composed entire- kind of silence he can find. He even asks his girl- ly of nonintended sounds and is divided into three friend to put silences on tapes so that he can play movements of silence. them back at his leisure. One also thinks of the paintings of the abstract Back at the studio, Drama Producer expressionists. Kandinsky said that deliberate is editing an atheist play, the script for which he has silence, deliberate negation, is a major way of sus- permission to change. He is thrilled to learn that taining the elusive spiritual atmosphere of the there is a whole box of tapes with "God" that he can abstract work by ruthlessly reducing the artistic to use to replace the silences the atheist had inserted, an absolute minimum. The achievement of silence and the silences could happily be given to Murke. At is the logical conclusion of the process of negation the end, the Assistant Produccr takes out of his that abstraction represents. And Poggioli said that pocket the crumpled picture he found on his door. the purity of silence implies that art can free itself It is the picture of the Sacred Heart, on which is from the prison of things and the noisy sound of written "I prayed for you at St. James's Church:' He reality. To him, silence represents the need for and the technician think it is funny. Boll clearly feels extreme liberty and extreme intensity of feeling, that modern religion and popular culture have particularly absolute spiritual freedom. That seems debased spiritual values for material gain. to be the meaning it has for B611.-REIM

BORGES, GORGE Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING PATHS. Argentina Labyrinths. New York: New Directions, 1962. Translated by Donald A. Yates.

Author: (1899-1986) was born ture and a lecturer and in 1955 became director of in Buenos Aires. He was educated in England and the National Library of Argentina. He wrote poetry, Switzerland. He returned to Argentina in 1921 and essays, and short fiction and is considered the mos) became associated with the avant-garde poets of influential contemporary Spanish-American writer. the time. Borges was a professor of English litera- Borges wrote for an intelligent audience. He created


labyrinths for exploring human personality and real- Albert's house, the single remaining possibility. ity. Some of his best-known works have been trans- When the reader applies the same clues to the story lated into English and collected in Labyrinths itself, it is evident that THE GARDEN OF FORKING (l 961), Ficciones (1 962), Dreamtigers (1964), and PATHS is a parable about reality The word reality is The Aleph and Other Stories (1970). never used, but it is the subject of constant allusion and description. Through the story, Borges presents : THE GARDEN OF FORKING PATHS is a a reality shaped like an hourglass. Allinnumerable detective story set in England in 1916. The arrator, futures meet at the isolated center of the glass, Dr. Yu Tsun, tries to reach his superiors in the where one grain of sand intersects with time and German Reich in order to communicate the site of a connects the two. Tsun says,"Everything happens to British artillery unit. But Dr. Tsun is being closely a man precisely, precisel-. now." pursued by an indefatigable British agent, Captain This is the unique Borges view of reality: that Richard Madden. one person is all persons, one act is everypossible This short plot, however, is not the only mys- . act, one time is all time. The single occurrence is tery in the story, which also includes the story of infinite and eternal. In this one story, Borges creates Stephen Albert, an eminent sinologist who has the multiplicity of reality. spent his life deciphering the labyrinthine work of a man named Ts'ui Pen. It is to Albert's housethat Comparison: Borges's subjects and style of writ- Tsun flees, for Ts'ui Pen is Tsun's great-grandfather. ing are often linked with those of Kafka and From Albert, Tsun learns of his great-grandfather's Nabokov, and he has been called "a mystic attempt to create an infinite labyrinth in a novel Montaigne." But the best comparisons for THE GAR- called The Garden of Forking Paths. DEN OF FORKING PATHS are more of Borges's own These two interwoven plots are not only mys- material. In each of his works, he continually devel- teries in themselves, but also provide the clues nec- ops and explores the themes of the infinite,the essary for deciphering the true subject of the story. eternal return, one person's history coinciding with The first clue is this:"To omit a word always, to all of history, and his view of the universe as a resort to inept metaphors and obvious paraphrases, labyrinth of time and space, variable and ultimately is perhaps the most emphatic way of stressing it." a seamless whole. Some of Borges's mostnotable Stephen Albert tells Tsun that in The Garden of stories are " in Babylon,""Theme of the Forking Paths the word time is never used. The Traitor and the Hero,""The Library of Babel; and book is thuS an enormous riddle or parable whose "Death and the Compass." subject is none other than time itself Other sources of comparison for Borges are The second clue is one spoken to Tsun on his vast because of his broad concepts and the numer- way to Albert's house. He is told,"You won't getlost ous connections he makes in his works tohistory, if you take this road to the left and at every cross- literature, philosophy, and religion. The play Old road turn again to your left." Tsun recognizes this as Times by in some ways resembles a common method for discoveringthe "central point THE GARDEN OF FORKING PATHS. In the course of certain labyrinths." It is a procedure for eliminat- of the play, Anna, Deeley, and Kate blend into one ing possibilities. The reader is provided with the two person and one time-one realityinmuch the clues essential to understanding the meaning of same way that Dr. Tsun, Madden, andAlbert become Borges's story. One must carefully eliminate the pos- one at the end of Borges's story. sible subjects of the stmy until coming to the only Another play, Six Characters in Search of an one left, the one that is never specificallynamed. Author by , has aspects reminiscent In this manner, the reader does jiist what of Borges. The characters in the play want to act out Madden is doing and what Tsun has already done. their own drama rather than allowing performers to At every crossroad, Tsun has made a choice and do it. These characters live their drama perpetually, eliminated a possibility Madden then plods after and that is the basis of their undeniable reality In him every step of the way until they meet at the play, the Mother comments,"It's taking place


now. It happens all the time." This recalls Dr. Tsun's The Self, Which is the Truth of , is One; but words: "Everything happens to a man precisely, pre- It is not one with the oneness of a single thing among cisely now." Tsun later says,"The future already many, but with Oneness Which Eternally annihilates all exists." In Pirandello's play, the Father exclaims,"The duality, and nothing can be added to It so as to make eternal moment!" more than One, for It is already Infmite. This Infmite Unity is sometimes called... the Essence. The Garden of the One last comparison can be made with a pas- Essence is therefore the Highest of all Paradises.... It is sage from The Book of Certainty by Abu Bakr Siraj the One Paradise... and nothing may enter It since Ed-Din. This book is a brief synthesis of the major Everything is already there. themes of . We can see a similarity between C the two works in this passage from the text:

BOROWSKI, TADEUSZ. THE NAN WITH THE PACKAGE. Poland This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen. Baltimore: Penguin, 1967. Translated by Barbara Vedder.

Author: Tadeusz Borowski (1922-1951) was born tion of Schreiber in the camp sick bay, where he in the Soviet . He was sixteen and living in keeps patients' records, supervises the block's Poland when World War II began. During the roll-call, and escorts patients in and out of the hospi- German occupation, he studied in underground tal. He also takes part in the biweekly selection of classes, since formal education was denied to , patients sent to the gas chambet generally those and began writing poetry and publishing it clandes- weakest and most ill. tinely. He was caught and arrested by the Nazis in The Schreiber falls ill himself and, as the only 1943, spent two months in prison, and was trans- Jew in the block, is quickly placed on the list for ported to Auschwitz, where he escaped being extermination. He carefully packs a cardboard box gassed solely because he was not Jewish. In 1944, with his boots, a spoon, a knife, a pencil, some he was transferred to Dachau. In May 1945, the bacon, rolls, and fruit. He is then escorted to the camp was liberated by the U.S. Seventh Army. truck that will take him to Block 14, where he will :lorowski eventually returned to communist Poland, join the others waiting in line for their fate. Those where his writings were attacked as amoral, deca- in the hospital watch from the window, wondering dent, and nihilistic. At the same time, the power of why the Schreiber bothers with the box when he his writing was such that he was considered one of must know that within an hour or two he will go to the greatest hopes of among his the gas chamber, naked and without the box. generation. Increasingly depressed by personal and As the story closes, the other characters discuss political complications, he committed suicide in whether or not they would carry the box. They 1951. He was twenty-nine years old. THE MAN watch as the men are driven off in the glare of the WITH THE PACKAGE was published in 1948. floodlights.

Story:This extremely powerful and somber story Comparison:Like all of Borowski's Auschwitz is set in the concentration camp at Auschwitz. stories, this is a tale of unrelenting somberness, told Rather than having to perform heavy physical labor, in a straightforward manner that emphasizes the a Jew from Lublin has been given the excellent posi- everyday nature of atrocity, the banality of evil, qual-


ities equally apparent in, for example, Franz Kafka's in all forms, including the condition of African IN THE PENAL COLONY. Although emotionally dif- Americans as traced by major African American ficult to read, the story offers a moving insight into writers in such works as Richard Wright's Native very basic human questions raised by the Son and Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man. . Its thematic contenthumanity's inhu- At its most universal level, the story asks what manity, how we may face death, what meaning life we as human beings can hold on to when life seems can have in a world that seems insanesounds a to have lost all meaning. As one of the characters common chord with much of post-World War :I lit- says, holding the package may be a sign of hope erature, including in particular Jerzy Kosinski's that something might still happen along the way to novel The Painted Bird and 's avert fate. It may offer something solid and real to Sophie's Choice. connect us to life, like holding on to someone's In a narrower sense, the horror of the Jewish hand. We may all want to take our own package fate in the camps raises the issue of racial prejudice along on that final journey. 13 M

BUZZATIr Elmo. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON. Italy : The Strange Stories of Dino Buzzati. : Calder and Boyars, 1965. Translated by Judith Landry

Author: Dino Buzzati (1906-1972) was born in creature. They set out, as if on an excursion, Belluno, Italy. He abandoned his preparation for a encountering on their way to the forbidding moun- legal career in favor of journalism and became a tains first an old physician who warns them that prominent member of the staff of Milan's Corriere nothing good will come of their quest and then a della sera. A writer of novels and short stories as young man bearing a goat, the daily offering of the well as a.dramatist, his success in the short story led people of the village to the dragon. The Count buys to his being awarded the prestigious Premio Strega the goat from the man, who then rushes back to the in 1958 for his collection Sessanta racconti. Among village to buy another and fulfill I duty. his novels, the best known is The Tartar Steppe Coming to "a black hole: the lair of the dragon," (1940), a powerfully ironic, essentially nihilistic tale the Count directs that the goat be deposited in the that demonstrates his great indebtedness to Franz customary place. Soon "the monster of the legends ... Kafka. Its depiction of the ultimate meaninglessness emerged to the light," somewhat smaller and less of life as symbolized by the barren desert viewed threatening than the viewers had expected: "The each day by the main character suggests a reason for whole effect was of great age. If it was a dragon, it Albert Camus's translating Buzzati's work. His trans- was one gone decrepit:. Not deterred by that appear- lator observed that "Buzzati's realistic treatment of ance and "taken by a joyous excitement, already tast- fantasy ... implies that fantastic action is somehow ing the slaughter the Count directs the attack mimetic, a representation of the reader's reality." THE against the "monster. The obvious suffering of the SLAYING OF ME DRAGON was published in 1954. gravely wounded, defenseless "monster" begins to dis- hearten all but the Count. He persists, and the dragon Story:In response to repeated reports of "a great is eventually killed despite the warnings of the vil- ugly beast that seemed to be a dragon" in the moun- lager, who has arrived with a second goat. As the tains of the province, Count Gerol organizes an Count advances to deliver the final blow,"two little expedition, in May 1902, to find and kill the evil unformed reptiles" emerge from the cave and are


immediately dispatched by the Count."Dragging umph of enlightened humanity (i.e., the Count) itself, slow as a snail," the near-dead dragon approach- over the irrational, fundamental impulses of the es its dead young and begins licking them all over. human psyche (i.e., the dragon), THE SLAYING OF Finally, the dragon emits "an indescribable cry, a THE DRAGON reveals Buzzati's debt to Kafka. voice never yet heard in the world, neither animal Kafka's IN ME PENAL COLONY, for example, simi- nor human, so charged with hate that even Count larly suggests that "evil" and "cruelty" are more basic Gerol stopped stock still, paralyzed with horroe But than enlightened humanity wishes to admit and that the cry is not answered:"nothing, neither brute nor they cannot be destroyed or ignored, but must be spirit, had hastened to avenge the slaughter. It had addressed, as they are by the people of the village been man who wiped out that last, residual stain with their daily offering in Buzzati's story. Similarly, from the earth; it had been man, the astute and Buzzati's story might be compared with Shirley powerful, who everywhere establishes wise laws to Jackson's"The Lottery" in its use of ritual sacrifice, maintain order, man the blameless who exhausts senseless killing, and in the oppressive sense of himself for progress, and may not concede the sur- fatalism that dominates both stories. vival of any dragon, not even in the desolate moun- One might also see a similarity between this tains. It had been man who killed it and recrimina- story and the predominantly narrative poetry of tion would be stupid." Robinson Jeffers, especially such a poem as But the quest ends badly, as the premonitory "Original Sin" (1948), if the dragon can be seen as a warnings had suggested it would. Having breathed manifestation of the unknown,"neither animal nor the smoke issuing from the mouth of the dead drag- human," that we must destroy lest It make us aware on, the Count begins coughing, vainly trying to con- of our own insignificance. Or one might think of trol himself as"a kind of fire was sinking into the Stephen Crane's"The Monster" (1898), in which the depth of his lungs, lower and lower." Negro servant, having been disfigured by acid to the point at which "he had no face; must be ostracized comparisow In its allegorical nature, as well as in and hidden from sight so that the horror of reality its opposition of the notion of progress and the tri- can be avoided. -PTM

CALVINO, ITALO.ALL AT ONE POINT. Italy Form in Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1974. Translated by .

Author: (1923-1985) was born in ries and three tales collected as Our Forefathers Cuba and grew up in San Remo, Italy. As a young (1960). ALL AT ONE POINT was published in 1965. writer, he took as his mentor Cesare Pavese and thus began as an Italian neo-realist, producing The Story: ALL AT ONE POINT is an interior monologue Path to the Nest of Spiders (1947) as a result of his or long speech thought or delivered by old Qflfq, in involvement with anti-Fascist partisans during response, presumably, to the text that serves as the World War II. But such disparate events and influ- epigraph to the story: "Through the calculations ences as Pavese's suicide, the eighteenth-century begun by Edwin P. Hubble on the galaxies' velocity of French conte, and Italian , of which he pro- recession, we can establish the moment when all the duced a definitive collection in 1953, enabled him universe's matter was concentrated in a single point, to develop through experimentation, his own ele- before it began to expand in space." Old 044 gant stylistic mode of dramatizing modern alien- begins,"Naturally we were all there... where else ation. He is best known as a writer for his short sto- could we have been? Nobody knew then that there


could be space. Or time either: what use did we have billions of suns, and of planets, and fields of wheat, for time, packed in there like sardines?" and Mrs. Ph(i)Nkos, scattered through the conti- He goes on to describe the conditions "there:' nents of the planets, kneading with flouryoil-shiny, Though living in close proximity, people had only a generous arms." limited number of acquaintances. His included Mrs. Ph(i)Nko, her friend DeXuaeauX, an immigrant family Comparison: Calvino has labeled his stories of named Z'zu, Mr. Pbert Pberd, and a cleaning lady. Their this sort "cosmicomic," and their relationship to the problems were compounded by "all the stuff we had folktales he collected and published is clear, to keep piled up in there:' Conflicts naturally arose although the story itself could never be mistaken because of the close quarters and because the Z'zus, for one of them. The personalization of creation is a being immigrants, were not accepted by the others. common motif in creation myths and tales, andthis Now, some indeterminate time later, old Qfwfq story could well be compared to such tales. On the meets his former acquaintances from time to time. other hand, Calvino's use of scientific knowledge They always bring up the old conflicts and, para- suggests a comparison with a story like John Barth's doxically, look forward to the time when the old "Night-Sea Journey" which also uses scientific data group will be together again, an unlikely possibility metaphorically, deals with creation and procreation, since the "theory that the universe, after having and is both comic and humorous, reached an extremity of rarefaction, will be con- Since ALL AT ONE POINT concerns itself cen- densed again has never convinced me." These con- trally with humanity's collective loss of innocence versations always turn to Mrs. Ph(i)Nko, since all of and its consequent desire to return to "the mother:' the former acquaintances remember her with plea- in this case a reconstituted Mrs. Ph(i)Nko, the story sure. As old Qfwfq puts it,"The happiness Iderived may be compared to any of the multitudeof works from her was the joy of being concealed, puncti- dealing with that theme. One might consider such form, in her, and of protecting her, punctiform, in disparate examples as 's After the Fall, me; it was at the same time vicious contemplation with its concern that humanity accept its fallen (thanks to the promiscuity of the punctiform con- state, James Joyce's "Araby," with its centralcharac- vergence of us all in her) and also chastity (given ter's ambivalence in the face of the "anguish and her punctiform impenetrability). ... She contained anger" his venturing forth into the world has caused and was contained with equal happiness, and she him, and Walt Whitman's "Song of Myself," in which welcomed us and loved and inhabited all equally" he celebrates the "knit of identity" that links "here Just at the moment that Mrs. Ph(i)Nko offered, and hereafter" as well as past and present by creat- if she had some space, to make noodles for them all, ing a mystical unity of all life. In this, the latter work causing them to imagine space for the first time, the is basically similar to Calvino's conception. It should universe, as if responding to her outburst of a loving be noted, however, that none of these writers treats impulse, expanded,"making possible billions and his subject allegorically or humorously. e T rvi

Callus, ALBERT.THE GUEST. France English and Western Literature. New York: Macmillan,1984. Translated by Justin O'Brien.

Author: Albert Camus (1913-1960) was born in where he studied philosophy while working at vari- Algeria, at that time a French colony, the son of ous jobs. Upon graduation, he became ajournalist, impoverished semiliterate parents. He went to pub- traveling throughout Europe. From 1937 to 1941, he lic schools and then to the University of Algiers, wrote three of his most famous works: The Stranger


(a novel), The Myth of Sisyphus (an essay), and famous novel The Stranger; the protagonist, Caligula (a play). Returning to North Africa, he Meursault, refuses to follow the precepts and con- taught at a private school in Oran for two years. ventions of society and also becomes isolated, a French North Africa is the setting for many of his stranger in a meaningless world. Parallel emphasis sketches and two major novels. In 1942, he went to upon individualism, isolation, and the absurdity of Paris, where he became an intellectual leader of the the human condition is found in many works by resistance movement in Nazi-occupied France as existentialists, such as THE WALL by Jean-Paul the editor of an underground newspaper, Combat. Sartre. In THE GUEST and THE WALL, the main char- He wrote ME GUEST in 1957. acters must create their own , as there are no absolute values in their godless universe. The Story: Daru, a French schoolmaster born in ironic results of their moral decisions reveal the Algeria, is stationed on a remote, desolate plateau in absurdity of life. French-occupied Algeria. Balducci, a gendarme, An interesting comparison can also be made arrives unexpectedly with an Arab prisoner who between THE GUEST and 's "The has killed his own cousin. Balducci orders the reluc- of the Faith." The protagonist of Roth's tant Daru to take the Arab to the proper French story, Sergeant Nathan Marx, has recently returned authorities at Tinquit the next day. After feeding the from the war in Europe to an army base in Missouri. prisoner and sleeping in the same room with him, Like Daru, he feels isolated from society and initially Darti finds himself unable to deliver the man to the resists the friendly overtures of three fellow Jewish police. Instead, he takes him part way and gives him soldiers in training under him. He recognizes, how- food and money. He then points out the road to ever, the injustices done to these men, whose reli- freedom with the Arab nomads in the west and the gious needs are overlooked by an impersonal army. road to prison under the French in the east, giving Conflict arises as he attempts to balance the oppos- his "guest" the choice. As he returns home, he sees ing claims of the military and of religious brother- the prisoner in the far distance walking eastward. hood, a conflict similar to that faced by Daru On the blackboard of his classroom, he finds a mes- between his duty to the French authorities and his sage from the Arabs promising revenge: "You hand- sympathy for his fellow man, the Arab prisoner. ed over our brother. You will pay for this." Both protagonists follow their humanitarian impuls- es, only to'end up isolated again. Comparison: Daru's actions reflect his individual The theme of isolation and alienation is perva- integrity but result in his alienation from both the sive in modern literature. Franz Kafka's A HUNGER French colonists and the native Arabs. In Camus's ARTIST is another prime example. M A F

CHENNOV, ANTON. . Russia Prentice Hall Literature World Masterpieces. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall,1991. Translated by Ronald Wilds.

Author: (1860-1904) is noted began contributing short sketches, stories, and jokes equally for his short stories and plays. He was born to journals in order to make money to help support in Taganrog in the south of Russia, the son of a mer- his five brothers and sisters. Chekhov used pen chant and the grandson of an ex-serf who had pur- names, among them "The Doctor without Patients," chased his freedom. In 1879, he enrolled in medical which is illustrative of his dry humor. His writing school at the University of Moscow. While there, he caught the attention of the publisher of the St.


Petersburg Daily. With a guaranteed income, could not cross the threshold or read newspapers Chekhov could focus on quality rather than quanti- or letters. He was allowed a musical instrument, ty, and his artistic reputation began to grow. books, wine, cigars, and any type of food he desired. Chekhov contracted while still a He could also send notes, but he was to receive no student at the university, and his entire short life response. The confinement began November 14, was a constant struggle against the ravages of the 1870, at midnight and was to last until midnight disease. In 1890, he made a trip to Sakhalin, which November 14,1885. weakened his condition even more. Upon his return The first year, the young was stricken to Russia, Chekhov bought a small estate at with boredom and loneliness. He refused wine and and moved there with his family. During cigars because they gave rise to desire, a prisoner's this period, he wrote many short stories and two of worst enemy. He played the piano constantly and his major plays, and . The read light books. The second year, the music ceased, production of The Seagull was panned by the crit- and he asked for classics to read. In the fifth year, he ics, and at that point Chekhov was ready to give up began to play the piano again, and he asked for playwriting. Luckily, two years later The Seagull was wine. He did not read, but he wrote page after page, performed by the newly established Moscow Art onty to tear up all he had written. Often the sounds Theatre, and it was so successful that the company of weeping came from the lodge. In the sixth year, adopted the seagull as part of its emblem. he began to study languages, philosophy, and histo- In 1898, failing health forced Chekhov to move ry. He read almost six hundred volumes and wrote a to Yalta, where he continued writing. The focus of letter to the banker in six different languages. After his endeavors there was drama. He married an the tenth year, all the lawyer read were the gospels, actress, , in 1901, but he remained in followed by histories of religion and theology. The Yalta while she stayed in Moscow. It was at this time last two years, his reading habits were eclectic, from that he wrote and The Three Shakespeare to natural science. Sisters. His failing health forced doctors to send him As the story catches up to the present time, the to Badenweiler, Germany, where he died in 1904. banker is reflecting upon the fact that the very next The theme prevalent in all of Chekhov's writing night the prisoner is to be freed and the banker will is life's pathos, caused by humanity's inability to have to pay him two million rubles. Over the years, communicate and the sadness and hopelessness the banker had gambled and speculated heavily, and that result. he is now no more than a small-time financier. The thought of having to come up with a vast amount of Story: THE BET opens with a flashback, seen money terrifies him, and the thought of the lawyer through the eyes of a banker who is remembering a living well on that money makes him angry. Finally, gathering fifteen years before at which capital pun- he decides his only way out is to kill the lawyer. ishment was discussed. The banker argued that cap- During the night, he creeps into the prisoner's ital punishment was far more moral and humane room. The prisoner has aged, his gaunt appearance than life imprisonment, but a twenty-five-year-old making him look older than forty. The banker lawyer disagreed, saying both were equally immoral, decides to smother him with a pillow, but before he but if he were given the choice, he would choose can do so, his attention is caught by a note nearby. life imprisonment, since "any sort of life's better The prisoner has written his credo. Since he has than none at all." The banker bet the lawyer two read and studied, he is wiser than "all of you," and he million rubles that he could not stay in a for five is wise enough to despise the blessings of the years. The lawyer, being young and poor, accepted, world. He sees everything as ultimately without upping the ante to fifteen years. worth, since everyone dies anyway. He renounces The conditions of the bet were as follows. The the bet and says he will leave five hours early just so lawyer was to stay in a lodge on the grounds of the he will lose. The banker experiences such a sense banker's estate. For fifteen years, he could not see a of relief that he kisses the lawyer on the head and living soul, could not hear another human voice, rushes out of the lodge weeping, feeling absolute


contempt for himself. The next morning, the watch- the banker, except that he hoards his money like men confum that the prisoner bolted out of the Silas Marner. Mac's greatest pleasure is rolling lodge five hours early. The banker goes back to the around on hard, cold piles of gold coins. Unlike the lodge and recovers the prisoner's note. Saying he banker in the Chekhov story, he lives like a pauper wishes to avoid "unnecessary disputes later he and actually commits crimes to keep his pile of locks it in his safe. money safe, while the banker only contemplates murder. Another difference is that Chekhov's Comparison: The theme of THE BET is greed, and banker enjoys his money by spending it excessively the reader realizes the extent to which the charac- rather than hoarding it. ters illustrate that theme. The banker is not a sympa- One can also draw comparisons betWeen THE thetic character. Even at the very end, he has no BET and Leo Tolstoy's HOW MUCH LAND DOFS A remorse. Money is more important to him than MAN NEED? The driving force for Pahom is greed: honor or human life. One is reminded of Mr. Gecko's how much land can he stake out before sunset? He speech on greed in the movie Wall Street:"Greed is literally runs himself to death, perhaps realizing at good." Both characters expect everyone else to oper- the last moment that he "needs" just six feet in ate by the same principles. Thus, the banker takes which to be buried. The lawyer learns the same les- the lawyer's written renunciation of the bet and son, but not at the cost of his life. Even though his locks it in his safe. It is beyond his scope to under- initial motive for making the bet was greed, he stand that the lawyer is so disillusioned by what he comes to realize how foolish he was to engage in has learned that money means little to him. the bet in the first place. He has learned the truth Another classic study in greed is Mc Teague by behind his earlier words, that "any sort of life's bet- Frank Norris. The central character, Mac, is similar to ter than none at all." D G

CHEKNOV, ANTON. THE DARLING. Russia Anton Chekhov's Short Stories. New York: Norton, 1979. Translated by Ralph E. Matlow.

Author.: See THE BET. a timber merchant. The "darling" and Vasili marry, and in no time, Olenka again immerses herself Story: Olenka is a gentle girl whom everyone calls entirely in her husband's personality, believing only "the darling" because she captivates everyone with what he believes, saying only what he would say. her good nature. She lives with her father and falls After six years, this husband dies too, and once in love with Ivan Kukin, who is thin, pale, and no again Olenka is beset with emptiness. longer young. He runs an outdoor theater and com- Within six months, however, Olenka finds plains constantly about the rain ruining his business another solution. She establishes a relationship with and the public's lack of respect for outdoor the- Vladimir Smirnin, an army veterinary surgeon who aters. When her father dies, Olenka marries Kukin rents her lodge. He is married and has a son, but is and immediately immerses herself in his personali- separated from his wife and child. Soon Olenka is ty. His opinions become her opinions, and her con- happily discussing animal epidemics. When Smirnin versation becomes a replication of his. She flourish- is transferred to another post, Olenka is again alone. es, grows stouter and more pink, while he grows She languishes, becoming sad, indifferent, and old and paler. After a year, Ivan suddenly dies. and she has no opinions of any kind. Olenka loses all interest in life, but after three Fortunately for Olenka, Smirnin returns. He has months, she meets Vasili Pustovalov, who works for left the service and come back to start a life with


his family. Olenka gives her house to the Smirnins of selfishness and doing no harm to anyone. She and retreats to the lodge. Of course, her life begins does not fall in love for personal or social gain, as again, but this time the man in her life is Smirnin's does Emma. She falls in love because it gives her an son, ten-year-old Sasha. The father takes work out- identity a sense of belonging, of purpose. And while side the village, and the mother leaves to live else- Flaubert's attitude toward Emma is clear, Chekhov's where. Thus, Olenka is "auntie" to the boy, and she opinion of Olenka is less so. Whether he views her soon begins complaining about teachers andhome- sympathetically and kindly or presents her as an work. Once again, she has an identity; once again, example of shallowness is for the reader to decide. there is a man in her life to fill the void. To be a wife, half of a couple, is Olenka's life. It is a clear and uncomplicated goal, like that ofFiorentino Comparison:It is the sweetness in Olenka's char- Ariza in Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Love in the Time of icter that makes her different from Emma Bovary in Cholera. Florentino's love, holkever, is specific and Flaubert's Madame Bovary. Emma is a romantic, directed toward Fermina Daza, while Olenka's is sin- but she is motivated by a desire for social standing, cerely attached to whoever can give purpose to her and thus she is selfish and self-serving. She is a trag- life. She adjusts her thoughts with each new associa- ic figure in part because she is never happy, and she tion, a mirror for each personality filling her life. destroys innocent characters around her. Olenka Marquez uses a similar symbol. Fiorentino buys a mir- too is a romantic, in love with love, but she is a "dar- ror in which Fermina once gazed at herself sothat ling" (more correctly translated as "little soul"), their reflections can mingle in the memory of the accepted and liked by the townsfolk, without a bit images caught in the glass. D G

CHEKHOL ANTON!. THE KISS. Russia A Doctor's Visit:Short Stories by Anton Chekhov.New York: Bantam, 1988. Translated by Avraham Yarmolinsky

Author:See THE BET . he is sharply aware for hours afterwards of the "chilly sensation near his mouth," the memory of Story:THE KISS is a deceptively simple story the kiss. He looks around the ballroom and tries to about a young soldier, Ryabovich, who meets with determine which of the women may have been "a little adventure." He is "timid, round-shouldered responsible, but to no avail. and uninteresting." But on one particular June night, The evening ends, and the men return to camp. he and his fellow officers are invited to tea at the Ryabovich reflects on how the kiss has changed estate of von Rabbeck, the local wealthy landowner. him. He has now shared an experience of every Soon there is dancing and merriment. Ryabovich, other ordinary man, and, like every other ordinary because he neither dances nor plays billiards, is man, he believes for the first time that hewill fall in uncomfortable and self-conscious. He wanders from love, get married, and have a conventional life. one group to another, becoming lost in a mazeof When the brigade returns to the arca the fol- rooms. He wanders into a little, dark roomwhere he lowing summer, Ryabovich is filled with anticipa- suddenly encounters an unknown "feminine voice tion and excitement at the prospect before him, but a rustle of skirts ... and the sound of akiss" placed soon a "crushing uneasiness took hold ofhim." He on his mouth. Although the shriek thatfollows indi- fears that von Rabbeck will not invite the brigade to cates that the kiss had not been intended for him, tea. He takes a walk and sees that the vonRabbeck


house is dark. Suddenly, he realizes "how stupid" it Nothing will ever be as wonderful as that mysteri- all is and how the accidental kiss led to vague ous kiss. hopes and dreams now bathed in the disappoint- One is also reminded of Sammy in "A & P" by ment of reality. He sees the whole world and life . Sammy perceives himself as a itself as an "aimless jest." in shining armor when he sacrifices his job to When he returns to his quarters, an orderly tells defend three young girls in bathing suits. He him that the brigade has been invited to a gathering jumps on his horse, armor clanging, only to discov- hosted by a general. At first Ryabovich is excited, er his sacrifice is for nothing. His "Dulcineas" are but then reality takes hold, and he does not attend. not even aware of his charge. But Sammy is not disillusioned, because his purpose is a matter of Comparison- THE KISS is reminiscent of James principle, not mere love. His motive is pure, Joyce's "Araby" which deals with a young man's because he acts from his heart, not for recogni- all-consuming first crush, which also results in disil- tion. But it is a bittersweet thing, and one wonders lusion. No one can be as perfect as the image creat- if, on the way home to tell his parents he has lost ed by the boy in "Araby," and when he realizes that his job, he does not experience a moment of dis- the object of his affection is merely flirting with appointment that things did not turn out as he him, he becomes "a creature derided by vanity." In a had expected. The girls are already gone, and he is sense, Ryabovich has a similar insight, which is why left to accept the responsibility for his romantic he bitterly decides not to go to the gathering. deed.

Cluiws,KAY. BRIEF DIALOGUE. Greece Eighteen Texts: Writings by Contemporary Greek Authors. Cambridge: Press, 1972. Translated by Kay Cicellis.

Autbor: Kay Cicellis (1926-) was born of Greek avoids direct confrontation by setting her story in parentage in Marseilles. She grew up speaking South America. French and English. She learned Greek at the age of nine when her family moved to Athens, where she Story: The story is a conversation between a taxi received her education. Cicellis has worked as a driver and his passenger. There is little description translator and book reviewer and has authored doc- of characters or setting, other than that the time is umentaries, short story collections, and several nov- late afternoon. The style is terse, the undercurrents els, including No Name in the Street (1953) and Ten heavy. Traffic is moving slowly as people return to Seconds from Now (1957). Her collection of three the heart of the city after siesta. In the taxi, the pas- long stories, The Way to Colonus (1961), is based senger, in Greek fashion, has climbed into the front on ancient Greek myths and has received interna- seat to ride. As they move along, the passenger finds tional acclaim. Cicellis has been translated into that conversation is difficult and that there are long, French, Spanish, German, and Portuguese, and her unnatural silences. He wishes that he had sat in the writing may be found in prestigious Greek, English, back. The driver asks the passenger how he thinks and American periodicals. She published BRIEF DIA- their country is viewed by other nations. The driver LOGUE in 1970. At that time, Cicellis was one of a is searching for information about attitudes toward small group of leading Greek writers who spoke the military regime. The passenger responds,"What out against the oppressive military regime of the do you think?" Each is afraid to speak openly. Over Colonels. Understanding the danger, however, she and over, they sense that their feelings are shared, ANNOTATIONS

but the stark reality of living under a military gov- have come to town to kill a local man. Oppression ernment startles them back to bland remarks and is the theme of both stories. Cicellis speaks of vacant stares at the passing scene.By the time they oppression of a country; Hemingway of the individ- arrive at the passenger's destination, they have ual. In both, the meaning of the conversation is learned to trust each other a little. But it is too late; unclear at first, but the truth unfolds as the conver- the ride is over. The picture created by Cicellis is sation draws to its close. one of communication distorted by overpowering BRIEF DIALOGUE, as a slice-of-life story can oppression. also be read along with another Hemingway tale, although depression rather than oppression is the Comparison: Another story that relies primarily theme of "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place." The older on conversation is 's "The waiter in that story believes deeply that many peo- Killers." Three people in Henry's lunchroom try to ple who try to avoid the nothingness in their lives fathom the meaning of a conversation they over- have a great need for a pleasant, well-lit cafe that hear between two strangers who, they finally learn, stays open into the night. E

COLETTE., THE LITTLE BOUILLOUXGIRL. France By Women: An Anthology of Literature. Boston: HoughtonMifflin, 1976. Translated by Una Vicenzo Trowbridge and Enid McLeod.

Author: The writings of Colette, the pen name of to become an apprentice dressmaker. Her haughty Sidonie Gabrielle Colette (1873-1954), reflect the manner and provocative behavior won her the adu- author's concern for the fate of women restricted lation of the boys, but aroused the jealousy of the personally and professionally by traditional expecta- girls. Then, when she was eighteen, she met a visit- tions and roles in a male-dominated society Brought ing sophisticated Parisian at a holiday . The up in the country Colette had been easily charmed as compliments accorded her by this worldly traveler a young woman by an older, sophisticated man,the during a solitary waltz augmented her already exag- unscrupulous Parisian music critic and novelist Henri gerated sense of worth. This incident initiated a Gauthier-Villars. Following their marriage, her initial change in her expectations. Proudly anticipating the works, the Claudine books, were written in forced arrival of a "stranger, a ravisher" who would merit a collaboration with her husband. He took full credii by woman of such rare beauty, she began rejecting all publishing them under his pseudonym, Willy. Their of her rural suitors. Twenty years later, the narrator, relationship failed, and after their divorce, she per- who as a young schoolmate had envied the little formed in music halls as a dancer and mime. Bouilloux girl, encounters her on the street. A bitter Remarried twice, she became prominent in Parisian woman whose beauty has faded, she is still looking society and continued a successful writing career. anxiously for her "Iong-awaited ravisher." Elected to the Goncourt Academy in 1945, Colette was the first woman to receive that honor. Comparison: Emma Bovary in Flaubert's THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL was published in Madame Bovaty has similar romantic illusions bol- 1922, and THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS in 1944. stered by an ego inflated by the admiration of oth- ers. She rejects the love of her simple but sincere Stoty: As a beautiful, adored child, Nana Bouillcux husband, just as Nana Bouilloux rejects the atten- became accustomed to the constant admiration of tions of her rural suitors. The unsophisticated the villagers. At the age of thirteen, she left school Emma is easily seduced by the empty flattery of'


worldly men. Her pathetic dreams of romance Mg effect of the loss of physical beauty upon a vain inspired by the ball at Vaubyessard are dashed as person. Ivan Albright's painting Into the Wbrld her various lovers abandon her. Both women suffer There Came a Soul Called Ida could be used. The bitter disillusionment. painting depicts a woman's futile effort to conceal Such disillusionment causes Nana Bouilloux's the ravages of time through the use of cosmetics. good looks to fade. Similarly, the lovely peasant girl Women are often depicted in fiction as trying Nais in Emile Zola's NAYS MICOULIN ages quickly, los- to avoid harsh reality. In William Faulkner's "A Rose ing her beauty after being abandoned by her wealthy for Emily," Emily Grierson lives a life of illusion. Her lover, who considered her beneath his social class. Southern pride prevents her from accepting her Much of Colette's work depicts the sorry plight impoverished status following her father's death. of women taught by society to value themselves in Then a failed romance pushes her into insanity; the terms of their appearance. To illustrate the devastat- ultimate escape from reality. ---MAF

COLETTE.THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S 1411SSUS. France The Tender Shoot and Other Stories by Colette of the Academy Goncourt. New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, 1959. Translated by Antonia White.

Author: See ME LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL. motivated her actions. She had envisioned that the slow process of the approach of death would result Story: The narrator, Madame Colette, begins the in sublime thoughts, banishing all pettiness. Yet her story by announcing her joy at the failure of the "dying" moments were not sublime, but filled with attempted suicide of a vtoman referred to as "the pho- worrisome thoughts of wifely duties and bodily mis- tographer's Missus." Colette had met the photograph- eries. After some reflection, she vows never to er's wife, Madame Armand, while visiting her neigh- attempt suicide again: The narrator describes her as bor across the hall, Mademoiselle Devoidy, a "sustained by the .neer force of humble, everyday forty-year-old unmarried pearl-stringer. Mlle. Devoidy's feminine greatness: the unrecognized greatness she confident: outlook, bolstered by her professional com- had misnamed 'a very trivial life.'" petence, contrasts strongly to Mme. Armand's attitude of despair at her inability to help her husband with Comparison: Much of Colette's work depicts the his job or to escape the boredom associated with plight of women imprisoned by traditional domes- domesticity. The pearl-stringer derides the feminine tic roles. Many similarities exist between Madame vanity of her neighbor, epitomized by Mme. Armand's Armand's dilemma and that of Nora Tesman in wearing stockings at all times to conceal her corns 's A Doll's House. The title of Colette's and crooked third toe, even when attempting suicide. story reflects society's view of the wife as her hus- Summoned 1-fy the worried husband, it is Mlle. band's , a position also inflicted upon Devoidy who rescues Mme. Armand when she swal- Nora. The duplicity fostered by such relationships is lows poison and locks herself in her room. Ironically, revealed through Nora's secretly eating forbidden the two women later have a violent argument macaroons and the photographer's wife's furtive because thc spinster agrees with the attending physi- mild flirtation with a younger man. cian's assertion that the suicide attempt occurred The traditional roles of the domineering hus- during an attack of neurasthenia. The recuperating band and submissive wife are also seen in Charlotte victim explains to Madame Colette that it was not Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper." In this neurasthenia, but the triviality of her dull life that story, the husband is a doctor who, like the photog-


whet appears to love his wife but is unable to actions. Hedda shoots herself, dying instantly, but view her as an equal. His demeaning personal and Emma's romantic vision of a quick death by poison- professional treatment exacerbates his wife's ing results in a painful, lingering demise. Mine. depression, leading to her insanity. Armand's suicide attempt is neither successful nor Madame Armand's death wish in THE PHO- beautiful. Reconsidering her choices, she decides to TOGRAPHER'S MISSUS parallels that of Hedda in face life, not end it. Ibsen's Iledda Gabler and Emma in Gustave Many counterparts of wives who wish to Flaubert's Madame Bovary. The three women view escape the triviality of dull lives exist in modern fic- suicide as a beautiful act. The desire to escape the tion, such as Margaret Quest in 's A boredom of a tedious marriage motivates their Proper Marriage. -MAF

COMIDit, NARYSE. THREE WOMEN INMANHATTAN. Guadeloupe Green Cane and Juicy Flotsam: Short Stories by Caribbean Women.New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991. Translated by Thomas Spear.

Author: One of the best known francophone writ- and racism." Vera is the exiled aging Haitian activist ers from the Caribbean, Maryse Conde (1937-),also who, on occasion,"put her pen in the service of a known as Maryse Boucolon, was born in great cause," but whose manuscripts remain unpub- Guadeloupe, her current residence. She has lived in lished, rejected by "editors from France, Belgium, , the United States, and France, where she Switzerland, and ." Claude, the narrator, links earned a doctorate in comparative literature from the two women: "an Elinor that the absent-minded the Sorbonne in 1975. A playwright, critic, and schol- sorcerer, destiny, had forgotten to gratify after having ar, she has written short stories and severalnovels, wrenched her from nothingness." A domestic, she including Tree of Life (1987). I, Tituba, Black Witch spends mornings cleaning for Elinor and works for of Salem (1986), A Season in Rihata (1981), and Vera some afternoons, not realizing for several Heremakhonon (1976). These works cover a range months that "Vera had no need of a cleaning woman" of subjects. historical periods, and geographic set- and was, in fact, acting as her protector. tings. I, Tituba, for example, is a fictionalized An impressionistic story, THREE WOMEN IN account of a black woman burnt as a witch in MANHATTAN takes place during two days but Salem, Massachusetts. Conde's work is recognized glimpses the past of all three women. After a conver- for both its popular appeal and literary merit. Segu sation between Claude and a buoyant Elinor enjoy- reached the best-seller list in France, while I, Tituba ing her success, the former recalls her childhood on won the Grand Prix Litteraire de la Femme. Guadeloupe and the notebooks in which she record- ed her thoughts, prompted by "an uncontrollable Story:In THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN, the force within her" The plot moves with Claude on lives of Elinor, Claude, and Vera are intertwined the bus "ninety streets uptown in the heart of around the theme of emerging consciousness and Harlem" to the apartment of Vera, who relives past the power of the written word. Elinor, the commer- glories and laments her present inglorious plight. cially successful African American writer, is torn Following the next day's encounter with Elinor, between the white literary establishment that "culled despondent over black critics' verdict on her work, her references to folklore of the Old South and to Claude returns to Vera's apartment, where she meets collective black patrimony" and the black critics who "the materialization of a dread she'd carried with want her to write "about slavery and the slave trade her daily"an ambulance signaling Vera's death.


What unites the seemingly ordinary events in Comparison: Intriguing comparisons can be THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN is the attempt of made with stories of characters seeking to realize a each woman to find her voice and the transforming legitimate voiceand thus identityin the face of a power of the written word. The contrast between dominant culture that denies them. In "Lullaby," Elinor's widely read works and Vera's ignored ones Native American writer pre- leads Claude to conclude,"Writing is but a trap, the sents the destruction of a culture symbolized by the cruelest of all, a snare, a sham of communication." virtual silencing of the central character, Ayah. The Nonetheless, she enrolls in night classes to learn short story "Seventeen Syllables," by Hisaye English and cannot escape the lure of the "series of Yamamoto, portrays the resistance of a Japanese arabesques [that] symbolized a thought, communi- woman against her traditional patriarchal culture. cated an element of the imaginary, which, through Her struggle and defiance take the form of the writ- them, was more penetrating than reality." Recognizing ten word, in this case the forbidden act of writing the physical as well as intellectual activity of writing poetry. Sandra Cisneros takes up a similar theme, ("To put her hips, her sex, her heart into motion in though with a positive outcome, in House on order to give birth to a world inscribed in her obscu- Mango Street, a series of vignettes tracing the emer- rity"), she defies Vera's death through the power of gence of a developing writer's voice. The feminist the written word to "present her not such as she perspective in Condé's story, particularly the rela- wasan octogenarian in a pitiful wool cardigan, rais- tionships between and among women, might be ing her pathetic voice in the tumult of distressbut explored through comparison with Cisneros's such as she dreamed her to be: Erzulie Dantor, flam- "Woman Hollering Creek" and Tillie Olsen's "I Stand ing torch clenched in her fist!" Here Ironing." RHS

CORTAZAR, 3111.10.ENO OF THE GAME. Argentina The Eye of the Heart: Short Stories from Latin America. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973. Translated by Eliot Weinberger.

Author: Julio Cortizar (1914-1984) was born in include A Manualfor Manuel and A Certain , Belgium. He grew up in Argentina but left Lucas. the country in protest of the Juan Peron dictator- Cortizar lived in France at the height of the sur- ship. He emigrated to Paris, where he published his realist and jazz movements, and the "Marvelous" of first collection of short stories, Bestiary in 1945. surrealists became the fantastic in Cortizar's writ- Although France became his home until his death ing. He compared the short story to a photograph in early 1984, he returned to Argentina periodically that limits a view to a single shot and argued that a chroughout his lik. During that time, he worked fragment of reality forces its viewer to supply all the four months a year as a freelance translator of missing parts. The surrealist influence is also reflect- French and English into Spanish for UNESCO. ed in Cortizar's works in the spontaneity of illogical He was also a poet, a novelist, and a short story events intended to reflect an absurd world and writer. Hopscotch, published in English in 1964, humanity's precarious condition in it. earned him recognition as Latin America's first great novelist. This novel also established him as a Stoty: END OF 'ME GAME is a multilevel short master of imaginative and fantastic writing and story dealing with the nature of illusion and reality. has been credited with triggering the explosion of It is told in a first-person narrative as a "slice of life." modern Latin American literature. His other novels Three young girls play a secret game by the rallroad


tracks and learn a great deal about life. There are Comparison: Successful as a novelist, Cortizar actually two secrets. The first is the sneaking of was even more successful as ashort story writer. Mamma's things to play a gatyle of "Statues and His skill with this form places him with thebest of Attitudes." The second is the physical handicap of the contemporary short story writers, including influence one of the girls, Letitia. She istreated by everyone as Jorge Luis Borges. Borges was a significant Machado de Assis. someone special, with specialprivileges and exemp- on Cortizar, as was the classicist time, tions from duties. Her handicap, a physicaldeformi- CorOzar was a great experimenter with form, He ty, is ignored by the family and is like awell-kept place, and the concept of illusion and reality. secret. The only time Letitia is really prettyis when drew heavily from his dreams and believed that also she is dressed-up in Mamma's things, posing asthe good writing must "tap the subconscious." He Venus de Milo or an Oriental princess for the pas- believed that novel writing is a craft, but that "one Antonioni's film sengers of the afternoon train.The girls take turns must be born a snort story writer." posing as statues until one of the passengers, a Blow-up was loosely based on a story byCortizar and young boy, takes a fancy to Letitiaand wants to with the.same title. Parallels between Cortazar meet her. He drops notes out ofthe train window. the influences of Borges and Kafka have been Letitia is delighted by his attention until therealiry made. Comparisons have also been made with him Huxley and . Readers often find similari- of meeting him arises. She is faced with letting the keep his illusion of her beautiful self oradmitting ties to Poe, Maupassant, and Camus. Of course, the reality of her deformity. Cortizar uses thesitua- situation in Edmund Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac dedicated to pushing tion to frame his characters, and the storyunfolds comes to mind. Cortizar was believing that from it. Although influences of the existentialists out the boundaries of his art form, for are present, he does not give in todespair. Letitia's dead forms rob people of their identity. In order solution to her dilemma is magnificent,however bit- humanity to rediscover itself, it must continually c w tersweet. explore new forms.

CORTAZAR. 31/1.110.NIGHT FACE UP. Argentina End of the Game and Other Stories. NewYork: Random House, 1967. Translatedby Paul Blackburn. surround- Author: See END OF ME GAME. He is an Aztec, fleeing from his enemies, ed by the smell of bogs and war. He gropesthrough hearing Story: NIGHT FACE UP combines manyof the dark, clutching his knife and amulet and Cortazar's techniques for confusing fantasyand real- the drums of sacrifice. early morn- "You're going to fall off the bed; warns the ity. A young motorcyclist, enjoying the regains ing as he rides his metal machine amongred and patient in the next bed, and the motorcyclist pedestrian step out consciousness in his hospital room. For the restof green stoplights, does not see a which in front of him. After the collision, heawakens with the night, he moves in and out of the dream, what he considers.to be minor injuries,but is taken becomes increasingly more vivid and threatening. into an He is attacked; he fights his enemies withhis knife; off to the hospital, examined, and wheeled deep pas- operating room. His last sight before losing con- he is captured, bound, and carried into a only by the sciousness is of a man in white standing overhim sageway in the rocks, where he can see with something gleaming in his righthand, light of torches and bonfires and where he will meet blood-soaked The young man awakes in a dream, anunusual his end. He smells death and sees his knife. dream with smells and fear. He is deep in swamps. executioner standing over him with a stone


Knowing intuitively that he will die in both Cortazar's manipulation of time has been used stages of reality, the motorcyclist enters a dream effectively by the cinema. Time in Wars wherein he rides "through the strange avenues ofan appears drawn out in confrontations with Darth astonishing city, with green and red lights that burn Vader and sped up during Luke Skywalker's bomb- without fire or smoke, on an enormous insect that ing run. With the use of flashback similar to whirred away between his legs." In the instant when Faulkner's As I Lay Dying, NIGHT FACE UP elon- reality and dream converge, he sees himself picked gates terror, both within the slowly dying motorcy- off the ground, approache ci with a knife, and left clist and through the pursuit, capture, andexecu- lying dead, face up among bonfires. tion of the Moteca warrior. The fmal flash forward to the other dream, the "real" world of thelatal acci- Comparison: Time as a psychological phenomenon dent, further blurs both the concept of time and has been captured by Chuang Tzu. Referring to him- the distinction between fantasy and reality. As with self as Chuang Chou, he relates,"Once I, Chuang Chou, Chuang Tzu's butterfly, the reader does not know dreamed I was a butterfly and was happy as a butter- whether events take place in the present and flash fly. I was conscious that I was quite pleased with back to the Aztec ritual or in the past and flash for- myself, but I did not know that I was Chou. Suddenly I ward to a man "riding on a bug past fires of red and awoke, and there I was, visibly Chou. I do not know green." whether it was Chou dreaming of being a butterflyor NIGHT FACE UP like many of Cortizar's works, the butierfly dreaming it was Chou" (from Yu-Lan makes the point that the ordinary hides what too Fung, History of Chinese Philosophy, Princeton often is ignored. Wheeling the blood-stained motor- University Press, 1952). Acconling to Chuang Tzu, cyclist down the hospital corridor appears to bean time-frames provide different perspectives. His dream ordinary moment, just as does the carrying of the presents one frame of reference and his awakening Aztec to his sacrifice. As in 's "The offers another, both of which provide their own scope Lottery; the ordinary exposes a kernel of what of reality. Cortizar's ending suggests that the so-called Conrad's Marlowe saw: "the likeness of one of those past has a broader range of reality than the present, for misty halos that sometimes are made visible by the it impinges on our view of the present. spectral illumination of moonshine." D V 13

CUBENA. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE. Panama Afro-Hispanic Review. May 1983.

Author: Carlos Guillermo Wilson (1941-), known are thus portrayed as human beings crushed by the as Cubena, assumed his pen name in accord with an abnormality of their environment, whereas the Ashanti custom of taking the name of the day on non-West Indians are depicted as grotesque carica- which one is born. A decidedly political writer, he tures of depravity harassing the "chombos." He thus has written poems, short stories, novels, and arti- suggests that the sickness of racism leads the whites cles, many of which have been censored in his into deviant and contemptible behavior. native Panama. His fictional works address the His poetry, on the other hand, presents the con- racism against the "chombo," a term considered ventional theme of the quest for identity. Hisverse insulting to black Anglo-Caribbean Panamanians. In projects a positive perspective by firmly asserting his stories that are intentionally shocking, he shows own selfliood and that of his people. Although the how extreme perversity and poverty result from aims of his fiction and poetry would seem to be in substandard living conditions. Cubena's "chombos" accord, the two methods of reaching those aims and


their comparative impacts differ. His prose revolves mother, recently freed, the young woman says,"I around the plight of the Afro-Hispanic, and no one is speak like a Spaniard, pray like a Christian, sing like more disdained than the black Hispanic woman. an Italian. Why 't you recognize me?" Meanwhile, at the trial, the jury cries "Let there Story:"Ninety-three-year-old grannie kills prominent be justice!" and grannie receives three life terms of surgeon," shout the headlines, and all the city shouts ninety-nine years each. No one knows the knowl- for her head. No one had cried when grannie was edge that the "criminal" takes to her grave: that her handed over from one slave holder to another. No one seemingly aristocratic mistress, the dead doctor's wept when she had to give up her baby so that her wife, was a foul-mouthed drunk and pothead who concern for it would not lessen her affection for her went to bed every Tuesday with the garbage man, owner's children. And now no one bothers to wonder that the doctor was an impotent homosexual, that how such an aged person could commit such a crime. the wife became pregnant and the doctor found out, Grannie worries that she will not have enough and that the doctor's wife killed her own husband in money to pay her lawyer. A young, black, female an argument over the pregnancy During the trial, the lawyer, hearing about grannie's plight, consents to doctor's wife miscarries, and she and the baby die. take the case. She has had almost no trial experi- ence, since her law professor could see no reason Comparison: Cubena's language, style, and even why a woman should have such experience. To add numerology suggest shifting patterns of perception. to grannie's problems, both the judge and the prose- On one level, the reader witnesses the inhumane cutor are related to the deceased. treatment of grannie. On another level, the reader per- During the trial, the defense lawyer has a ceives the reaction of a crowd manipulated by a sys- dream. An erubinrin (female slave) gives birth to an tem controlled by tiers of relatives. The dream omobinrin (daughter). She manages to hide the sequence, a story within a story offers still another baby for awhile, but finally must pray to her three dimension to illuminate the social dynamics of favorite goddesses and send the baby sailing alone grannie's behavior. Although revealing the depravity down the river. The goddesses hear the mother's of his grotesque white characters, Cubena leaves the prayers, and the little sailor survives and grows up reader wondering whether the novice lawyer might to be a traveler with wide experiences. Upon be grannie's granddaughter. Like Richard Wright's returning to Panama, she helps 333 slaves escape, Black Boy, this stoty permits the reader to understand sets fire to thirty-three plantations, and instigates various modes of prejudice and to begin to uncover three rebellions. When she encounters her grand- them within one's own surroundings. DVD

NECATI. IN GOD'S PLAINS. Turkey Short Story international. June 1978. Translated by Falat S.Halman.

Author: Necati Cumali (1921-) was born in Story: IN GOD'S PLAINS begins with a truck Florina, now part of Greece, and reared in a small winding its way through fields. Hedges of myrtle, town near Izmir. He received a law degree at the Judas trees, and shrubbery narrow the road, University of Ankara before becoming a leading which is already crowded with overhanging Turkish poet, playwright, novelist, and essayist. A greenery. It is late May. scent lies collection of short stories won him the Sait Falk heavy on the air, and the joyful chirp of birds is Award in 1957. In 1969, he won the Poetry Prize of the only noise that breaks the silence. The beauty the Turkish Language Society. of the setting has already been interrupted by vio-


lence. A hunter has killed a woodsman. In the formal complaint. The lawyer tells the boy to make truck are the court officials, who have come to sure to tell his father what happened and that he examine the scene of the crime and to interrogate must file a report with the police. As they leave, the the witnesses, young woodcutters who had run little boy, more frightened than before, begins to cry into and the victim on the day of again. the murder. Suddenly, the truck comes upon a weeping Comparison: IN GOD'S PLAINS is a good exam- four-year-old boy. The driver and two young woods- ple of eastern European writing in that it juxtaposes men approach the sobbing child, tan, chubby, bare- descriptions of nature with the violence of the foot, with a clean-shaven head and wearing nothing human world. There is initially the violence of the but a long shirt down to his knees. The driver asks murder, but even more significant is the unnatural the boy who he is, and the child, still convulsed act done to the child. The theme of child abuse has with tears, answers,"Receb's." More questions are been dealt with in several recent . The short put to him, but he cannot answer. Finally, he is asked story YANKO THE MUSICIAN, by Henryk if he has been beaten, and he merely points to his Sienkiewicz, is similar in its brutal treatment of a bottom and begins to cry again. The driver realizes child. The novel , by , also what has happened: "They have raped the poor uses this contrast, as the beauties of the forest are in boy." The court officials are stunned and flustered. direct opposition,to the ugliness of the monster, his They ask an old woman nearby to take the child to acts, his existencC, and Victor's original act of cre- his parents. She refuses and says,"They'll come and ation. This work may also be compared to Mon get him." Tamasi's short story FLASHES IN THE NIGHT and The judge, the attorney, and the district attor- 's THE COLT because of its use of ney realize that a felony has been committed, but lyrical descriptions of nature as a background for they can do nothing unless the boy's father files a the action. D G

DANTICAT, EDWIDGE. CHILDREN OF THE SEA. Haiti Krik? Krak! New York: Soho Press, 1995.

Author: A promising young author, Edwidge in 1995. Danticat describes Haiti as "a rich land- Danticat (1969-) was born in Haiti. She joined her scape of memory" that forms the source of her sto- parents in the United States at age twelve and pub- ries,"stories that regularly creep into my head, just lished her first article two years later. With degrees when I thought I had forgotten them. These stories from Barnard College and the Brown University come back to me in the reserved pitch of old Writing Program, she has published in over twenty women's voices, in the blink of their eyes, or in periodicals and won numerous awards, including their very ." the Essence Magazine Fiction Award, the James Michener Caribbean Writing Fellowship, and the Story: CHILDREN OF THE SEA is purely and sim- American Translators Award. Breath, Eyes, Memory, ply a love story. Yet the reality these two unnamed her first novel, published in 1994, is an evocative lovers face is anything but pure or simple in the set- story told through the eyes of a young woman who, ting of Haiti under the military regime that ousted like Danticat,lived with her aunt in Haiti until she Jean Bertrand Aristide. was reunited with her parents. Krik? Krak!, a col- A variation on an epistolary narrative, this story lection of short fiction by Danticat, was published is told through alternating journal entries of the


two young lovers: a woman in Haiti with her family, man must give up his notebook to lighten the who are both terrified of and terrorized by the cargo on the little boat, his life also seems in jeop- Tonton Macoutes, and a man aboard one of the ardy. Does he live? It is not clear, though the young crudely made boats bound for the United States. woman's last line,"i will write again soon," attests to Although the young girl's father seems to disap- the power of love. prove of their alliance, it becomes clear that he fears the repercussions for his daughter as well as Comparison: CHILDREN OF THE SEA suggests for the whole family from her involvement with a comparison with other works in which the per- political activistindeed, a subversive radical by the sonal fate of young lovers (or families), for whom reckoning of those in power. the future should hold endless possibilities, is Youthful passion reigns in the journal entries. instead threatened by political conflicts. Danticat The two were apparently childhood sweethearts herself comments that the story was inspired by whose depth of feeling for one another has grown her connections with Haitian women who had to full-fledged love, though it was evidently not sex- spent uncertain and sad days on the boats ually consummated (e.g., he writes,"Sometimes I between Haiti and the United States."I have felt like you wanted to, but I knew. you wanted me always been amazed that people can love one to respect you. You thought I was testing you, but another on slave plantations and in death camps," all I wanted was to be close to you"). In their jour- she notes. Slave from the United States nals, the two vow their love to one another. He and Holocaust literature, such as The Diary of writes,"Maybe the sea is endless, like my love for Anne Frank, are thus potential comparisons, as is you." She writes,1 love you until my hair shivers at literature on the Middle Passage, such as "Middle the thought of anything happening to you." These Passage" by Robert Hayden. The young man sug- journals, kept for one another, are lifelines, so vividly gests a reversal of the captured slave's journey expressed that it is difficult at times to realize that when he writes,"I feel like we're sailing for Africa. only the reader" hears" both voices. Maybe we'll go to Dahomey and ask for our land Deceptively simple, the journal entries develop back. (Laugh, will you?) They would probably complex and interrelated plots of public and pri- throw us out, too." vate lives. The young woman recounts incidents of On the level of symbol and images, the story bribery, the death by torture of people who refuse suggests comparison with other fiction and poetry to reveal information, and her own family's perse- in which the ocean symbolizes life or, especially, cution by the military regime. The young man's rebirth. Danticat plays with the traditional notions story depicts another worlda world consisting of of heaven when the young man writes,"The other himself and "36 other deserting souls on this little night I dreamt that I died and went to heaven. This boat:' He describes the physical discomfort, his heaven was nothing like I expected. It was at the reflections as he comes to terms with his own bottom of the sea." death ("I know it might happen"), his dreams, and, Since this story combines the forms of letters most of all, the "" of pregnant Celianne. This and diaries, comparisons might be made with epis- fifteen-year-old girl, gang raped by the Tonton tolary novels, such as The Color Fipple by Alice Macoutes and then disowned by her family because Walker, and fiction in which journals are promi- she is pregnant, and the story of the birth and nent, such as by Daniel Keyes death of her infant daughter become a symbol for and A Lesson Before Dying by Ernest Gaines. the lost hope of the young lovers. When the young - R 11 S


DAUDET. Aumouse..THE LAST LESSON. France Bedside Book of Famous French Stories. New York: Random House, 1945. Translated by Marian McIntyre. Author Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897), a French of studying their native tongue. The conscientious novelist, poet, and short story writer, was born in approach of both the Aidents and villagers to that Pro Vence. Because his father's business failed when final lesson echoed al.. nationalistic pride of the Alphonse was young, he was unable to complete his teacher as he wrote on the board for the last time formal education. He read widely, though, and at age "Vive la France." sixteen, he taught briefly at the College of Alais. He then joined his brother in Paris, where he began his Comparison. In "The Pupil," Henry James writing career. When the Franco-Prussian War explores a similar subject. As the title indicates, began in 1870, Daudet, due to extreme nearsighted- however, the focus is different. Daudet emphasizes ness, was sent to the National Guard rather than to the importance of the subject being taught and the battlefield with his regiment. Many of his works the students' apathy, while James concentrates on contain his moving depiction of the suffering he the close relationship between Pemberton, the observed during this period. THE LAST LESSON was exploited tutor, and Morgan, the gifted pupil. The published in 1873. denouement of both stories is emotionally mov- One of the masters associated with the natu- ing, but the schoolmaster's final action in THE ralist school, Daudet is often compared to Charles LAST LESSON softens the sense of loss, while the Dickens. He presented vivid portraits of life in of Morgan's death in James's work is unre- Provence and of the various social classes in lieved. Paris. The initiation theme of THE LAST LESSON, as represented by the maturing consciousness of Story: An Alsatian, Franz, recollects a childhood Franz, receives modern treatment in Toni Cade experience that took place near the end of the Bambara's "The Lesson." Sylvia, a sassy young black Franco-Prussian War (1870-71). He recalls a morn- girl living in the ghetto, treats education with deri- ing when he was late and unprepared for school. To sion until a concerned college-educated neighbor his surprise, his tardiness was not punished, and the takes her and her friends on a trip to an expensive usually empty back benches were filled with vil- toy store. This experience changes Sylvia's perspec- lagers. His stern teacher, Monsieur Hamel, shocked tive, moving her to contemplate at length the his listeners by announcing the new Prussian inter- lessons presented that day. Bambara's economical diction against the teaching of French in the style, her directness of presentation, is much like schools of Alsace and Lorraine. That day would be Daudet's in ME LAST LESSON. the last day French would be spoken in the class- The nationalistic pride felt by the villagers in room and his last day of teaching after forty years. THE LAST LESSON is also seen in Daudet's "The Monsieur Hamel's reproaches to the children, the Siege of Berlin." In this story, a chauvinistic retired villagers, and even himself made them all regret French officer suffers a heart attack when Prussian their previously negligent attitude toward the value troops enter Paris.-MAF


DESAI. ANITA. A DEVOTED $ON. India World Writers Today. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

Author: Born of a Bengali father and a German and touches his father's feet in respect. He weds an mother in Mussorie, Anita Desai (1937-) knows illiterate girl in an arranged marriage and continues German, Bengali, Hindi, and English, but prefers to to live at home and serve his parents. write in English because of the richness, vitality, and His devotion takes an ironic turn, however, suppleness of the language. Her first novel, Cry the when his father becomes ill. Ravesh sanitizes his Peacock, published in 1963, set a new trend in father's diet to such a degree that the last remaining by focusing on psychological pleasure in the old man's life, eating, is taken from rather than physical details. Recognized internation- him. He suffers unspeakable misery as Ravesh tries ally by the time of the publication of her fifth novel, to prolong his life by feeding him tonics and pills. Fire on the Mountain, she won many awards in India and was considered for a prestigious British Comparison: What occurs between Ravesh and award in English literature. In her short stories as his father when the son gains control happens fre- well as her novels, Desai explores the interior world quently as parents age. Yet there are added dimen- of her characters as they struggle with common sions when traditional societies are confronted by human dilemmas in the context of existential Westernization. Such complicated intergenerational predicaments. encounters are depicted in countless stories around the world, such as GRANDMOTHER TAKES Story: Son of poor, illiterate parents, Ravesh gains CHARGE by Lao She. The neglect and helplessness a reputation as a devoted son when, after he wins felt by Ravesh's father can also be compared with academic honors and earns an M.D. degree in the the plight of the old woman in THE GRANDMOTH- United States, he returns to his small village in India ER by K. Surangkhanang. M 1.

DESAI, ANITA. GANES AT TWILIGHT. India Games at Twilight and Other Stories. London: Heinemann, 1978.

Author See A DEVOTED SON. he emerges with a victory cry. As he breaks through the crack, he falls on his knees and chokes with Story:After a hot day, the children are eager to tears of and humiliation. His playmates have play outside. In a game of hide-and-seek, Ravi, deter- completely forgotten about him and are concentrat- mined not to be found, heads for a secret place next ing on new games. His mother scolds him for being to the garage. Sliding through a small gap between a baby. He lies down in the grass,"silenced by a ter- the door and walls, he hides in a locked shed rible sense of his insignificance." stuffed with old household goods. When the person who is "It" comes charging close to him, he is scared Comparison: The central existential dilemma at first, but the sheer delight at not having been dis- presented here corresponds with themes of isola- covered enables him to endure a long stay in the tion and alienation found in writers classified under dark. When at last he gets tired of his confinement, the existential school, such as CAMS, Sartre, and


Kafka. In Kafka's THE METAMORPHOSIS, for necessarily match one's own expectations and that instance, protagonist Gregor Samsa, also "silenced one is fundamentally alone in life, parallels the by a terrible sense of his insignificance," finds him- "anguish and anger" expressed by the narrator in self changed into an insectlike creature. Despite his James Joyce's "Araby" when he too is disillusioned freedom from human pressures in his new state, he and disappointed that his experience of the bazaar is shunned, denigrated, and all but forgotten, even does not match his dream. This sense olabsolute by his own flimily. In dying, he leaves a light empty aloneness is also realized by Juliet in Shakespeare's shell, which the maid sweeps away. Romeo undJuliet, when she realizes that she has Ravi's loss of innocence and his initiation into no one to trust and must take the sleeping potion real life, the realization that what occurs does not alone. t.

DffLomo, H. I. E. THE DAUGHTER. South Africa H. I. E Dhlomo: Collected Works. New York: Raven Press, 1985.

Author: Herbert Dhlomo (1903-1956) was home a universal truth: "Absence makes the heart born at Siyamu, near Pietermaritzburg, Natal, and grow fonder"often, however, fonder of someone died in Durban. He was the second son of parents else. from prominent families in Johannesburg. Like his The main character is Zodwa Valo, who married older brother, Herbert qualified as a teacher and Bob Frafa when she was only sixteen and he twen- worked at the Amangimtoti Training Institute in ty, a marriage that lasted just fifteen months. After Natal from 1922 to 1924. Later, he became head this short time, Bob decides to leave Durban for teacher at the American Board Mission School in Johannesburg, the "big city" of excitement and glam- Doornfontein. our. After Bob leaves, Zodwa gives birth to a girl, His early ambition to write prompted him to Bob's daughter, Rose. When she grows up, Rose too prepare articles for the South African newspaper. decides to go to Johannesburg, leaving behind both Like many other blacks prominent during that time, her mother and her lover, Max. In the city, she meets he joined the African National Congress and, in Bob. Neither recognizes the other, of course, and 1935, published his first short story, "An Experiment after a number of meetings, they consummatethe/ in Colour:and left the teaching profession. He pro- love. duced many articles and literary works, including The story concludes when Bob's work calls him short stories, poetry, and plays. He served as librari- back to Durban. Rose also returns, and the two an at the Ndonyeni Library in the Bantu Social lovers meet at Rose's mother's house. Just as they Centre in Durban and then became assistant editor begin making introductions, Max enters the room. of Ilunga Luse in Natal, where his older brother was The reader is kept in as the truth unfolds editor. He held this position until just before his and the point of the story is revealed: "Absence death. makes the heart grow fonder."

Story: THE DAUGHTER is a romance, a story of Comparison: THE DAUGHTER mirrors the cul- love that entangles the lives of four people from ture of the South African people. The story may be the samc family. Bursting with exotic imagery, clas- reminiscent of Sophocles's Oedipus Rex, a reversal sical allusions, and aphorisms, the story is told disguised within a seemingly innocent but incestu- from an objective point of view in order to drive ous relationship. M JJ ANNOTATIONS

Dm, MOHAMMED. KAMM-WHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN. Algeria One World of Literature. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993. Translated by LenOrtzen.

Author: Mohammed Dib (1920-) was born in seeking the bomb thrower. When a loud pounding , Algeria, a town near the Moroccan border. comes at the door, he tells the man not to open it, He was raised a Muslim, and after receiving his edu- but the police break it down and kill the cobbler. cation in Algeria and , he tried a number of The narrator escapes, returning the next day to find occupations before becoming a full-time writer. But the shop padlocked. Upon inquiring at the neigh- even while working as a primary school teacher, a boring shops, he can find out only that there will be carpet weaver, a railway worker, and, fmally, a jour- no funeral. All the victims of both the bomb and the nalist, he contributed fiction and articles to Algerian police have already been buried by the authorities. publications. In 1959, he moved from Algeria to This entry is followed by a page or so of mus- France, where he continues to live and where his ings on the situation in Algeria. The narrator has novels and short stories have been widely come to realize that"While we remain at the mercy acclaimed. Two of his novels, Omneros (1978) and of these butchers, bound hand and foot, the real war Who Remembers the Sea (1985), are available in is taking place elsewhere. So we find our only English translations. defense against this daily terror is in disturbances Always interested in using his fiction as social and the breakdown of law and order. We have paid commentary, Dib was naturally drawn to the subject too dearly already, to hesitate or draw back. of the for independence, but his treat- Something has got underway which is even worse ment of that struggle often shows evidence of his than war." earlier fascination with surrealist style. NAEMA Following these thoughts come three vignettes, WHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN, published in Arabic in each illustrating the narrator's changing attitude. 1966, is a case in point, as the style of the diary First, he and the other diners at a popular café are entries is at times so vivid as to seem surreal. held in silence at gunpoint for over an hour while the police check identity cards. After the incident, Story: NAEMAWHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN he thinks,"My throat was sore from the insults I had opens with the narrator's anguished thoughts about swallowed." Next, later that same day, he is ordered his wife, Naema, who has been taken to prison, or by the police to stop, but rather than obey,"looking perhaps killed, by French soldiers, presumably as a straight at them, I made the decision to walk result of her involvement in the armed struggle for towards them. At every moment I expected them to Algerian independence. The reader learns later in open fire on me. I was quite cool and calm, and the story that the narrator's thoughts are actually filled with disdain." In the fmal , he entries in a diary, and the first entry continues as he describes "the most astounding procession ever ponders his young son's attitude toward the war seen in the town:' Arab women without theirveils and the French. While his son feels that the rebels and barefoot Arab children were "sweeping forward should "Kill the lot. Keep throwirig bombs," the nar- shrieking out the Liberation Anthem," carrying a rator wants only an end to the killing, a personal makeshift rebel flag."All at once, automatic peace. weapons began to stutter," and the womenand chil- This diary entry is followed by one that dren were mowed down. recounts the narrator's escape from a bomb explo- The final entry is brio. An agent of the rebel sion and the ensuing pace violence. Dashing into a forces seeks him out because his earlier inquiries cobbler's shop, he suggests that the proprietor lock about the dead cobbler led the rebels to believe his door to protect them from the police, who are that he was the cobbler's friend. The cobbler's


shop, the narrator is informed, had been used by the rator turns away from the self-involvement of the rebels, and they now need someone to replace the diary at the end of the story and begins a real dead man and to reopen the shop."I let him deliver involvement with the life of his time. One finds a his little speech....`Have you the keys,' I said.... He contrasting view in Stephen Crane's "An Episode of produced a ring with two keys from his trouser War." pocket. I took it....1 am closing this diary now. It NAEMAWHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN could was thinking of my wife, the shoemaker and the also be considered a story of initiation. The narrator others which sustained me and helped me to carry moves step by step from a relatively meaningless on until now. They knew why they died, they did." absorption in his own personal loss to a commit- ment to a changed life, one of meaningful struggle Comparison: Especially in light of Dib's earlier for a just cause. Just as the narrator of James Joyce's work, one can see NAEMAWHEREABOUTS "Araby" must put his childish life of self-involvement UNKNOWN as a work of social commentary behind him, so Dib's narrator must go beyond his demonstrating the need for commitment to a social- great personal loss if he is to fmd something worth ly worthy cause. In that sense, one might compare living and dying for. The fact that he achieves his this story to such socially conscious novels as John initiation through surmounting situations of grave Steinbeck's or In Dubious physical danger suggests a comparison to Doris Battle or John Dos Passos's massive trilogy USA. Lessing's "," where Jerry must Dib's story might also indicate that involvement in swim to manhood through a dangerous underwater armed struggle can provide meaning in life. The nar- tunnel. -PTM

DINEseur ISAK. THE SAILOR sows TALE. Denmark A World of Great Stories. New York:Crown, 1947.

Author: Isak Dinesen was the pen name of more apparent than in THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE. Baroness Karen Blixen of Rungstedlund Young Simon rescues a peregrine falcon entangled (1885-1962). Born into an old Danish family, she high in the rigging of his sailing ship. He attempts married a cousin, Baron Blixen, in 1914 and spent the dangerous rescue only after much thought: the next seventeen years of her life in Kenya Colony "Through his own experience of life he had come of British East Africa. For much of that time, she to the conviction that in this world everyone must managed a coffee plantation almost single-handedly. look after himself, and expect no help from oth- Her book Out of Africa is an account of those ers. But the Mute, deadly fight kept him fascinated years. for more than an hour.... He remembered how, Returning to Denmark in 1931, Dinesen pro- many years ago, in his own country and near his duced two volumes of long short stories in English, home, he had once seen a peregrine falcon quite Seven Gothic Tales and Winter's Tales. With their close, sitting on a stone and flying straight up from masterful blend of fantasy and reality, these stories it. Perhaps this was the same bird. He thought: established her fame, especially in the United That bird is like me. Then she was there, and now States. Dinesen died in her ancestral home near she is here." As he reaches the trapped falcon, who Elsinore. looks at him "with a pair of angry, desperate yel- low eyes," a bond is formed. Despite the danger of Story: The combination of fantasy and reality his mission, he feels a sense of unity,"as if the sea that characterizes Dinesen's stories is nowhere and sky, the ship, the bird and himself were all


one." Simon climbs down, with the falcon secured Simon on his way again with a blessing. A sense of inside his jacket, only to endure the laughter of universal retribution pervades this coming-of-age shipmates for risking his life so foolishly. As he story that, like all fairy tales, is enjoyable on more releases the bird, though, he thinks proudly,"There than one level. flies my falcon." Years later, the same yellow eyes of a falcon Comparison' THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE and stare out at Simon from the face of an old woman Coleridge's"The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" who rescues him from his own entanglement with underscore reverence for all life, a lesson the a band of . Simon has changedgreatly from mariner and Simon must both learn; Dinesen's sug- the boy who first saved the falcon. He has killed a gestion of the mythological element pairs interest- man and kissed a girl. More importantly, hehas for- ingly with Coleridge's emphasis on the religious gotten the unity of all living things that he had once aspect. Doris Lessing's "A Sunrise on the Veld" and known. But the old woman saves him in every George Orwell's "Shooting an Elephant" are addi- respect, for she restores this harmony and sends tional choices for comparative reading. 1 c I.

IhmEsem, Isaac. SORROW-ACRE. Denmark Winter's Tales. New York: Random House, 1942.

Author: See THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE. than Adam, the lord's nephew, can imagine. Yet the cleared field at the end of the day symbolizes more Story: This strangely compelling tale is a story than the greatness of the mother's love. It repre- within a story. On one hand,"Sorrow-Acre" refers sents as well the cleared thought, the resolutions literally to the field of rye a widow contracts to Adam has made about the of his homeland mow with a scythe between sunup andsundown and his acceptance of that heritage. on a single day. This extraordinaryfeatshould she accomplish itwill save her son's life. Should Comparison.- In SORROW-ACRE, students should she fail, her son must suffer the punishment for note that the landscape exists more as a principal arson, a crime he claims not to havecommitted. character than as mere setting. Much in the manner Against this long day of agonizing toil for the of a Conrad story, the landscape functions as a pri- widow, Dinesen balances a philosophical struggle mal mirror in which the questions of life must be between the old lord with whom the widow has endlessly reflected. Nadine Gordimer's "The Train struck her bargain and his young nephew and pos- from Rhodesia" offers a thought-provoking juxtapo- sible heir. sition with SORROW-ACRE. The young woman on Both contestsone a physical marathon, the the train questions the whole nature of human rela- other an ideological debaterevolve around the tionships, the valuing of human worth and dignity, line of a plaintive French tune. Translated, the line against the landscapeand the heritageof South suggests that to die for a person one loves is an Africa. Similarly, Sholokhov's THE COLT and Tamasi's effort too sweet for words. Such a degree of com- FLASHES IN THE NIGHT offer stories set against a mitment is on a level of consciousness far higher lyrically described natural background. P L

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MOP. [IMAGO. THE WAGES OF GOOD. Senegal African Writing Today. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1967. Translated by Robert Baldick.

Author Born in , Senegal, Birago Diop by Gone-the-Child, who rolls the alligator into a mat (1906-1989) is best known for short stories and carries him to the river. Once he is safe, inspired by the folktales of West Mrica. He left Diassigue turns his attention to his stomach. He Senegal to study in France and received a doctor- tricks Gone into wading into the water up to his ate in veterinary science from L'Ecole Nationale neck and then threatens to eat the child. Yet Gone Vétérinaire de Toulouse in 1933. He served as a is able to make a deal with the alligator. They will veterinary officer in Senegal and in ask the first three people they see whether"a good and as a nurse in a military hospital in St.-Louis, deed is repaid with a kindness or with a bad turn." Senegal. He was employed at L'Institut de They ask Nagy-the-Cow, who remembers how well Medecine Vétérinaire Exotique in Paris and as she was treated when she was young, how she gave head of zoological technical services in Upper great quantities of milk and mothered many calves, Volta. He has also been administrator for a broad- and points out that now that she is old, she must casting company, ambassador from Senegal to look for her own food. Her good deed, she says, was , vice president of La Confederation repaid with a bad turn. Much the same story is told Internationale de la Societe d'Auteurs et by Fass-the-Horse, who was well treated when he Compositeurs, and an official in the French was a young war horse, but now he is hobbled and National Defense Institute. He has won many left to care for himself. He too claims that a good awards, among them the Grand Prix Littéraire de deed is repaid with a bad turn. l'Afrique-Occidentale Française and the Grand Prix The third to approach Diassigue and Gone is Littéraire de l'Afrique Noire from the Association Leuk-the-Hare. Instead of simply answering the des Ecrivains d'Espression Francaise de la Mer et question, Leuk investigates the source, and he de l'Outre Mer. He has published several short immediately understands the crud trick the alliga- story collections and a volume of poems. He has tor is playing on the child who just saved his life. also adapted several of his stories for the stage. Leuk, pretending not to believe the story of Gone's rescuing the alligator, has the two reenact the Stoiy: ThE WAGES OF GOOD is a short, simple scene: they come out of the water, Diassigue allows folktale with a clear message. Like many traditional himself to be rolled into the rug and tied, and Gone folktales, the forces of evil are outsmarted, and the places the bundle on his head. Leuk then advises forces of good win in the end. And like many such the child to carry the now helpless alligator home tales, most of the main characters are animals. In for his own supper, for"that is how to repay those this case, the only human is a child who interacts who forget a good deed." and speaks with the animals as though all were intellectual and social equals. As a matter of Fact, the comparison: This story, told in the tradition of animals, because of their greater experience, are the , may be compared with Aesop's fables or wiser than the child and serve as both adversary with stories derived from or modeled after his and rescuer. fables, such as Fontaine's classic Fables. Kafka's Diassigue-the-Alligator becomes stranded when parables offer an interesting variation of the fable. the stream in which he lives is drained. He is helped


DZILAS, NILOVAN. THE OLD NANAND THE SONG. Montenegro The Stone and the Violets. New York: Harcourt BraceJovanovich, 1971. Translated by Lovett F. Edwards.

Author: Born in Montenegro, then a Turkish that he hopes will gain him a position in the province, Milovan Djilas (1911-1995) distinguished Montenegran prince's bodyguard. En route, himself throughout his life by his uncompromising because of danger from the Turks, he fmds he must love of freedomeven when his principles led to stay overnight at the home of his friend Seepan, a his sacrificing his own personal freedom. Djilas member of the Piperi tribe. Struck with how much attended University, where he won recog- more prosperous Seepan's family is than his, as nition in several areas: for his poetry, short stories, well as with their courtesy and hospitality to him and revolutionary activities. In 1932, he joined the and the respect and care they show toward a very illegal Communist Party and was arrested and old man living with them,Vuk accepts their invita- imprisoned for by the Austro-Hungarian tion to play the gusle and sing a song. He decides government. to sing a folk song about Savié Spasojev, a great During World War II, Djilas became a partisan Piperi hero. When he fmishes, the family and some leader, fighting against the Italian and German occu- friends look at one another strangely. After pation forces. With the end of the war, he rose to Seepan's father has thanked Vuk, the others also high office in the Communist Party and the thank him, and then Seepan asks if he would like Yugoslav government. His journalistic criticism of to meet Savie. To Vuk's amazement, the heroof the the Communist regime, however, culminating in his folk song is the old man whom he had noticed ear- comments on the Hungarian uprising, causedhim lier and who is lying on a felt pallet near the fire. to be expelled from the CommunistCentral The old man, who is ill-humored, listens to the oth- Committee and sentenced to a three-year prison ers recite more of his deeds, then asks,"Why are term. Refusing to be silenced, he publishedThe you repeating all that tonight? Let me rest!Then it New Class, was accused of slandering his country, was easy to be a hero:' and had his sentence extended. After his condition- Accustomed to the old man's ill humor, the al release, he published Conversations with Stalin Piperi leave, still praising Vuk and his song. When and was rearrested and returned to prison. THE Seepan asks Vuk if he is glad to have seen Savie, the OW MAN AND THE SONG was written in prison at disillusioned Vuk, tears in his eyes, responds nega- Srernska Mitrovica in 1966 and published tively, saying it would be better if he had never start- that same year. ed his journey. Several themes in Djilas's works reflect his phi- losophy and experiences: the cosmic struggle Comparison: Primarily a story dealing with the between good and evil, the need for the individual shattering of a young man's illusions, this story may to fight evil, and the need for the individual to sur- be compared with Hemingway's "The Killers" or vive and to preserve freedom in the world. Joyce's "Araby." Its unusual setting amid the moun- tain tribes of former Yugoslavia permits compari- Story: Set during World War I, at a time whenthe son with other stories of peasants and peasantlife, Turks still occupied much of Montenegro, this story especially with Andric's THE SCYTHE and the peas- deals with two mountain tribes that in the past had ant parents of Djilas's own WAR. Both ofthese sto- often fought their own small wars over the bound- ries are also set in former Yugoslavia. Savié, as a aries of mountain pastures. leader of the Piperi, may be compared with the title Vuk, a young man of the Rovci tribe, has left character in Steinbeck's "The Leader of the People:' his mountain home tbr the first time, with aletter -HMM


D311143, NILOVAII4 WAR Montenegro Russian and Eastern European Literature. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1970. Translated by Giovanni Segreto.

Author: See ME OLD MAN AND ME SONG. thought the coffin contained a spy. At the order of the commanding officer, the son is shot through the Story: In this tragic story, two simple 'peasants are heart, and the two parents, now mourning in reality, counterposed against a modern army and its disci- are told to return home with the body. pline. Djilas carefully avoids naming characters or In the concluding lines of the story, Djilas has places, merely setting the story on the banks of a something bitter to say about the value of human river where fighting has been going on for three life: "The lieutenant said:'Strange people, these months. All means of crossing the river have been peasants. Look at them. They're mourning and cry- destroyed except for a motorized scow run by the ing just like they did before.' However, no one heard army. During the night, when there is no danger of him. They were all busy with the trucks on the bombing, this scow is used for military purposes. bank of the big river." During the day, it ferries the inhabitants, largely peasants, across the water. Comparison: In its depiction of the character of As the story opens, two old peasants, a man and the Slav peasant, this story may be compared with a woman, board the scow with a wagon carrying a Solzhenitsyn's MAlRYONA'S HOME, Andric's THE coffin. They explain that they are returning home SCYTHE, and Sholokhov's THE COLT. As a story deal- with the body of their son, who was killed at the ing with humanity's inhumanity, it may be compared front. Earlier they had lost two sons in the war; in with Solzhenitsyn's THE RIGHT HAND, Sholokhov's the coffin is their last one. When they reach shore, ME COLT, and Sienkiewicz's YANKO THE MUSI- while papers are being checked, another peasant CIAN. The story also lends itself to the broad sub- asks to see the commanding officer, whom he tells genre of antiwar fiction. In this area, it may be com- that he has heard sounds coming from the coffin. pared with Sholokhov's ME COLT and ME FATE When the coffin is opened, it contains the son, alive OF A MAN, with Hemingway's "Old Man at the and dressed in peasant clothing. The peasant who Bridge," and with other antiwar stories written in reported his suspicions is horrified, saying he Europe and America after World War II.-HMM

DOSTOMICIr FYODOR. THE DREAM OF A RIDICULOUS MAIL Russia Notes from Underground, "White Nights,"The Dream of a Ridiculous Man," and Selectionsfrom "The House of the Dead"New York: New American Library, 1961. Translated by AndrewR. MacAndrew.

Author Fyodor Mikhdilovich Dostoevski Military Engineers in St. Petersburg, from which he (1821-1881) was born in Moscow, the second son of a resigned his commission after four years. merchant's daughter and a staff doctor at Mariinskaya Dismayed, indeed revolted, by the grim realities Hospital for the poor. He attended a Moscow boarding of Russian life, particularly the mistreatment of the school and, after his mother died, the School of common people by government workers and offi-

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dals, Dostoevski became an active member of a The creature is part of a duplicate universe in socialist group and, while working on his third which the inhabitants are truly happy, innocent, and novel, Netochka Nezvanova, was arrested, tried, serene, for "this earth had not been desecrated by and condemned to death for political activities. His the Fall of Man; its inhabitants still lived in a paradise death sentence was commuted, however, and he such as that of Adam and Eve before they sinned." spent four years in a penal colony. This served to He moves among them noting the lack of disease reinforce his desire to use his writing to change the and war, the of old age and death, and the society in which he lived. Repeatedly, his works, absolute belief in eternal life. Then,"the truth is written under conditions of poverty and personal thatwell, that I ended up corrupting them all." and emotional trauma, call for freeing the serfs, abol- Once corrupted, the people have to seek ways ishing censorship, and relaxing the laws governing to find happiness, to unite society, to live in harmo- free discussion of political events. ny, to develop systems for universal love. Wars are After receiving full amnesty in 1859 and return- fought, crimes are undertaken, suicide is commit- ing to St. Petersburg with his wife, Dostoevski's phi- ted, and religions are formed that worship "nonbe- losophy as revealed in his work acquired a more ing and self-annihilation for the sake of an eternal mature attitude, stressing the hope of gaining salva- repose in nothingness." When the people grow tion through degradation and suffering. In his later tired and begin to praise suffering, the narrator years, during which he was plagued by epilepsy and comes to love them and their corrupted earth financial ruin, he produced his best-known works, more than he has ever loved before. As the agent which demonstrate a mastery of the psychological of their corruption, he asks for martyrdom at their novel through insight into abnormal states of mind. hands, but they laugh at him as "a feeble-minded These include Crime and Punishment (1866), The " and exonerate him instead. Filled with sor- Idiot (1869), The Possessed (1872), and The row, he awakens. Brothers Karamazov (1880). The last novel was As a result of his dream, he preaches to everyone published just one year before his death. a doctrine of love, unity, and happiness. He revealshiS dream and himself as the corrupter, and, just as in his Story: The story opens with the narrator's avowal dream, people laugh at him. Still, he continues to "I'm a ridiculous man," which sets the tone for his preach the golden rule and the belief that if everyone attitude toward life and his dream. The dream, a acknowledged that "awareness of life is of a higher story within a story, is provoked by an incident on a order than knowledge of the laws of happiness; then cold, gloomy day, a typical Dostoevski setting, in "everything could be arranged immediately." which a ragged, shivering, terrified little girl, appar- ently separated from her mother, desperately Comparison: Although the opening lines are appeals to the narrator for help. He ignores her and reminiscent of those in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Tell- continues on his way to his apartment. Feeling Tale Heart" and "The Black Cat," this story does not intensely sorry for the child,"so sorry that it hurt," follow the opening with the adamant disavowal one and guilty about not having acted, he resolves to kill finds in Poe's stories. Rather, there is casual, even himself, partly for guilt and partly for despair ("noth- benign, acceptance of one's absurdity. ing had happened while I'd been alive"). Embedded in the story are shades of Camus's Before he can lift to his head and fulfill as defined in The Strangen especially his intent, however, he slips into sleep,"still juggling when Dostoevski's protagonist avers,"I began to with the eternal questions," and dreams of shooting feel with my whole being that nothing had hap- himself in the heart. The dream progresses through pened while I'd been alive." This echoes the deliber- his burial, after which his consciousness awaits its ate isolation of Raskolnikov in Dostoevski's Own demise while he begs,"Whoever You areif You do Crime and Punishment, an isolation born from existif there is anything more sensible than egoism and based on pure rationalismrationalism what's happening here, make it happen." Suddenly, devoid of feeling. Isolation marks the life of the the grave opens, and he is seized by a "mysterious ridiculous man, a circumstance that sets up a tale in creature" bearing "a human resemblance." which one learns that there is a reality external to 7 i 57 TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

one's own thought. There is an actual world in indicative of the state of humanity from which love and compassion and giving can solve Dostoevski's perspective, and, in both, the rest of the problem of human suffering. While this is also humanity remains oblivious to the truth of the situa- an unattainable reality, it gives us purpose. Without tion. Such nonrecognition of the truth is also seen it, we have nothing for which to strive, nothing to in Mark Twain's "The War Prayer," the result of justify our being. In this sense, the central character which is a continuation of anguish. is representative of humankind. Once the dream has been experienced, the Presenting this view is also the role of the title dreamer moves outside himself and begins preach- characters in , as it is of ing universal love, the betterment of all humanity, in Gregor Samsa in Kafka's THE METAMORPHOSIS. the manner ofJoe in Dalton Trumbo's Johnny Got Gregor too is isolated from the rest of humanity; just His Gun and the narrator in 's The as he is isolated from his feelings about the world Jungle. The preaching consists of truths that, if rec- and the manner in which he lives. In ME DREAM ognized and accepted, could allow humanity to take OF A RIDICULOUS MAN, the dream is just thata a small step toward establishing the dream of an sleeping event. In THE METAMORPHOSIS, it is a earthly paradise, the same sort of paradise depicted nightmare in wakefulness. In both, however, it is by James Hilton in Lost Horizon. JAG

DOSTOEVSKI,FyoDOR. THE HONEST THIEF. Russia The Best Short Stories of Dostoevski. New York: Modern Library, n.d. Translated by David Margarshack.

Author See THE DREAM OF A RIDICULOUS MAN. street, Astafy himself was quite poor and wanted to rid himself of this obviously dependent creature. Story: As he leaves for work one morning, the nar- One day, Astafy moved to a single room in an rator is informed that an elderly is about old lady's flat and bade a grateful farewell to to become a lodger in the same household. Despite Yemelyan, declaring,"You'll never find me now!" his usual solitude and "boredom of existence; the Upon arriving at his new room, however, he found narrator finds this old soldier, Astafy Ivanovich, Yemelyan waiting for him. Yemelyan again became quite pleasant, particularly due to his storytelling an integral part of Astafy's life, but this time, instead abilities. When the narrator's coat is stolen, Astafy of running from his guest, Astafy decided "there and begins a tale about a thief he had the dubious plea- then to be his only provider and benefactor." sure of knowing two years earlier. Astafy tried to teach Yemelyan a trade; none One evening at a pub, Astafy met a vagabond could be found at which he was adept. Astafy tried drunkard for whom he felt overwhelming pity, so to make Yemelyan look reputable; his coat remained Astafy allowed the man to stay the night in his own torn and tattered. Astafy tried to make Yemelyan lodgings. One night turned into two, two into three, give up drinking; he "just heaved a sigh" and his and so on, until the drunkard, Yemelyan Ilyich, "blue lips started quivering all of a sudden and a became a permanent figure in Astafy's life. tear rolled down his pale cheek and trembled on his Yemelyan was quiet and gentle but could not be stubby chin." One day, Astafy casually mentioned a trusted to spend a single ruble on anything but pair of blue checkered riding breeches he hoped to drink. Although Astafy was "dreadfully sorry for the sell for fifteen rubles. That evening, he found poor fellow" and could not throw him out into the Yemelyan extremely drunk and the breeches miss-


ing. Both Yemelyan and his landlady denied taking Crime and Punishment. The idea of at them, and later the sober Yemelyan helped look for the moment of death for fear of retribution is also them. Astafy finally apologized:"I am sorry if, fool common in Dostoevski and evident in the character that I am, I've accused you unjustly." Despite his of Svidrigalov in Crime and Punishment and in words, however, Astafy developed an intense dislike early editions of WHITE NIGHTS:"I am told that the for Yemelyan. He felt betrayed, but still he pitied the proximity of punishment arouses real repentance in man, whose drinking continued to become worse the criminal and sometimes awakens a feeling of and for whom sulking had become a habit. genuine remorse in the most hardened heart; 1 am Knowing he wasn't trusted, Yemelyan left."He told this is due to fear?' wasn't to be found anywhere:gone, vanished!" There is also in THE HONEST THIEF a love of Astafy was worried until, after five days, Yemelyan humanity's poor and wretched, which is also evident returned, obviously driven home by hunger. Feeling in the writing of Charles Dickens, one of more pity than ever before, Astafy offered him a Dostoevski's favorite authors. And, like Gregor Samsa drink, which, to his dismay, Yemelyan refused, in Franz Kafka's THE METAMORPHOSIS, Yemelyan declaring that he was ill. Astafy put hhn to bed and seems to have some special knowledge of life's cared for him. As he lay dying, Yemelyan had one meaning, a meaning of which only the wretched last piece of business to take care of: he confessed seem conscious. This insight is also evident in the to the theft of Astafy's breechesand died. title character in Herman Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener." Dostoevski's Yemelyan also parallels Comparison: THE HONEST THIEF has a typical Melville's Bartleby in the sudden way each arrives Dostoevski character in Yemelyan, who cannot on the scene and their tenacious presence. Finally, resist temptation under any circumstances. This is Astafy parallels Bartleby's employer in their mutual his tragedy, as it is the tragedy of Raskolnikov in compassion, pity, and desire to understand.-.JAC.

DOSTOMIKII, ry000n. WHITE RIGHTS. Russia Notes from Underground,"White Nights,""The Dream of aRidiculous Man,"and Selections from "The House of the Dead:' New York: New American Library,1961. Translated by Andrew R. MacAndrew.

Author: See THE DREAM OF A RIDICULOUS MAN. She has agreed to wait, for he promises,"When I come back, if you still love me, 1 swear we'll be Story: A young man, the story's narrator, bemoans happy." During their nightly meetings to escape the state of alienation and isolation in which he their loneliness, Nastenka shares all this with the finds himself as the people of St. Petersburg vacate narrator, along with her hopes, dreams, and desires. the city for the summer. Not realizing that his isola- He too shares his past and his feelings with her, and, tion is self-imposed, he feels a personal sense of despite her request to the contrary, he falls in love betrayal:"Why, they were deserting me for their with her. summer places." During one of his evening walks, The narrator reveals this love when Nastenka's he comes upon a young girl, Nastenka, crying as she young man returns to St. Petersburg and fails to con- stands by an embankment. Like him, she is lonely, tact her, despite her having sent a letter the narrator but hers is a lovelorn loneliness imposed by separa- unselfishly helped her write. In her moment of tion from her love, the young lodger in the attic despair, she returns the narrator's vow:"I do love room of her grandmother's house. Her loverhas him but I'll get over it.... I'm already getting over it. gone to Moscow for a year to attend tobusiness. .. Iiove you.... Yes-1 love youI Iove you the


way you love me." He agrees to move into the room depiction of a hazy, dreamlike St. Petersburg, as if it vacated by the lodger, and they excitedly make were a fairy tale setting. plans for the future. The same youthful enthusiasm depicted by Suddenly, the lodger appears. Nastenka runs to Conrad gives rise to passions rooted in unthinking him, then back to the narrator, then back to the haste and unrestrained outpourings of emotion in lodger, and,"Still without uttering a word... caught WHITE NIGHTS: his hand, and hurried away with him." A new morning dawns, appropriately raining he deceives himself and winds up by believing that and dreary, and the young narrator receives a letter he is moved by true, live passion, that there is sub- from Nastenka in which she begs forgiveness for stanceflesh and bloodto his fancies! And it is hurting him. His reaction is one of great understand- quite a deception!! Just look at him and see for your- ing, compassion, and insight:"So may the sky lie self Can you believe looking at him, Nastenka, that cloudless over you, and your smile be bright and he doesn't even know the woman he loved so pas- carefree; be blessed for the moment of bliss and sionately in his sultry flights of fancy. hvpiness you gave to another heart, a lonely and a grateful one." More importantly, however, he ends This is not unlike the passion portrayed by the nine- with an affwmation of love and self-sacrifice:"My teenth-century American short story writer God, a moment of bliss. Why, isn't that enough for a Fitz-James O'Brien in "The Diamond Lens," the tale whole lifetime?" of a young man who goes to emotional and criminal extremes for the love of a girl seen in an idyllic Comparison: The theme of this story, subtitled "A world encased in a drop of water viewed through a Sentimental Novel from the Memoirs of a Dreamer," powerful microscope lens. recounts the poignancy and delicate charm of a The tone can be likened to that of Edith quixotic state of existence. It is most often sympa- Wharton's Ethan Frome, although without the ulti- thetic to the dreamer who would trade all worldly mate despair. Dostoevski's narrator says,"I am fantasies for a single, fleeting moment of true happi- reduced to celebrating anniversaries because I no ness. The youthful exuberance with which the story longer have anything with which to replace even opens and sustains itself"It was a marvelous these silly, flimsy dreams. For dreams, Nastenka, night, the sort of night one only experiences when have to be renewed too." Life offers at the very least one is young"is most immediately reminiscent of celebration of the imagination, of the internal work- 's "Youth," in which all that occurs, ings of the artist painting and controlling his own thq most dangerous and life-threatening situations, existence. Like Ethan Frome's dreams, the narrator's is.adventuresome and exciting. One also hears sad dreams also change and fade, leaving only mem- echoes of Conrad's in Dostoevski's ories. JAG

DOVE-DANONIAII, MABEL. THE TORN VEIL Ghana A Selection of African Prose. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964.

Author: In 1952, Mabel Dove-Danquah was the Story: ME TORN VEIL is a ghost story in the tra- first woman elected to the Gold Coast Legislative dition of Washington Irving. In this case, the inno- Assembly. She was educated in Ghana and in cent victim of the evildoer comes back from the England and has been a practicing journalist and grave to seek, and find, a fitting revenge. editor of the Accra Evening News. Ten years ago, Kwame Asante married Akosua under the Native Customary law, a civil law that ANNOTATIONS

"needs disinfecting, for though it aids theman to advantage. No one blames a man for marryingagain gain his desire when it is at its fiercest, it does inno when his first wife has run away. After the wedding way safeguard the position of the woman when the guests depart, Kwame steps onto the veranda fora man's passion abates." Over those past tenyears, bit of air. Upon returning, he sees a figure in bridal Kwame has become an important man in thecom- finery resting on the settee:"She lifted her head. munity and is considering entering the towncoun- Asante blinked rapidly. He rubbed his eyes. Was he cil. A "cloth woman" might have been adequateten drunk or dreaming? Akosua was looking at him years ago, but now, he convinces himself, he shyly. He remembered that look; it had charmed deserves better. He has decided to marry a "frock him again and again.... Had he really left this lady" in a Christian church ceremony. cameo in ebony for that other common-place girl? Kwame confronts Akosua in a bitter scene in 'I must have been mad.' He stretched out hisarms. which he self-righteously offers herone hundred `Akosua, forgive me: She smiled and beckonedto pounds to go away."You are only entitled to him." In an almost comic scene, Kwame chases twenty-five pounds," he reminds her,"and here Iam Akosua about the room until he trips and falls, hit- out of kindness offering you a hundred. Showsome ting his head. gratitude, Akosua." She spurns his money and threat- The next morning he is found dead,"a flimsy bit ens to leave. He cannot allow that. A potential town of a torn bridal veil tightly clenched inone fist. Joy councilman must keep up appearances. He threat- was in his countenance." Nearby lies a stack of ens her:"If you leave this house without my knowl- unread congratulatory messages. Among them isa edge and permission, I shall claim every penny I telegram that reads,"To Kwame Asante, Adabraska. have spent on you since I married and lived with Your wife Akosua died 10 a.m. today." you these ten years; and not only that but I shall claim all the presents I have given to your parents Comparison:Supernatural forces are often and other relatives." In spite of these threats, the shown interceding in human affairs, not uncom- next day Akosua leaves with the children. Far from monly by aiding those seeking revenge againstgreat being distressed, Kwame sends his father-in-lawa wrongs. Such literature ranges from the comical bill for three hundred and fifty pounds and begins "The Legend of Hollow" to themore serious scheming how he will marry his "frock lady" and Don Giovanni and Dante's The Divine Comedy win Akosua back too:"I can then have one wife in This use of divine intervention to aid in the attain- Akwapim and another in Accraafter all, ment of revenge can be compared with supernatur- monogamy is all humbug." al intervention in other stories for otherpurposes, At this point, the narrator inserts an analysis of as, for example, in "Young Goodman Brown " by Kwame's character:" [Hel had foundered in his Nathaniel Hawthorne and "Markheim" by Robert sense of values; the western impact on his mentality Louis Stevenson. Those stories of "salvation"can be had sent it all askew. He would have beenvery further compared to stories in which divine inter- much surprised if an outspoken friend had told him vention appears in the form of "temptation,"as in that he was neither a Christian nor a gentleman, and Stephen Vincent Benét's " and Daniel that Akosua had far finer instincts and culture than Webster" and Christopher Marlowe's Dr Faustus. he; but fortunately for him his friends could notsee THE TORN VEIL is also an attack upona partic- farther than himselfso he was happy in his good ular social tradition. In this regard, it can becom- opinion of himself." pared to more subtle handling of the same kind of The marriage to the "frock lady" takes place, message, such as in "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson and Kwame turns Akosua's "desertion" to hisown and "Battle Royal" by Ralph Ellison. BaN


ENWEI4131,CYPRIAN.THE GREATBEYOND. Nigeria Restless City and Christmas Gold.London: Heinemann, 1975.

born in All she knows is that "when myhusband looked at Author: Cyprian Ekwensi (1921-) was seemed to happen to me. I northern Nigeria and educated at theSchool of me like that, something studied pharmacy was looking at things, picturesbefore my eyes ... Forestry in Ibadan, after which he but taught biology, chem- just like in a cinema. He did not talk to me, at London University. He has before me:' The only expla- istry, and English and has worked as apharmacist every wish of his I saw He has also nation she can offer is that Ikolo described"a long with the Nigerian Medical Corporation. with white Corporation journey beyond death" leading to "a hall worked for the Nigerian Broadcasting Great director of information in clouds" in the midst of which was "some as head of features and as amends for all Lagos. He Power" that "sent him back to make the Federal Ministry of Information in the resigned his position at the outbreak of war todo he had done wrongf Failure to donate to church was evidently one of the things hedid the same work in the East. He thenreturned to his profession as a pharmacist. His stories andnovels wrong. between pre-independence in As she speaks, Jokeh, like Ikolo, seems to grow are set in West Africa younger,"even younger than Ikolo." She hashad a the fifties and modern times. His workincludes the Beautiful great experience, one allhumankind would like to novels Burning Grass, Nop le of the City, had been there Feathers, and Jagua Nana and two storycollec- share. She "contacted someone who the Great Beyond, and who catne back totell." tions, Lokotown and Restless City andChristmas ... to She leaves to prepare for her ownanxiously await- Gold. ed departure to the "Great Beyond." of the Story: THE GREAT BEYOND is a story in the supernaturalthe story of Ikolo's sudden return Comparison: THE GREAT BEYOND is told funeral pro- style of a tall tale. The tone is appropriateto the from the dead in the middle of his own of the "Great cession. The note of lightness struck inthe first sen- absurdity of the situation. The glimpse Beyond" and the "Great Power" is not detailed,but tence never falters:"He has alwayssaid that on the backif only to neither is it the point of the story. Thetheme is a day of his death he would come that there is life after have his last laugh." When Ikolo beginsbanging very simple and common one: death, during which people will be judgedaccord- with all his might against his coffmlid, the pastor ing to the deeds of their life on earth;however, and the son of the undertaker pry it open.Ikolo, and asks there will also be an opportunity, atleast for some, looking "much too young," sits up, sneezes, they may have for Jokeh, his wife."He looked at herfor perhaps to make retribution for the wrongs half-an-hour, during which time he said not aword:' committed. tumbles back into his Other "tall tales" of supernaturalretribution At the end of that time, lkolo Sleepy coffin, the procession continues to the cemetery, include the popular "The Legend of Hollow" by Washington Irving, A ChristmasCarol and Ikolo is buried. VEIL by Two weeks later, Jokeh approaches astranger by Charles Dickens, and THE TORN have paid her Mabel Dove-Danquah. They are told withthe and demands the money he was to and all suggest more than husband. No one knew of the debt exceptIkolo same mock-seriousness, the money to they reveal about supernatural events.A far more and the stranger himself.Jokeh takes of the rela, the pastor, who is surprised by thedonation."1 do serious story dealing with questions tionship between death and life isWilliam not understand this,' the pastorsays.1 mean no but was he all Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily:' in whichthe "haunt- harm to your husband's memory ... circumstances that religious?'"Jokeh does notunderstand either. ing" takes place in recognizable


and with psychological credibility that adds a chill As a story of repentance, one might compare not present in similar themes handled with ME GREAT BEYOND to "Markheim" by Robert humor. Students familiar with the works of Louis Stevenson and to several works by Nathaniel and many modern "horror" movies Hawthorne, including The Scarlet Letter Each could probably draw many comparisons and con- invites the reader to think about the advantages of trasts between the styles of Ekwensi, Irving, mending one's ways while still on earth, rather than Faulkner, Dove-Danquah, and the more modern taking a chance on beneficent kindness beyond the works. grave. -BHN

PENG 31CAI. THE MAO BUTTON. China World Writers Today. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995. Translated by Susan Wilf Chen.

Author: Born and reared in Tianjin, China, Feng neighbor, he acquires a "five-and-a-half," weighing at Jicai first trained as an athlete, but later worked at least half a pound. the Chinese Traditional Painting Press. Both an artist Beaming with pride the next day, he pins the and a writer, he taught Chinese traditional painting button onto the back of his denim jacket. He is at the Tianjin Workers' College of Decorative Art such a sensation that a crowd gathers around him. and later became vice chairman of a branch of the In squirming his way out, he hears a clank and rec- Chinese Writers' Association. Since 1976, he has ognizes it as the sound of the button falling. published three novels: The Barers, Magic Light, Frantically looking for it, he steps back and fmds and The Miraculous Pigtail. THE MAO BUITON is himself committing the worst of offenses: stepping taken from Chtysanthemums and Other Stories, on a portrait of Chairman Mao. The consequences one of his six collections of short stories and novel- he suffers contrast sharply with a subsequent era, ettes. when not a single Mao button would be seen across the country. Story:In the heyday of Mao, the worker Kong had only one aspiration: he wanted to get the most "stu- Comparison: This archetypal story of pendous" Mao button, at least a "three-and-a-half." He self-destructive greed is the story of King Midas stops bypassers to ask for the buttons they wear from Greek mythology. Midas too desires the largest and wanders far in search of button traders. After a and the most of everything, which for him is sym- near scrape with a man who tries to coerce him bolized by the golden toucheverything he touch- into getting a huge novelty button that lights up on es turns to gold. Unfortunately, this gift turns to mis- battery power, he returns home to find out from his fortune when he finds that the food he touches also wife that the best supplier lives next door. From this turns into gold. M L


FLAUBERT, GUSTAVE. A SIMPLE HEART. France Literature of the Western World. New York: Macmillan, 1984. Translated by Arthur McDowall.

Author: Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) was born killed, her mother died, her sisters went their own in Rouen, in and near which he spent most of his ways, her abortive relationship with Theodore alien- life, although he traveled extensively. He studied ated her from him, Victor dies while a merchant sea- law, but his inclination from an early age was the man, Paul leaves home as a young man of the world, creation of fictionmeticulously written, objective- and Virginia dies. The lone break in this steady suc- ly handled, and well researched. cession of losses over the years has been Félicite's Following some youthful association with parrot, Loulou. Still, although Félicité attends to the Romantics like , Flaubert chose to write parrot's every need, just as she did the needs of "realist" fiction and set about honing his craft. everyone else in her life, Loulou dies too, followed Madame Bovary (1848) was his first published and soon by Mme. Aubain. most important novel. It also proved to be his most Fortunately, Félicite had taken Mme. Aubain's controversial, treating as it does the extramarital advice to have Loulou stuffed. Thus, Felicité is not affair and eventual suicide of Emma Bovary. Of his totally alone. As her eyes begin to fail, she begins other works, some with realistically treated histori- confusing the stuffed parrot with the Holy Ghost. cal subjects, the book called Three Tales, published Finally, alone in an empty house, with no one to in 1877, remains his most popular. Each of the col- care for her, Félicité becomes very ill. As she dies, lection's "Herodias,""The Legend of she imagines she sees a parrot in the heavens open- St. Julian the Hospitaler," and A SIMPLE HEARTis ing above her. quite different from the otliers. Comparison: A SIMPLE HEART is a moving, Story:Félicite, whose name in French means "hap- sometimes comic, story, arguably Flaubert's best. piness," has had but one "affair of the heart" in her Felicite's simplicity is both her handicap and her lifetime. At age eighteen, she fell in love with salvation. Hers is a perfect example of a life that Theodore, but he deceived and deeply hurt her. With would have been miserable had it been lived by all her belongings in a single handkerchief, she left anyone else. for Pont l'Eveque, where she met and became the The story may be compared with Sherwood servant of Mme. Aubain, a widow with two children. Anderson's "Death in the Woods," since that story During her fifty years with the Aubains, Félicité too has in it a life lived totally in subservience to the knows happiness the kind of happiness only one needs of others, with no real personal satisfaction as simple as she and as willing In have as little in life except that contrived by a simple mind. Silas, in as she does could possibly tolerate. She loves the Robert Frost's "Death of the Hired Man," is another children, Paul and Virginia, and she loves Mme. such character. Aubain. She also loves Mr. Bourais, a retired lawyer A SIMPLE HEART can be contrasted with who manages the Aubains' affairs, and she loves her Madame Bovary, for what Félicite and Emma do in nephew, Victor. life and expect of it contains the core of their sto- A SIMPLE HEART is a story of loss. All her life, ries. That the characters are almost total opposites Félicité has lost everyone she loved: her father was makes for an effective comparison. R S


FRANCE, ANATOLE. THE PROCURATOR OF ZUDEA. France Bedside Book of Famous French Stories. New York: Random House, 1945. Translated by Frederic Chapman.

Author: , the pen name of Jacques leading to the founding of a great religion illus- Anatole Francois Thibault (184411924), French nov- trates the relativity of historical and religious per- elist, poet, and critic, was born in Paris. His father ceptions. had a bookshop, and his mother, a devout Catholic, tutored him, stimulating his imagination with stories Comparison: The irony of the Procurator's hav- from the and legends of saints. At college, he ing forgotten Jesus could be compared with that studied the classics. As a young man, he abandoned found in Thomas Hardy's poem "God-Forgotten." In his faith in Catholicism. His urbane cynicism is a dialogue between God and an inquisitive mortal, reflected in his writing, and his style is sophisticat- God at first is unable to recall ever having created ed, subtle, and ironic. A major force in French litera- the earth or the human race. This poem, like most ture, he produced a prodigious number of works of Hardy's work, reflects the author's loss of reli- and was elected to the French Academy in 1896, gious faith. four years after publishing THE PROCURATOR OF THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA has been cited JUDEA. A socialist, he risked his literary and acade- as expressing Anatole France's religious disillusion- mic reputation to defend Zola's position in the ment."The Legend of " from Dreyfus affair. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Dostoevski's The Brothers Karamazov illustrates a Literature in 1921. similar theme through a story about a second prose- cution of Christ. The intellectual atheist Ivan tells Story: A Roman patrician, Aelius Lamia, while con- his religious brother Alyosha the legend of Christ's valescing at the Baths of Baiae, encounters the ailing return to earth during the Inquisition. He is put on Pontius Pilate. Twenty years earlier, Lamia had spent trial and condemned again, this time by the Catholic ten years in Jerusalem with Pilate, then Procurator Church. Christ responds to the sentence by kissing of Judea. The two discuss Rome and its colonies, the prosecutor who, unlike Pilate, releases him, especially the Procurator's turbulent experiences telling him never to return. with the Jews, which led to his early retirement. The story of Pilate's role in the crucifixion of Pilate's long-standing resentment of the rebellious Jesus is central to Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Hebrews and his insensitivity to their culture are Master and Margarita. A Mephistophelean charac- evident as he defends his official actions. Lamia ter overhears two modern Russians' discussion of desCribes a more poskive relationship with this Jesus as a mythological, not historical, figure. He dis- sect, especially with an attractive woman who later agrees, relating to them the story of Pilate's role in became a follower of a young Galilean named Jesus. the crucifixion, which he claims to have witnessed. This recollection leads him to ask Pilate for informa- This tale, which parallels the Biblical one in its tion about the crime resulting in this man's crucifix- major points, is also the plot of a novel written by ion. Pontius Pilate searches his memory, then mur- another character, the Master. The emphasis is upon murs, "Jesusof Nazareth? I cannot call him to Pilate's desire to save Yeshua (Jesus), as contrasted mind." to his act of condemnation. Certain pointed references lead the reader to In Tintoretto's painting Christ Before Pilate, expect a discussion of Christ's crucifixion and Pilate washes his hands as a symbolic gesture that the traditional Biblical perspective of Pilate's the decision of Christ's fate belongs to the crowd, reluctance to condemn him. The shatp irony of not him. It could be used to represent the tradition- the Procurator's having forgotten an incident al treatment of Pilate's role. MAF


FUENTES, CARLOS. THE TWO ELEINAS. Mexico The Eye of the Heart: Short Stories from Latin America. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973.

Author: (1928-) was born in Story: The story is essentially a study in contrasts, . His father, Rafael Fuentes Boettinger, narrated by a man with knowledge of both of the was a career diplomat. Consequently, Fuentes grew title characters, his wife and his mother-in-law. The up outside Mexico. He learned English at the age of story begins at a Sunday luncheon, attended by the four while his father served in Washington, D.C. He narrator and his wife at the home of her parents. also lived in such diverse cities as Rio de Janeiro, The immediate conflict is expressed in the first sen- Buenos Aires, Montevideo, and Quito. tence: the difference in ideology and temperament Fuentes received excellent schooling through- between mother and daughter. The mother is a typi- out his childhood and attended both the Colégio de cal bourgeois woman, content with the status quo. Mexico and the National University of Mexico, from The daughter is a revolutionary, desperate to break which he received a law degree. He later studied free of the rigid and regimented life to discover all economics at the Institute of Higher International of the world's pleasures. Studies in . The narrator regresses to discuss some of the Fuentes has served in a number of government steps his wife has taken to escape the mold, reveal- posts, including secretary of the Mexican delegation ing that she has stopped short of a ménage a trois to the International Labor Organization, head of the only because society expects her to have an affair. department of cultural relations for the Ministry of During the luncheon, it becomes clear that mother , secretary of the Mexican delegation and daughter cannot communicate, that only the to the International Law Commission of the United narrator can serve as a bridge between them, under- Nations, and cultural attaché to the Mexican Embassy standing both worlds. It also becomes obvious that in Switzerland. the relationship between the narrator and his moth- Fuentes's political career and his political lean- er-in-law, the older Elena, is not a simple family rela- ings are all reflected in his work. His first novel, tionship. The last paragraph reveals that the narra- Where the Air Is Clean is both a portrait of Mexico tor loves and is loved by both Elenas, a surprising City and a portrayal of the things that are wrong in end to a story whose narrator has seemingly been Mexican society. The Death of Artemio Cruz, per- against infidelity. haps his best novel, is a panorama of Mexican histo- ry. His most controversial novel,A Change of Skin, Comparison. The juxtaposition of two characters was banned in Spain as "Communistic, pro-Jewish, who represent different values is found in a number and anti-German." Fuentes attempts to point out the of literary works. Even the device of using relatives, Mexican identity, and the flaws in that identity, and such as twins, or people with identical names in has been criticized in Mexico and elsewhere for his such a fashion is standard. Examples include the political views. contrasting characters of Robert Cohn and Pedro His other works include a volume of short Romero in Hemingway's , archi- stories, Los Dias Enmascarados; two plays, Todos tects Peter Keating and Howard Roark in Ayn los Gatos Son Pardos and El Tuerto Es Rey; a Rand's The Fountainhead, Frank Shallard and Elmer number of political writings; and an important Gantry in 's Elmer Gantry and work on the Latin American novel, La Nueva Charles Darnay and Carton in Dickens's Novela Hispanoamericana. Fuentes continues to A Tale of Two Cities. write and must be considered one of Mexico's What allows the concept of juxtaposition to greatest writers. work effectively in this story is the irony generated


by the affair between the narrator and the older who only thinks about doing so. The story thus Elena. Although she is conservative and cautious illustrates Fuentes's favorite subjects: the hypocrisy and her daughter is adventuresome and worldly, it is of the Mexican bourgeoisie and the falsity of the the mother who takes a lover, not her daughter, revolution trying to change Mexican society c w

GIDE. ANDRE. THE RETURN OP THE PRODIGAL SON. France Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. New York: Norton, 1992. Translated by Wallace Fowlie.

Author: André Gide (1869-1951) was a French guished writers, Francis Janunes and Paul Claudel, novelist, essayist, critic, playwright, and editor. The had made vigorous but unsuccessful attempts to only child of a rich but puritanical family, he rebelled bring their fellow author Mto the fold of against his narrow Protestant upbringing. Although Catholicism, and Gide felt the need to reply. In a let- Gide read the gospels regularly he questioned tradi- ter to his friend Christian Beck, he explained his feel- tional institutions and rejected conventional ideas ings that a return to the church, symbolized by the and modes of behavior. Because of his homosexuali- ancestral home in the story, would be a defeat for ty and his advice to young people to reject estab- him as an individual. To Gide, individualism and cre- lished norms and to seek new experiences, his ene- ative freedom were not possible inside the confining mies accused him of corrupting youth. boundaries of religious or intellectual systems. That A richly talented author, he produced more was the reason he had the prodigal son encourage than eighty works, publishing THE RETURN OF his younger brother to go out into the world alone THE PRODIG,4L SON in 1907. Search for self is a and experience life, no matter what the cost. major theme in his writing. Founder and editor of the influential literary magazine La Nouvelle Revue Comparison.- The motif of the return of the Française, he achieved a considerable reputation as prodigal son found in the Bible is prevalent in the a writer and thinker. He was awarded the Nobel arts. For example, it is the subject and title of a Prize for Literature in 1947. painting by Jean Baptiste Greuze and an oratorio by Arthur Sullivan. Story: Gide follows the Biblical parable's narrative Gide's addition of the two characters expands except for the addition of two characters, the mother the meaning of . The mother symbolizes and a younger brother. A young man from a wealthy love and security', and the younger son represents family leaves home to lead a life of adventure and the desire for uninhibited experience. Although the depravity. After spending his inheritance and ending prodigal son in both Gide's story and the Bible is up in menial servitude to a cruel master, he returns penitent, the revision permits Gide to convey his home destitute. His father and mother receive him belief that an artist must have complete freedom. warmly, but his elder brother berates him. The prodi- The theme of rebellion against any estaEished gal son responds gratefully to his parents' loving authority inhibiting individualism permeates mod- reception. Yet when his younger brother reveals the ern literature. In James Joyce's novel A Portrait of desire to run away, he encourages the boy to forget the Artist as a Young Man, Stephen Dedalus rejects the family and go into the world, never to return. family ties, nationalism, and Catholicism in order to In a monograph on this work, Aldyth Thain assert his identity as an artist. Eugene Gant, the pro- explains the origin of the story in detail. It was writ- tagonist of Thomas Wolfe's autobiographical novel ten as a work of self-justification in response to a Look Homeward, Angel, also is a rebel as he search- campaign to convert Gide to Catholicism. Two distin- es for self and meaning in life. The genre of the


German , which depicts the personal reaction to the return of a younger sister after a few development of an individual, includes many works years away from home. Much like the elder brother with this same theme. in Gide's story and the Biblical parable, the older In 's short story "Why I Live at the sister's jealousy results in animosity directed at her PO.," a grown daughter resents the family's joyous sibling. -MAF

GORDINER, NADINE. LITTLE WILLIE. South Mrica Friday's Footprint and Other Stories. New York: Viking, 1960.

Author: Nadine Gordimer was born in South town where her father was town clerk, the poor Mrica in the 1920s. She was educated in convent whites of the town were the railway gangmen and schools and at the University of Witwatersrand in their families who lived in one mean street of corru- Johannesburg. Her first novel, The Lying Days gated-iron cottages.... The name of the street was (1954), helped establish her international reputa- not only the synonym of poverty, it was a name-call- tion as a writer. Since then, she has become one of ing epithet for all standards that fell below those of the leading voices among white writers in Mrica the town clerk's family and the friends who lived and has received numerous literary prizes, including and thought as they did:' the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1991. Among the Uncle Basile continues to insist that Little Willie writers who influenced her she acknowledges I). H. watches every move Denise makes. He identifies a Lawrence, Henry James, and Ernest Hemingway. She family trip to a regatta as the first time Little Willie is best known for her imaginative and compassion- saw Denise. Of a gang of urchins there, she remem- ate portrayals of the way in which the political situ- bers "one of the dirtiest, with round patches of ring- ation in her home country affects both past and worm showing on his head." In despair, she pleads present human relations. She has traveled widely, with her uncle,"He doesn't know me! He doesn't!" and her work appears regularly in American and But Uncle Basile persists."Sometimes when Uncle English periodicals. A prolific short story writer, she Basile took the family out in his car, he would slow is also the author of numerous novels, including A down incomprehensibly. When he had crawled Guest of Honor (1970), along for half a block, someone would say,'What's (1974), Burger's Daughter (1979), andJuly's People the matter?' ... Then ... he would say casually'l (1981). thought I'd give poor Little Willie a chance to get a look at Denise:" The fabric of the young girl's life Story: LITTLE WILLIE is something of a mystery slowly changes."She tried to remember never to story. The reader never meets Little Willie, nor finds smile in the street; it was her way of showing him out for certain whether he exists beyond a social his place." stereotype. Physical child or not, he profoundly The final betrayal occurs when her mother affects eight-year-old Denise, whose revulsion joins in the teasing."Denise had thoughtor rather toward him turns her into a lifelong snob. acceptedthat forever, in everything, her mother It is Denise's Uncle Basile who first mentions would be on her side." Instead of becoming more Little Willie."He knows you," Uncle Basile says."He desperate or vulnerable, however,"the fact that her never talks about anything else but you." Pressed by mother was no longer with her produced a harden- Denise for more details, Uncle Basile confides that ing in Denise that became her armor against, and Little Willie lives"in Railroad Avenue," and the hor- finally defeated Little Willie. She did not care, any ror for Denise begins."In the gold-mining Transvaal more, if he saw her smile in the street. She did not


care if he was watching her. She despised him. What fine as this. Earned brscom and disdain, it was like a cheek he had, a hopeless cheek, to look at her All nothing she had ever been given before ...and her embarrassment fell away; she scarcely thought when she peeled the gold paper off the first choco- alout him." late and put it in her mouth, the cherry inside *as An incident at the end of the story establishes the fruit of knowledge on her tongue." her attitude of superiority and snobbery forever. As she is about to leave town with her family,2 porter Comparison' LYME WILUE is a story of child- hands her a beautifully wrapped br c of candies hood initiation, an initiation into the cruel knowl- "from Little Willie."She thought of a group of edge of adulthood. In that regard, it can be com- ragged children; of a bony-headed boy, looking on at pared to VENGEFUL CREDITOR by Chinua Achebe, her pleasures and triumphs. A dirty boy without "Paul's Case" by Willa Cather,and"Battle Royal" by shoes. She was ashamed of him. She would never Ralph Ellison. It is also a story of social prejudice, speak to him or look at him; and he knew this. But whether based on economic status (as in this the present in her lap was not to be resisted. No story), skin color (as in Abrahams's EPISODE IN one whom she had loved, been kind to, or tried to MALAY CAMP), or gender (as in Dove-Danquah's please had ever rewarded her with something as THE TORN VEIL). -BHN

GORDINIBR, NADINE. A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE. South Africa A Soldier's Embrace: Stories. Baltimore: Penguin,1982.

Author: See LITTLE WILLIE. dear that even this couple doesn't quite fit into the new society. Without ever explicitly admitting to Story: A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE, set in an imaginary themselves why they are doing so, the lawyer and South Africa, portrays the dilemma faced by a liberal his wife prepare to move to an adjoining country white couple shortly after black South Africans still controlled by whites. As they leave and wave to have at last gained political power. As she returns their former servant, the right words fail to come. home amid the street celebrations of the cease-fire, a woman is swept into the arms of two soldiers, one Comparison: Many of Nadine Gordimer's stories white and one black. Without thinking, she kisses trace with sensitivity and insight the complexity of each of them on the cheek, exchanges a few unin- human relationships in a time of political and racial telligible words, and passes on. tension. Although the setting here is clearly South The woman and her lawyer husband are elated Africa, the themes are much broader, and the story at the political developments. The husband is well may serve as a useful counterpoint to any tale of known for having defended many black leaders in race relations. A particularly effective comparison is the past, and he has every reason to expect to be offered by Flannery O'Connor's"Revelation," set in consulted by the new political regime. As the cou- the American South, in which a white woman ple watch many of the whites around them sudden- comes to terms with her own conflicting emotions ly try to appear more liberal, they are secure in the about blacks and whites. knowkdge that they have always been on the "right The brief embrace between the woman and the side." Yet many of their former black friends seem two men in the story comes to symbolize the hope strangely reluctant V. visit or talk with them now, for racial harmony, set against an ultimate failure of and their black servant is afraid to visit the market communication. Gordirner returns to the scene because he works for them. Gradually, it becomes again and again in the course of the story, as the


woman continues to recall it in increasingly greater moment, the woman allowed herself a freedom she detail. The embrace becomes a subtle but powerful fears her husband might see as license, and so she symbol of sexual tensions between the races as represses the details in retelling the incident. Here well, of power and domination, of the politics of too repression and the failure of communication force on a basic human level. Caught up in the reflect a larger thematic social tension. B NI

GRACE, PATRICIA. A WAY OF TALKING. New Zealand Maori Selected Stories. , New Zealand: Penguin, 1991.

Author: Maori author (1937-) was Story: Set in the , A WAY OF TALKING is born in Wellington, New Zealand. She is of Ngati told from the point of view of Hera, the older sister. Raukawa, Ngati Toa, and Te Ati Awa descent and is The younger sister, Rose, is home from university affiliated with Ngati Porou by marriage. After teach- While the older sister has been planning her wed- ing in primary and secondary schools, she pub- ding, the younger sister has been involved in univer- lished a collection of short stories, Waiariki, in sity demonstrations for Maori rights. When the two 1975, the first collection of stories by a Maori of them go to see Jane Frazer, the Pakeha dressmak- woman writer. The Dream Sleepers, her second er, Rose asserts herself against a subtle form of racial short story collection, was published in 1980. Her prejudice.Jane does not know the names of the third collection, Electric City and Other Stories, Maori workers because their names are too difficult was published in 1987. Selected Stories appeared in to pronounce, while the Maoris know her name. 1991, and her la'rest collection, The Sky People, Rose insists that they walk out of Frazer's home. appeared in 1994. She has also written several chil- The older sister questions her own inability to stand dren's books: Me Kuia and the Spider (1981), win- up for herself and her people: "All my life I had ner of the Children's Picture Book of the Year been sitting back and letting her do the objecting.... Award in 1982; Watercress Tuna and the Children And how can the likes of Jane know when we go of Champion Street (1985); The Trolley (1993); and round pretending all is well. How can Jane know Areta and the Kahawai (1994). Her children's sto- us?" Hera notes that the Maoris, particularly the ries have appeared in numerous anthologies and older people, are equally prejudiced in their behav- journals. She also wrote the text of Wahine Toa ior. The sister-to-sister discussion about knowing (1984), which celebrates women in Maori mytholo- the time and place to use racial terms is poignant gy. In addition, she has written several novels: and relevant. By thc end of the story, Hera finally Mutuwhenua, the Moon Sleeps (1978); Potiki understands Rose's courage and loneliness in stand- (1986), which won the fiction section of the New ing up for Maori rights. In fact, Hera finally decides, Zealand Book Awards; and Cousins (1992). She was "But my sister won't have to be alone again. I'll let the international guest speaker at the National her know that." Throughout the story members of Council of Teachers of English's annual convention this close-knit family tease one another, and Grace in 1993. Also in 1993, she and Witi Ihimaera, anoth- uses humor to relieve the tension. er Maori writer, participated in the Indigenous Writers Conference in Ottawa, Canada. comparison: Hera's inability to stand up for her- The Maori are the indigenous people of New self and her naiveté regarding the racial situation is Zealand and make up less than ten percent of the similar to that evident in Liliana Heker's "The Stolen population. Those of European descent are called Party." Although one takes place in New Zealand Pakeha. and the other in Argentina, the protagonists in both


stories learn a valuable lesson from other family two ways, then. This is dramatically depicted in Elliott members. Neither wants to believe the obvious Merrick's "Without Words." In Grace's story as well as about racial or economic prejudice, but both Merrick's, there is a lack of communication between become stronger from their growing insight. the races. In Merrick's story this failure to understand Grace's story may also be compared with Ray nearly results in the death of a Native American. Bradbury's "August 2002: Night Meeting." Being able As a story of racial insensitivity and lack of cul- to see an event from two viewpoints, whether tural understanding, one might compare Grace's Maori-Pakeha, older sister-younger sister, or earth- work to Chinua Achebe's African tragedy Things ling-Martian, as in Bradbury's story, questions the Fall Apart. The British District Commissioner clear- validity of any one person's view. Indeed, Hera shouts, ly lacks any inkling of the richness of Ibo life and "We do it too," when Rose accuses others of preju- relegates Okonkwo's suicide to perhaps a "reason- dice. Prejudice and lack of cultural understanding go able paragraph" in his new book. MJ s

HAIIIII NOO-SOOK. SHADOW. Korea Asian and Pacific Short Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1974. Translated by Richard Rutt.

Author: Hahn Moo-sook (1918-) was born in Years later, when they meet again by accident, Seoul and became a well-known writer of fiction he has married.Just to be near him, she moves to during a period when Western influence became Seoul and opens a beauty salon. They meet occasion- pervasive in Korea. Her first ambition was to paint, ally, but she feels fulfillment only once,when they go but she turned to writing instead. In studying prob- to a Buddhist sanctuary. As a result of guilt over his lems of the human condition, she draws from the double life, Yong-ho's health steadily deteriorates. raw material around her and depicts the pain of Son-hui too lives a shadowy existence. She cannot children growing up wayward, the sorrows created even attend his funeral without.some pretext. by war, and the lack of support systems to comfort As the day draws to a close, she is left in com- and help those who suffer. She represented Korea at plete darkness, with nothing in life excep private the International P.E.N. meetings in 1965 and 1969. memories and a memento. Her novels that have been translated into English include In the Depths (1955) and Running Water Comparison: As in many tales of love, the couple Hermitage (1966). in this story meet with obstacles. The way in which the two meet, separate, and meet again without being Story: Son-hui does not want to go to the funeral able to establish an acceptable relationship resembles of her lover. As she hesitates, the day turns dark, and the fantasy in the mind of the protagonist in the story she lies motionless on the floor. ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT WOMAN ONE FINE Her whole life has centered around Yong-ho, APRIL MORNING by Murakami Haruki. In the whom she met twenty years before, when he was a Japanese story, however, it is the couple's own soldier in a Japanese uniform. They fell in love, but choice, not an extraneous circumstance like war, that were separated when he planned to desert. She had causes the separation. When they meet again many borrowed clothes for him and arranged to meet him years later, it is their own diminishei memories, at a crowded train station, but she waited in vain. His rather than an external factor such as a marriage, that battalion was suddenly transferred to another area. prevents the relationship from resuming. M t.

86 71 " _


INANSUK, KIM?. THE CALL OFLIFE. Norway Great Stories by Nobel Prize Winners. New York:The Noonday Press, 1959.

Author: One of the greatest Norwegian writers of persistent reticence. Ellen and her newfound com- modern times, (1859-1952) worked panion spend the night together. at a variety of jobs sheriff, teacher, dockhand,and The next morning, the narrator't. ardor cools dra- peddler, among othersuntil he caused a literary matically as he witnesses something"which even with the publication of his book Hunger in now strikes me as a gruesome dream. I was atthe 1890. As a powerful psychological study of the wash stand. Ellen had some errand or other in the workings of a starving man's mind, the book was at adjoining room, and as she opened the door I turned once realistic, intense, and highlypersonal. Its around and glanced in. A cold draft from the open appearance marked the beginning of Hamsun'slong window in the room rushed in upon me, and in the career as a writer. center of the room I could just make out a corpse His later novelsMysteries, Pan, and stretched out on a table. A corpse, in a coffm, dressed Wanderingswere all widely read, but a particular in white, with a gray beard, the corpse of a manr trilogyChildren of the Age, Segelfoss Town, and On her return, Ellen offers no explanations, nor Growth of the Soilled to his receipt of the Nobel does the narrator question what he has seen. As he Prize for Literature in 1920. Growth of the Soil, in rather hurriedly leaves, however, Ellen urges him to particular, has been highly praised as the greatest return to see her in two days."Why nottomorrow?" novel of peasant life. he asks, partly to test her, and she replies,"Not so Always interested in the individual and what he many questions, dear. I am going to a funeral tomor- believed to be that individual's existential situation, row, a relation of mine is dead. Nowthereyou Hamsun deplored the development of an industrial- have it." Later, after some detective work on his ized, consumer-oriented society. His aversion to own, the narrator learns that therelative is, in fact, what he termed "decadence" in his own beloved Ellen's much older husband, who had died the day Scandinavia led him to suppot t Germany's Nazi before. The narrator's closing lines provide a touch invaders. After the liberation, he was tried and con- of irony: "A man marries. His wife is thirty years victed of treason. Though age enabled him to avoid younger than he. He contracts a lingeringillness. prison, Hamsun lost all his fortune and was made to One fair day he dies. And the young widow undergo involuntary psychiatric examinations. After breathes a sigh of relief." his release from the sanitarfrim, he withdrew to a country estate that had not been taken fromhim, Comparison: The details of the story, while not and it was there that he died. graphic, are realistic enough, and comparison with contemporary novels and television plots and char- Story: Harnsun's choice of first-person suc- acters is inevitable. Exploring the title ofthe story ceeds in maintaining a tone of intimacy between itself provides an interesting essay topic that will speaker :?nd reader throughout this brief story. In fact, force readers to define and justify their attitude the reader feels privy to the details of . toward Ellen's behavior. While walking one evening, the narrator The story is comparable to Kate Chopin's "The encouelers a veiled woman who appears tohave Story of an Hour," in which a wife believes her hus- been waiting for someone, possibly even for the nar- band to have been killed and rejoices at her free- rator himself. 1bere is a genuine sense of mystery as dom. Sympathetic friends assume her tears are tears the woman, who eventually identifies herself as of grief, but they are really tears of relief. Yetthe joy Ellen. leads the narrator to her apartment. Once of that single hour is shattered when her husband there, she throws her arms around him, kissing him walks in the door and the wife dies, not of shock, eagerlybehavior that contrasts sharply with her but of disappointment. -- P 13 L


HAMS, PETROS. LIGHTS 0111 THE SEA. Greece Introduction to Modern Greek Literature: An Anthology of Ffction, Drama, and Poetry. New York: Twayne, 1969. Translated by Mary P Gianos.

Author: Petros Hari's, the pen name of Yiannis dom and of church bells to proclaim the event, Marmariadis (1902-), was born in Athens. He stud- Haris has the islanders, one by one, over a period ied law, but began his successful literary career in of time, climt, the belfry, see the ship, and ring the 1924 with the publication of his short story collec- bell. Each time, however, as people gather in tion The Last Night on Earth. Soon his short stories response, the lights at sea disappeat Haris leaves were being published in literary journals, then in the reader with the idea that, though the desperate book form, including The Longest Night: Chronicle isolation rolls on and on, everyone on the of a Dead City (1969), from which the Gianos trans- believes that some day all of them will see the lation of LIGHTS ON THE SEA is taken. Haris, who lights at sea together. A major work in the area of has been a major figure in the Greek cultural scene antiwar literature, this story, like other Haris sto- during this century, has served as general secretary ries, is presented in a factual way. The author is of the Fine Arts School in Athens and has presided careful to keep his own opinion in low profile, over the National Society of Greek Writers as well allowing the full strength of the message to come as the Association of Greek Theatre and Music through. Critics. He has been the long-time editor of the Greek literary journal Nea Estia and has published Comparison.- Since starvation ruled Greece dur- critical essays and travel accounts such as China ing the World War II German occupation, it is signif- Without Walls (1961). His novel Days of Rage deals icant that the Greeks on this island could feed them- with the Greek Civil War of 1944. selves. But there are other kinds of oppression Stoty: Haris has tied together his series of prose besides lack of food. The high school boy in Willa narratives in The Longest Night with a common Cather's "Paul's Case" is oppressed by what most location in or near Athens and a common timethe would consider a normal, everyday life, so he cre- World War II German occupation of Greece. Writing ates an illusionary world for himself in which he of the suffering of forgotten occupation victims, can be what he wants to be. In Doris Lessing's "A Haris has made the setting a vital element. Woman on a Roof," a woman who wants the basic The story takes place on a tiny island in the freedoms of movement and privacy is oppressed by Saronic Gulf, inhabited by only 250 people, cut off the sex-oriented stares and fantasies of some con- from the world and their German conquerors, lack- struction workers. Oppression is real rather than ing even radio contact. There is no principal char- psychological or emotional in Nadine Gordimer's acter. Instead, Haris gives the reader a glimpse of "The Train from Rhodesia," in which the main char- the island idiot, the first to observe, far out at sea, acter's young husband bargains for and then finally the lights of a ship heading for their island harbor. buys a carved lion for one-third price from a train Then, a week later, a young man secs the lights. station peddler. In LIGHTS ON THE SEA, it is desire After ten days, so do two other people. Using the for freedom that causes the oppressed to create of a lighted ship as the bearer of free- their comforting illusion. aM



HAYASHI cuMulo.BONES. Japan The Catch and Other Stories. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1981. Translated by T. Takaya.

Author: A postwar writer who reflected the two eggs today" and "Buy me everything I ask foe mood of Japan as a result of its defeat and occupa- Despondent because, despite his patriotism and tion by U.S. forces, Hayashi Fumiko (1904-1951) hard work, he is reduced to skin and bones by was born in Shimonoseki. Her life was characterized tuberculosis, he asks his sister to lend him money by constant moves and many changes in jobs and for an uncertain lung operation. While Michiko personal relationships. Her tone of and offers to send him to a sanatorium, she also lets him despondency was typical of the writers of fiction know that she is miserable in her struggle to keep and postwar memoirs of this period. Her novel The him and the rest of the family alive. Later, when Drifting Cloud, for example, tells of a young Kanji dies, Michiko is relieved. Yet the fact that he woman who goes to Indo-China to serve as a typist died alone, choking on his blood, sends a great wave for the Japanese army. The luxurious life and her of guilt over her. She takes out her savings from the love affair there, coupled with the realization that bone box and spends it on Kanji's funeral and cre- Japan is fated to lose the war, thrust her into a carpe mation. diem philosophy of life. After years of indulgence, Even as she hugs his urn, the wave of emotion the war having ended, she returns to the drabness, that possessed her passes. Like her first experience monotony, and poverty of Japan and drags out an in prostitution, death becomes remote,"meaning- existence. less and even stupid?' She walks down the street This tone of gloominess persists in Hayashi's with her daughter beside her singing "Jesus loves works. Her other well-known works include Diary me," and she callously wonders when her father of Roaming;"Late Chrysanthemum," which won will die. her the Women Writer's Award in 1948; and Rice. Comparison: Like any number of stories on a Story:In her husband's empty bone box, Michiko woman's lot or a woman's response to tragedy. keeps her extra earnings from her life as a prosti- BONES shows the protagonist dealing with her tute. She has been driven to and prosti- available options. Beginning with the archetypical tution by the death of her husband on Okinawa in story of Medea's desperate reactions to being aban- the war and by her younger brother's illness, her doned, the woman frequently has little recourse father's disabilq, her little daughter's helplessness, except personal sacrifice or retaliation, all sense of and the lack of decent jobs. In betraying her resolu- ethics or sentiment having been repressed. Take, for tion to be to the memory of her husband, example, William Faulkner's "A Rose for Emily." she waits several months after her friend suggests While Emily suffers no other deprivation, her inabil- that she try prostitution. The first time she has to ity to satisfy her one need, that of getting a man, dri- grit her teeth to undergo the abhorrent experience, ves her to unmentionable means. Behind her closed but her rationalization, her resolve, and her ability to doors and a respectable facade, she lives with her see her partner as man and herself as woman own act until her death. Or compare BONES with enable her to accept her degradation. Afterward, "Sorrow Rides a Fast Horse" by Dorothy Gilman she simply sees her body as her means to liveli- Butters, in which a woman is thunderstruck by her hood. husband's sudden death. Not realizing what she is Her bedridden brother Kanji sees her as the doing, she takes her two young sons on a wild and source of little luxuries in life. In postwar Japan, dangerous tour of the world that almost costs their when eggs are scarce, he pesters her with "Buy me lives. si I.


HEAD. BESSIE. HEAVEN IS NOTCLOSED. South Africa The Collector of Treasures. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1977.

Author: Bessie Head (1937-1986) was born in South Galethebege had not anticipated that her acqui- Africa, but most of her writings are set in Botswana, escence to Ralokae would result in her excommuni- the country to which she fled when she was no longer cation from the church. When the villagers hear of willing to live with apartheid. In addition to her short it, they begin to question their own participation in stories, her works include a history, Serowe: Village of the Christian church."They wanted to know how it the Rain Wind, and four novels: When Rain Clouds was that Ralokae, who was an unbeliever, could Gathen Marti, A Question of Powet; and A Bewitched have heaven closed to him? Some decided then that CrOssroads, her final novel before her death. if Heaven were closed to Galethebege and Ralokae, for they were highly respected in the village, it Story: Old man Modise has lived in Setswana all his might as well be closed to them too, so they all no life and is "deep-rooted" in the laws and customs of longer attended church." Thus, tradition wins. his village. The story illustrates the conflict between The result is not so clear to Galethebege, how- Christianity, represented by Galethebege, and ever. Even after her excommunication, she sneaks Setswana law and custom, represented by Ralokae. away to private places to pray to the ChristianGod. Ralokae, who suffemd the death of his wife just one year after their marriage, has undergone a year Compargron: The subject of this story has its par- of the cleansing ceremony demanded by custom allel in a number of works by black African writers before he can resume the normal life of a man. and American authors. The conflict between tradi- When he emerges from that process, he announces tional and modern lifestyles is evident in Soyinka's to Galethebege that he intends to marry her. Startled play The Lion and the Jewel, in which Baroka, the and pleased, she nevertheless informs him that "I Lion, and Lakunle, the modern schoolteacher, vie for have set God always before me," implying that she the hand of Sidi, the Jewel. Chinua Achebe's Things wishes he would become a Christian. The matter Fall Apart also reflects the difficulty of change becomes "a fearful sv.ord" between them, until final- when traditional social issues are subjected to mod- ly Ralokae wins Galethebege over and she consents. ern ideas. In Frederick Douglass's autobiography, Ralokae reminds her that "I took my first wife Christianity and gospel songs are prominent in the according to the old customs. I am going to take my lives of slaves, reflecting the positive attitude of second wife according to the old customs too." many black people toward Christianity. MJ t

HESSE. HERMANN. THE POET. Germany German Stories: Deutsche Novellen. New York: Bantam,1946. Translated by Harry Steinhauer.

Author: (1877-1962) was born in to Switzerland before World War I, where he south Germany into a family of missionaries. As an remained and became a citizen. He received the adolescent, he rebelled against his strict parental and Nobel Prize for Literature in 1946. Always in conflict school atmosphere by running away, working first as with traditional bourgeois society, he was an outspo- a machinist and then as a bookstore clerk. He went ken individualist who ardently believed in resisting


the pressures of conformity in order to search with- the surface of the water." Many years later, the old in oneself with a free mind. He was constantly aware man disappears, and Han Fook returns to his village, of the conflicting souls that struggle within each of where a celebration is again taking place. Everyone us. He studied throughout his life in many diverse there is fascinated by his music. As he looks at the areas of the world's cultures, including Eastern mys- reflection of in the water, he notes ticism, , German Romanticism, and that the mirrored images and the real ones are medieval mysticism. He published several volumes inseparable, and he "found no difference in his soul of short stories and some Romantic poetry. He is between this feast and that first one best known for his novels, including Siddhartha (1922),Steppenwolf (1927), and Magister Ludi or Comparison: The theme of this parable is com- The Glass Bead Game (1943). parable to that of many stories of dealing with the relationship of the artist to soci- Story: A Chinese poet, Han Fook, wants to "perfect ety. In TON/0 KROGER, for example, Tonio recog- himself in everything that in any way pertained to nizes that his art separates him from ordinary soci- the art of poetry" He is soon to be married at,Icl his ety, and at the end he is still standing between life seems fulfilled, but he is not totally content those two worlds. In TRISTAN, we see that the because "his heart was filled with the ambition to world does not permit the artist to return in tri- become a perfect poet." One evening, he sees umph; instead, the artist is forced to run away in reflected in the water a celebration taking place on defeat from the vulgarity that triumphs in life. In the other side, and although he wants to join the his very long novelJoseph and His Brothers, Mann festivities with his friends, he prefers to remain portrays the kind of artist that we find in this alone contemplating the scene from afar so that he Hesse story, in which Hesse expresses his belief can incorporate its beauty into a perfect poem. that the artist must separate from society to find Suddenly, unsure if he is awake or asleep, he sees a and develop creative ability. With that, the artist stranger who "spoke some verses which contained can return to the world with the beautiful message everything that the young man had just felt?' He is of truth. Likewise, Joseph learns how to communi- the Master of the Perfect Word, and he tells Han cate his art to others and returns to the world. The Fook how to find him. Romantic belief that the artist will triumph is also The young poet announces to his father that he manifested in such stories as"The Great Stone must leave his bride and family to pursue his dream. Face" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, in which the artist He finds the old man, who, although he hardly ever is seen as the savior of society. speaks to him, teaches him to obliterate from his The fusion of dream and reality is a technique mind all that he had written before and to immerse that Hawthorne uses in "Young Goodman Brown" himself in his lute playing, in which he gradually and Chekhov uses in his story THE KISS, in which excels. He begins to feel worthless because nature the whole dream episode of the kiss is used seems to him much more beautiful than his poetry. metaphorically to suggest the way an inner vision After two years, the homesick youth returns to his becomes part of an external reality E. T A. village. Seeing his father and bride from a distance, Hoffmann's story "The Golden Flower Pot" also pro- he rea:izes that "in the dreams of poets there dwells vides an interesting comparison, and the dreamlike a beauty and grace which one seeks in vain in the episode in Mann's story of Tonic) Kröger's visit to things of reality," and he returns to the old master to Copenhagen, in which he reexperiences the earlier study the zither. episodes with his friends, provides another. What, For a moment, he hates the old man, who the artist seems to ask, is the true nature of reality? seems to be keeping him from his life, but he is Is not what is imagined or felt as real as what one reminded that the choice is his. After mastering sev- sees or touches? erai instruments, he turns to poetry and learns "the Also comparable is Henry James's story "The secret art of saying what seems uncomplicated and Real Thing," which is concerned with the way art simple, yet stirs the listener's soul as the wind stirs departs from literal actuality in the interest of truth.


Many of the surrealist artists, such as Giorgio de ing The Apparition (1875) juxtaposes the image of Chirico and René Magritte, use this technique as the head of John the Baptist with reality as it well, and the symbolist Gustave Moreau in his paint- appears in a vision to Salome. RHM

HIM', GEORG. THE AUTOPSY. Germany Great German Short Stories. New York: Dell, 1960. Translated by Michael Hamburger.

Author: Georg Heym (1887-1912) was born in always be together. And so the story ends: "And the Hirschberg, Silesia. He was a German expressionist dead man trembled softly with bliss on his white poet and short story writer. He was pathologically mortuary table, while the iron chisel in the doctor's shy and seemed to have interests paradoxically in hand broke open the bones of his temple." The both the "decadent" period and in the beauty of point of the story is made clear in this last image: nature. He was influenced by Rimbaud's poem beauty and love in the power of the imagination "The Drunken Boat" and the French symbolist transcend reality and the fact of mortality models; he wanted to be the Van Gogh of poetry. His works, few of which have been translated, are Comparison: This very short story is full of ter- full of explosive visions of urban ruin with a pro- rorterrifying beauty as well as uglinessand can found sense of evil and loneliness. He prophesied be compared to the paintings of such expressionist the Great War in his novels Der ewige Tag (1911) artists as Kirchner and Nolde. As the doctors dissect and Umbra vitae (1912). They and his revealing his body, it opens up to reveal the beautiful memory dream diary were published in the volume of his life, which becomes a hymn to the beauty of Gesamtausgabe in 1960. He drowned in a skating living that transcends the images of mortality. accident on the Wannsee. One can also compare the story to the paint- ings of Géricault, who often sat in mortuaries and Story: "The dead man lay naked and alone on a painted the bodies of those who were waiting there white table" in an operating theater. His body is "like for interment, as in Severed Heads (1818),in which the brilliant calyx of a giant flower," and beautiful there is a delicate beauty portrayed in the depiction colors appear on it. Doctors enter and look at him, of the dead bodies on the mortuary slab. and like machines they take out their dissecting James Joyce's much longer and more involved instruments, which appear like vultures, and dissect story "The Dead" also comes to mind. Joyce shows the body as if they were "white cooks drawing a us that the world of the dead is stronger and more goose." vital than that of the living. He too indicates that The dead than sleeps while they perform their memory and imaginatio.! transcend reality andthe gruesome task. A dream,"the remnant of love in fact of mortality. The dream sequence also suggests him, awoke like a torch shining into his night." He Ambrose Bierce's "An Occurrence at Owl Creek dreams of his loved one, and he pictures her as she Bridge." Both give us a juxtaposition of death and walked through poppy fields, expecting to see her life; both emphasize the beauty of life with the iron- again tomorrow and every night at dusk. They will ic presence of deatn. RHM


HILIDESHEINER, WOLIFGAING. A WORLD ENDS. Germany Great Modern European Short Stories. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1967. Translated by Christopher Holme.

Author: Wolfgang Hildesheimer (1916-1991) was proceeds to do so,"as a world, no less, was here born in Hamburg. In 1933, he went to Palestine and sinking beneath the ocean." The guests, holding from there to England, where he studied painting their hands above their heads to applaud the per- and graphic design and worked as a stage designer. formers while the water reaches the level of their When World War II began, he was made an officer chins, sit in darkness as the water extinguishes the in the British Intelligence and was stationed in candles. Sebald looks back; "the sea lay dead calm in Palestine, where he was both an art critic and a the moonlight as if no island had ever stood there." painter, exhibiting his work in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. He was back in London when the war ended Comparison: The story, told with a kind of ele- and immediately went to Nuremberg, where he gance and controlled irony, can be compared to served as an interpreter during the postwar trials of William Faulkner's"A Rose for Emily," which is also Nazi war criminals. In 1949, he gave up art for a the story of an anachronism. The characters in A -'riting career and made his home in Poschiavo, WORLD ENDS live in isolation from reality with use- zerland. He published many volumes of short less and artificial values, which, even if they once stories, several radio plays, and a radio opera. Much did, no longer have rrifaning in the present. There is of his work has not been translated. a kind of horror in their juxtaposition to reality. It is a dead world; it has long since disappeared. Story: The narrator, Herr Sebald, is invited to one Humanity cannot survive in the present by attempt- of the famous parties given by Marchesa ing to escape through recreating the values and Montetristo because he had once sold her the bath- environment of past eras. Such is the life Faulkner tub in which Marat was murdered, thus adding to portrays in "A Rose for Emily." Emily lives in a dead her collection of eighteenth-century washing uten- past that becomes repugnant. Both stories are told sils. She lives on an artificial island that she created in a very matter-of-fact way with subtly controlled because "she could find nothing to suit her in the irony. Neither of the narrators is fully aware of the existing stock of islands." She devotes her life "to the implications of the stories they tell. In both cases, cult of the antique; which she calls "the true and this use of the innocent narrator provides the ten- eternal." Her home is an exact replica of the Palazzo sion between what we see and what we feel. Vendramin, and her elite guests, such as the Hildesheimer's story recalls other stories deal- Dombrowska, are involved with activities that have ing with obsessed individuals and the consequences no relationship to real life. In fact, Sebald realizes of that obsession and neglect of the commonplace that he blundered when he even mentioned con- realities of everyday life, such as we find in Edgar temporary art. Even the entertaining musicians "had Allan Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher," in purposely so arranged themselveslike a picture which Roderick Usher's house, like the Marchesa's by Watteau." palace, cracks down the middle and sinks into the During the performance of two forged musical tarn. Both stories build up to the time when the compositions, Sebakl "heard a dull reverberation obsession reaches the point beyond which the real like very distant thunder," and the floor begins to world of eve...yday experience can continue to exist. vibrate. While the foundations of the island and the Also comparable in subject matter is the work of palace are breaking up, the concert continues. The the surrealist Paul Delvaux, particularly his painting others continue to listen, but the fearful Sebald Venus Asleep (1944), in which he also juxtaposes the announces in a quiet voice that he is leaving and past and the present, emphasizing their incongruity


as he portrays the contrast between the agitated fig- from the real world to show no evidence of its ures in the background and the languid calm of destructive realities. Like the world of the story, this Venus in the foregmund. The agitation, which world is one of false environment and escape. But Delvaux explained was related to the bombing of here the agitation of the real world is alluded to, Brussels in 1944, is muted, and the skeleton and whereas in the story we see only the sterility and black-clothed dressmaker's dummy, dressed in the superficiality of the dream as it disappears. style of an earlier period, watch over the sleeping Hildesheimer's satire with grotesque and surrealistic Venus showing no emotion. The dreaming classical distortion can be compared to many of George town, with its temples lit by the moon, and the build- Grosz's paintings, such as Pillars of Socieiy (1926),in ing with horses' heads that the artist took from the which we see a town in flames while groups ofmen old Royal Circus at Brussels are sufficiently removed fight for their obsessive, destructive ideals. -RliM

HumeR, HEINZ. THE NEWAPARTMENT. Germany Great Modern European Short Stories. Greenwich, CT:Fawcett, 1967. Translated by Christopher Holme.

Author: Heinz Huber (1922-) was born in nice nor in such perfect condition, but he plans to Wiirttemberg and grew up in a village in the Black achieve that condition soon. Everything is "carefully Forest. He studied applied graphics in Stuttgart and matched" here, even to the point of guests'rearrang- then went into military service, during which he ing themselvf.ts to sit on a sofa whose color is har- was a prisoner of war. Released in 1947, he took a monious with their garments. Job as a window decorator for a chain ofgrocery Everything is proper, in contrast to stores and began writing short stories ahd radio who occupied the apartment when Messemer plays, which were successfully produced. In 1953, bought it. They were two elderly women, one a Huber became a TV director for documentary fea- widow of an artist with a great deal of furniture who tures in Stuttgart. In 1963, he published The Third lived with memories of her past until she died and Reich, a two-volume work containing his written another whose husband had disappeared in the documentaries and several of his short stories. Third :.eich and whose possessions were buried under"a regular mountain of birdseed; with which Story: The narrator and his wife are invited to the she fed the birds who constantly flew in and out of apartment of Marx Messemer and his wife to spend the room. They were both quite opposite from the an evening together. The narrator sees this kind of Messemers, who, after sharing the apartment with social gathering as "the development of a form of the latter, arranged to have her removed and sent to society... which is adapted to our changed environ- an old people's home so that they could take full Ilene When we began, there was no social inter- possession of the apartment. They did everything course and no society. Our grandparents were dead, they could to clean it up, buronly in the one room our parents had made a mess of things.... A we simply cannot altogether get rid of the birdseed." zero-point situation as the literary periodicals called it:' Now having started up again, they are busily Comparison:The use of the apartment as a making money and moving into new apartments. metaphor for the new, sterile, industrial Germany The narrator admires Messemer's taste, especial- that attempted to wipe out and even deny the ly the "infallible " that has gone into the "mess" created by the previous generation can be details of his apartment. His Own is not quiteso compared to Hildesheimer's use of the island in his


himself hasn't quite got around to gettinghimself story A WORLD ENDS. Both theisland and the apartment represent isolated societiesthat have "properly fixed up: the This story can also be compared toThomas been artificially created in order to avoid which por- responsibilities of reality. Both are treated with Mann's DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW, partic- -trays the conflict involved with asudden and dramat- sharp satire, and both, although described as focus- War places, have clear universal implications.Yet ic change in values and lifestyles. Mann's story while we see the demise of the island, the apart- es on a professor's nostalgiaand a yearning for the the future. It is the of the past, whereas the charactersin THE ment has become the model for themselves narrator's ideal, and from that standpoint, itis even NEW APARTMENT have attempted to cut In addition, completely off from the past. THE NEWAPARTMENT more horrifying than its counterpart. history, a Hildesheimer's ironic humor perhaps easesthe shows that by attempting to rid itself of its unrelieved por- society becomes superficial and sterile. impact of his story, whereas Hubei:, story trayal of the inhumanity and sterility of the new This is also a theme in Graham Greene's frightening. In "The Destructors," in which a housebuilt by society becomes more and more balanced, spite of the concerted effort to rid the apartmentof Christopher Wren represents the rational, helps to sus- elegant, and restrained aspect of the past,"anapt the birdseed that nourishes nature and order" and tain life, some of it keeps appearingin the cracks in representation of the older English social only the the product of meticulous and sophisticatedcrafts- the floor. But they will keep trying until attacks banal and sterile survive and all the "disorder"and manship. Having withstood a multitude of disappeared. from the enemy, the house is, after the war, reminders of past life and history have of The narrator's point of view is interesting.He destroyed from within by the new generation but one won- those who worship "things" with no respectfor the aspires to the same goals as Messemer, speak, of ders if he might have the faintest insightthat per- beauty of the pastthe birdseed, so to THE NEW APARTMENT. The housereceives its final haps it isn't all as it might be when he says, and symbol of "Messemer now had really gone a bit toofar, for an blow from a motor vehicle, a product ordinary party" In fact,"for some reason orother;' he the mechanical world. It H rvi

YoussEr. THE CHEAPESTNIGHT'S ENTERTAINMENT. Egypt Modern Arabic Short Stories. NewYork: Three Continents, 1976. Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies. ordinary people's Author: Youssef Idris (1927-) is equallyfamous in Egyptian Revolution of 1952 in Egypt as a dramatist and short storywriter. He first lives. NIGHT'S gained attention with THE CHEAPEST illiterate villager in ENTERTAINMENT and published his first collection Story: Abdel-Karim, the simple, His physical of stories in August 1954 under thattitle. Trained as Idris's story, is an amusing grotesque. appearance is comicallygrotesquelong nose, a medical doctor, Idrisserved as a physician and face ... tips health inspector in the rural Egyptianregion of hooked and black-pitted ... brass-yellow Many of his of his moustache ran parallel to the topsof his eye- Sharkyia, the traditional land of Goshen. hung, left stories explore the social reality of modernEgyptian brows where a few drops of water still over from his ablutions"andhis blustering anger villages, often in an ironic and humorous manner. provocation: his larxist, Idris retains in his writing a con- is absurdly out of proportion to its Briefly a entertainment cern with social classes andthe effects of the inability to purchase an evening's


ther helba, nor sugar, nor anything at all at home sli" because he hasn't a single piastre. The cheapest night's entertainment he does manage to receive is praise be to God all the same!" merely a glass of strong tea from the village's night At story's end, Abdel-Karim walks resignedly watchman. Throughout the story, Abdel-Karim curs- into his squalid home and roughly rouses his wife to es the watchman's hospitality because, as we later a half-waking state. Thenafter a long passage of discover, the ironic outlet for the tea's stimulation time signaled by three asterisks"the women were will be Abdel-Karim's reluctant sexual relations congratulating him on the birth of another boy, with his lethargic wife. while he was consoling with himself upon the addi- One value of the story is its graphic portrayal of tion of yet a seventh child." Egyptian village life. We first see Abdel-Karim enraged by the swarm of children in the village's Comparison: For an American reader, the char- narrow streets. They tease and torment him while acters in Idris's stories, exemplified by the central he curses the plague of overpopulation in his land, character in THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ENTERTAIN- gaining a moment's peace only by thinking of the MENT, resemble the "grotesques" in Sherwood starvation and cholera that will likely thin the ranks Anderson's Winesburg, Ohio. As Anderson of these brats. Ironically, he is himself the father of .explains in his preface, each grotesque is distorted six children. Escaping the children, he walks by his obsessive hold on a partial truth, yet through the village until he reaches its center, a "grotesques were not all horrible. Some were fetid waste ground surrounding a pondactually an amusing, some almost beautiful?' From Winesburg, open public latrineringed by low, grey, mud huts Ohio, Anderson's character studies in 'Hands," with heaps of manure stretching before each of "Adventure," and "Queer" offer especially good them "like long-neglected graves." comparisons to the sympathetic grotesque While Abdel-Karim stands in this stench, he Abdel-Karim. imagines the village pleasures bf:yond his means Anderson stands in a long tradition in American tonight: coffee and a hookah at Abdul-Isaad's shop literature of humorous portraits of small town and with card games, gossip, and radio programs; a rural oddities, any number of which would be apt wedding at Balabsa's farm with "dancing, lute-play- comparisons with THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ENTER- ing, jollification of every sort:' One particularly TAINMENT Flannery O'Connor's "The Life You Save revealing village pleasure that he regrets missing is May Be Your Own" and Eudora Welty's "Petrified an evening's conversation with Man" and "Why I Live at the P.O." are masterpieces in Abdel-Megid, during which the Sheikh might recall this comic genre. In them, we find the same exag- the revolution of 1952 ("the nights that had gerations of personal quirks and elaboration of turned his hair grey") and his repentance since comic obsessions as in the portrait of Abdel-Karim. then "of his former swindles and robberies and his Less well known than the stories of O'Connor and arsoning of other people's crops." But Abdel-Karim Welty is the marvelous gallery of village characters cannot seek out the Sheikh because the day in Zora Neale Hurston's The Eatonville Anthology before he had disputed the cost of a water wheel set in a small, isolated black community in rural repair with him and pushed him down the well Florida during the 1910s and 1920s. shaft in his anger. Other American village and rural aracter stud- With the village's entertainments beyond his ies that would make good comparisons with ldris's reach, Abdel-Karim fantasizes about a warm wel- story are Hamlin Garland's "Mrs. Ripley's Trip," Sarah come by his wife: she lights a lamp for him, toasts Orne Jewett's "The Town Poor," and Mary Wilkins bread, and prepares leftovers while he sits compla- Freeman's "A Village Singer." Short stories by Anton cently "like the greatest sultan of his time." The truth Chckhov, Isaac B. Singer, and also that he must admit, though, is that his wife "slept explore the humanity of odd characters in villages like a sack of grain with her six offspring strewn or urban ghettoes. Singer's "Gimpel the Fool" would around her in a huddle like pups," that any leftovers be a good choice for comparison on the themes of have long since been eaten, and "that there was nei- marriage and responsibility. 3 DM


/MSC NRIZAIFFER.WANTED: A-TOWN WITHOUT A CRAZY. Turkey Short Stoiy International February 1993. Translated by Joseph S. Jacobson.

Author: Muzaffer Izgii (1933-) was born into a When he found his present place of residence, he poor family in Adana, Turkey. After working his settled in. His former co-worker cannot understand way through school and graduating from the Bey's behavior, asking,"When are you going to put Institute of Education, he taught in several differ- an end to this lunacy?" Bey responds,"Are you ent areas of Turkey. He writes both children's sto- nuts?" So, at the story's end, Hilmi Bey has no inten- ries and stories for adults and also writes plays for tion of leaving this wonderfully easy, successful life stage and radio. His work has gained international that he has established for himself and in which he recognition and is frequently anthologized. Among has found such great satisfaction. the awards he has received are the International Golden Hedgehog Award (Bulgaria, 1978), the Comparison: This story is a social commentary, Turkish Language Society Short Story Award one that views mundane, repetitious, unfulfilling (1978), and the International Folk Tale Award work as meaningless. The same observation is evi- (Bulgaria, 1978). dent in ME METAMORPHOSIS by Franz Kafka, illus- trating the "insectification" of the individual victim- Story: "Wanted: A Town Without a Crazy" is the ized by industrialization. In "For What Is Man?" from ironic story of a man who pretends to be other than Thomas Wolfe's novel You Can't Go Home Again, he is in order to find success and happiness. Hilmi work like Hilmi's civil service job is referred to as Bey has established himself as a town lunatic. He "sterile labor," a phrase reminiscent of Thoreau's spends his days entertaining the townspeople with Walden, particularly the chapter entitled "Where I inane antics, nonsensical talk, and outlandish garb. Lived and What I lived For:' Thoreau comments on The townspeople provide him with food and drink, the nature of work:"We haven't any of any impor- even allowing him to eat, without paying, in the tance." Hilmi Bey appears to have discovered this finest restaurants. He is also supplied with money, "truth," an inkling of which the reader perceives not expensive cigarettes, clothing, health care, and the only from Gregor in THE METAMORPHOSIS, but mayor's personal attention. Believing in his authen- also from Bartleby in Melville's "Bartleby the ticity,"the people are so happy at finding a loony Scrivener." that they don't even ask who or what he is or even The attraction that Bey holds for the people of where he comes from." Every month, Hilmi Bey dis- the town, especially the children who amass as he appears from town for a few days, at which time he exits the bus, is akin to that of the title character in visits his wife and children, who live very well On The Pied Piper of Hamelin. The belief of the the money and valuable items he frequently sends townspeople that "he brings good luck" can be them. likened to the film Pocketful of Miracles, in which a One day, a visitor recognizes Bey as a former gangster, Dave the Dude, refuses to start his day co-worker in the civil service. Bey had resigned the without purchasing an apple from one of the city's service because it paid so poorly and offered no derelicts, Apple Annie. In this sense, WANTED: A hope for a better lite. His resignation had freed him TOWN WITHOUT A CRAZY provides insight into to search for a town in need of a resident madman. human on superstition.-JAG


KAFKA, FRANZ. A HUNGER ARTIST. Czech Republic Literature: The Human Experience. 3d ed. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1982. Translated by Edwin and Willa Muir.

Author: Franz Kafka (1883-1924), the son of a fight against this lack of understanding, against a well-to-do middle-dass Jewish merchant, was born in whole world of non-understanding, was impossi- Prague, then an important town in the Austro- ble" Suddenly, however, there seems to be a general Hungarian Empire. He studied at the German univer- revulsion from professional fasting. Too old to find sity in Prague and obtained a law degree in 1906 and another profession, the Hunger Artist is also "too then worked for an insurance company. A sense of frantically devoted to fasting" to do anything else. his own inadequacy in adjusting to life was zmpha- Finally employed by a large circus, he promises sized by the contrast he continually made with his "to astound the world by establishing a record father's success in both business and his home life. never yet achieved." Requesting that his cage be sit- The resulting sense of guilt was further augmented uated near the animals where the largest crowds by the social pressures he experienced as a Jew. come, he is dismayed to find that the animals are a Although he never married, he lived with Dora far greater attraction than he is."He was only an Dymant, a Hebrew scholar and successful actress. He impediment on the way to the menagerie," and grad- wrote several novels, including The Trial (1925) and ually no one pays any attention to him. One day, the The Castle (1926) and many volumes of short sto- attendants decide to clean the cage and find him ries, the most famous of which are THE METAMOR- among the straw. He tells them his secret: there Is PHOSIS (1912), THE JUDGMENT (1913), and IN THE no reason to admire his fasting "because I have to PENAL COLONY (1919). He died of tuberculosis, fast.... I couldn't find the food I liked. If I had ...1 from which he suffered throughout his life. should have made no fuss and stuffed myself like you or anyone else." After his death, a panther Stoly: People in the town are fascinated by the replaces him in his cage and becomes a major Hunger Artist, who is kept in a cage for people to attraction because it exudes a passionate joy for marvel at. Watchers are hired to make sure that he physical life. does not break his fast, and that suspicion becomes a source of misery for him. Ultimately, he is the only comparison: An obvious comparison exists with one who could know how religiously he keeps his Aichinger's story THE BOUND MAN, which is also fast, and he is also the only one who knows how based on an outrageous premise from which every- easy it is to keep it. He is allowed to keep it for only thing else follows logically. Both stories are con- forty days. That is as long as people's interest lasts, cerned with the artist's relationship to the audience after which he is made to lea e his cage, effect a and the commercial exploitation of art. The spiritual scene of imminent collapse, and then eat to save and redemptive function of the artist in the twenti- himself. The artist would prefer to keep his fast eth century has been replaced by the empty materi- longer to demonstrate both his uniqueness and the alistic values of an insensitive society from which full extent of his art, but his impresario, interested the artist is necessarily alienated. only in financial gain, does not allow it. The artist is Like the Bound Man, the Hunger Artist achieves particularly upset by the perversion of truth when a certain freedom. By starving himself in front of an the impresario shows photographs to prove that, audience, separated by the bars of his cage, he gains although the artist says he can fast beyond the forty a kind of liberty from those aspects of life that affect days, he is "almost dead from exhaustion." Thus, everyone else. His hunger strikes, like the ropes of "what was a consequence of the premature ending the Bound Man, represent a will to power. of his fast was here presented as the cause of it! To Ultimately, in Kafka's story, the spirituality of the


artist is replaced by the physical joy and fleshly rest on the misery of the unfortunate and Kafka's interests symbolized by the panther, just as that of that the world must begin to care more for spiritual the Bound Man is destroyed by the imposition of than for physical values. Both stories center on those who do not understand him. The plight of the imprisoned and isolated souls. artist in the modern world is a theme also found in One is also reminded of O'Neil's image at the many stories of Thomas Mann, particularly TRISTAN, end of his play The Hairy Ape, when Yank enters in which mundane life once again triumphs over art. the ape's cage and the ape triumphantly destroys Considered as , Kafka's story can also be him, reminiscent of the Hunger Artist's being compared to Ursula K. Le Guin's science-fiction replaced by the panther. Another comparison can story "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas." be made with Ionesco's play Rhinoceros, which Although the central character here is not treated as also suggests that society turns away from the com- an individual, while Kafka's character is, both fables plexities and philosophical concerns of life to a suggest a lesson: Le GuM's that no society should more bestial level ofexistence. R Ii M

KAFKA, FRANZ.IN THE PENALCOLONY. Czech Republic Franz Kafka: The Complete Stories. New York: Schocken, 1948. Translated by Willa and Edwin Muir.

Author: See A HUNGER ARTIST. inscribe the punishment on the body of the victim. Will it function properly, as the "old commandant" Story: IN THE PENAL COLONY is a macabre, grip- painstakingly developed it to do, or, in accord with story about dedicated devotion to rigid stan- the "new commandant's" way of doing things, will it dards, punishment, and execution and change from not do its duty? The suspense is measured, muted old ways to new. These themes are developed by and strengthenedby the matter-of-fact telling. No concentrating attention on the death machine and dramatic turn of events saves the prisoner. The the marvels of its operation. The reader, like the machine simply does not work and therefore does explorer, a central character, is told that they do not not score the prisoner to a bloody death. make machines like this one anymore. But while the Soon another crisis develops. The officer who aging torture-killing device holds our primary atten- operated the machine and who took deep pride in tion, there is also man and a total its execution of death sentences realizes that the lack of consideration for him. He neither speaks nor famous explorer opposes this style of execution and understands the language spoken here, and he is will therefore not oppose the methods of the new not aware of having committed any crime. Neither commandant. There can never be a return to the the explorer nor the reader has any reason to con- old style of justice. He loolo. for the appropriate sider him a criminal. He has had no trial, not even sheet among the revered parchments that the old the suggestion of one, and he is unaware of any sen- commandant had prepared to control the machine. tence. Calmly, he "hears" how the intricate machine 1k sets the design to inscribe the words "Be Just." will take his life without either understanding what Then he sets the machine to his own measure- is being said or knowing that he is to be its victim. ments. It does its horrible work on the officer's The story is told simply and directly. It speaks naked body. In doing so, it self-destructs, to the intellect, not to the emotions. Our attention is directed and redirected to the cOmplex machine, Comparison: For the use of the bizarre as com- with its metal spikes and movable "bed," its innu- monplace as well as for unusual sentencing and merable cogs and its precise needles, which will execution, Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery" comes to

8498 =7.!!!


mind. Both stories are told with a carefully con- symbolic suggestions would make interesting com- trolled objectivity in the narration. Both stories pass parative studies. ju&ment about our society, and both show the con- Several surrealist artistS have used the symbol flict oetween tradition and progress. Both stories of the machine to make a commentary on society. build up a considerable suspense, and the black box One thinks, for example, of the various works by of the Jackson story can be seen to have some sym- Marcel Duchamps, particularly "The Big Glass," in bolic aspects similar to those of the machine in which he shows the mechanical world and its Kafka's. Both are certainly studies of the blind spots accompanying loss of humanity. Fernand Leger's in a society dominated by unexamined tradition. paintings are also filled with the machinery of the One might compare what changes the stories sug- city, but he reveals the beauty of the machine as gest and how, in each case, those changes would or well as the power of the inhuman. For Leger, the would not be an improvement. Other Kafka stories, machine conveys 2 feeling of strength and power. such as THE METAMORPHOSIS, share many of the The machine in Kafka's story suggests an interesting same storytelling devices, and their allegorical or comparison. HJ and RHM

KAFKA, FRANZ. THE JUDGMENT. Czech Republic Franz Kafka: The Complete Stories. New York: Schocken, 1948. Translatedby Willa and Edwin Muir.

Author: See A HUNGER ARTIST clean as it should be. The two see each other daily in the business his father had established; they even Roil,: THE JUDGMENT is, like Kafka's other stories, have lunch together. Business, we learn, has strange and compelling. It stimulates the imagination increased greatly since Georg took over. Now, upon and challenges the reader to accept it, even though entering the bedroom, Georg is struck by its dark- or perhaps becauseit is outlandish. At the same ness. Even the window is closed on this fine day. time, it reads like a simple, straightforward narrative. Knowing that the old man needs rest, Georg pro- The central figure, Georg, is trapped by forces poses that his father change rooms with him. He from which there is no escape: his unnamed friend, carries him bodily to bed and covers him, noticing his bride-to-be Frieda, his father, and the memory of that he is "still a giant of a man." his mother. The friend, a businessman whose busi- Then, with no warning, the father accuses the ness in St. Petersburg is not doing well, rarely son of really wanting to cover him up:First, he tells returns home. Georg has found it tactful to write to Georg that there is no such person as his friend in him only of hometown trivia and avoids telling his St. Petersburg, but later acknowledges that he has friend of hiS upcoming marriage to Fräulein Frieda himself kept in touch with the friend, who he feels Brandenfeld. She insists, however, that she has a has been a better son to him than Georg has been. right to meet all of his friends, so Georg writes to The father also belittles his son by mimicking him of his happiness, taking care that his friend will Frieda, who, he says, got Georg by lifting her skirts. not feel compelled to return home for the wedding. He says that he, the fathei; has in his own pocket all With letter in hand, Georg goes to his father's the business Georg thought he got. Then the father room. Father and son have occupied the house actually sentences his son to death by drowning. alone since the death of the wife and mother three Georg drowns himself, still declaring the constancy years ago. Georg has attempted to take care of his of his love for his parents. Traffic moves right along father, but he becomes self-recriminating when he over the bridge from which he fell. The splashof notices that his father's underclothing' is not as his body goes unnoticed.


Comparison:For other stories in which the com- whoalthough for different reasonscannot live monplace becomes bizarre or the bizarre common- in the world in which he is entrapped. In both sto- *place, Kafka himself offers the best comparisons, and ries, the relationship each young man has with his most of his stories and novels would qualify: for family is vital to the outcome of his life. A focus for example, THE METAMORPHOSIS, A HUNGER AR1IS1 comparison is the question of inevitability: to what The Trial, and The Castle. For unusual relations extent do the suicides seem inevitable from the between father and son, there is Prosper Mérimée's beginning of the story? The theme of isolation "Mateo Falcone," which demonstrates an unhappy from society is also a focus in both stories. Each of relationship between father and son. Of course, the these men is misunderstood, but each is isolated story of the prodigal son in the New Testament and from those around him for different reasons. A Gide's THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON tell the comparison of the effects of their deaths on the most famous of the father-son stories. world they leave behind would be valuable. One Two prominent themes in this story remind might wonder if, in either or both cases, there is one of Willa Cather's "Paul's Case." Each of the sto- evidence that the death is more symbolic than ries ends with the death of a sensitive young man actual. HJ and RHM

KAFKA, FRANZ. THE METAMORPHOSIS. Czech Republic Franz Kafka: The Complete Stories. New York: Schocken, 1948. Translated by Willa and Edwin Muir.

Author:See A HUNGER ARTIST apples at him. One of them penetrates the hard shell of his back, hangs and rots there, and brings Story:Gregor Samsa is a commercial salesman on his slow death. One day, the chambermaid and the sole support of his bankrupt, self-pitying, pokes him with her broom, finds Gregor dead, and semi-invalid father, his weak mother, and his artistic disposes of him in the dustbin. The family, greatly and refined sister. One morning, Gregor awakens to relieved of the embarrassing situation, goes out for find himself flat on his hard-shelled back, waving a celebrative excursion in the country. While one insect legs in the airmetamorphosed. Still able to automatically thinks of the metamorphosis as tak- speak in a near-human voice and to move and think ing place in Gregor, the changes in the members of in a semi-human fashion, he tries to approach his his family are equally important. parents and sister in despair and grief but meets with misunderstanding, disgust, and hatred..lt is Comparison.-In his play Rhinoceros, Ionesco if his metamorphosis disclosed what his family had shows an entire community undergoing a transfor- actually thought of him behind the veil of conven- mation in which, as in Kafka's story, a lower order tion. Gradually, Gregor deteriorates, losing his emerges to be compared with the supposedly human faculties and acquiring increasingly those of preferable human level. Other works of modern lit- the insect, yet still pitiably conscious of his plight, erature that point out the weaknesses of still attempting to communicate, still trying to through animal characters are George Orwell's show tact and consideration. Locked in his room Animal Farm, Karel Capek's War with the Newts, and fed the garbage he craves, he crawls on the and Mikhail Bulgakov's Me Heart of a Dog. Some ceiling, cherishes a few human mementos, and older works also use the device of transformation. resigns himself. When he inadvertently enters the Ovid's plays on such changes but family living room, his enraged father throws without the grimness and realism of Kafka's treat-


ment. 's pfcaresque jovially that gives Kafka's tale its shuddering poignancy. recounts the misadventures of a man who is turned Kafka's theme of extreme human alienation is also into a donkey with all of his mental faculties intact, evident in A HUNGER ARTIST and The Trial. but he does not suffer the insectival deterioration taken from Guide to World Literature (NCTE, 1980)

KAPADIA. KUNDANIKA. PAPER BOAT. India Modern Indian Short Stories. : Indian Council for Cultural Relations,1976. Translated by Usha R. Sheth.

Author: Born in Rampur, Kundanika Kapadia In a panic, Taniyo tries to carry him and then begs (1927-) studied political science at Baroda him to walk, promising they will never go to the for- University She published her first collection of est again for fear of snakes. At the word "snake," a short stories in 1954. Her literary output includes sudden realization comes to Jeeva. With the riddle of three short story collections, two novels, and his affliction solved, he closes his eyes and dies. numerous essays. In addition to editing a monthly journal, she published a journal of her own from Comparison: Simply and poignantly told, this 1956 to 1958. story can be used in conjunction with any story on death, friendship, realization, and initiation. A real- Story:In a pause between heavy rains, two boys ization through some initiatory event that shifts the go out to collect cow dung. When they see rains protagonist's perspective can be found in such sto- coming again, they run. Suddenly, Jeeva feels a bite ries as "Through the Tunnel" by Doris Lessing and on his foot. Taniyo, realizing the wound is lethal, "Araby" by James Joyce. Jerry, in "Through the hopes Jeeva will not recognize it as a snake bite. As Tunner sheds his childish outlook after he trains they struggle toward the village to get help, Taniyo himself to do what big boys have done in swim- tries to keep Jeeva awake. The poison works quickly ming through a long tunnel, nearly dying in the up his leg to his waist, throat, and eyes. Frantic but attempt. In "Araby" the boy narrator "saw himself as not knowing what to do, Taniyo tries to tell stories a creature driven and derided by vanity" with his to keep Jeeva alert, but he cannot think of any story disappointing excursion to the bazaar, which he had without reference to snakes. Jeeva's eyes turn blank. held as a dream, for so long. 14,1

KARIARA. ZOINATHAN. HER WARRIOR. Kenya Modern African Prose. London: Heinemann, 1964.

Author: Jonathan Kariam is a Kikuyu from Kenya. Story: HER WARRIOR is a simply told story about He attended the University College of Makerere in tribal taboos and the hard times that befall those Uganda, where he received an honors degree in who violate them. It is told in the first person by a English. He has served on the staff of the East grandson mystified by his grandparents relation- Bureau in Nairobi. ship. His grandmother "was not like other children's


grandmothers.... Grandmother lived three hills Wanyoike hoped to rejoin the tribe; his wife wanted away, which was inexplicable." Even more mysteri- . to seek revenge for having been cast out."Their ous to the grandson is the fact that his grandmother fights were still and terrible, like quicksands. each "never mentioned her husband. If ever she heard keen to destroy the other. Then one day he decided any of us refer to him she would instantly snort and they could not live together and soon after built her push away any small object near her with an impa- a hut where she now lives. He never called her back tient sweep of her long arm.... She had been insult- but something went out of him with her departure:' ed." The story begins near the end: Grandfather is Bitter though their relationship was, it nevertheless dying, and Grandmother has been summoned. At gave to the two old people a shared history; a rea- last, the history of these two people can be told to son for defiance against the rest of the world and the younger generation. each othera reason to live. When Wanyoike dies Grandfather Wanyoike had been a great Kikuyu at the end of the story, there is no longer a source warrior. Shortly after his marriage to Grandmother, for Grandmother's proud disdain:"Something, as it Wanyoike had led the Kikuyu in a war against the were, snapped in the very core of her being.... She Masai tribe. When the Kikuyu appeared to ;le los- was no longer a proud old lady. She was a tottering ing, Wanyoike "was blind with anger. For days he old woman who would from now on sit outside her had fought, never uttering a word, but as the convic- hut, looking at the horizon?' tion grew that they would lose the battle his anger grew into such a frenzied hatred of the Masai that Comparison:Superstition evoked by proximity to he would do anything to see them retreat. Next day death, or even more strongly by the proximity of he did the unexpected, the unprecedented." He did the dead, is evident in such popular works of fiction a thing that would ban him from his tribe forever: as 's The Lord of the Flies, Joseph he chopped the arm off a dead Kikuyu warrior and Conrad's Heart of Darkness, and Edgar Allan Poe's "waving it aloft, he charged into a group of Masai "The Masque of the Red Death." In all of these warriors, striking right and left with the dead man's works, as in HER WARRIOR, the presence of death arm." The reaction was stupendous: "And fear throws living people into fits of ungovernable hor- spread among them, a primeval fear of warm blood ror. In many stories, such as The Lord of the Flies, coming in contact with the disintegrating dead. One people in such a state are shown to revert to a more after the other they let out a cry, the inhuman cry of "natural" state, to become more like huntedor a trapped wild animal. It spread like fire with a huntinganimals than like "civilized" humans. Such wind behind it; it echoed in every warrior, Kikuyu is not the case in HER WARRIOR, however. Even or Masai, so that the Kikuyu paused, paralysed with though the society of the story could be described fear, and the Masai, afraid of 'evil-let-loose; took to as primitive, the horror of being touched by the flight." The Kikuyu won the war, but never again blood of the dead terrifies the warriors into seeking would Wanyoike be accepted as a member of the "cleansing" through a "civilized" ritual, much like tribe, an equal of other men:"Once the victory was those that exist in the practices of many modern won they were all afraid of him. Deadly afraid. Many religions. of them said later that they all wanted to be reli- Other examples of the power of social giously cleansed after that battle, although they ostracism to destroy the human spirit can be found should have been singing victorious.... Wanyoike in VENGEFUL CREDITOR by Chinua Achebe, Black crept back to his young wife, afraid of himself." Boy by Richard Wright,"Paul's Case" by Willa Ostracism from society led to arguments and, Gather, and "Miss Brill" by Katherine Mansfield. finally', to bitter quarrels between husband and wife. N

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KAINABATA YASUMARI.THE SAY. Japan World Writers Today Glenview, IL: Scott Foreman, 1995. Translated by Lane Dunlopand J. Martin Holman.

Author: Born near 3saka, Kawabata (1899-1972) baby into the house and gives it water. Revived, the was orphaned in irift ncy and lost his grandparents baby starts to sing, and the mother responds by fly- during his student y, :ars. His unusually lonely child- ing nearer to the house. Yoshiko places the baby hood, which taught him to understand sorrow, gave outside on the ground and, from behind the glass him a view of existence that was to pervade most of door, observes the moment of reunion between his mature works. His early ambition to be a painter mother and chick. was soon abandoned as he began to read The story of the birds frames the story of Scandinavian and contemporary Japanese literature Yoshiko, who has not seen her mother since and become active in literary circles. Shortly after his Yoshiko was four, at which time her father had graduation from Tokyo Imperial University in 1924, he divorced her mother. Yoshiko accepts the marriage started his own literary magazine. His early works arranged for her by her father, and she is moved reflected the influence of European writers, especially when her father asks the groom's mother to bring postwar . His later works drew from back the of Yoshiko's childhood rather the style of traditional Japanese prose and the renga than treating her like a bride. She is also gladdened (linked verse) of ancient Japan. Like this verse form, that her husband's household will become one with the power of his works comes in the links between hers, for otherwise there would be no one to take brief lyrical episodes. Regarded as typically Japanese care of her brother and grandmother. in tone and style, he nevertheless achieved wide- spread recognition for the universality of his writing. Comparison: The metaphor of the mother jay and Some of Kawabata's best-known works include chick reflects the Asian emphasis on parent-child "The Izu Dancer" (1925),"The Mole" (1929),"Snow relationships and family structure. Yoshiko's father is Country" (1947),"Thousand Cranes" (1959), and THE concerned about recapturing the childhood that MOON ON ME WATER (1953). In 1968, he became Yoshiko has missed, while Yoshiko herself wishes to Japan's first recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature. preserve her natural family. This emphasis on the- fam- ily bond is also seen in A DEVOTED SON by Anita Story: While preparing for her wedding, Yoshiko Desai. Unfortunately, in that story, Rakesh's devotion hears a mother jay sing noisily. Later she finds a to his father takes an extreme form, resulting in help- baby bird under the bush clover. She takes the weak less misery for the ailing old man. m

KAWARATA YASUNARI.THENOON ONTHE WATER. Japan Alodern Japanese Stories: An Anthology. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1980.Translated by George Sake,.

Author: See THE JA`.'. He had complained about not being able to get her attention to tell her things like "Did you hear the Story: Kyoko's husband, a bedridden invalid, is lark?" Sensing his loneliness, she eventually thinks of given new life when Kyoko thinks to let him use the mirror. In the reflection, the world is brought to her hand mirror to watch her work in the garden. him. He sees the sky, the snow, birds, men, and chil-


dren. Working in the garden, Kyoko senses him own image and contemplates the differences watching every move she makes. Side by side with between what is reflected and what is real. him, so intimate that he memorizes her fingerprints Narcissus perishes by his inability to tear himself on the mirror, she shares a reflected world that she away from the pool, but Kyoko, after her husband comes to regard as the more beautiful, the more dies and the mirror is put away, rejoins the world perfect world."The sky shines silver in the mirror," and deals with it. she says, when the sky is actually grey. She wonders In "The Secret Sharer," by Joseph Conrad, the how she looks to him in the mirror. Curious, she narrator, a young sea captain, helps a naked swim- gazes into the mirror and realizes that one cannot mer on board, an incident that begins a relationship see oneself unless one looks into a mirror. She con- he describes in these words:"It was, in the night, as cludes that one's face is not for oneself, but for oth- though I had been faced by my own reflection in ers to see. Such is the situation in love. But then a the depths of a somber and immense mirror." horrible thought strikes her. Since her husband can Because the captain, who feels insecure about him- constantly see his own face in the mirror,"perhaps self at the beginning of the story, helps the fugitive it was more like seeing death itself. If his death was with whom he shares the most confidential rela- a psychological suicide by means of a mirror, then tionship, he identifies with him and at the end gains Kyoko was the psychological murderee self-confidence and mastery of his ship. The reflected world brims so full of love that in The minister in "The Strength of God," from Kyoko's second marriage she has trouble dealing with Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson, sees his the real details of life. Terrified by her pregnancy, she own turmoil through a crack in the window at the is on the verge of . Her doctors belltower of his church. As though in a mirror, the suggest hospitalization, before which, on the way to world of Kate Swift, which arouses such passion in visit her parents' home, she stops by her first house. him, remains an unattainable projection. The only Outside it, she gazes at the real world that had been possible resolution for him in the end is to transfer reflected in her husband's mirror and sees a curtain what has been aroused in that world into his own hung across his window. The ensuing thought that ministry of the word of God. the child might resemble him gives her peace. Perhaps the most famous literary examp!e of twinlike existences mirroring each other occurs in comparison: The archetypal story of seeing one- Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, where self by reflection is, of course, the story of the portrait reflects intimately the psychological Narcissus. Like Narcissus, Kyoko is fascinated by her changes in the protagonist.

Iliwom So. THE HEIR. Korea Flowers of Fire: Twentieth century Korean Stories. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986. Translated by Uchang Kim.

Author: Kiwon So (1930-) left the university to tion, it caused a myriad of absurdities within post- tight in the Korean War. In his literary debut in war Korean life. These elements provide the psy- 1956, he graphically presented both the student chological nuances within his characters, who live soldier who failed to inspire a model of commit- in a society devoid of hopes and dreams. A direct ment and a postwar society teeming with contra- consequence of that societal collapse is the break- dictions. His writings about that period show that down of the traditional values so cherished by because the war did not inspire a sense of dedica- Korean society.


Stmy: Sogun, a guest in his uncle's home, finishes father's warning not to spend money on such fool- reading to his middle-school-age cousin, Sokhui. ishness. When his grandfather ceremoniously hands Although Sokhui would like to attend school, she is him the brass wine cup, Sogun feigns a stomach forbidden to do so by their grandfather. Leaving his ache and runs from the room."How like his father," room, Sogun listens to his grandfather in conversa- his grandfather murmurs after him. tion with a friend as the two discuss Sogun's father. The crisis occurs when tort beads, symbols of The young man remembers the force of his father's high office, are found to be missing. Grandfather grip just before he walked off to the gas chamber. blames the absent Sokpae. Search parties arrive and Sogun is keenly aware of his grandfather's depart, and the monsoon rains begin. Sogun's aunt hopes for him. He also knows full well that his dis- keens, almoSt ritualistically,"Oh, that I might be solute life has hindered his studies and that his struck dead." In the morning, Sokpae's body is grandfather is making excuses for him. Stealing out found. Sogun puts his inheritance and the jade rings to the barn behind his uncle's house, Sogun opens a in his pocket and, with the cries of Sokhui at his paper chest containing a leather case holding trin- back, races down the road. kets and two milky-colored jade rings. He puts the rings in his pocketweren't they lawfully his inher- Comparison: The clash of old and new, city and itance?and leaves the barn. country, youth and age, and male and female and the A source of discomfort for Sogun at his uncle's ennui stemming from alienation are all embodied in home is his cousin Sokpae's epilepsy. Frightened by this story. Opening with a foreshadowing, the author the first seizure he witnesses, which occurs at a suggests the male-female tension prevalent in a family meal, Sogun jumps away from the table, but restrictive society. Such strictures as kowtowing, the not before witnessing his grandfather's tears.. horsehair headgear worn by the grandfather's friend, Sokpae's father orders his son to be taken away and, especially, the ceremonial sacrifices to the dead from the table, but the old man retorts,"Is he not awaken loneliness and alienation in the urbane your son, sick as he is?" When Sogun has an oppor- Sogun. As in Horace's ode about the city mouse and tunity to paint Sokpae's portrait, he marvels how the country mouse, he wonders aloud about his much Sokpae's face resembles his own. plight. While he is still reeling from his father's Another source of tension for Sogun is the peri- death, his feelings of separation are augmented by odic ritual for the dead that his grandfather, his the strange life in the country. His grandfather's grandfather's friend, and his family members hold hopes and excuses for his evident failure as a scholar for Sogun's father. As he watches from his place just heighten the gulf. Like Holden Caulfield in A across from his grandfather, he is aware of the Catcher in the Rye, Sogun attempts to rid himself of bluish incense smoke and the stink of fish and his these feelings by taking to the road. n v n

KUNDERA, MILAN. NOBODY WILL LAUGH. Czech Republic Laughable Loves. New York: Knopf, 1974. Translated by Suzanne Rappaport.

Author: (1929-.), born in Brno, is dent sentenced to hard labor for making a joke the best-known Czech writer of his generation. He about Trotsky. Soon thereafter, his work was banned grew up in an intellectual household, studying liter- in his home country and he emigrated to France, ature, music, and film. At the age of forty, he pub- where he still lives today. He has continued to write lished the first of his works to attract attention out- novels dealing with the tension between the politi- side Poland, a novel entitled The Joke, about a stu- cal and private spheres of life, among them Life Is


Elsewhere (1974) and The Farewell Party (1976). The administration considers his evaluation to be His favorite subjects remain art, love, and human motivated by envy and a petty desire for revenge, relationships. The Unbearable Lightness of Being and his girlfriend sees his promises to her as lies as (1984) has enjoyed the greatest popular success of well. As the story ends, he has lost both his job and all his novels and appeared as a film that was widely his girlfriend. His only comfort is the comic nature discussed. Kundera has always shown a special of his predicament. interest in the English versions of his works, as indi- cated most clearly by a reissue of The Joke in 1992 Comparison.- Milan Kundera is often compared to in an authorized version by Kundera himself. such international postmodernists as Borges and Calvino and such American writers as Robert Coover Story: NOBODY WILL LAUGH is the comic story and John Barth. His work is humorous, self-reflective, of a small white lie that grows to have major and and playful. At the same time, he is interested in unpleasant consequences. Mr. Klima, an art historian deeper philosophical issues. In this story, the comic teaching at a college in Prague, has been asked to surface of the events is used as a springboard for comment On another scholar's work. Not wanting brief but intriguing passages dealing with broader to hurt the second man's feelings, but convinced questions of the human condition. From exile, he that the essay is of no scholarly value, he manages writes stories that deal with a social reality in which to avoid writing his evaluation while still implying the everyday effects of communism, bureaucracy, and that he likes the work. The second scholar, Mr. class tensions are woven into the background fabric Zaturetsky, begins to pester Klima for his report. of the narrative. Not surprisingly, this story bears Indeed, he becomes obsessed with obtaining it. strong thematic similarities to several early twenti- Klima's life becomes a series of evasive tactics eth-century works by Franz Kafka. Kafka, who wrote to avoid Mr Zaturetsky: he hides out in a secret in German but lived all his life in Prague, portrays apartment he shares with his girlfriend; he alters his alienated heroes who, like Klima, gradually find teaching schedule without reporting it to the themselves more and more deeply drawn into a web administration:he involves others in his attempt to of events they can neither control nor understand. escape notice. He falls deeper and deeper into a tis- Kundera may also be fruitfully compared to any sue of lies and misrepresentations, all minor, but American author who deals with human alienation increasingly upsetting to his girlfriend, the universi- and hypocrisy and the way in which the line ty administration, and Mr. Zaturetsky. Cornered at between the truth and a lie is often blurred. In a larg- last, Klima is forced to admit the truth: that he finds er sense, Kundera's story is a parable of the human the essay unacceptably bad and unworthy of publi- condition, where our smallest actions may set off a cation. But it is too late. He is believed by no one. train of events beyond our control. B m

LAGERRVIZTV PER. FATHER AND I. Sweden 17from Evetywhere: Short Stories by World Authors. New York: Bantam, 1971.

Author: Par Lagerkvist (1891-1974) achieved the cubist movement. The rest of his life's work fame as a poet, short story writer, novelist, and echoes that influence, particularly The Eternal dramatist. Born in Sweden, he published a collec- Smile, his collection of short stories. tion of poems and a novel, People, while still a stu- As a poet, Ltgerkvist was viewed as the Swedish dent at Upsala University. He left the university for a equivalent to T. S. Eliot. He exerted a visible and last- stay in France, where he was deeply influenced by ing effect on Swedish poetry. His influence as a nov-


elist was no less profound. Though he declared him- ety: "The thought of God made one feel creepy, too. self an atheist, his works are concerned with It was creepy to think that He was everywhere in themes of morality, of good and evil in a changing the darkness, down there under the trees, and the world. Many of his books and plays are anti-Nazi in telephone posts that mumbled so." outlook and purpose. His novels Barabbas, The The boy's terror crescendos, as a phantom train Dwarf and The Sybil as well as his plays The suddenly bears down on them. In a masterful role Invisible and The Man Without a Soul received reversal, hbwever, it is the child who grasps the high praise, and in 1951 Lagerkvist was awarded the sense of the ghostly train, the father who hides his Nobel Prize for Literature. fear behind a casual questioning and dismissal of the event. The darkness ahead becomes the child's Story: This dark and symbolic tale begins lightly life ahead, his fate in the unknown future. The enough, as a father and son enjoy strolling through father's perfunctory acceptance appears now as sunlit woods, listening to the birds sing on a Sunday blind ignorance, at best only a restatement of past afternoon. The narrator is the son, a young boy who experience. The future belongs to the child, and it is calls his father "Daddy" and who attributes to that a future for which platitudes can offer little Daddy all the strength and knowledge and assur- strength. ance of the adult world. It is, in fact, a perfect day within a perfectly ordered universe. Comparison: FATHER AND I offers good oppor- But the day and mood change at sunset. The tunities for student reaction. In its classic portrayal journey home must be Made through the dark, for- of a naive narrator who possesses true insight, there bidding forest, and the father seems insensitive to are possibilities for comparison with Paul in D. H. the ominous sounds and sights that the boy cannot Lawrence's "The Rocking Horse Winner" and Laura ignore. To the son's question,"Why is it so creepy in Katherine Mansfield's "The Garden Party." Both of when it's dark?" the father simply counters."No, these characters hear the explanations and excuses child, it isn't creepy" The father then refers to the offered by adults around them, yet both perceive security of believing in God, but the reference to the existence of higher truths that they cannot yet this mysterious God only increases the child's anxi- completely understand. P 6 I.

LAGERLOP, SELINA.THE OUTLAWS. Sweden Great Stories by Nobel Prize Winners. New York: The Noonday Press, 1959. Translated byPauline

. Bancroft Flach.

Author: Selma Lagerlbf (1858-.1940) was the first second successful collection of stories, Invisible woman to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Born Links, based on the daily life of Swedish peasants. in Varmiand, Sweden, she was teaching in a gram- Writing thus became Lageribf's permanent career. mar school for girls when she decided to enter a Lagerlbf is viewed as a storyteller supreme. Her writing contest sponsored by the queen. To her sur- tales are simple, warm, personal, magical, and reli- prise, she won with a simple tale of the people and gious all at once. Her book for children, The life she had known as a child. She was then inspired Wonderful Adventures opial, has long been con- to give up her teaching career for a year to work on sidered a classic. She is equally praised by critics for a collection of stories and folktales about her native her noveljerusalem, about Swedish farmers who province. The result, Gosta Berling's Saga, was an emigrate to the Holy Land, and for her autobio- instant success. Within a year, she had produced a graphical Memories of My Childhood and


Marbacka. She died at Marbacka, her childhood ment, Berg is moved by his young friend's pain:"He home. was measuring his sin against his friend's anguish, and it grew big and terrible before his soul. He saw Story: Two fugitives from justiceBerg, a rich himself at variance with the Will which rules the peasant who has killed a monk to avenge the honor world. Repentance entered his hearr But as Tord of his beautiful young cousin Unn, and Tord, a then confesses his act of betrayal, Berg cries,"I have fisherboy who had been accused of stealing a her- trusttd you and loved you." As he bends to reach for ring netfashion a life together, hidden deep in the his axe, Berg is struck and killed by Tord, whom the woods, away from their pursuers. Sleeping in a cave, arriving peasants now honor as a hero. Tord is left hunting for survival, the older man and the boy to ponder the nature of justice in the world. form an unlikely friendship as they learn the truth of each other's past and struggle to understand the Comparison: Within THE OUTLAWS are intricate- laws of guilt and retribution. Berg becomes the ly connected overtones of mythology, religion, and mentor, the father, the hero Tord has missed in his fantasy. Readers of Tolkien and Ursula K. LeGuin life. But the enforced isolation of their existence will find parallel points of discussion. Hawthorne's drives Tord into delusions of religious paranoia. He "Young Goodman Brown" and "The Minister's Black will "save" Berg from the ultimate judgment of God Veil" are defmite suggestions for comparative study. by betraying him to the authorities now. Berg can In his pious rejection of the sinners around him, then repent, be punished for his crime, and thus Young Goodman Brown struggles to honor religious escape eternal damnation. principles, yet he fails to acknowledge his own After the betrayal, even as vengeful peasants human propensity for sin. He spends the rest of his pursue an unsuspecting Berg, Tord cries out in his life in bitterness and disillusionment."The Minister's guilt,"For your sin, Death and all his specters follow Black Veil" similarly addresses the question of physi- me.... You have lifted your hand against God him- cal as opposed to psychological sin. The minister's self.... You compel me to betray you.... Save me veil physically portrays the mental and emotional from that Sin. Go to the priest." To Tord's amaze- separation that a sinner must endure.-PGL

LA GUNA, Amex. BLANKETS. South Africa A Walk in the Night and Other Stories. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1967.

Author: Alex La Guma (1923-) was born in Cape Story: BLANKETS is a stream-of-consciousness Town, South Africa, and attended Trafalgar High story told from the view of Choker, a South African School and Cape Technical College. He worked as a black man who has been stabbed three 'times and clerk, factory hand, bookkeeper, and joUrnalist. waits for an ambulance to transport him to a hospi- Involved in South African politics, he was arrested tal. In three brief vignettes related through their for treason with 155 others in 1956 and acquitted association with blankets, the author conveys a in 1960. He was again detained, this time for five sense of the sordidness of the lives of thousands of months, during the "state of emergency" following Chokers in South Africa's large cities. the Sharpeville massacre. La Guma left South Africa The tone is established in the opening descrip- as a refugee in September 1966 and moved to tion of the lean-to in which Choker lies:"the sagging London. He has published several novels, including roof. ... the pile of assorted junk in one corner; an And a Threefold Cord. His primary literary subject ancient motor tire, sundry split and warped boxes, an is the plight of nonwhites in South Africa. old enamel display sign.... There was also the smell lyt....471rt


of dust and chicken droppings and urine." In that set- As he lies in the ambulance,"his murderous fingers ting, the reader is prepared for the first blanket, used touched the folded edge of the bedding. The sheet to cover Choker as he waits, which "smelled of sweat around him was white as cocaine, and the blanket' and having-been-slept-in-unwashed, and ... torn and was thick and new and warm:' threadbare and stained." The statement that "he was used to blankets like this" provides a transition to Comparison: The sordidness of Choker's life can other blankets remembered through Choker's semi- be compared to the background of Bigger Thomas conscious haze. He is remincktd of his fumbling, fruit- in Richard Wright's Black Boy. There is a contrast less search for"the thickest and warmest blankets" between the two works. La Guma, unlike Wright, when he was admitted to prison. He ended up with does not present the relationship between the races two that "were filthy and smelly and within their folds as a contributing factor to the condition of poverty. vermin waited like irregular troops in ambush." The The people are simply what they are, and La Guma vision of a prison guard is transformed in his hazy casts no blame. The same contrast can be made consciousness into that of his older brother, and the between this story and the Achebe story VENGE- memory changes to Choker's childhood and the FUL CREDITOR, in which the author clearly blames brothers fighting over the "thin cotton blanket" on politicians for perpetuating the conditions under the "narrow, cramped, sagging bedstead" while "out- which the main character is forced to live. side the rain slapped against the cardboard-patched The stream-of-consciousness approach to window, and the wind wheezed through cracks and telling a story is available in several regularly anthol- corners like an asthmatic old man." Again the scene ogized American short stories, such as "The Jilting changes, this time to Choker awakening with a of Granny Weatherall" by . Yet woman in a bed that "smelled of a mixture of cheap the flashbacks in BLANKETS are easier to follow , perfume. spilled powder, human bodies and infant than those in Porter's more difficult story, which urine" to the sound of a baby crying,"its toothless may make BLANKETS a good story to use to intro- voice rising in a high-pitched wail that grew louder duce the technique. and louder." Finally, the framework narration employed by Choker regains full consciousness to the realiza- La Guma is also available in many of Melville's tion that the baby's wail is, in fact, of the works, including "Billy Be:ld" and "Bartleby the approaching ambulance. Gravely injured, probably Scrivener?' A more complex application of the about to die, Choker is treated by the medics with framework principle can be found in Salinger's "For gentleness and dignity for the only time in his life. Esmewith Love and Squalor."-BHN

LANDOLF11, TONIMASO. PASTORAL. Italy Form in Fiction. New York: St Martin's, 1974. Translated by John Longrigg.

Author: (1908-1979) was born teenth-century Russian literature into Italian, con- in the small town of Pico, Italy, not far from Rome. tributed regularly to leading Italian magazines and He was brought up in a Catholic boarding school. was awarded a number of literary prizes. He lived An intensely private man, he earned a Ph.D. in litera- variously in the small town of his birth, in Florence, ture from the University of Florence and published in , and on the Riviera, where he was able to his first collection of short stories in 1937. He was enjoy his passion for gambling. Such diversity per- jailed as an anti-Fascist in World War II. During his haps stems from the same fundamental qualities literary career; he translated major works of nine- that made him one of Italy's most experimental and


unique writers, often compared to Kafka and the ceilings?' And to make matters worse, the Borges, except that his writing is noted for its young, dashing landowner she had mentioned in unusually humorous quality. PASTORAL was pub- the first letter, at the very point when "the hour was lished in 1954. propitious for our hearts to declare themselves," began falling asleep, indicating the onset of the Story: PASTORAL is an epistolary tale made up hibernating impulse. By contrast, she imagines, of five letters from Anne, recently moved from "everything in Paris lives and trembles with move- Paris to a castle in the provinces, to her close ment?" friend Solange, still in Paris. In the first of the let- The fifth and final letter, written in the dead of ters, written in , she sings the praises winter, betrays her genuine terror at everyone's hav- "of the unsullied joys of country life, of this deli- ing gone into hibernation. Solange, her friend, must cious new world" unmarred by the frenetic pace rescue her: "I cannot prepare my food, I cannot do and expensive luxury of Paris. And she has anything, there is nothing in the house, I am fright- already met a "young, dashing, romantic" ened of the horses ... I shall die here if you do not landowner whose acquaintance may well devel- save me." op into something closer. The second letter, written in late fall, compares Comparison: In its ironic opposition of the natur- the preparations for hibernation taken in this rural al life of the countryside to the life of the city, as area with those of Paris. Here "there are no lits seen through the thoroughly citified eyes of a emhaurnes, no ointments, no purging of blood or young woman brought up in high society, and in its vapors, ... none of the many operations usual at the thematic suggestion that those alienated by urban maisons de lethargie"of Paris. Here the people are life from the natural realities of human life ironically merely suspended in goatskin bags from the beams find such realities unnatural and revolting, PAS- of their houses. Here everyone hibernates, whereas TORAL may be compared to J. K. Huysmans's in Paris very few, practically no one known to the Against (sometimes translated Against writer, do so. Nature), which expresses the decadent,fin de siecle The third letter, written during the onset of distaste for things natural and glorifies the artifice winter, indicates the repulsiveness of the rural associated with society. On the other hand, PAS- method of hibernation to Anne. During her visits of TORAL may be contrasted with the quite different charity to the peasants, she can "no longer keep perspective on the opposition of nature to culture count of the bags hanging from the beams." They offered by D. H. Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's "give off a foetid odor like bladders of lard, and'soot Daughter." In that story, the relatively urbane Jack is already gathering on their surfaces, for they are Fergusson succumbs to the unconscious, quite nat- nearly all in the kitchens." Never having seen a ural erotic force of Mabel, despite his intentions to hibernating human before, she finds the sight repel- the contrary. That both stories focus on rebirth lent, but concludes from her unsuccessful efforts to sharpens the contrast. keep a young peasant boy from hibernating that the In its surrealistically graphic depiction of hiber- practice is somehow natural to the people among nation, the story may be compared with a number whom she now lives. of paintings by René Magritte, such as The Red In the fourth letter, her tone shifts from repul- Model (1936), which similarly depict nonexistent sion to alarm: "I can no longer hide it either from "natural" realities, as well as paintings by Paul myself or from you. An unbelievable number of peo- Delvaux, such as The Sleeping City (1938), which ple here have already fallen asleep. Wherever I go, I contrast the natural and the artificial from the per- see nothing but hideous, foetid bags hanging from spective of an urban observer. ra


LAO SHE. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE. China Asian and Padfic Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Thule, 1974. Translated by George. Sait5.

Author:. Lao She, pseudonym for Shu Ch'ing-ch'un the fate of both mother and child. Old Mrs. Wang (1899-1966), was born to a poverty-stricken reveals herself to be not only ignorant and illiterate, Manchu family. A brilliant scholar, he taught school but almost recalcitrantly resistant to healthy and sci- for a while and in 1924 went to England to teach entific innovations from the West. Under pressure, Chinese at the University of London. Upon his she signs a release with an "X" and is temporarily return to China, he established his reputation as a elated to find herself rewarded with a thirteen- novelist and wrote various kinds of patriotic litera- pound grandson delivered by Caesarean section. ture to bring the nation to social and political The young mother is deathly ill. The doctors awareness. His prolific writings were frequently wish to keep mother and baby in the hospital, but scathing on the parties responsible for the again custom intervenes, and Old Mrs. Wang insists welfare of the people, making him a friend of the upon taking the baby home immediately. At last the Communist initiative. Later, however, he was brand- doctors yield, and Old Mrs. Wang carries the baby ed as rightist and reactionary. At the height of the hometriumphant, but not for long. For in the hos- Cultural Revolution in 1966, the official news broad- pital, Old Mrs. Wang has caught a cold, and in sneez- cast declared his death a suicide, but it is widely sus- ing on the precious bundle she graedily cradles, she pected that he was a victim of the misguided zeal of overwhelms it with the germs from which it will the Red Guards. His novels, The City of and die in a few days. Camel Hsiang-tzu, were effective indictments of The story is a scathing satire on the ignorant Chinese society Chinese masses in the early decades of the twenti- eth century, who, despite proof of the superiority of Story: Old Mrs. Wang really wants to have a grand- Western science and administrative tactics, adhered son. After all, what other purpose would there be to blindly to superstition and traditionto their own acquire a daughter-in-law? Unfortunately both of the detriment. first two grandchildren died, so now that the daugh- ter-in-law is pregnant again, Mrs. Wang wants to Comparison.. Aside from the satire on the igno- ensure that the child will be born alive and well. rant masses, this story hinges on a woman's almost The pregnant mother plays no role except as a vehi- neurotic sense of possessiveness over her progeny, cle for birth. The young father is not important which she destroys by her overindulgence. A.famil- enough to mention. The maternal grandmother iar parallel can be found in the classical myth of takes a back seat, as her daughter has become the Apollo and Phaethon, where, to make up for past property of the husband's family. So in all matters, negligence, Apollo gives his son anything he wants. Old Mrs. Wang dictates her will. Phaethon dies as a result of getting his gift. Her will is the will of mindless tradition and A contemporary story, "A Visit to Grandmother" superstition. She stuffs the mother to feed the baby, by William Kelley, tells of the same preoccupation. whereupon the mother is rendered immobile. Then Here, a mother's favoritism, either unknown to her- the fetus grows so large that it cannot be born. The self or rationalized by her, causes one son to remain crisis comes when it. becomes apparent that Old a perpetual child. Even at the age of fifty he is foot- Mrs. Wang has to swallow her pride, abandon tradi- loose and irresponsible, sporting the "innocent tion, and send the young mother to a hospital. Once smile of a five-year-old." The other son, shut out of there, two persons in charge have to sign a state- the limelight, suffers the pain of rejection and feels ment absolving the hospital of the responsibility for bitterness and hatred all his life. 51 L


LAXNESS, HALDOR. LILL Iceland Great Stories by Nobel Prize Winners. New York: The Noonday Press, 1959. Translated by Axel Eyberg and John Watkins. . Author: Haldor Laxness (1902-) was born in There are several encounters between the old Reykjavik. For the first years of his life, he studied man and the student in the course of the tale. Each musicthe piano, particularlyas his parents had time, some piece of the man's background, some determined that their son would enjoy a great musi- clue to the person he could have been, emerges. For cal career.When he turned sixteen, however, a brief time, the man experiences some happiness.. LaxnesS rebelled against their decree and vowed he He befriends a young girl who also lives in the would become a writer. apartment house, and the child becomes for him His decision was no momentary whim, and the reincarnation of his beloved Lily from the past. his stories of Icelanders and their pride of her- But even this slight respite from isolation is tempo- itage were immediately successful. Three of his rary. He loses the child's companionship as well as worksthe novels Salka Valka, The Great his old-age pension, his only income, when others Weaver of Cashmere, and Independent People judge him to be a menace. have been translated into English. Laxness's As a rather ingenious twist, Laxness has the stu- choice of writing over music as a career was dent encounter the old man one final time when his clearly vindicated by his acceptance of the Nobel aged corpse is sent to the morgue. Through a bizarre Prize for Literature in 1956 for his trilogy of but believable involvement in the details of the burial, Icelandic history, Islandsklukken. the student meets Lily, the real Lily of the story's title and of the old man's youth. In her simple admission of Story: A medical student, the narrator of LILY, her own long years of silent loneliness is an ironic, offers the reader a look into the life and death of a poignant image of a lost moment and a lost life. man whose real name is either never known or long forgotten. He is a bedraggled, elderly figure who comparison. Readers familiar with Alan Sillitoe's tends the furnace in the student's rooming house The Loneliness of the Long-Distance Runner and and who sits staring into the fire each night, singing Other Stories will recognize in Haldor Laxness's LILY some fragment of a melody. When the student asks a perfect companion piece. The old man of LILY and about the song, the old man claims,"I don't sing... the aging upholsterer in Sillitoe's "Uncle Ernest," I've never been able to sing." This statement of especially, should be compared. 3oth writers achieve inability best characterizes his life: he is a man in their sketches a level of description that evokes haunted by a melody he has never been able to sing. empathy but avoids becoming maudlin. -PGI.

ILENz, SIEGFRIED. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK. Germany The Selected Stories of Siegfried Lenz. New York: New Directions, 1989. Translated by Breon Mitchell.

Author: Siegfried Lenz (1926-) was born in an duty before deserting to Denmark. After subse- East Prussian district that is now part of Poland. quent study at the University of !-Iamburg, he ini- Drafted into the navy as a teenager near the end tially embarked on a career as a journalist. He pub- of World War II, he served on submarine combat lished ME LAUGIHNGSTOCK at the age of twen-


ty-four and his first novel at the age of twenty- harpoon, and the horns of the ex. These he loads seven, but his breakthrough to international fame on the sleigh and returns to the village, prepared to came with the publication of Deutscbstunde (The be laughed at once again for having failed. But German Lesson) in 1968, which was hailed instead, the villagers stand in respectful and silent throughout Europe and America for its sensitive awe at the sight of the remnants of his mighty portrayal of the tensions between duty and struggle. human values in wartime Germany. It was fol- lowed by a series of novels and short stories that Comparison: The stories of Siegfried Lenz are solidified Lenz's reputation as one of the finest liv- generally light in tone, approaching problems of the ing German authors. human condition with warm compassion and sensi- tivity The most interesting comparison here for Story:Set in the wilds of the far north, this is a American readers is with Hemingway's "The Old tale of a man's struggle with nature and his own Man and the Sea:' The thematic parallels are strik- sense of inadequacy. Atoq, the son of a famous ing: the single-handed struggle with nature, the pro- hunter, is the laughingstock of his tribe. No matter tagonist's attempt to prove himself against the odds, how hard he tries, he fmds that fate constantly the successful capture of a legendary foe, the loss to thwarts him on hunting trips. As the story opens, natural predators, the return with the bare remnants Atoq is setting out to prove himself once and for all of the battlejack London's stories will also come to by shooting a fierce musk ox and bringing his sled mind, both in terms of the wilds of ice and snow home piled high with meat. and the hand-to-hand struggle with nature for sur- At first, things seem to go better. Atoq tracks vival. and finally traps a small herd of wild musk ox in a Because the story also deals in a significant way ravine, and in spite of losing his rifle to their tram- with a son's attempt to live up to his dead father's pling hooves, he at last manages to kill the leader, a image, the tale may be fruitfully compared with legendary old bull who has been vainly tracked for other quests or rites of passage by means of which years by the best hunters in the tribe. He cuts up a son enters manhood. Atoq uses his father's rifle, the meat and stores it under heavy stones outside repairs and sleeps in his father's abandoned hunting the hut where he spends the night. But in the dark- hut, and, in the end, defeats the animals his father ness that night, he is forced to watch helplessly as had failed to conquer. His final acceptance by the polar bears dig up the meat and carry it away. He villagers marks the initial point of his true entry into has nothing left but his broken rifle, his splintered adult society. B M

Lyle BENG HAP. POONEK. Malaysia Asian and Pacific Short Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1974.

Author: Lim Beng Hap has worked as both a Story: After ten years of school, Mahsen returns health inspector and author of fiction. He lives in home a scholar, a fact that awes his relatives and transitional times, when many Asian societies grap- neighbors. He soon finds himself the subject of an ple with problems brought about by rapid modern- arranged marriage to a girl who was his childhood ization and Westernization. Lim places his charac- playmate. Although she has grown up to be quite ters in situations where they must struggle with the attractive, he regards her as a sister and refuses to conflict between traditional ethics and customs and subject himself to tradition. Mahsen feels that Louisa the new social forces. should also be free from the bonds of tradition. His


mother protests that Mahsen, in refusing the good Comparison: This story,stereotypicalin its thing offered to him, is "poonek"subject to bad description of the traditional Asian family, in which luck. But her son laughs. the parental generation knows how to see to the Walking out of the discussion with his mother, best interests of its children, exemplifies one aspect he finds Louisa waiting for him at the roadside. She of filial piety, which is charmingly supported by gently accuses him of not observing proper form in supernatural laws. It stands in sharp contrast to the not calling on her family after his return, to which myth of Apollo and Phaethon, in which both father Mahsen replies that he is on his way right now. and son act rashly. When Apollo finally remembers Realizing that he does not have a gift, he stops at a himself and advises caution, the son refuses to pay floating shop on a roofed-in boat. As he talks to the heed and brings death to himself and grief and. loss owner, Louisa shouts a warning that a crocodile is to his father. While in the myth, the outcome is about to attack. Indeed, the poonek is upon final, in real life, as in POONEK, there comes a time Mahsen. He shoves the old man into the kitchen when youth either acknowledges the wisdom of area of the boat, and swiftly jumps onto the bank. the elder generation's position or groWs indepen- Since his original refusal to marry Louisa was based dently into adult maturity. In acquiescing in his par- solely on his newly acquired defiance of tradition, ents' arrangement, Mahsen happily yields to their he decides to marry her. judgment. M L

Lim, CATHERINE. PAPER. Singapore World Writers Today. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

Author: Born in Malaysia (1942-), Catherine Lim set afire at Tay Soon's grave."It burned brilliantly observes with a sharp eye and depicts life in the and in three minutes was a heap of ashes on the ultra-modern, fast-paced city-nation of Singapore. At grave." one time a teacher and lecturer, she has written one novel and several collections of short stories. Comparison: In the same way that Tay Soon plays the stock market to make a quick fortune to Stoty: Tay Soon dreams of a house that combines benefit his family, Paul, in "The Rocking Horse all the best features of all the houses he has seen on Winner" by D. H. Lawrence, plays the horses to ben- estates and in magazines. He and his wife plodding- efit his mother. Both protagonists end up dying in a ly save toward his goal, until one day they are somewhat demented state. enticed to invest in a fast-growing stock. As the The burning of the paper house at the end.of stock rises, so do their hopes. But when the stock the story reinforces the theme that everything in falls, they at first refuse to acknowledge reality and life is illusory. Tay Soon lives for an illusion. His then they make another bad investment. Their means to that goal is, in effect, a nightmare that diminishing fortune leads to Tay Soon's declining chases away his dream. Similarly, the main charac- health and demiSe. ters in "The Monkey's Paw" by W W. Jacobs and "The Upon his death, Tay Soon's mother orders a Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber are beautiful paper house to be built, complete with both empowered by their illusions and disabled by pool and Mercedes. At the funeral, it is them. M t.


Lo LIYONG, TAMAN. THE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA AND HIS MISERY. Uganda Africa Is Thunder and Wonder New York: Scribner, 1972.

Author: Taban Lo Liyong (1939-) was born in with "this pregnant egg." Curious and innocent, the Uganda and attended the Government Teacher sons begin opening the bundle. Each becomes dis- Training College and the National Teachers College satisfied with the contents, and they begin to argue in Uganda and the University of North Carolina and among themselves. The argument escalates into a Georgetown University in the United States. He is fight, brother killing brother. Only one son is left to recognized as the first African to receive a Master of tell his father, the wealthy, heretofore happy old Fine Arts degree from the Writers Workshop of the man of Usumbura, of his great loss. Out of breath, he . Many of his writings have been tells his father that misery has escaped. His father published in journals and anthologies. In 1968, he strikes him dead. returned to East Africa and has been in the Cultural The old man of Usumbura leaves home that Division of the Institute for Development Studies at night, taking with him his fifty-five wives, to find his the University of Nairobi, where he is a lecturer in slain forty-nine sons. On their way, the wives kiss English researching Luo and Masai literature. Among their lifeless sons as they pass them. Having no other works, he has published the short story col- more stomach for misery, the wives return to their lections Fixions and Other Stories hy a Ugandan parents' homes, taking with them their daughters Writer (1968) and The UnifOrmed Man (1971), the and their share of wealth. They leave their formerly novel Meditations in Limbo (1970), and the poetry happy husband alone to enjoy his misery. collections Another Nigger Dead (1972) and To Still a Passion (1977). Comparison: Illustrative of human frailty, this story focuses on two strata of the human condition: Story: THE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA AND HIS the very rich and the very poor. Ironically, the rich MISERY is a tale of contrast between the old man of man seeks miserytoo much happiness bores Usumbura, very rich and knowing nothing of mis- himwhile the poor man would love some of the ery, and the old man of Kigali, very poor and "thor- wealth of the rich man. There is a note of pathos oughly sunk in misery." The scene is rural, with fami- here, as the rich old man succumbs to what he lies having strong ties and living close to the land. thought he wanted. This same affiliation of wealth The story, charmingly told in a rhythmical, pantl- with happiness and poverty with misery is evident lel prose structure, is entertaining. The very rich in Leo Tolstoy's HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN man of Usumbura visits his friend, the very poor NEED. In that story, a poor man's search for wealth man of Kigali. The man of Usumbura is struck by his and happiness becomes his undoing. friend's cry of "Oh, my misery!" After much persua- One may also see this story as a study in good sion, he convinces his unhappy friend to share and evil, a reflection of Chaucer's "The Pardoper's some of his misery with him. Later, the man of Tale," in which the Three Revelers search for Death, Usumbura sends his sons to Kigali to bring back a whom they meet in a pot of gold, just as the sons of slice of the old man's misery. The misery is bundled the rich man meet death in their search for misery. up and given to the sons, with orders not to tamper - M JJ


Lu ZUN. DIARY OF A MADMAN. China Selected Stories of Lu Xun. New York: Norton, 1977. Translated by Yang Hsien-yi and Gladys Yang.

Author: Lu Xun (or Lu Hsun), the pseudonym of tor, and a young man. He slowly begins to see that all Chou Shu-jen (1881-1936), is the literary giant of of these belong to a society of cannibals, for which modern China. The eldest son of a declining family he is to be a savory victim. His outspoken penetra- from Shaohsing, Chekiang, China, he received a gov- tion of "tnith" beneath the surface of things brands ernment scholarship to study in Japan. His decision to him as a madman. He curses his society for its major in medicine was prompted by his observation four-thousand-year savagery of"eating" the weak and of the need for Western medicine to effect scientific hapless and tries unsuccessfully to dissuade his cures in China and the need for the same rapid brother from further perpetrating these crimes. progress in China that Western medicine had brought Realizing that he too, despite his understanding, is a to Japan. Later, however, he turned to writing as a pro- product of the same society, he ends his diary and his fession, drawn by such influences as Nietzsche, illness with a desperate plea to -save the children:' Darwin, Gogol, and Chekhov. Through his stories, he found the means to awaken China to awareneE., of Comparison: Lu Xun is indebted to Gogol for both the confining traditions and stultifying mentality that the form and title of this story. His compassion for had robbed the society of any real life or love among the pow crless common man is also echoed in "A the people. Throughout his career, he held to his goal Pedestrian Accident," an absurdist tale by Robert to serve his country as a spiritual physician. As such, . Coover, in which the protagonist, Paul, after being he not only startled his audience with his observa- struck by a truck, lies in pain amidst the callous com- tions, but alSo revolutionized the short story in China, ments and gestures of onlookers. Likewise, James which, before his writing, had been considered as Baldwin in "Previous Condition" explores the mind of nothing more than passing entertainment. DIARY OF a black man who is haunted by bad experiences A MADMAN was published in 1918. from the past and by the lack of future expectations: While Lu Xun thinly disguises social criticism in Story:In an envelope framework, Lu Xun intro- his madman's diary, Conrad Aiken in "Silent Snow, duces his madman as having completely recovered Secret Snow" studies the experience of dream and from a bout of madness. In the selections of his diary reality by tracing a boy's descent into madness. written while mad, the protagonist feels victimized Willa Cather in "Paul's Case" shows how the clash by everyone around him, including a rich neighbor's between temperament and environment stifles the dog, the children on the streets, his brother, his doc- individual. 51 L

MANFOUIZI NAGUIES. THE CONJURER MADE OFF WITH THE DISH. Egypt World Writers Today Glenview, IL SeottForesman, 1995. Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies.

Author: (1911-), winner of the equal to Faulkner's and Hemingway's in the United Nobel Prize in Literature for 1988, is the outstand- States. The author of more than twenty volumes of ing novelist in the Arab world, with a reputation fiction, he has-popularized literary prose in the Arab

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world, traditionally fond only of poetry. Mahfouz is Again the boy is afraid to return home, only especially noted for his realistic and varied portray- now he is equally afraid to stay on the streets. He als of Cairo life, his sensitivity to colloquial Egyptian sits down to wait for the girl. A man and woman Arabic, and, infusing all his art, his energetic humor. under the stairs capture his attention. He thinks,"a One further quality of Mahfouz's fiction is the cine- suspicious inner voice told me that their meeting matic brilliance of his scenes and dialogue, reflect- was similar to the one I had:except that he finds ing his deep experience as script writer, director, "they showed astonishing expertise in the unimag- and executive in the Egyptian movie industry. He inable things they did." As he watches, he reacts long served as the director in the Cinema Institute with curiosity, surprise, pleasure, and a certain in the Ministry of Culture under President Nassar. amount of disquiet. Suddenly, the two begin argu- Shortly after he won the Nobel Prize, he was ing, the man attacks the woman and kills her, and attacked and stabbed by Muslim fundamentalists, the boy screams and runs away. When he comes to but survived. his senses, he is in an unfamiliar part of town. Now he is lost, confused as to what action to take about Story:Told in the first person, THE CONJURER the crime he has witnessed, and afraid of the killer MADE OFF WITH THE DISH is a poignant tale of a as well as the conjurer and the bean seller. Finding young boy just beginning to discover truths in and his mother, even after having lost two dishes, one about the world around him. His mother sends him coin, and still having no beans, no longer seems like to town with a coin and a dish to buy beans for such a bad idea: "Would some miracle come about breakfast. Three times he returns empty-handed, whereby I would see my mother approaching so either not knowing what kind of beans to buy or that I could eagerly hurry toward her?" As the story losing the money with which to buy them. Each closes, the boy says,"I told myself that I should be time he receives harsh admonitions for his stupidity and make a quick decision. The day was or carelessness. On his fourth trip, drawn by the passing, and soon mysterious darkness would merriment of a group of children, he stops to watch descend." the tricks of a conjurer. The conjurer is angry because the boy has no money to give him, and the Comparison.- The "irresponsible son" characteri- boy runs away. When he reaches the bean seller to zation, coupled with the opening situation, is remi- make his purchase, he discovers that the dish in niscent of the opening of the folktale "Jack and the which he is to carry the beans is gone. He confronts Beanstalk." But here the adventure related to the the conjurer with accusations of thievery, and the beans is merely the beginning of the story. Although conjurer threatens him. this might be considered an "initiation" story, the Delaying the moment he must return home, the boy does not seem to become disillusioned, as is the boy joins a group of children at a peep show. case in many such storiesJames Joyce's "Araby," for Enthralled by the story of and damsels, he example. Instead, he seems merely startled by the engages in conversation with a young girl watching world he encounters. At the end of the story, even next to him. Still under the spell of the story, he kiss- though he is alone and frightened and longs for his es the girl, who seems to return his kiss and then mother, he knows he can depend on his own wits abruptly leaves to continue on her journey to fetch and self-reliance to save him. Although he knows the midwife for her mother, who is in labor. She full well that "the day" of childhood "was passing, A; promises to meet the boy later in the day. and soon mysterious darkness" of adulthood "would The boy returns home and is lucky to find his descend," he does not flinch from the prospect. In mother out of the house. He takes another dish and his reaction to this insight, he can be compared and a coin from his own savings and sets out again. contrasted with Peter, Wendy, Michael, and John in I Infortunately, this time the bean seller is closing up J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan, Dave in Richard Wright's his shop and refuses to serve the boy. In anger, the "Almos' a Man: the young man in Joseph Conrad's boy throws the bowl, which strikes the bean seller "Youth: and the Snopes boy in Wil liitm Faulkner's in the head. "Barn Burning." j A G


MAIIIP0111Z, INAGUIlli. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER. Egypt Modern Arabic Short Stories. New York: Three Continents, 1976. Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies.

Author: See THE CONJURER MADE OFF WITH himself has been drinking." For his honesty, the THE DISH. chauffeur is angrily dismissed by the Pasha and led away in the custody of the policeman. Story: ME PASHA'S DAUGHTER opens quietly The Pasha's wife then proposes to make the sit- with the arrival of a sleek limousine to the gate of a uation acceptable by having her husband appoint secluded mansion in a rich Cairo suburb. The first the young man, a ten-guinea-a-month government notes of social embarrassment are sounded as the clerk with a grammar school education, to the diplo- chauffeur stands self-consciously beside the opened matic service. When the Pasha resists, the final reve- car door receiving no response to his discreet sig- lations of corruption and complicity are opened: he nals. Glancing inside, he finds the drunken Pasha and had been an illicit lover in his youth, similar in cir- his grossly overweight, equally drunken wife cumstances to the young man now before him, and slumped together and snoring in the back seat. From he owed his elevated position in life entirely to his that moment until the story's end, the incongruities wife's father, who "made him" as she proposes he between the Pasha's lofty status and lowly moral now make the young man. character widen into unbridgeable hypocrisies. We The final truths of the story come in a short see this minister of state and his vulgar wife epilogue, when the chauffeur and policeman, out of exchange insults about their physical absurdities and sight and sound of their superiors, agree to forget defectshis outlandishly conspicuous moustache the whole thing. As the chauffeur turns away, the and her grotesque weightand we discover, finally, policeman says in parting,"Maleesh, hassan. The that he is merely a creature of nepotism indebted to truth is, the Pasha has only been successful in the his wife's father for his position and property. breeding and raising of his own moustache:' The catalyst to these revelations is the Pasha's daughterand her secret lover, who is captured by Comparison: THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER is a a policeman as he tries to make his escape from the broad satire on class discrimination in prerevolu- Pasha's walled villa. The alarm of the criminal's cap- tionary Egypt, which, though democratic in its insti- ture arouses the Pasha and his wife from their stu- tutions, was known for the wide gap separating the por. When he rushes into their house "calling out very rich and the very poor. In his mockery of social his daughter's name, followed by his wife who stag- pretensions, flagrant nepotism, and lax morality, and gered and stumbled behind him," the daughter bold- in his irreverent delight in awkward sexual situa- ly confronts them "clad in a white and transparent tions, Naguib Mahfouz resembles the modern nightgown:' American satirist Philip Roth. In the course of the interrogation, awkwardly Mahfouz has often been compared with and loudly carried out in the street, the truth Faulkner, but his irrepressible humor and burlesque emerges that the young thief is actually Lulu's lover. , while evident in some Faulkner Groping for a maneuver to excuse the young man stories, for example,"The Auction of the Spotted for his daughter's sake and yet mollify his indignant Horses," are more consistently apparent in the satir- chauffeur, the Pasha proposes to smell the man's ic styles of twentieth-century Jewish American writ- breath for evidence of drunkenness. The chauffeur, ers Roth, Joseph Heller, and Bernard Malamud. beside himself with frustration, blurts out,"I beg Of all these authors, Roth exhibits the most your pardon, Your Excellency, but usually a man affinity with Mahfouz. His short story "Epstein" from cannot smell alcohol in the breath of others if he Goodbye, Columbus would make an excellent com-


parison with THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER. It also Finally, Mahfouz's sympathetic yet ironically exploits for comic effect the conflict between com- humorous portraits of common people as charac- placent, indulgent parents and their flagrantly sexu- ters struggling for security and advantage in mod- al daughter, and it builds to the same revelation: the ern, urban societiesthe government clerk, chauf- parents see themselves in their daughter and her feur, and policeman in this storyare evocative of lover. Both authors expose the hypocrisy of their some stories by Bernard Malamud, though lacking characters in exuberant public scenes of wild Malamud's astriogent irony. The first half of incongruities and awkward, embarrassing behavior. Malamud's "The Magic Barrel" amuses with a bur- In characterization, Lou and Goldie Epstein are not lesque style similar to Mahfouz's. That story's turn as exaggerated as the Pasha and his wife. For com- to darker, more bitter revelations would offer a parisons in this technique of satire, see Joseph revealing contrast in technique to Mahfouz's more Heller's "tall tale" characterizations in Catch-22. good-humored style.

MANN, THOMAS. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW. Germany Death in Venice and Seven Other Stories. New York: Vintage Books,1936. Translated by Helen T. Lowe-Porter.

Author: Thomas Mann (1875-1955), a German Story: Much of this charming, unsentimentally novelist, short story writer, and essayist, was born told story is autobiographical, both in general and in in Liibeck. His father and all of his ancestors on his its depiction of particular details. Its main character, father's side were respectable and prosperous mer- Abel Cornelius, is a professor of history during the chants and prominent citizens. His mother, on the period of economic inflation of the post-World War I other hand, was the daughter of a German planter 1920s in a defeated Germany. Cornelius's love for and his Partuguese-Creole wife. She entertained the past is predicated on his belief that "the past is her children with fascinating stories about her immortalized; that is to say, it is dead; and death is youth in Brazil, and because she was an accom- the root of all godliness and all abiding signifi- plished pianist, she inspired in them a love of cance." whereas in the present, there is only disor- music. The conflict between his upstanding, der and change and "thus not history a all." respectable, somewhat rigid father and his exotic The professor and his wife have four children and artistically inclined mother was the single two younger ones,"the little folk," Ellie and Snapper, most important influence on Mann's work. His with characteristics similar to those of Mann's own work includes many short stories and n Ivellas, the two youngest children, and the "big folk," Ingrid and most famous of which are TONIO KROGER Bert, who seem to be a composite of Mann's other (1903), TRISTAN (1903), and "Death in Venice" four children. (1912); essays; and major novels, including The story focuses on a night that the "big folk" Buddenbrooks (1910),Me Magic Mountain are hosting a party, in the course of which the pro- (1924), Joseph and His Brothers (1933-42), fessor is made acutely aware of the generation gap Dr Faustus (1947), and The Confessions of Felix and the changing nature of society that seems to be Krull: Confidence Man (1954). Supportive at first, taking his children away from him, especially his Mann became openly critical of German favorite, five-year-old Effie. At the end of the story Nationalism. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Ellie "falls in love" with the charming and intelligent Literature in 1929, four years after writing DISOR- Max Hergesell, who also represents the materialistic DER AND EARLY SORROW. values of the contemporary society from which


Professor Cornelius has tried to separate himself. come to the conclusion that life will insist on When Ellie's sorrow, caused by Max's dancing change. with someone hi; own age, is assuaged by Max's The conflict between generations and the loss presence at her cribside at the end of the story, of innocence and resulting hurt that comes from it "the father's feelings towards him are a most sin- are basic themes in Sherwood Anderson's "I Want to gular mixture of thankfulness, embarrassment, Know Why," although Ellie's disappointment is not and hatred." He is forced to realize that the even- nearly so intense or so disillusioning as the first-per- tual separation from his beloved child, the sorrow son narrator's in the Anderson story, whose idyllic that she will meet later in her life, and the loss of world is tarnished and who is without the protec- the "coherent and disciplined historic past" to the tive concern of a loving father. Anderson's use of the disorder and brashness of the present are first-person narrator enables him to describe the inevitable. Yet in spite of the insecurity of the boy's altered perceptions as a result of his coming of human condition, there is an inescapable sense of age and thereby intensifies the emotional impact of the promise of renewed vitality from the younger the experience for the reader, while Mann's story generation. focuses more on the professor's reaction to the experience. Therefore, we never really know the Comparison: The details of this story suggest ultimate effect Ellie's disappointment might have on that it can be read as the story of Germany after her, whereas the boy's experience is a crucial moral the war, exploring the problems of coping with one that has clearly destructive implications for him. the disorder and disillusionment that followed. John Updike's "Flight," like Mann's story, is con- Boll's story "Christmas Every Day" is also set in a cerned with the child-parent relationship and the defeated Germany after a war (World War II) and experience of coming of age. They both make the deals with the problems of changing aesthetic and comparison between the attitudes and values of the moral values. But unlike Mann's story, it is more older and younger generations. deeply concerned with the moral responsibility of Many of Picasso's paintings are concerned with the German people for the horrors of the war and the subject of the difficult time of one's facing the the contrast between the comfort of personal life painful transformations that take place during the and the atrocities of war. The emphasis on the way transition from childhood to adulthood. One such the static past impinges on the present and results painting is his Bust of a Woman 0023), in which in the breaking up of the old order is an important the figure is, like a child, discovering herself by see- theme in both stories. But whereas the character in ing her hands as larger than life and manifesting a the BOB story clings to the past, Mann seems to sense of fear at the discovery. RHM

MANN, THOMAS. TONIO KRoGEA. Germany Introductto:i to Literature: Stories. 3d ed. New York: Macmillan, 1980. Translated by I lelen T Lowe-Porter.

Author: See DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW. rect." He was a merchant "with a wild flower in his buttonhole." His mother,"of indeterminate foreign Story: TONIO KROGER is directly autobiographi- blood, was beautiful, sensuous, naive, passionate and cal in that Tonio's parents manifest the same con- careless at once,... irregular by instinct: and she flict as Mann's own. His father"had the tempera- played the piano and mandolin wonderfully. Tonio ment of the north: solid, reflective, puritanically cor- had an artistic bent that made him different from

106a If;11,0 ANNOTATIONS

other boys, such as his friend Hans Hansen, who youth when this epiphany occurred. In both sto- cared only about horses and the girl he loved, ries, the authors show that the artist is in the para- Ingeborg Holm. Ingeborg is depicted as a blond, doxical situation of needing to experience the healthy, natural person, who, like Hans, is insensitive warmth of the human while being alienated from it to the world of the artist. in order to retain individuality and devote oneself All the major characters in the story represent to creativity. one of these two extremes, either artist or burger, In Katka's story THE METAMORPHOSIS, the and Tonio, recognizing the artist potential in him- theme of alienation is developed to a greater self, feels in his isolation from the others "a longing extreme. Gregor is metamorphosed into a bug, and ... and agentle envy; a faint contempt, and no little thus he is completely alienated from his family and innocent bliss:' But as he gets older, Tonio realizes society. He cannot exist in either world for long. that he can never be like his friends and "live free Ultimately, he is completely destroyed. from the curse of knowledge and the torment of Melville's story "Bartleby the Scrivener" is also creation ... in blessed mediocrity.... Their speech concerned with the themes of isolation and the was not his speech." They cannot understand him, artist's problem with society, but focuses more on yet he longs for the bliss of the human and the com- the compleX question of an individual's obligation monplace. to society. Considered as a parable of the alienation He returns to the north, but his home is now a of the serious writer in the modern world, public building, and no one knows him anymore. In Melville's story dramatizes the artist's refusal to Copenhagen, he has a vision of Hans and Inge and write as a commercial enterprise. Unlike Tonto, he knows that he could never have been happy with remains behind the walls that separate him from their lives. Recognizing that to become a poet he society. must have his "bourgeois love of the human, the liv- in Conrad Aiken's story "Silent Snow, Secret ing and usual," because it is "the source of all Snow," Paul expresses a conflict similar to Tonio's warmth, goodness, and humor," he sees himself when he reflects,"It was as if he were trying to lead standing "between two worlds" and being "at home a double life.... But how, then, was he to keep a bal- in neither." He "suffers in consequence," but he sens- ance?" Yet Paul's problem is that of a schizophrenic, es that somehow it will be from the relationship of a divided personality, whereas Tonio's is a more the two conflicting worlds that his creativity will intellectual arid less psychological one. develop and grow. Mann's parodic technique is demonstrated in his description of Herr Francois Knaak, the dancing Comparisow The theme of the artist's isolation master who teaches bourgeois manners to the chil- from society is a pervasive one in twentieth-centu- dren of the burger class and dazzles the audience by ry literature and can be found throughout Mann's "suddenly and unexpectedly springing from the entire opus in some variation. One also thinks of ground, whirling his two legs about each other ... as James Joyce's story "Araby," in which the young boy, it were trilling with them, and then, with a subdued the artist-author as a young man, in a moment at a bump, which nevertheless shook everything within bazaar realizes that he has values that are different him to its depths, returned to earth:' Such character- from those of the society in which he finds himself. ization involves the kind of exaggeration and paro- He stands between his ideal and the reality of the dy one finds in some of the German expressionists, commonplace, and he is "at home" in neither. such as George Grosz, who compared himself to Although he is not seen as a mature person, as is Thomas Mann and wrote similarly about the paint- Tonio, the story is told from the point of view of m. ed images of the "Philistines" who no longer under- older man who looks back at the moment in his stood his art. it ii


HAMM, THOMAS. TRISTAN. Germany Death in Venice and Seven Other Stories. New York: Vintage, 1936. Translated by Helen T. Lowe-Porter.

Author: See DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW. with his isolde, since he is at least partly responsible for Gabriele's death. The comparison with Wagner's Story: TRISTAN is one of Mann's ironically told music thereby heightens the irony. In his confronta- stories about the artist. Three major characters dra- tion with Kloterjahn, Spinell becomes a pitiful char- matize a conflict that Mann himself experienced acter, and in that regard he can be compared to and often expressed in his work. Herr Kloterjahn Walter Mitty in Thurber's story "The Secret Life of represents the healthy, domineering, and materialis- Walter Mitty." Mitty retreats into a fantasy world tic burger. His wife, Gabriele Kloterjahn, a very sen- where he can feel undefeated, until the real world sitive woman who suffersfrom tuberculosis, is a interferes and threatens his imaginary vision of patient in a sanitarium. Herr Spinell is also a patient what he would like to be. The effect, as in TRISTAN, there, only because his"feeling of Ithe Empire] is a sadly comic one. style" and "the austere simplicity" of the place has Mann's use of the leitmotif, such as the little the effect on him of"inward purification and blue vein that appears on Frau Klöterjahn's temple, rebirth." Finding the atmosphere "morally elevating: a mark of her artistic sensitivity and delicate health, this would-be writer represents the sickly, artistic is reminiscent of Wagner's use of the leitmotif in his aesthete who is comfortable only in the world of music and Mann's frequent use of the technique in beauty. He is totally separated from ordinary life in many of his other works. For example, in his novel every way and is attracted to Gabriele.merely as an Buddenbrooks, Hanno also has light and sensitive object of beauty. He encourages Gabriele to play the skin,"with blue shadows under his eyes" like his piano for his pleasure against the advice of her doc- artistic mother. tor. She plays several Chopin nocturnes, followed by The conflict between Spinell, who represents Wagner's "Tristan":"And on they went, into the the artistic spirit, which, taken to its extreme, is intoxicated music of the love-mystery?' morbid and destructive, and Kloterjahn and his As a result of the exertion, her health worsens, baby, who represent the triumphant life force, is a and the doctor sends for her husband and child. conflict frequently found in Mann's work, such as in Anton, who is "healthy even to excess" and whose TONIO KROGER, where Tonio stands between the shouts and screams are described in marked con- two worlds they represent. In "Death in Venice," trast to the ethereal beauty of the music. Spinell Aschenbach moves from one to the other extreme writes an insulting letter to Herr Kloterjahn in with very complex results indicative of Mann's diffi- which he tells him,"I hate the life of which you are culty in finding a simple solution to the conflict. He the representative: cheap, ridiculous, but yet tri- realized that the artist separated from life is inextri- umphant life." At the end of the story, lifein the cably involved with death. form of thc screaming, fat child and the practical, Melville's "Bartleby the Scrivener" is also con- healthy businessman, Herr Kloterjahntriumphs, as cerned with the themes of isolation and the artist's Spinel( goes out for a walk, realizing that "inwardly, problem in coping with society. But neither Melville he is running away' from life. nor Mann in his other stories is as sardonic or as critical of the artist's sickly isolation as in TRISTAN. comparison: The parodic use of Wagner's One is also reminded of T. S. Eliot's "The Love "Tristan" and "Liebestod" intensities Mann's satire of Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," in which Prufrock, like the artistic aesthete who neither experiences Spinell, feels defeated by reality:"human voices wake Tristan's great love nor becomes united in death us and we drown." Also, both the Hunger Artist


in Katka's A HUNGER ARTIST and the Bound Man in very strong identification with these artists,who are Ilse Aichinger's ME BOUND MAN are artists who victims of a society not capable of appreciating their are overcome by the materialistic and brashsociety art, the unsuccessful and self-indulgent Spine ll around them. Yet whereas the reader develops a becomes a pitiful caricature of an artist. R H M

NAUPASSANT, GUY DE. THE NECKLACE. France The World in Literature. Rev. ed. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman,1967. Translated by Jonathan Sturges.

Author: (1850-1893) was Desperately, they shop for a similar strand of dia- born in Normandy to parents whose claims to monds and finally locate one priced at 36,000 nobility were apparently not matched by wealth. francs. Using all their meager savings and taking out Before becoming a successful writer of realistic, ruinous loans, they pay cash for the new necklace often naturalistic, fiction based largely on his Own and deliver it to Mme. Forestier. They move into a life, he tried his hand at verse and spent time in cheap apartment and for ten years work night and both military and civil service, the latter as a clerk. day to pay off their debts. Mathilde grows old in the Although he loved sports and throughout his life process. Her appearance surprises a still youthful showed an interest in physical fitness and the out- Mme. Forestier when the two meet by chance. doors, he died paralyzed and insane. Some have Mathilde, for the first time, explains all that hap- attributed his early death at the age of forty-three to pened following the party and during the ensuing a genetic disorder, others to dissipation,still others ten years."My poor Mathilde," Mme. Forestier says, to overwork during the 1880s, when most of his shocked,"the necklace was a fake. It wasn't worth more than three hundred short stories and six nov- more than 500 francs!" els were written. THE NECKLACE was published in 1884, nine years before de Maupassant's death.. comparison: The influence of Gustave Flaubert and Emile Zola, both of whom welcomed de Story: Mathilde Loisel, despite her feeling that she Maupassant into their circles, is evident in de was born to enjoy the luxuries of higher estate,is Maupassant's fiction. Like theirs, his work is charac- married to a petty clerk in governmental service. terized by an unflinching interest in the human One day, her husband brings home an invitation to dilemma. His characters, the situations in his stories, an important party. Rather than beinghappy, the themes he developed, and his insights are all Mathilde is upset that she has no dress appropriate reminiscent of those found in their works. From for such a gala occasion. Her husband gives her 400 Flaubert, whom de Maupassant at twenty-three francs he has been saving for a hunting gun, and she declared to be his master, he learned the benefit of buys a dress. Now, however, she has no jewelry to the well-chosen word, good humor, and crisp irony. wear with it. Her husband suggests she visither From Zola came the naturalist's concern for heredi- friend, Mme. Forestier, and borrow jewelry from her. ty, environment, and determinism as governing She doesa lovely diamond necklaceand wears it human actions. and the new dress to the party, where she is a great In the course of THE NECKLACE, de Maupassant editorializes,"How little a thing is need- hit. Upon returning to their home on the Rue des ed for us to be lost or to be saved!" The comment Martyrs, Mathilde discovers that she has lost the could well describe many of his stories, which turn necklace. Her husband spends most of the night on the thifortunate mistake or event.Worthwhile and all the next day trying unsuccessfully to find it. comparison can thus be made using 'I'HE NECK-


LACE and stories like "Clochette,""A Piece of String," Thomas Hardy, Emile Zola, and Gustave Flaubert. ",""Minuet,"and"Hautot and His Son." Each The gifts in 0. Henry's "The Gift of the Magi," if of these stories is an example too of the economy given with love, are the: result of sacrifices made, of structure and masterful irony typical of de judgments blurred by society's version of "presents." Maupassant at his best. In Sherwood Anderson's"The Egg," the narrator's Comparison with many of the works of literary father pays a great price to rise to a better station in naturalists and realists is also possible. Society's life. In William Dean Howells's A Hazard of New image for success is the source of grief for charac- Fortunes, the elder Dryfoos suffers through the ters in the stories of 0. Henry, Theodore Dreiser, social ambition of his wife and daughter. R S

NEGGED, ANARON. THE NAME. Israel Short Story International April 1983. Translated by Minna Givton.

Author: Aharon Megged (19204 born in including fermenting preserves. They eat reluctantly, Wloclawcek, Poland, emigrated to Israel with his fam- especially Yehuda, who is forced "to taste at least a ily in 1926. Educated in Tel Aviv, from 1938 to 1950 teaspoonful of the sweet and nauseating stuff." After he was a member of Kibbutz Sdot-Yam, during which a period of chatting comes "what Yehuda dreaded time he was sent to the United States and Canada as most of all." The old man takes from the clock cabi- ar exemplary "Young Pioneer." Since 1950, Megged net a cloth bag containing a manuscript, a "lament has become well known as a journalist, editor, play- for Grandfather's native town in the Ukraine which wright, and prolific writer of fiction. As a writer of had been destroyed by the Germans," and various fiction, he began as a naturalist, then experimented other items, among them a photograph of his grand- with surrealism, moving finally in the early 1970s to son, Mendele, who had been twelve years old when the position of a realist. He has won a number of lit- he and his entire family were killed during the erary prizes, among them the Bialiki and Fichman destruction of the town. It is clear that Grandfather Prizes in 1973. THE NAME was published in 1960. Ziskind idolizes his lost grandson. As usual, Ziskind bemoans the fate of his village Story: THE NAME opens with Raya and her young and grandson, the young people indicate their sym- husband,1 Aiuda, paying a visit to her grandfather, pathy, and Raya remembers the change in her grand- Grandfather Ziskind, of whom she has always been father after the war as he came to understand that very fond. The disorder of the house in which he his son and grandson had been killed. As usual, the lives alone reveals his "helplessness in running his old man asks the younger one to read the manu- home," and the particular items enumerated script aloud. Yehuda complies, reading mechanically, crumbs from a Sabbath loaf, books with thick since, after many readings, Ziskind's manuscript has leather bindings, and especially the "clock which lost any meaning it might once have had for him. had long since stopped"suggest his living in the After a time, Raya becomes pregnant, and her past, the past 01 European Jewry before the mother finally tells Ziskind, who has failed to notice. Holocaust. Raya's first words in the story,"We ought After learning of his granddaughter's pregnancy, the to make Grandfather a present of a clock," indicate a old man appears at her home foi the first time, ani- significant difference between the worlds of the mated and happy as she has not seen him since she grandfather and his granddaughter, a modern Israeli. was a child. From her mother she later learns that This visit follows the usual course of such visits. Ziskind wishes Raya and Yehuda to name their child Grandfather Ziskind offers the young people food, after Mendele, his dead grandson, but that he is reluc-


tant to ask them. Through the mother the young cou- door. As they leave, Raya realizes that her grandfa- ple convey their unwillingness to name their child ther is "alone, an orphan in the world." Mende le, or even Menachem, a compromise pro- posed by the mother. Their intention is to name the Comparison:In its theme of the difficulties in child Elud, if it is a boy, a name they consider an understanding caused by generational change, espe- Israeli name, in contrast to the others, which are cially when such change is made even more diffi- European, related to the Go lab, the Diaspora. Finally, cult by historical developments; THE NAME may be Ziskind confronts them with his wish, but they con- generally compared to such stories as Thomas tinue to refuse."0 children, children," he says to Mann's DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW, Heinz them,"you don't know what you're doing. You're fin- Huber's ME NEW APARTMENT, and Alice Walker's ishing off the work which the enemies of Israel "Everyday Use." Like Megged's story, those of Mann began. They took the bodies away from the world, and Huber concern themselves with generational and youthe name and the memory:" difficulties among Europeans, while Walker's deals When the son is born and named Elud, the cou- with African Americans. An even clearer compari- ple finally visit Ziskind, who acts as if the child is son can be seen between a number of stories by not there, steadfastly refusing to admit his exis- , stories such as "Grandfather tence. When the old man begins to take the cloth and Grandson" and "The Old Man," where the gener- bag from the clock cabinet, the young parents tell ational conflict is played out by members of the him they must go, and he accompanies them to the Jewish community. -PTM

IMELEAGROU, HEBB. MONUMENT. Greece The Charioteer: An Annual Review of Modern Greek Culture. No. 7-8. New York: Parnassos, Greek Cultural Society of New York, 1965/66. Translated by Fotine Nicholas.

Author:Hebe Meleagrou (1928-) was born on their brother's death, but they were unable to con- Cyprus. She writes of universal themes, of the peri- vince their father of the danger. Through a series of od of Greece between the First and Second World revelations beginning with the installation of the Wars, and of the years since World War II. MONU- monument, the father is slowly led to full under- MENT is part of the large corpus of antiwar litera- standing. ture that comes from Greece, perhaps in part because the glorificatiOn of war was at its best in Comparison: The classical war-and-hero tradition ancient Greece. In fact, MONUMENT goes a step fur- developed in Greece; it was one of the Greeks' ther by being an story as well. It iS written major contributions to the Western world (see with great sensitivity and presents an illuminating Venezis's MYCENAE). Greeks of the twentieth cen- portrait of Greek culture and values and of genera- tury have had plenty of opportunity to seek to be tional differences. heroes, and there are many hero stories available. In this one, however, the tradition backfires, as it does Story:The monument that has just gone up is in in Ambrose Bierce's story "An Occurrence at Owl honor of the main character's , who Creek Bridge." In spite of warnings, Peyton did exactly what his father wanted him to do: to Farquhar, a planter and slave owner, attempts to reach for a cause that would lift him above the com- destroy a bridge vital to the Yankee advance. monplaceto become a hero. His older brother Farquhar, unsuccessful in his attempt, is hanged on and sister believed that such teaching would lead to the bridge by Northern troops. TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

The idea of being a hero is also evident in the declared a hero, a ruler, by a remote warrior society. leading character in 's."The Man He apparently enjoys the status a grea.t deal, up until Who Would Be King." This rugged, active bum is the end. E M

SHRIVEL PROSPER. THE VENUS OW ILLE. France The Venus of Hie and Other Stories, London: , 1966. Translated by Jean Kimber.

Author: Prosper Mérimée (1803-1870), a French safekeeping. Forgetting the ring, he proceeds to the novelist and man of wide culture, studied both law ceremony and an afternoon of eating, drinking, and and archaeology He held various diplomatic posts coarse joking. Later that evening, the drunken groom and became inspector general of historical monu- tells the archaeologist that the Venus is his wife ments in 1841. His archaeological interests are because she will not give the ring back. Her fmger reflected in many of his tales. He was elected to the has contracted, perhaps due to a hidden spring, he French Academy in 1844. In 1853, he became a sen- speculates. That night, the narrator hears mysteri- ator under the Second Empire. Commonly associat- ous, heavy footsteps. The next morning, Monsieur ed with the Romanticists, he portrays violent pas- Alphonse is found dead in the bridal chamber, sions and strong characterizations in his fiction, but crushed to death. The diamond wedding ring lies On there are elements of classical restraint in his ironi- the floor. His widow is regarded as mad when she cal, detached style. Among his best works are La claims to have seen the bronze statue in bed, hold- ChroniqUe du Temps de Charles IX, a historical ing her husband in a murderous embrace and then novel;"Carmen," a nouvelle made into a famous dropping his dead body as she walked away. opera by Bizet; and THE VENUS OF ILLE (1837), which Mérimee described as his masterpiece. Comparison: Venus, the goddess of love and beauty in Roman mythology and associated with Story: The narrator, an unnamed pedantic archae- the Greek Aphrodite, has been the subject of major ologist, visits the district of Ille to investigate the works of literature by famous authors. Merimée area's ruins. His host, the local antiquarian based THE VENUS OF ILLE on an ancient local leg- Monsieur de Peyrehorade, invites him to take part end. Through the use of myth, he was able to por- )0/the wedding preparation for his son, Alphonse. tray the dual nature of love as symbolized by the Even more interesting to the Parisian is the recent seductive beauty and destructive power of the stat- unearthing and placement nearby of a large, ue. The love-death synthesis is common in antique bronze statue of Venus. The narrator appre- Romantic literature. In Mérimée's tale, the retribu- ciates the generous hospitality of his host, but dis- tion for betraying the goddess is extreme, but the likes the son's dandified appearance, vulgar man- work suggests that justice is served by the fate of ner, and blatantly greedy attitude about his fiancee's the vulgar bridegroom. The narrator looks with dis- dowry, especially in view of the delicate girl's dain at arranged marriages, by which "the most charm and beauty. innocent of girls may be handed over to the mino- The morning of the wedding, Alphonse, a tennis taur." Mérimee treats this theme in a less subtle man- player of renown, capriciously joins in a match ner in "Lokis," which also involves a slaying on the because the local players are losing to some wedding night. In many takes of horror, inanimate Spaniards. In order to improve his game, he removes objects play major roles. A salient example is Edgar his 's diamond wedding ring from his hand Allan Poe's "The Fall of the House of Usher." An and places it on the third finger of the statue for interdependence exists between the decay of the

112 I !.?, 6 ANNOTATIONS

mansion and the decline of the mental and physical Mérimée's story may also be viewed as an inver- health of its inhabitants. sion of the Pygmalion legend. An interesting con- Parallels to THE VENUS OF ILLE exist in literary trast would be W. S. Gilbert's comedy Pygmalion and musical adaptations of the legend, and Galatea, in which a sculptor falls in love with such as Moliere's play Don Juan, Mozart's opera his creation, a statue of Galatea, and his wife Don Giovanni, and Pushkin's poetic drama The becomes very jealous. Stone Guest. Don Juan arrogantly invites the statue Art works depicting Venus-Aphrodite abound. of the commander he has killed to dine with him, The Aphrodite at Cnidos by Praxiteles and the and Alphonse flippantly places his betrothed's ring Venus de Milo are obvious choices to be used on the hand of the bronze Venus, neither character with this work. Tintoretto's painting Cupid, Venus, expecting the statue to respond. Both meet with and Vulcan is also appropriate, since the bride- disaster when the figures "come to life" and seek groom's father jokes about Venus and her lover, revenge. Vulcan. ^MAF

MISHIMA YUKIO. PATRIOTISM. Japan Death in Midsummer and Other Stories. New York: New Directions, 1966. Translated by Geoffrey W. Sargent.

Author: Mishima Yukio, the pen name of Hiraoka Story: On the morning of February 26, Lieutenant Kimitake (1925-1970), was born in Tokyo. His deci- Shinji Takeyama hears a bugle summoning troops sion to write came as he was watching the bombing and finds himself in an insoluble conflict. His and burning of Tokyo one night. His first novel, The unquestioned loyalty to the imperial forces is now Sound of Waves (1958), was written after a trip to compromised by his closest colleagues, who have Europe and established his enormous popularity as just staged a ten-minute mutiny. a writer. It was made into a movie almost immedi- When he returns home to his bride Reiko two ately after publication. His best-known works trans- days later, his decision is resolute. He is to commit lated into English include Temple of the Golden seppuku (suicide by sword) in the prescribed man- Pavilion (1959) and The Sailor Who Fell from ner. Reiko, who has guessed his mind, is ready to Grace with the Sea (1969). PATRIOTISM was pub- accompany him in death. Husband and wife, very lished in 1960. His crowning achievement, the much in love, have been living in passionate happi- tetralogy The Sea of Fertility which includes Spring ness, but neither questions the necessity of the lieu- Snow, The , The Temple of Dawn, tenant's decision. In fact, Reiko is flattered by her and The Decay of the Angel, was delivered to the husband's trust in choosing her to be his witness. publisher the day before his death. They dispense with supper, and after each has Besides producing a prolific amount of writing, taken a bath, retire to their bedroom to enjoy including twenty novels, thirty-three plays, and innu- embracing a last time. Fully aware that they are merable articles on a great variety of subjects, looking at love in the face of death, they plan to Mishima was also an athlete, karate expert, actor, experience each with the same rigor. The fact that film maker, and soldier. His activities were so varied they see both acts as moral anil righteous invigo- and his achievements so remarkable that he was rates them. regarded as the Japanese man. His sui- In the traditional manner, they write their cide by the traditional sword in December 1970 farewell notes, which they lay in the alcove. The was no less dramatic than the activities of his life. lieutenant unbuttons his uniform, tests his sword's


cutting edge, thrusts it five or six inches into his martyr for the same kind of reasons, but at another's abdomen, and pulls it sideways across to the right. hand. Stephen Vincent Ben& evokes the self-sacri- In his last moments of consciousness, he directs the fice of early Christians in the title of his story "The blade at his throat and throws his body's weight Blood of the Martyrs." When the protagonist, at long against it to make it penetrate. last, recognizes that he has to die if he defies the Almost immediately, Reiko prepares to "taste the regime, he becomes a hero in acing severe punish- true bitterness and sweetness of that great moral ment and the firing squad. principle in which her husband believed" and to Mishima's lieutenant also resembles those enter"a realm her husband has already made his Hemingway heroes who choose to die a manful and own." She draws a dagger from her sash and plunges violent death. Both authors speak through their it into her throat. characters to demand a certain dignity in death. In Hemingway's first book of stories, In Our Time, the Comparison: Suicide as a final statement on boy Nick Adams is initiated into the bullfighting issues of loyalty or principle was an honorable, even ring, an arena in which death always looms as the expected, act in the Japanese samurai tradition. An ultimate challenge and characters face it with act equally regarded in Western stories is to die as a finesse and courage. Nt I.

MORAVIA, ALBERTO. THE CHASE. Italy Literature: The Human Experience. 3d ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1982. Translated by Angus Davidson.

Author: is the pseudonym adopt- going hunting with his father and being struck by ed by Alberto Pincherle (1907-1990). Born in Rome, the intense vitality of a bird,"rendered more intense he spent much of his youth in tuberculosis sanitari- by the very fact of my watching it," which his father ums, allowing him to read widely and making him shot moments later, picked up, and put in the boy's introspective, a quality manifested in his fiction, hand. The startling contrast between vitality and especially in its frequent concern with adolescence death marked "the end of my shooting experience." and the loss of innocence. A lifelong anti-Fascist, Like the bird, his wife, before they married, had Moravia found his works banned by Mussolini, and been "'wild'that is, entirely autonomous and unpre- he and his wife were forced to flee to the mountains dictable," but now "she had become 'tame'that is, when the Germans occupied Italy. Many of his sto- predictable and dependent." What once had been a ries and novels are anti-Fascistic and suggest that wild bird had become a hen. One day, however, as his relinquishing individual responsibility causes cor- wife is leaving their apartment, he notices a gesture ruption and human anguish. That theme of alien- that suggests her former wildness "that in the past ation is generally linked with the sexual anxiety and had made me love her." Intrigued, he decides to fol- frustration naturally resulting from people's self-cen- low her. She boards the bus, and he follows in his car. tered, inauthentic existences. Moravia is perhaps When she gets off the bus, he leaves the car and fol- best known for the novels The Woman of Rome lows her on foot, only to be shocked to see her (1947) and The conprmist (1951). THE CHASE was accosted by a young man on the street. Rather than published in 1967, and THE FALL in 1956. rebuffing him, she walks along by his side, their arms around each other's waists,"evidently obeying the Story: A brief reminiscence of an incident in the rules of some kind of erotic ritual" predetermined by childhood of the narrator opens the story and func- the two of them. After a time, they step into a dark tions as an analogy for its action. He remembers doorway and kiss. As she leans back in the course of ANNOTATIONS

the long kiss, her husband "felt at that moment her Eliot's J. Alfred Prufrock, although it must be remem- vitality had reached its diapason," and "I saw that I bered that neither of them marry, an important fact would have to intervene," he said. in this regard. On the other hand, one might con- Imagining himself grabbing her hair and pulling trast his reaction to that of Tom Buchanan in F. Scott her away from her lover, he realizes that this action Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby when he experiences would be the equivalent of his father's shooting the a comparable revelation. Interestingly, in both cases wild bird: "After the scene of my intervention it the knowledge of the wife's infidelity sharpens the might be possible for me to regain control of my husband's basically sexual interest. On :. might also wife, but I should find her shattered and lifeless in contrast Moravia's character's reaction to that of my arms like the bird that my father placed in my Francis Macomber's wife in Ernest Hemingway's hand." He watches the seemingly interminable "kiss "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" when of passion" until its end and then turns back as they she becomes fully aware of her husband's "intense walk ahead. vitality." She shoots her husband as our narrator's father shot the bird. Comparison: The narrator of the story is essen- The wife of this story might well be compared tially a voyeur, not only in his watching his wife and to Mabel in D. H. Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's her lover, but in his whole relationship to life. He Daughter Both of them possess an animal sexual wants to possess the intense vitality of his wife vitality that is part of their very nature and that because he lacks it himself, not realizing that human dominates their life and being. Lawrence, however, vitality, fundamentally sexual and solitary, cannot sees this force as far more powerfulMabel, after survive possession, the theme of this story. In this all, dominates the more sophisticated, more rational, sense, he may be compared to John Marcher of but less sexual Jack Fergussonand more funda- Henry James's "The Beast in the Jungle" or to T. S. mental than does Moravia. -PTM

MORAVIA, ALBERTO. THEFALL. Italy The Continental Short Story: An Existential Approach. New York: OdysseyPress, 1969. Translated by Bernard Wall.

Author: See TTIE CHASE. As he gradually explores the villa, he becomes fascinated by it and its furnishings, especially a copy Story: "On the threshold of his turbid and trou- of a Caravaggio painting depicting St. Paul's fall on bled adolescence" and recovering from a lengthy ill- the way . Struck by lightning, Paul's ness, Tancredi is sent to vacation in a rented villa at naked, emaciated body is depicted being hurled the seaside with his mother and the maid. The villa, backward into the darkness. After this fall into the owned by an antique dealer who uses it to store fur- abyss. Tancredi thinks,"came perfect faith, so that niture, with its old musty smell and arbitrarily the world which had been simple was now double, arranged furnishings,"seemed to rebuff human for the lightning had laid bare the soul hidden intrusion" and adds another terror to "the terror of beneath appearances." death which had come with his illness and survived Two events then occur that profoundly affect his recovery" and the terror"caused by his break the young man. First, in an "enclosure" within the from childhood and by the feeling that his strength villa's garden littered with refuse, pitted with holes, was not equal to the demands made on it by his and containing a single tree, Tancredi, almost acci- new condition." dentally, put,lout one of the eyes of a eat with his


slingshot, causing the cat, strangely, to react not backward into the room. The boy, however, is not with hatred, but with seeming affection. It was "as if hurt, but has merely fainted. with the catapult shot that had blinded it in one eye the cat recognized an unbreakable bond between Comparison: The number of references to falling Tancredi and itself." in the story, from the title to the concluding inci- Struck with panic, the boy flees to the villa, dent, clearly reinforce the story's theme of the fall encounters the cat there, and runs upstairs to an from innocence that is accompanied by a haunting unused room. Sitting on the edge of the bed, safe for sense of shame and anxiety. That theme's sexual the moment from the cat, he hears the voices of a dimensions, especially in the dream sequence, could man and woman in the adjoining room, which well be compared to the similarly dreamlike fall holds the picture of St. Paul. Hearing the door from from innocence of Young Goodman Brown in that room to the hall close, he looks in and sees the Nathaniel Hawthorne's story The anguish resulting maid resting On the bed."Why should Veronica go from Tancredi's failure to understand the sexual to sleep in a room that wasn't hers? And what was impulse stirring within him is comparable to the all the chattering and the man's voice?" The whole narrator's bewilderment in Sherwood Anderson's"! experience causes him to feel a shame he doesn't Want to Know Why" and to the "anguish and anger" understand. Dozing off, he dreams of a hole in the James Joyce's protagonist in "Araby" feels at the end ceiling whose "flaky edges suggested that some vast of that story. den lay beyond, so that if the plaster fell, Heaven Tancredi's awareness, on the other hand, of his knew what tunnels might not be disclosed." Seeing ability to destroyanother form of initiationcan a rat in the hole, he hurries to call the maid, who be compared to the similar realization in Arthur pokes at the hole with a broomstick, dislodging the Miller's play After the Fall, as Quentin says of rat, which "jumps on top" of her as she falls back- Holga's realization after experiencing war and the ward "grasping her loins with her hands." Holocaust,"after the Fall, after many, many deaths," Awakening from this dream, he is asked by his "we are very dangerous." Tancredi's awareness of his mother to replace a blown fuse in an inaccessible destructive potential, however, contrasts sharply area over the staircase. As he climbs a ladder and with the almost complete lack of a similar aware- reaches toward the fuse box, he sees the one-eyed ness on the part of the main character in Luigi cat again, but the cat is at that instant electrocuted. Pirandello's CINCI, who kills but feels no responsi- The flash from the electrocution hurls Tancredi bility for his action. P T M

IMPHAHLIELE, EeKIA. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI. South Africa Short Stories, African (English). Winchester, MA: Faber and Faber, 1965.

Author:Es'kia Mphahlele (1919-), a distinguished Paris, Nairobi, Denver, , and the University South African writer and literary scholar, has long of South Carolina. lie returned to South Africa in 1977 been outspoken against the South African govern- when the ban was lifted. He is now first professor of ment's Banta Education Act. His powerftft voice has African literature at the University of Witwatersrand been heard in the more than seventeen books he has in Johannesburg and has held a Fulbright Visiting written or edited since he published his first collec- Professorship at the University of South Carolina. tion of short stories in 1947. Banned from teaching in South Africa in 1952, Mphahlele sought exile in Stoty: The story THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Nigeria, France, and the United States. He has taught in depicts the relationship between a white farmer, ANNOTATIONS

Sarel Britz, owner of the Doornvlei farm, and his climaxes in a symbolic battle between Mfukeri's black foreman, Mfukeri. Because it is important to bull and Sarel's stallion. When the bull gores the Sarel to establish a favorable working relationship stallion, Mfukeri feels victorious. Sarel now knows with his laborers, he puts the black Mfukeri in that Mfukeri must be given a choiceto shoot his charge of them. As Sarel observes about his work- bull or to leave. Mfukeri "coaxes his bull off the ers,"They're fully grown-up; some of them cleverer premises" and walks away. and wiser than us Whites." Sarel stresses to Mfukeri the necessity for fair- Comparison: At one point in the story, a bird ness to all the laborers and warns against beating trapped and caught in the window by the little boy them, but Mfukeri does not listen. The laborers symbolizes the helplessness of blacks entrapped in protest the black foreman's inhumanity when he labor system that strips them of their human dig- drives them beyond their physical abilities, as when nity. There can be no redress against wrongs. So it is he forces a ten-year-old boy to work in the rain and with Bigger Thomas in Richard Wright's Native the boy later dies of pneumonia. Led by a refugee Son. Alex Haley's Roots reflects a similar theme of from Johannesburg, they present Sarel with an ulti- oppression and abuse, and The Life of Frederick matum that, no matter how liberal he may be, he Douglass portrays an almost endless account of the cannot tolerate from a black man. Sarel's fear abuse and injustices suffered by enslaved people in mounts as the conflict between whites and blacks America. iijj

NROZEK, SLAWONIR. CHILDREN. Poland Russian and Eastern European Literature. Glenview, IL:ScottForesman, 1970. Translated by Konrad Syrop.

Author: A master of satire in both short fiction tive effect of the stories is to make the government and drama, Mrozek (1930-) was born in Borzicin, appear more than slightly ridiculous. Poland. After spending several semesters studying In 1969, Mrozek fled Poland after his writing architecture, Eastern culture, and painting in involved him in difficulties with the government. Krakow, he opted for a literary career. At the begin- After living in Paris for a time, he made his home in ning of this career, Mrozek supported.himself as a Italy. cartoonist specializing in satire and humor. Both of these characteristics have carried over into his writ- Stoty:Innocently, some children build a snowman ing, and his short stories tend to possess a pictorial in the square. It is a typical snowman. The body is element that can probably be attributed to his work made up of three large snowballs, and it has buttons as a cartoonist. made of coal and a carrot for a nose. Everyone pass- After a short stint as a journalist, Mrozek ing by admires it, but that evening there are com- became a full-time writer of fiction and drama. His plaints. The news agent says its carrot nose mimics first collection of short stories, Mon, published in his red One and calls attention to his drinking. The 1957, was a best-seller in Poland and has since been chairman of the cooperative complains that the translated into many languages (iti English as three snowballs, one on top of the other, imply that Elephant). Most of the stories in this collection sati- in the cooperative one thief sits on top of another. rize the weaknesses of the Polish Communist gov- The president of the local national council claims ernment and its leaders. Although generally the that placing the snowman outside his window satire is more humorous than stinging, the cumula- ridicules his authority and, furthermore, its buttons


ridicule his walking about his house with his fly Comparison: The most obvious comparison for undone. The children plead their innocence to all this selection (also translated as "The Snowman") is charges, but are punished nevertheless. The next with other Mrozek works, including ON A JOUR- morning, in their own yard, the children decide to NEY. In addition to the ridicule of communism and make three more snowmen. The one representing the communist bureaucracy, the parable-like struc- the news agent is to have a red nose to call atten- ture of Mrozek's short satirical pieces can be exam- tion to his drinking. The one representing the chair- ined and evaluated. CHILDREN may also be com- man of the cooperative will have three snowballs pared with Sienkiewicz's YANKO THE MUSICIAN arranged just as the original snowman did. And the for a discussion of the ways in which adults are one representing the president of the local national either deliberately or unwittingly cruel to children. council will have buttons because his fly is undone. -HAIM

BIROZEIC, SLAW011111R. ON A ZOURNEY. Poland Russian and Eastern European Literature. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1970. Translated by Konrad Syrop.

Author: See CHILDREN. saved, there is no need to repair storm damage, humans are more intelligent than poles and wires. Stmy: Adopting the persona of the innocent trav- The only problem is that sometimes in the winter the eler, a satirical device that follows the examples of wolves cause interruptions. In response to a question Jonathan Swift and Mark Twain, Mrozek describes a by the narrator, the coachman says he would not pre- journey by chaise to an unfamiliar part of Poland. fer a regular telegraph system to this because new Passing through deserted countryside, he is sur- there is no shortage of jobs in the district. prised to see a man dressed in the uniform of the post office standing by the side of the road, then Comparison: Unmistakable in the effect of its another dressed in the same manner, and still anoth- broad satire, this short story (also translated as "The er, and so on. In response to his question, the coach- Telegraph") may be compared with other works man explains that these men are on state duty; they critical, to a greater or lesser degree, of the ineffi- are the telegraph line. When a message comes ciencies of a totalitarian regime. Students may be through, one,man shouts it along to the next. The asked to comment on the effectiveness of Mrozek's coachman proudly explains that they constitute a satire as compared with the more realistic and more wireless telegraph. Originally the area was to have incidental criticisms contained in Solzhenitsyn's had a true telegraph, but the poles were stolen and MATRYONA'S HOME, ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH, and there was no wire. THE RIGHT HAND or with the. less vituperative, Thus far, the story is more ridiculous than satiri- perhaps incidental criticism in Sholokhoy's THE cal. But the situation changes when the coachman FATE OF A MAN. Students might also read Jonathan uses what may be termed "totalitarian logic" to justify Swift's "A Modest Proposal" to discuss the effective- the system by explaining its advantages: timber is ness of satire in effecting change. -}IMM


NURAKAMI HARUKI. ON MEETING my100 PERCENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL HORNING. Japan Wbrld Writers Today Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995. Translated by Kevin Flanagan and Tamotsu Omi.

Author: Born in Tokyo, Murakami Haruki (1949-) and ends with "Isn't that a sad story?" In the story, a attended Waseda University and managed a jazz teenage couple part, with the understanding that if band in Tokyo from 1974 to 1981. He won the they were really the 100 percent perfect persons for Noma Literary Prize for his novel Wild Sheep Chase each other they would meet again and marry. But, and the Tanizaki Prize for The End of the World and fourteen years later, the memories are weak. They Hard-Boiled Wimderland. Two other novels, pass without speaking and disappear into the crowd. Norwegian Wood and Dance, Dance. Dance, have enjoyed enormous popularity. Comparison: This story of unrequited love finds parallels in stories from mythology to cinema. For Story: On one fine April morning, the narrator pass- example, in the story of Apollo and Daphne, as told es a woman he considers his 100 percent woman.He by Ovid in The Metamorphoses, Apollo in his chase fantasizes about her and rehearses what to say to her, plans a speech with which to dazzle Daphne, but to but she disappears into the crowd. Still dreaming no avail. The protagonist in THE DAY THE about the encounter, he tells a story he should have DANCERS CAME by also rehears- tried to tell her. It begins with "Once upon a time" es a speech to impress the visiting dancers. 51 I.

NAIPAIIIIN, V. S.El. WORDSWORTH. Trinidad World Writers Today Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

Author:V. S. Naipaul (1932-), born in Trinidad of book-length essays based on his travels around the Indian ancestry, has emerged as one of the most world, including three books on India, one on the intelligent and powerful writers in the English lan- Muslim world, and one on the southern United guage. His brilliance in school took him to Oxford States. He has received every major literary prize for further education, and he soon settled in awarded in England and was knighted by the England. His early stories and novels, many set in queen in 1992. the country of his birth, are comedies of manners marked by a colorful cast of characters and deep Story: A stranger appears one day at the gate of a humor. Among these, The Mystic Masseur (1957) young boy's home in Trinidad. The man says he and A House for Mr Biswas (1961) have become wants to watch the bees circling about the gru-gru classics. The scathing novels of his middle period palm trees in the yard. The boy's mother is suspi- are set in various locales, including theportrayal of cious, but grams his request, telling her son to stay an emerging African nation in A Bend Inthe River and watch him. What most impresses the boy is the (1979), which has elicited comparison with Joseph perfection of the man's English,"so good it didn't Conrad. In more recent years. Naipaul has turned sound natural." In response to the boy's "What you to detailed, sensitive, and highly critical does do, ofister?" the stranger replies,"I am a poet."


In fact, he claims to be the greatest poet in the moving evocation of poetic hope in a world of world, at work on the greatest poem in the world. harsh realities. B. Wordsworth, who lives in poverty, He becomes the boy's friend and gently opens earning a few pennies by singing calypso in season, the boy's eyes to the miracles of life and the world says his name is Black Wordsworth, and an effective about him. As they gaze at the stars together, the discussion of the stoican begin with a reading of boy "felt like nothing, and at the same time I had any one of William Wordsworth's shorter poems, never felt and great in all my life." The boy focusing on such issues as the tension between too resolves to be a poet. In their conversations, and poetic beauty and economic necessity. The implied in their walks together, the world is transformed for relationship between William and Black the boy into "a most exciting place." But one day, he Wordsworth may serve as a basis for a discussion of finds his friend looking old and weak. The greatest the impact on our lives of those we look up to and poem in the world is not going well. The poet has admire while young. lost his power, and in his face the boy sees the The short story "Sally" by the Mexican American marks of coming death. The old man admits that all writer Sandra Cisneros offers an excellent thematic his talk about poetry and the greatest poem in the comparison. Like B. Wordsworth, Sally is a figure par- world wasn't true. It was just a joke. But his voice ents regard warily. She is far too free, too beautiful breaks as he says this, and the young boy runs home the very traits that attract the nameless young narra- crying,"like a poet, for everything I saw." tor of the story. Sally too is a complex figure, with her own doubts, her own insecurities at her inner-city Comparison: Although, as a story of the coming school, returning home each day to a life far removed of age of a budding poet and the loss of innocence, from the freedom she seeks. The young girl narrating B. WORDSWORTH may be compared initially with the story looks up to her, but recognizes in her as such classic stories as James Joyce's"Araby," well an unfulfilled imaginative and spiritual life with Naipaul's story is primarily a powerful and tenderly which she deeply sympathizes. 13 M

S.THE ENEMY. Trinidad A Flag on the Island. London: Andre Deutsch, 1967.

Author: See B. WORDSWORTH. deep. The father's fear of the workers' threats culmi- nates one evening during a thunderstorm in which Story: THE ENEMY is a story of a young boy in he believes he hears the workers moving about out- Trinidad who is torn between his father and his mother side the house. When the storm blows in the win- when they separate. Out of loyalty to his father, he dow and puts out the lamp, he screams out in terror. thinks of his mother as the enemy. The.story is told in We learn the next day that the father died of fear. the first person by the boy, and we learn of the life the The boy now joins his mother and moves to family led prior to the breakup. The father was oversee- Port-of-Spain. We see their life together through his ing workers on a sugar estate, treated them harshly, and eyes as he comes to recognize her love for him, her seemed about to pay for this mistreatment. Threats of admiration for his success in school, and hc con- physical harm from the workers finally drove the moth- cern when he is injured. In his mother's tears, he er from the house. The boy stayed with his father. discovers his own love for her. His father talks with the boy, imparting what lit- tle wisdom he has. In spite of his father's simplicity, Comparison: This story, set in Trinidad, is typical the bond between father and son seems solid and of Naipaul's humor and compassion in treating char-


acters who seem simple but are far from- On a more general level, the humor and region- simple-minded. The tale paints a vivid picture of al flavor of the work make it an interesting counter- daily island life, tracing the relationships among point to American literature of the South. Because it father, mother, and son with sensitivity and insight. is told in the first person by the son, it also may be Several thematic concerns make the story an apt compared fruitfully with other first-person accounts choice for comparison with stories dealing with of the lives of young boys, for example, Eudora father-son or mother-son relationships, family Welty's portrayal of family relationships in such breakups, and coming of age. One such story is short stories as "Kin" and "Why I Live at the P0." Bruno Schulz's COCKROACHES. - 13 M

Nsuos, LILIKA. THE BROKENDOLL. Greece Lift and Letters Today: An International Quarterly of LivingLiterature. Winter 1936. Translated by Allan Ross Macdougall.

Author:Lilika Nakos (1890-1989), one of the She lived in Paris for a number of years and writers of the "Generation of the 1930s," was born wrote in French, but in 1930, after her Father's death. in Athens into a wealthy family. Her father was a she moved back to Greece. There she supported lawyer and a socialist member of parliament; her herself and her mother by working as a high school mother was involved with social affairs. she spent teacher and journalist. She wrote The Children's . the first years of her life under the care of, as she Inferno:Stories of the Great Famine in Greece put it,"a woman of the people" from Epirus, a while working as a at a makeshift hospital region of Greece typified by remote mountain vil- during the German occupation of Greece in lages. That early association may have helped her 1941-42. The stories were smuggled out of Athens develop the wide understanding of people that by a foreign nurse. When they were immediately shows so clearly in her eight novels, approximately published in Switzerland, they brought to the rest of twenty-five fictionalized biographies, and many the world's attention the terrible famine in Greece. short stories, all written in demotic Greek. During that winter, 300,000 people starved to death. When Lilika was nine years old, her mother left The Red Cross and others immediately began send- her husband and, with Lilika, took up in ing international aid. Nakos, who believed that Geneva. Because the husband in a Greek family has important writing affects people in definite ways, absolute control, separation fromindeed, any defi- considered these stories her finest works. ance ofthe man in the family bore a riskof retalia- Her first novel, The Lost, created a great stir tion. Because Lilika was a girl, her father was vio- because it dared to probe the life of a womati who lently opposed to her education. Yet her mother searched endlessly for love without ever coming to saw to it that Lilika attended high school inGeneva terms with sex. Her short stories, including HELEN- and took advanced degrees. Whcn Nakos's first ITSA (1944), were published in the United States as story was published in Paris in 1928, herfather The Children's Inferno in 1946. Nakos died, after an threatened the publisher with a lawsuit if he pub- extended illness, in May 1989. lished any more of her work, and he threatened to cut off Lilika's hands if she continued to write.She Story: Nakos draws upon her own experiences in was twenty-nine years old at the time.She contin- her writing, and this very brief, heartbreaking story ued to write, but her father's attitude was a lifelong is a good example. The father of the family drives source of deep pain. his wife and small daughter out of his house. The


mother takes Photini to Marseille, where she getsa Comparison: One important American short story job and they begin life anew, much as Nakos and that shares the theme of the legally sanctioned vio- her Own mother began a new life in Geneva. The lence of one family member against another is fictional family, like the real one, must cope with the Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper." In threat of retribution. In Nakos's case, she met only it, a husband, in the name of caring, drives his wife threats. In this story, however, the father s hench- mad by cutting her off from her child and refusing to men kidnap Photini from her mother. allow her to engage in her work. The family relation- The characters and the situation are dynamical- ships of the safari couple in Hemingway's "The Short ly drawn in a clear style, and the situation is instant- Happy Life of Francis Macomber" put forth the ly understandable. The story's title comes from a premise that a wife who rejects her normal state of compelling picture at the end of the story: Photini being dominated by her husband cannot tolerate that is being driven away, looking out the back and see- husband's becoming a real man. Truman Capote's "A ing her mother running, crying, after the kidnap- Christmas Memory" also explores the relationships per's car, holding out the doll that has been within a family, as does Katherine Mansfield's knocked from Photini's arms. slice-of-life tale "The Garden Party" E M

NAKOS, LILIKA. HELEN1TSA. Greece The C'hildren's Inferno: Stories of the Great Famine in Greece. Hollywood,CA: Gateway Books, 1946. Translated by Allan Ross Macdougall.

Author: See THE BROKEN DOLL. some, fry them, and offer them to her. She dies clutching them in her hand. Story: Two children, six-year-old Helenitsa and her older brother, are brought, half-frozen and starved, to comparison: French fries in this story are survival the hospital. There is no room for them there; each objects. For all the people involved in the search, bed holds five patients already. The police officer they become a symbol of life free from oppression. who found them huddled in the subway begs the In another story concerned with death, Jack nurse to take the girl, at least, and she finally agrees. London's "To Build a Fire," the main character fails to The boy, Dino, says that there are seven children in recognize building a fire as a possibility until it is the familyHelenitsa is the youngestand that the too late for fire to save his life. In Stephen Crane's children's mother is sick in bed. Their father, a mason, "The Open Boat," death is more than a possibility has pleurisy and cannot work. The other children for the four survivors of a shipwreck. It is a proba- leave and return home as hunger dictates. Helenitsa is bility that must be faced with the violent cresting of the one who keeps all the family's spirits up, making each huge wave. them laugh and not crying from her hunger. As Sarah Orne Jewett's "Miss Ternpy's After Dino leaves the hospital, Helenitsa smiles Watchers" begins, Temperance Dent is dead. Before at the nurse, and the nurse is so startled and pleased she died, however, she asked two of her old friends, that she automatically asks the child what she one very poor and one quite wealthy, to watch over would like to have. Helenitsa answers in her weak her after her death. During the afternoon and night voice,"I would like some French fried potatoes." before Miss Tempy's funeral, the two women are The child's simple request, in a city where the pop- inspired by their shared memories of the generous, ulation is dying of hunger, is astonishing. Everyone loving, simple woman who lies dead. Like Helenitsa, becomes involved in the search for potatoes as the Miss Tempy kept up the spirits of all those around child grows weaker and weaker. They finally find her. E M

122 .1 3 6 ANNOTATIONS

MARAYAINGR. U. FATHER'S HELP. India World Writers Today Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

Author:R. K. Narayan (1906-), born in Madras and Because Swaminathan knows the teacher is not educated in Mysore in south India, learned Tamil as as mean as he has made him out to be, he delays the his mother tongue but writes in English. He first delivery of the letter and tries all day to tempt the worked as a journalist, then began a career as a cre- teacher into beating him. Finally, toward the end of ative writer. Swami and Friend (1935) was the first the day, the teacher slaps his palms for repeated of a series of novels set in the imaginary village of insolence. Swaminathan runs to deliver the letter, Malgudi. His writing is marked by humor, quiet irony, only to find that the headmaster has left for the day. a cast of colorful characters, and the enduring con- Back at home, the father accuses the son of being flict between the Indian and colonial cultures. His a coward for not delivering the letter. He also sug- first novel was recommended for publication in gests that Swaminathan is lying about the headmas- England by Graham Greene. Narayan has enjoyed a ter's absence. In disgust, he tears up the letter and positive critical reception both in England and says that his son deserves a mean and violent teacher. America, and his prolific output has included ten nov- els, five collections of short stories, three collections Comparison: By the end of the story, Swami of essays, three books on Indian epics, and memoirs. learns a major lesson that is sure to affect him for He is considered the foremost Indian novelist of his life. The relationship between father and son in a generation and won India's highest literary honor for subtle contest of will and wit to ensure that the son his novel The Guide in 1958. In 1980, he was award- grows up right is a universal theme. Likewise, ed the distinguished A. C. Benson by the Royal Swami's plight in getting caught between parent Society of London. The Vendor of Sweets (1967) and and teacher as he tries to cover up his own reluc- The Painter of Signs (1977) are among the best of his tance to go to school resonates with young students later novels. FATHER'S HELP was published in 1972, worldwide. His daylong preoccupation with getting and A HORSE AND TWO GOATS in 1985. his teacher into trouble is the kind of that Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn Story: Swaininathan complains of a headache in would plot. The relationship between teacher and order to stay home from school. When his father student might have been a scene in a French class- insists that he go, he complains that the teacher room in the short story THE LAST LESSON by would beat him for arriving so late. Swaminathan's Alphonse Daudet. Until the boy, Franz, discovered father writes a letter complaining about the that this day was the last day his native language teacher and asks Swaminathan to deliver it to the would be taught in that school, he had dreaded the headmaster. daily language lesson.

NARAYANgR. H. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS. India Under the Banyan Tree and Other Stories. New York: Viking, 1985.

Author: See FATHER'S HELP An inhabitant of the tiniest village on the huge con- tinent of India, an old man named Muni is left with Story:In this simple tale, the confrontation of two little in life except his wife, and two goats. Once the cultures is symbolized by mutual misunderstanding. owner of a flock of forty sheep, he has seen his for- TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

tunes gradually decline to the point where he can- Comparison: Narayan's gentle comic tone has often not even get credit for food at the local shop. While been compared to that of Chekhov, and the mutual he waits for the day to pass in the hope that his confusion in the confrontation of two cultures in this wife will be able to earn a little money at odd jobs, story makes a useful comparison for any tale in which he whiles away his time sitting on the pedestal of misunderstandings are based on linguistic or cultural the statue of a clay horse, his two goats grazing differencesfor example, Paul Bowles's amusing nearby. short story of an American in Thailand,"You Have Left The sudden appearance of an American tourist Your Lotus Pods on the Bus." It is also reminiscent of a in a stationwagon sets the story in motion. The number of American and European stories in which a American is attracted to the clay statue and longs to simple-minded farmer or peasant winds up "outwit- buy it. He launches into a discussion aimed at ting" a more sophisticated city dweller, although in obtaining the horSe from Muni, whom he mistaken- this case the farmer is equally baffled. Examples for ly believes to be the owner. Unfortunately, Muni is comparison here include Sitgfried Lenz's stories "A unable to speak or understand English, with the Grand Day in Schissomir" and "Fresh Fish." exception of the words yes and no, which he uses The theme of the difficulty of human communi- interchangeably. cation, shown here in its most elemental farm as In the ensuing discussion, Muni and the two completely different languages, is interwoven American tourist talk past each other in English and with a broader common literary theme: the conflict Tamil respectively, the former rambling on about a of spiritual and material values. For Muni, the horse recent murder, his childhood, and the Hindu reli- is the incarnation of powerful legends from Hindu gion, while the latter is discussing his business, his mythology. The redeemer will come in the shape of home, and his hope to add the horse to his art col- a horse called Kalki, who will trample all bad men. lection. In the end, Muni thinks he has sold his two For the American, the horse is a commodity to be goats to the man, takes the man's money, and purchased and displayed in his home, something to departs. The American loads the statue of the horse show off at cocktail parties. Narayan's story ends into his car. The mystification of Muni and his wife ambiguously, with the seeming triumph of the mate- is complete when the two goats wander back to rial over the spiritual. Yet what the future holds for their house. both cultures is left in doubt. B M

HARAYAN, R. K. THE MIRROR. India A Story-Teller's Wbrld. London: Penguin, 1989.

Author: See A HORSE AND TWO GOATS. Remembering that the talisman might be put to good use, he takes it out and sees in the glass a pic- Stoty: "Thousands of years ago, a peasant and his ture of a man. Angry at his wife's infidelity, he wife were living happily," that is, until a wayfarer smashes the glass. In interpreting this gesture as the gives the man a talisman, a square piece of glass that end to a passing fancy, the wife's attitude improves. he is never to take out of its pouch or trouble will In seeing her recover, the husband too gets over his follow. Had the peasant not revealed the secret to anguish. The two live in harmony thereafter, ne-per his wife, all would have been well. When the wife mentioning the portraits in the mirror again cannot overcome her suspicion and takes the glass out and stares at it, she finds that it is the picture of Comparison: Rich with themes, this littlparable a woman. Crazed with jealousy, she attacks her hus- is reminiscent of the snake's temptation o Eve in band. He in turn locks her up in a room. the Garden of Eden, but with a happy ending. A


Greek myth, captured as a short story in verse in wife stirs. The movement in the bushes alerts The Metamorphoses by Ovid, a first-century Roman Cephalus to his prey. He throws his javelin and kills poet, tells the woeful tale of suspicion between his wife. husband and wife. Cephalus, seduced by the god- The credulous fascination with a talisman, with dess Aurora while he is away, returns home to test the talisman inviting itself to resolve the trouble it his wife's fidelity. When she hesitates for an instant has caused, is reminiscent of "The Monkey's Paw" by under his heavy interrogation, he accuses her of W. W Jacobs. In this story, the first wish is accompa- having been unfaithful. Now that the ,:eds of nied by a death. The second wish is intended to doubt are sown, she wonders about her husband. cancel the first by bringing the dead person back to She follows him while he hunts. His cry "Aura, life. The third wish cancels the second, for the pres- Aura," a plea for the wind to cool him, sounds like ence of a live but r Ingled body is too great a bur- the passionate call for another woman. Upset, his den to bear.ML

Nem MARTIN ANDERSEN. BIRDS OF PASSAGE. Denmark A World of Great Stories. New York: Crown, 1947. Translated by Lida Siboni Hanson.

Author: Martin Andersen Nom (1869-1954) was Stoty: Neva's BIR6S OF PASSAGE is an unconven- born into a poor family of eleven children and spent tional love story about two highly unconventional his early years first as a shoemaker's apprentice, then lovers. But it is primarily a vivid character sketch of as a schoolteacher. He was nearly thirty years old Peter Nikolai Baltasar Rasmussen Djong, before he began to write, though he soon completed who styles himself King Nebuchadnezzara shoe- Shadows, a collection of short stories, followed two maker by trade, a "wandering journeyman" by years later by his first novel, The Frank Family. nature, for whom "the desire to set out for the The reciprocal relationship of work, human dig- unknown was the moving power of his life; and he nity, and justice forms a major theme in his writing. knew nothing finer than to break away, no matter In perhaps his best-known works, the four-volume from what." Pelle the Conqueror and his trilogy Ditte, Nex0 suc- As an aging yet still incurable vagrant, King cessfully idealizes his view of the proletarian strug- Nebuchadnezrar wanders back to his native gle to survive and live fully. Both works reveal an Denmark, where he is unable to find any temporary attraction to communism. work and thus resolves to "accept what great men After World War I, Nexo settled in Germany and in antiquity had accepted before him: meals at the later traveled throughout the . He cost of the community" He enters the public work- recounted those experiences in the U.S.S.R. in house and determines to end his days there, free of Toward Dawn, published in 1923. His return to his urge to roam. His resolution is forgotten the Denmark was followed by In God's Land, a novel afternoon he spies Malvina,"his lady, his last and about Danish farmers; A Small Child, the first vol- only greatbut also unhappylove: the only ume of his memoirs; and Under the Open Sky, his woman "who, like him, had some of the rotation of last work. With the publication of these books, the universe in her blood." Malvina too has suc- Nem) became widely known as one of the strongest cumbed to life in the workhouse, where the male critics of Nazism. He was, in fact, imprisoned by the and female inmates are strictly segregated. King Nazi forces for his sharp attacks on them. Nom sur- Nebuchadnezzar determines, no matter what the vived the experience, though he wrote no other cost, to have one final day of freedom with her, one books. final tour of the city.


Their short time of escape and reunion proves Malvina, who caught cold during the both romantic and sadly comica bittersweet coda night of freedom, dies shortly afterward. King to their relationship over the years. Ultimately, the Nebuchadnezzar "never again had the courage to day is one of awareness for King Nebuchadnezzar, compete by himself with the big world" and pre- who at last admits that "it was all over. He was ferred instead to "live in his memories of the glo- absolutely good for nothing. He had grown old ... rious days in which he had held his own so life could no longer be snatched in passing:' But at valiantly:' the same time, he revels in the fact that "he had had his day. He had been no common trash. Gosh Comparisow BIRDS OF PASSAGE is both lyrical- almighty, he had made things hum! What precious ly sad and humorous, with a descriptive style par- memories he had!" ticularly reminiscent of 0. Henry. An interesting Early the next morning, King Nebuchadnezzar counterpoint for the King Nebuchadnezzar- and Malvina are found by the authorities, and both Malvina pairing can be found in the lifelong com- are returned to the workhouse. This final trip, in an mitment and final day together of Jeff and Jennie in open carriage no less, becomes the grandest of adven- Arna Bontemps's "A Summer Tragedy." Both Nexo tures:"They had received permission to have the top and Bontemps endow their characters with a down, and were now leaning elegantly back in their charm that allows some inherent sense of dignity seats King Nebuchadnezzar waved his hand con- to triumph over poverty and shabbiness. Both sto- descendingly at the passers-by, and Malvina threw ries arc about accepting old age, poverty, and kisses at them with her fingers. Then they both death, yet there is humor amid the pathos. laughed, and the policeman pretended not to notice." -PGL

NOUGI. ZAMES. THE MARTYR. Kenya Modern African Prose. London: Heinemann, 1964.

Author: James Ngugi, pen name of Ngagi wa control. Mr. and Mrs. Garstone have been murdered Thiong'o (1938-), East Africa's most prominent in their home by "unknown gangsters." The preva- writer, was born in Limuru, Kenya, and graduated lent rumor is that the murderers were let into the with honors in English from Makerere University house by the Garstones' own native houseboy. College in Uganda and the University of . He Mrs. Hill, a widow who lives alone in a house has taught in East African schools and in the United set among large tea plantations, finds temporary States as visiting lecturer at Northwestern solace in the belief that her liberal attitudes and fine University. He is currently senior lecturer and chair- treatment of her servants will certainly protect her man of the department of literature at the from such betrayal:"`That's all they need. Treat University of Nairobi. He has written numerous them kindly They will take kindly to you. Look at short stories and essay collections as well as a my boys. They all love me'.... Mrs. Hill had done novel, Weep Not. Child, which won the Dakar some liberal things to her 'boys.' Not only had she Festival of Negro Arts. A play he authored has been built some brick quarters (brick, mind you) but had produced at the National Theatre in Uganda. also put up a school for the children. It did not mat- ter if the school had not enough teachers or if the Story:Mrs. Hill feels herself drawn into the kind children learnt only half a day and worked in the of blind panic that spreads through a community plantations for the other half; it was more than most threatened by forces it can neither understand nor other settlers had the courage to do!" Her friend



Mrs. Smiles expresses the other popular view:"How came over him. Tonight, anyway, Mrs. Hill would could they do it? We've brought 'em civilization. We diepay for her own smug liberalism or paternal- stopped slavery and tribal wars. Were they not all ism and pay for all the sins of her settlers' race. It leading savage miserable lives? ... But I've always would be one settler less." said they'll never be civilized, simply can't take it." As the story builds to a climax, Njoroge begins to Both attitudes are, of course, equally offensive to remember Mrs. Hill with her husband and her chil- those to whom they are applied. Mrs. Hill's own dren and to see her not as a symbol of her race, but houseboy understands both:"He had worked with rather an individual person. He realizes he cannot go cruel types like Mrs. Smiles and Mrs. Hardy. But he through with the murder. Even as his accomplices always knew where he stood with such. But Mrs. Hill! arrive, he sneaks into the bush and runs to warn Mrs. Her liberalism was almost smothering. Njoroge hated Hill, knocking on her door and calling her name to all settlers. He hated above all what he thought was awaken her to danger. She, meanwhile, has become their hypocrisy and self-satisfaction. He knew that terrified. She is sitting with her husband's pistol in Mrs Hill was no exception. She was like all the oth- her hand trying to argue herself out of her fear. For ers, only she loved paternalism. It convinced her she the first time, she thinks of Njoroge not as her ser- was better than the others. But she was worse. You vant, but as a husband and father. Surely, she thinks, did not know exactly where you stood with her." she has nothing to fear from him. Suddenly, he is at Njoroge seems hardly the -gangster" type:"He her door, calling her name. She remembers the cir- was a tall, broad-shouldered person nearing middle cumstances of the Garstones' murder. Determined to age He had been in the Hills' service for more than die bravely, she opens the door and fires. ten years." When the plantation quiets down for the night, Njoroge assumes a different persona. Walking Comparison: Revenge is a well-known plot to his quarters, he allows his anger to surface: "You. mechanism."The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar You I've lived with you so long. And you've reduced Allan Poe is a cla.ssic example of the revenge motif. me to this! In my own land! What have I got from Both stories also use irony to raise questions about you in return?" Njoroge's bitterness goes far beyond the relative guilt or innocence of the victim. his personal treatment at the hands of Mrs. Hill. He Also a predominant idea in THE MARTYR is that had once owned the land on which the Hills built people frequently see one another not as individuals, their thriving plantation. Hi father had left during a but rather as extensions of the larger social group of temporary famine; when he returned, he found the which they happen to be a member. In that regard, Hills occupying his land. Then he had been killed Ngugi's story can be compared to Ralph Ellison's when police fired upon a peaceful demonstration. Invisible Man,to Willa Cad',s "Paul's Case," and to As Njoroge remembers the past,"a grim satisfaction Katherine Mansfield's "Miss Brill."BHN

WHAT-TIEN. AN UNSOUND SLEEP. Vietnam Asian and Pacific Short Stories. Rutland, VT:Charles E. 'ffitt le, 1974. Translated by Le Van Hoan.

Author: A member of the International P.E.N., a brought about by new political movements and by society of writers, editors, and literary people, Westernization and modernization. Nhat-Tien is a novelist and writer of short stories. He has also worked as a journalist and a teacher. Stoty: Old Phan's peaceful routine and daily indul- Nhat-Tien draws his themes from his observations gence are rudely interrupted by new political move- about the rapid changes in Vietnamese society ments and by the new independence of young


women. One day, returning from his favorite spot at causes his dismissal. His rent unpaid, he is evicted. the marketplace where he enjoys a drink in the He leaves his house with only a knapsack. After a company of other men, he notices a certain change while, he looks like the bums he used to laugh at. in his daughter. He guesses correctly that she is in He carries with him a treasured packet of letters love. He hopes that she is not any more seriously from Su and a picture of the young couple on their involved, for it is considered "ill-bred" for a girl to wedding day. The wrapper around these, ironically, form relationshipS with men that the family knows advertises "tiger balm," an Asian panacea, and fea- nothing about. He is disheartened and worried tures revolution as the main topic. upon discovering that the young man, Su, works for the underground struggle against the government. comparison: Even though a family tries to stay When he meets him, however, old Phan comes to together, political changes and other elements in like Su. Unfortunately, the young man is arrested, society can threaten its unity: Old Phan's peace in and Miss Phan disappears. The old man visits Su at his advanced years is threatened by the changing the prison, and the two become good friends as role of women, which separates him from his they share their concern over Miss Phan's fate. daughter, and by the changes in the political and After the revolution breaks out, Miss Phan is economic structures around him. Without the tra- released and comes home. She marries Su. Both ditional support that can be expected from chil- unemployed, they live with her father, who gives up dren and without any type of financial security his old pleasures to support them. When Su finds a from the new government, old Phan ends up job in a distant place, they leave old Phan reluctant- homeless and lonely. This effect of the evolution of ly. He insists he can take care of himself. When a let- societies upon individuals is also depicted in THE ter informs him that Su's job has not worked out GRANDMOTHER by K. Surangkhanang of Thailand after all, the old man tries to work harder. But the and GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE by Lao She weakness brought about by age and indulgence of China. rvi L

NICOL, ABIOSETH. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY. Sierra Leone Modern African Prose. London: Heinemann, 1964.

Author: Abioseth Nicol, pen name for Davidson Corporation and have appeared in a number of Nicol (1924-), was born in Freetown, Sierra Leone, English and American magazines. and educated in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and at Christ's College, Cambridge. He earned an M.D. Story: Two boys, Kojo and Bandele, wait in the degree as well as a Ph.D. in religion. He has served laboratory for their science class to begin. The only as senior pathologist for the Sierra Leone govern- other person in the room is a club-footed Syrian ment, ambassador from Sierra Leone to the United boy, Basu, looking out the window with his back to Nations, high commissioner of the Republic of them. Bored with waiting, Kojo and Bandele use a Sierra Leone to the United Khagdom, and ambas- thermometer to measure the temperature of the sador to Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. inner flame of a Bunsen burner. Naturally, the ther- Although most of his career has been dedicated to mometer bursts. The boys just have time to clean medicine and government service, he is neverthe- up the mercury and dump the broken glass into the less considered in the forefront of African short waste bin before the rest of the boys enter the story writers. His poems and short stories have room. Before class is dismissed, the broken ther- been broadcast by the British Broadcasting mometer is found, and the rest of the story deals


with Kojo's agony of guilt, temperedby his fear of if he were to confess. Nevertheless, being caught. he heads out bravely the next morning determinedto tell the First the entire class is madeto stay an hour after truth. He is too late. The class bullyhas forced Basu school, even though many of theboys, whom Kojo to make a false confession. The knows to be innocent, will miss matter is settled, an important soccer explains the master, for, after match. Then a laboratory attendant all,"you cannot hope tries to test the for too much from a Syrian boy." boys' honesty using a "Bible andKey" method, but Kojo is saved from disclosure by theappearance of the laboratory master, who does Comparison: The story is told ina straightfor- not believe in the ward manner, the situationone with which young exercise. So the class continuesto sit in silence. Time people can easily identify. Thetwo major themes, drags on until Kojo canno longer endure it. As he rises to his feet to confess, Bandele suffering from secret guilt and relieffrom finding a quickly volunteers scapegoat, are closely interwoven the information that Basu as they are in was in the room ahead of many stories. For example, what happens the other boys. Basu denies guilt. to Kojo in When the adults the attack on Basu is similarto the attack on Piggy leave the room, the boys allturn on him with accusa- in Lord of the Flies. The characterof Bandele is tions and begin throwing booksat him. Basu cowers revealed in a few sketchy detailS thatmake him against the wall, bleeding froma small cut on his tem- immediately recognizable. Kojo ismore fully devel- ple. At first Kojo watches, then "heturned round and oped and becomes a sympathetic picked up a book and flung it with and totally believ- desperate force at able character. Thus, thestory is particularly effec- Basu, and then another. He felt somehowthat there tive in demonstrating those human was an awful swelling of guilt which he could characteristics only that all people share, regardless ofcultural differ- shed by punishing himself throughhurting someone. ences. ... He felt that somehow Basu was in the wrong, must An interesting comparison be in the wrong, and if he hurt him can be made hard enough he between AS THE NIGHT THE DAY would convince the others and and "The therefore himself that Lottery" by Shirley Jackson. Throughits character he had not broken the thermometerand that he had development, AS THE NIGHT THE DAYprovides a never done anything wrong." When the fightis bro- ken up and the boys are dismissed, psychological framework for the starkJackson story. Bandele and Kojo The fight scene in Ralph Ellison's skulk behind the door and overhear "Battle Royal" is the master another statement about how theoperation of explain to Basu that "menare punished not always for group pressure can turn seemingly reasonablepeo- what they do, but often for whatpeople think they ple to violence. The harboring will do, or for what they are." of secret guilt as a destructive force is a major theme insuch works as Kojo puts in a night filled withtears and the Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter and Do:!-oevsld's agony of anticipating the beating he wouldreceive Crime and Punishment.-BHN

o YONG-31I.SEASIDE VILLAGE. Korea Asian and Pacific Short Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1974.Translated by Kim Dae-yun. Author: 0 Yong-su (1914-) was born in distinctly Korean. Exclusivelya short story writer, Kyong-sang Nam-do in Korea. Educatedin Japan, he some ninety of his works have been published taught secondary school, then turned in a to writing. His five-volume Collected Works (1968).In 1955, he favorite subject was the littleman in modern cities, won the Korean Writers Award, and in 1958,the whom he captured with a simplelyricism that is Asian Freedom Literature Award.


her mother had have been back to her native home, just as Other stories by 0 Yong-su that returned to her own home as soon asHae-sun was translated into English include"The Mountain Pass," of the seashore, of Passage," married. Back again in the salt air "Migratory Bird,""Wild Grapes,""Birds she feels whole and alive again. and "Echoes." Comparison: Lyrical in its images,this story Story:Hae-sun, a young widow, haslived all her Koreans feel with named"H." After her describes poignantly the bond life in a small seaside village nature. Despite losing herfirst husband to the sea, husband drowns with sevenother fishermen, their obstacle or enemy to live with her Hae-sun never treats nature as an boat lost in a storm, she continues with whom she might have astruggle. Instead, she mother-in-law and to work withthe villagers to of the circuitry of seaweed, and dig for feels herself to be so much a part catch eels and fish, gather to those particular nat- advance,s to her, she at nature that until she returns clams. When Sung-su makes ural elements that constitute partof her early nur- first resists the idea of remarriage,but with her and turing, she does not feellike a complete human mother-in-law's approval and encouragement in nature functions who has being. This same participation her own sense of obligation to a man byMishima touched her, she at last decides to gowith Sung-su as a background in Yukio. In this novella, the storyof young lovers is to his farmland home. interspersed among many lyrical passagesdescrib- The village is not the samewithout her, nor is ing the island, the sun, andthe sea. Even though she the same person outsideher native village. might be considered that are the both earn their living in what Removed from the sand, wind, and sea the sea, with Shinji provinghis basic constituents of her own trueself, she a struggle against mettle in a storm, nature isfelt to be as much a part becomes distracted and miserable.With her hus- of them as their own breathand blood. band away as a conscript laborer,she decides to go

ALEXANDROS. THEBEWITCHING OF PAPADIABIANTIS, THE AGA. Greece University Press, 1987. Tales from a Greek Islana.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Translated by ElizabethConstantinides. health, or lack of funds, andhe did not take exami- Author: Alexandros Papadiamantis(1851-1911) teacher, even of Skiathos. This tiny Aegean nations to be a grammar school was born on the island thovgh he qualified for them. island, sixteen square miles insize with a popula- boarding houses in people, became the He lived alone in rundown tion of around four thousand Athens for most of his life,escaping to the island as setting for the majority of his170 short stories and of fifty-eight, too ill and in Athens. often as he could. At the age sketches. The remainder were set homesick to remain in Athens,he returned to Papadiamantis grew up in an austere,religious of him for the Orthodox Skiathos, where his sisters took care atmosphere. His father was a priest. his life. religious beliefs, last two-and-a-half years of Christianity, as well as older Greek Papadiamantis's stories, featuringmyriad islands played a large role in his writings.As the family's along with his careful expected to take respon- and Athenian characters, eldest son, Alexandros was observation of daily life and customsand his prefer- sibility for his four sisters and onebrother; priests popular with the public Alexandros did not ence for the lowly, were like his father received no pay. usually appeared in Although he attended during his lifetime. The stories accept that responsibility. serial form in newspapersand magazines. THE school, he often stayed out due torebelliousness, ill


BEWITCHING OF THE AGA was published in 1896. does to an official who could have her put to death Collections have appeared since his death on on the spot. The question is whether Auntie causes Skiathos in 1911. the Aga's death by the power of her suggestion or Papadiamantis often wrote of social ills, such as whether he just happens to die of unknown causes the enslavement of women in "The Murderess," but at that particular time. In short, what is reality and he did not believe in change and often spoke out what is illusion? against the emancipation of women. More evidence wrote of reality and illusion in of his dislike for change is seen in his use of the her story "Roman Fever." It tells of two women who purist language Katharevousa. Yet he sometimes happen across each other in a favorite city of their modified it, as he did in THE BEWITCHING OF THE youth. As they explore the events of a particular AGA, with phrases taken from the islanders' talk. evening long ago, one woman's illusion, with which she has lived for years, is overtaken by reality. In Story: Papadiamantis begins this island story with Kate Chopin's "The Story of an Hour," Louise a description of a deserted village that stands on the Mallard, ill with a weak heart, takes the incorrect slope of a mountain. These ruins were once an news of her husband's untimely death in an unex- occupied Greek village under Turkish rule, and its pected way. Although she loved him, she is now ruler was the last of the . The cur- ecstatic at the thotight of gaining her freedom. It is rent Aga is quiet and mild-mannered. He speaks the reality of his subsequent appearance, alive, that Greek and lives macefully. To the villagers, howev- kills her. In Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow er, he looks like a -charmed serpent whose teeth Wallpaper," a woman retreats from reality into mad- had been removed:' One day, Auntie Siraino ness btfcause everything she values is taken from Pantousa, a soothsayer who possesses mysterious her in the name of love. powers, announces to the other villagers that she Illusion and reality are dealt with in a more will kill the Aga within a month's time. Soon she lighthearted fashion in "The Secret Life of Walter passes the Aga on the street and comments upon Mitty" by James Thurber and "The Open Window" how sickly he looks and how unhealthy the village by H. H. Munro (Saki). Oppression and rebellion, is for him."You must be careful not to be done in so two other compelling themes of this Papadiamantis far from your home, poor sour she says. From that tale, spring from life in a conquered country. For day on, the Aga's health falters. Auntie Siraino goes whatever reason, at the time of this story Auntie into hiding. Although everyone in the village tells Siraino has had enough of the Aga and she does the Aga that he looks well, he grows weaker and something about itshe rebels. Pearl S. Buck pre- weaker, and within one month he is dead. At the sents another character who rebels in "The Old close of the story, the author asks,"And that sick Demon." Mrs. Wang knows that there is a war and man with his chronic disease, now four hundred that Japanese are killing Chinese, but the violence and forty-four years oldwho will bewitch him?" has not touched her village, and, besides, she does The "sick man" to whom the author refers is the not even know what a Japanese looks like. She is Ottoman Empire. more concerned with the rising river, for she under- stands well the danger it poses. But as the days go Comparison: The Turks at the time of the story on, Mrs. Wang's village is bombed by airplanes and had occupied Greece for almost four hundred she is told of her brother's death at the hands of the years. Agas like this one, living in a Greek communi- Japanese. She thinks long and hard on these things, ty as an absolute ruler, suffered from the hatred and when the enemy appears marching across the directed at Turks and their country by the Greek plains toward her village, she knows what she will people. It is clear that Auntie Siraino's powers exist, do. When the villagers run away to higher land, she for the story presents several examples. says she will follow. Instead, she opens a sluice gate Furthermore, she is , speaking as she in the tall dike and lets the old Yellow River demon sweep the enemy away. E 51


PAVESE. CESARE. SUICIDES. Italy Continental Short Stories: The Modern Tradition. New York: Norton, 1968. Translated by A. E. Murch.

Author: Cesare Pavese (1908-1950) was born in two typical encounters. In the first, the narrator Piedmont, but lived most of his life in Turin, where allows himself to be beguiled by Carlotta (and a few he attended and subsequently taught at the universi- drinks) into responding affectionately, drawing ty before becoming editor of La Cultura. His anti- Carlotta into an evening of excited i -opiness, and Fascist activities and writing caused his arrest and staying the whole night with her."On these occa- imprisonment for ten months in 1935. Following his sions," he thinks,"Carlotta drew from me a tender- release until his death by suicide in 1950, he wrote ness that I reproached myself for the moment I was the novels, short stories, and poetry on which his alone again." The other typical encounter shows the present reputation depends and which made him a narrator making Carlotta "spend an evening of leader of the Italian neo-realist school of the time. anguish by sitting coldly beside her on the divan," His best novel is probably his last one, The Moon rebuffing all her advances, calling all her tenderness and the Bonfire, published in the year of his death. nonsense, and telling her "we are a man and woman In addition, he translated the work of Melville, who bore each other, but we get on all right in bed." Defoe, Joyce, and Faulkner into Italian. According to The story's third and fourth parts describe the one critic,"his Moby Dick is one of the great transla- narrator's growing boredom with Carlotta and the tions of a classic." His posthumously published diary, relationship and her descent into depression ending This Business of Living, details the intellectual and in suicide, a suicide suggested to her by a story the personal loneliness that led to his suicide at the age narrator tells her of the suicide of a friend. Carlotta's of forty-two. SUICIDES was published in 1938. final depression is provoked by the narrator's leav- ing her, again, after a sexual encounter following a Story: SUICIDES details in retrospect the relation- period of separation. He does not discover she has ship between its male narrator and Carlotta, a rela- taken her own life until a month later, when he is tionship that ends in her suicide. The first of the moved to seek her out. story's four parts uses an interior monologue to describe the narrator, an extremely introspective, Comparison: SUICIDES, finally, is a story of the alienated man who asserts that he "asks nothing almost complete isolation of both the narrator and more of life than being allowed to watch," but who Carlotta, an isolation broken by a few moments of realizes that he suffers from "a vast, inept lack of shared tenderness serving to make their isolation confidence," causing him "to react against other peo- more difficult to endure. As a story of isolation and ple, when I come into contact with them, with stu- alienation, it might be compared with Melville's pid cruelty." Carlotta is his opposite, a remarkably "Bartleby the Scrivener" or Richard Wright's "The timid woman, willing to accept his cruel treatment Man Who Lived Underground," both of which lack, because of her desperate need for affection. Not however, the concern with love. In that concern, surprisingly, the narrator"had caused her a lot of SUICIDES may be compared with Hawthorne's unhappiness in the short time we had known each "Wakefield," whose main character also isolates him- other; she didn't know why, but all the men treated self from the woman who cares for him, though in a her like that." Their first sexual encounters con- far less "realistic" manner. clude the first part of the story, and each ends with Both Doris Lessing's "To Room Nineteen" and his abrupt departure after telling Carlotta that he Charlotte Perkins Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" prefers "to be alone afterwards." deal with relationships in which men fail to under- The second part of the story focuses on the inner lives and needs of their wives, failures affair between the two as characterized through that lead in both cases to the wives' seemingly inex-


orable movement from love to isolation to madness or think they love their wivesand in their description suicide. But these two stories differ from SUICIDES in of deteriorating relationships. The relationship in SUI- that the husbands' motivation is not consciousthey CIDES is destructive from the beginning. PTM

PAZ, OCTAVIO. my LIFE WITH THEWAVE. Mexico The Eye of the Heart: Short Stories from Latin America. NewYork: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973. Translated by Eliot Weinberger.

Author: Octavio Paz (1914-) was born in Mexico the wave frozen into a block of ice. He takes her to a City He was educated at the National University of restaurant and sells her to a waiter friend, who chops Mexico. Traveling extensively, he was a Marxist dur- her into little pieces and uses her to chill beverages. ing the Civil War, lived in and New York in the early 1940s, and during the postwar Comparison: The complexity and range of years went to Paris, where he was influencedby Octavio Paz's imagination in MY LIFE W1M THE surrealism. In 1952, he went to India, where he WAVE allows many comparisons, but few that returned in 1962 as his country's ambassador: match his own vibrant imagery. For example, the Throughout the 1970s, he taught in universities story of the wave, as a relationship between nature across the United States. He was awarded a and man, can be compared with 's Guggenheim Fellowship in 1944 and the Grand Prix "The Giving Tree," in which a boy's love for a tree International de Poésie in 1963. Octavio Paz is leads to its destruction. known not only as Latin America's foremost living Philosophically, one may see the wave as a rep- poet, but also as a critic and social philosopher. MY resentation of spirit in conflict with and finding LIFE WITH ME WAVE was published in 1949. consummation in the body. This interpretation is reminiscent of Whitman's "mystic evolution" Story: MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE is a surrealist por- through the integration of body and spirit. The trayal of an unnamed man's relationship with a wave. importance that Paz places on sexual imagery and It begins with the difficulties of smuggling the wave erotic experience is Whitinanesque as well. into the water tank of a train, which leads to th In a story as general and imaginative as MY LIFE man's imprisonment for trying to poison the passen- WITH THE WAVE, one is led to an inexhaustible gers. Because of the lack of victims, he serves ashort number of themes. It is the story of the cycle of sentence and returns to his apartment to find it occu- love, or possibly it represents the conflict between pied by the wave. At first the wave's presence reality and the eternal, or intellect and intuition. changes his life, and their love becomes "a game, a Perhaps this is a story about the artist's relationship perpetual creation." Yet he soon realizes that the with the revolution or the poet's relationship to his wave has a dark and destructive side that shows art. In MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE, the protagonist's when she begins to miss her solitude. In order to confinement to the city and the wave's loss of soli- pacify her, he installs a colony of fish in the apart- tude bring on the destruction of creativity. ment. The wave's growing attention to these fish Whatever the theme of Paz's story, this reconstruc- makes the man increasingly jealous. One day, he tion of reality through the use of imaginative lan- attacks and is almost beaten to death by the guage and symbols can be found as well inCarlos wave. After this incident, the man's love forthe wave Fuentes's work. Paz, like Fuentes, presents a study in turns to hate. He stays away more and more fromhis the untraditional concepts of time, reality, and con- apartment and finally goes to the mountains. It is win- sciousness, where "the world dissolves and trans- ter, and when he returns to the apartment, hefinds parency is all that remains." c w


PHIEN Vó. TIME KEY. Vietnam One World of Literature. Boston:Houghton Mifflin, 1993. Translated by Phan Phan.

Author: Phien VO, who is also known as Doan The Comparison: In spite of its brevity, THE KEY con- Nhon, was born in Binh Dinh, Vietnam. He came to tains a story within a , each with a differ- the United States in 1975 as a refugee. In Vietnam, ent thematic focus. Another such story is Mark he was a noted writer and journalist and professor Twain's "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras of literature. He is still writing and publishing in County." Both stories have two first-person narra- California, where he founded and edits Van Hoc tors, but in THE KEY each narrator is talking about Ngbe Thuat, a Vietnamese-language literary journal. an entirely different event, and neither narration has the humor found in Twain's story. Story: The story opens with the narrator's remem- The main story in THE KEY deals with the bering having taken a shower, a shower that works theme of acculturation, closely related to that of in the story both as a symbol and as a reality for the alienation, in which the problem of integration is nine thousand Vietnamese refugees landing on the dominant. A similar theme is found in Stephen island of Guam. Separating himself from the group Crane's "The Bride Comes to ," which is and moving from the point of vicw of "we" to "I," he concerned with the intermingling of the cultures of explains that in Vietnam taking a shower is part.of the eastern and western parts of the United States. the ritualistic process of "rubbing off the dirt" when The internal story in THE KEY moves from the welcoming someone home from a long journey. In United States back to Vietnam, and it involves the their new country, however, it is a practical, sanitary problems, the responsibilities, and the heritage the process that the refugees are forced to experience. refugees abandoned when they fled their country. This contrast quickly becomes a symbol of the dif- They feel a terrible guilt as a result of having done ferences between the two cultures, between social so. Symbolically, the refugees, by taking the "key" interaction and social sanitation. Yet the shower in away, have taken away the means by which their the new country also becomes a place for socializ- countryas symbolized by the old mancan sur- ing and for sharing the experiences of their lives vive. They wear the key around their necks like a with each other. Thus, it serves to link the attitudes Christian cross as a symbol of both their guilt and of the two cultures. their atonement. That aspect of the story can be It is in the shower that the narrator hears the con- compared to Hawthorne's "The Minister's Black fession of a shy man in his mid-fifties, who loses his Veil," in which the minister insists on wearing his shyness momentarily in the freedom of being naked veil for reasons he chooses not to disclose, although in the shower. His story, told within the larger frame there is a strong suggestion that he wears it as a story, expresses his guilt at having left his ninety-three- symbol of his guilt. A comparison of the two stories year-old father in Vietnam. Although the son left provi- reveals that although the old man is anxious to tell sions locked in a closet, he forgot to leave the key so his story, the minister is not, and while those around that the dying old man could have access to the clos- the minister are tormented by the veil, the other et's contents. The narrator notices that the shy man refugees around the shy man are able to identify his wears that key on a string around his neck,"where a symbol as representative of their own guilt. Christian typically wears a picture of his God." Another aspect of the key as a symbol is evi- With the narration returning to the outer frame dent in the fact that it is useless in the new country. of the story, the main character points out that he Wearing it around his neck in his new life serves too, like many refugees, has a key that he keeps in only to remind thc man ot his guilt in abandoning his pocket. It represents "something he would feel his country and his responsibility to return. It also sorry for the rest of his wandering life." reminds the reader of the difficulties in assimilating


into the new environment with something that can- Orozco, are also relevant here, in that they are con- not "fit," something that works only in another time cerned with the acculturation of the Mexican and another place. Indian into the society of the Spanish-Christian Many of the major twentieth-century Mexican that has come to dominate the indigenous people. artists, such as Diego Rivera, Sequieros, and -RHM

PIRANDELLO, LUIGI. Italy The Continental Short Story: An Existential Approach. New York: Press,1969. Translated by Lily Duplaix.

Autbon Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936) was born in Leaving the church, he continues on, still bored, Girgenti, Sicily, to a wealthy family. His studies at the but soon tires of the walk and sits down on a wall. University of Rome and Bonn University, where hc Suddenly, bearing shrill laughter beneath him. he received a Ph.D., were turned to good account jumps down to discover a country boy trapping a when his family's loss of its fortune forced him to lizard. Catching it and perhaps fearing Cinci will teach in Rome to support himself. take it, the boy swings it around in the air and In 1894, he married, but by 1904 his wife had lost brings it down on a stone, killing it instantly. her reason and remained insane until her death in Angered by this because he thought to examine the 1918. His early fiction was characterized by a pene- lizard, Cinci shoves the boy, who responds by trating naturalism and a skeptical attitude toward throwing dirt in Cinci's face. Pelted with ace) mtely social conventions. But during the period after aimed clod after clod, Cinci fights back desperately, World War I, he began to write the plays for which finally picking Up and hurling a rock at the boy. he is best known today, such as Right You Are If "All of a sudden, where before everything had You Think You Are (1917), Six Characters in been spinning around, striking his eyes, now noth- Search of an Author (1920), and Henry IV (1922), ing moved.... It was as if time itself had stopped in and to develop his characteristic attitude toward life stupefied amazement at sight of the boy stretched as a succession of illusions beneath which his char- on the ground. Still panting, his heart pounding ... acters could not penetrate; what they see as "truth" Cinci foundered in a backwash of man's eternal soli- is merely some combination of those illusions. He tude from which he wanted to flee." Discovering was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1934. that the boy, like the lizard, is dead, Cinci runs in ter- He published WAR in 1939 and CINCI in 1969. ror, deciding finally to return home and tell his mother, when she finally returns, that he had spent Story:Returning from school with nothing to do, the afternoon waiting for her. "And thiswhich Cinci kicks the locked door of his house and his would be true for his motherbecame the truth for waiting dog and then makes a game of throwing his him too." Thus, Pirandello suggests the story's schoolbooks at the door. Tiring of this violent activi- theme: for many people, life is an essentially mean- ty, he plops down on the curb:"He was bored. Above ingless series of episodes characterized by alien- all, he was bored:' Deciding to take a walk, he goes ation and loneliness, alternating between periods of off with his dog down the road toward the country- boredom and violent attempts to dispel the malaise. side. Thinking resentfully of his mother, his boring daily life, and his lack of a father, Cinci enters a little Comparison: The deliberate equating of actions church and purposely drops his schoolbooks, caus- we normally would not equate (i.e., the killings of ing a thunderous clap that disturbs the worshippers. the lizard and the boy), the detachment of Cinci


from his actions, his lack of a sense of moral respon- Upturned Face" (1900) A more detailed comparison sibility tbr those actions, and his inability to see him- of that motif could be worked out with Richard self as vitally involved in life all invite comparison to Wright's Native Son, in which Bigger inadvertently Meursault in The Stranger (1942) by Albert Camus. kills and then panics at the result of his action. Meursault is also involved in a killing, and his rela- Unlike Cinci, however, Bigger is unable to avoid that tionship with his mother is central to the story. The action's consequences. "frozen moment" of the killing and the lack of Mishima Yukio's PATRIOTISM (1966) provides a human warmth also suggest a fundamental similari- stark contrast to CINCI, since the death in PATRIO- ty between this story and Ernest Hemingway's "The TISM can be understood only in terms of a life lived Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." It must be with a sense of wholeness and continuity provided by realized, however, that the motivations for the tradition and ritual, precisely what is lacking in Cinci's killings, specifically, and the conception of the possi- world. That tradition makes the death in the story an bility of purposeful action in the world, generally, act of the highest responsibility, while the death in are quite different in the two stories. CINCI is enveloped in layers of irresponsibility Cinci's momentary panic at the reality of death Interestingly, however, the two deaths probably seem might be compared to that in Stephen Crane's "The equally pointless to the Western reader.--PTNi

PIRANDIELLO. LUIGI. WAR. Italy Reading Modern Short Stories. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1955. Translated by Michael Pettinati.

Author: See CINCI. "dying satisfied." For this reason, he does not even wear mourning. Story: The plot of WAR is slight. At dawn, two new The bulky wife,"amazed and almost stunned" passengers join those already on the night express. by this speech and its revelation to her of a way she One,"a bulky woman in deep mourning," is"hoisted" might bear her Own suffering, speaks for the first into the carriage, followed by her thin, weak hus- time."Then ... is your son really dead?" she asks. The band,"his face death-white." He explains to their fel- traveler "looked and looked at her, almost as if only low passengers that his wife is distraught because thenat that silly incongruous questionhe had their only son is due to leave in three days for the suddenly realized at last that his son was really front. One responds that his own son has been at deadgone for everfor ever.... To the amaze- the front since the beginning of the war and another ment of everyone, [he] broke into harrowing, that he has three sons and two nephews there. heart-rending, uncontrollable sobs." When the husband answers that their case is differ- ent since this is their only son, the other passengers Comparison: Like CINCI, this story succeeds in point out that an only son is neither more loved nor penetrating what Pirandello saw as the facade of more needed than any other son. meaning constructed by people to make their lives Taking another tack, a third passenger suggests bearable. Here, the piercing of that facade by the that children have a life and ideas of their Own and wife's simple question lays bare for the couple an that at twenty the love of country will probably be almost intolerably meaningless reality containing not stronger in them than the love of parents. If they only their son's mortality, but their own. This funda- must die for their country"they die inflamed and mentally existential theme links WAR to Jean-Paul happy." His own son, in fact, has died at the front, Sartre's THE WALL, although the latter story suggests but sent him a message before his death that he was that the realization of one's mortality and life's essen-


tial meaninglessness confers a sense of freedom on This "imperial affliction," as the poem goes on to the initiate, a sense not found in Pirandello's story. call it, is intimately related to the revelation of But this theme is not peculiar to existential litera- mortality, and the poem's "internal difference / ture. The sudden awareness, through a sense of one's Where the Meanings, are" seems a precise descrip- own mortality, of the inscrutability of life can be tion of the changed mental states of Pirandello's found in such diverse writers as Herman Melville, travelers. Emily Dickinson, James Joyce, and Ernest Hemingway. James Joyce's story "The Dead" (1916) depicts Melville, in the chapter of Moby Dick (1851) entitled Gabriel Conroy's realization of a similar undercur- "The Whiteness of the Whale," suggests that white- rent of reality. Through a sudden awareness, occur- litss in nature "by its indefiniteness ... shadowsforth ring on a snowy winter night, of the depth and the heartless voids and immensities of the universe meaning of his wife's earlier love of the now-dead and thus stabs us from behind with the thought of Michael Furey, Gabriel feels "his soul had annihilation when beholding the white depths of the approached that region where dwell the vast hosts Milky Way." Similarly, Dickinson indicates: of the dead. He was conscious of, but could not apprehend, their wayward and flickering exis- There's a certain Slant of light, tence. His own identity was fading out into a grey Winter Afternoons That oppresses, like the Heft impalpable world; the solid world itself ... was dis- of Cathedral Tunes solving and dwindling." Ernest Hemingway's "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place," with the old waiter's Heavenly Hurt, it gives us acceptance of the nothingness at the heart of We can find no scar, But internal difference, things, reveals a similar response to an awareness Where the Meanings, are of mortality. ^PTM

PONTOPPIDANG HENRIK. A FISHERNEST. Denmark Great Stories by Nobel Prize Winners. New York: TheNoonday Press, 1959. Translated by juliane Sarauw.

Author: (1857-1943), born Lucky-Pen and The Kingdom of the Deadcon- the son of a clergyman, was teaching in a high firmed his status as a respected writer. For the quali- school run by his brother when he decided that ty and volumedf his work, Pontoppidan was award- writing was his real interest. He began to observe ed the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1917. He shared the villagers about him and to put down the details the honor that year with Karl Gjellerup, a fellow of their daily life. Two collections of stories were the Danish writer. Pontoppidan continued to write until result of his consistently close observations: Village his death. Pictures and From the Cottages. These stories serve as verbal photographs of the generally drab,restrict- Story: Deceptively titled A FISHER NEST, ed life led by the peasants. Though he was always Pontoppidan's story begins as a realistic description proud of his native Denmark, Pontoppidan never of life among the poor inhabitants of a remote attempted to soften or romanticize the uglier details Danish fishing village. But reality quickly dissolves of the lives he depicted, and he became known as into the macabre as the villagers celebrate their the true realist of Danish writers. most highly prized species of catch: a ship lured In Though Pontoppidan's short stories were wide- the dark storm onto the deadly shoals by cruelly ly read, three novel cyclesThe Promised Land, expert use of a torchlight. The scavengers gleefully


gather on shore to await the incoming wreckage decent life depend daily on the particular mood of and the occasional survivor who must be killed to the ship's captain. Mary, sensing the captain's ultimate prevent any testimony. There is nothing soft or pleas- disregard, kills herself. Pontoppidan's essential theme ant in this expose of human nature's darkest side. of victimization crystallizes in young Mary's suicide. The author's assurance that his account is from the long-ago history of the village leads the unwit- Comparisofr Humanity's inhumanity emerges as ting reader into the second part of the tale, which is the major message in this story, and A FISHER NEST actually a modern-day version of that ancient scene, can be grouped effectively with any number of sto- complete with stranded ship and smiling scav- ries that mirror this concept. As a moment of subtle engers. In daylight, an English cargo steamer has run surprise, Mary's death compares interestingly with aground several hundred yards from shore. Salvage the ending of L.P. Hartley's"The Island," in which an company officials and villagers alike rejoice in the army officer learns not only that his lover, the beau- exorbitant sum that they will demand to free the tiful Mrs. Santander, is dead, but that he is the victim ship from the shoals. Once again, a ship's crew is at of her deviously vindictive husband. Wrchard the mercy of enterprising . Connell's "The ,"John Readers should especially note the appearance in Russell's"The Price of the Head," and Shirley this second half of a young prostitute, Mary, a stow- Jackson's "The Lottery" further illustrate the horror away of sorts, whose survival and only hope for a of discovering human nature at its worst. -1,61.

P'u Sumo-Limo. THE FIGHTING CRICKET. China Strange Stories from a ChineseStudio, : Kelly & Walsh, 1968. Translated by Herbert A. Giles.

Author: Born into modest circumstances, P'u a well, languishes in a coma, during which his spirit Sung-Ling (1640-1715), under his father's tutelage, and consciousness are transferred to a small cricket. strove to become a scholar. He spent most of his life The cricket proves to be a fighter and in poverty and ill health and did not pass the official wins all combats. The cricket becomes a favorite at examinations until an advanced age. Fti was known the imperial palace, and for his contribution to his contemporaries as a writer of poems and fic- Ch'eng's father is highly rewarded by the court. tion. His best-known work, published in 1679 and When the boy regains consciousness, he recounts still popular today, is variously titled in English as his feats as a fighter cricket. In a gentle and enter- Records of the Strange, Strange Stories from a taining manner, P'u Sung-Ling thus satirizes the pre- Chinese Studio,or a similar phrase.-For this collec- occupation of princes and officials and the arbitrary tion, P'u combed every part of China for folktales of conferring of honorary degrees for favors done. the bizarre, the mysterious, and the supernatural. He retold each in rigorous language and polished style Comparison: A light story, this cricket tale (also and did not spare any opportunity to satirize the translated as "The Cricket Boy") recalls the adven- gentry and the bureaucracy. tures of Jonathan Swift's Gulliver, who, as either a giant or a palm-sized human, observes and partakes of Story:Ch'eng's son, a nine-year-old boy who loves life at court. The descriptions of the people observed crickets, is asked by his stern and reserved father to reveal the foibles of human nature and the inequities help him find a champion fighter cricket. When, of life. A more ponderous statement on society is after some difficulty, he coaxes a stalwart one from made in "The Jewbire Author Bernard Malamud a small hole and readies it for combat in the imperi- begins the story with a skinny bird flying through the al palace, he accidentally lets it loose. Afraid of his open window, landing at Harry Cohen's dinner table, father but filial toward him, the boy, after a fall into and speaking in Yiddish about anti-Semitism. M I.


RAY, SATYAZIT. ASHANANZA BARU'S DOG. India World Writers Today. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

Author: Prize-winning film maker Satyajit Ray The first time Brownie laughs at a stranger is (1921-1992) was born in Calcutta and studied eco- when a gentleman's umbrella snaps in the rain. The nomics, physics, painting, and art history. He attend- man spreads the story in Calcutta, and a reporter ed a university owned by the Hindu poet visits Ashamanja Babu. The reporter stutters, and , an old friend of the family. Brownie laughs. Beginning his career as an art director in a British Brownie's 'iame reaches an American dealer of advertising firm, he also illustrated books. His first old Rolls-Royce cars, who offers to pay up to twenty film, Pather Panchali, an enormous success at the thousand dollars to hear Brownie laugh. Brownie 1956 Cannes Film Festival, launched a distinguished laughs, long and loud, but with no seeming instiga- career during which many of his films won interna- tion. As the American is about to write out the tional prizes. He wrote all of his own scripts and check, Ashamanja Babu realizes that Brownie is sometimes composed the music; he was also laughing because"the gentleman thinks money can involved in costume design. In 1961, he wrote sto- buy everything." The American leaves, and Brownie ries and did illustrations for a children's magazine. "chuckles in assent" with his master's reasoning.

Story: Ashamanja Babu, a postal clerk, has longed Comparison: The theme that money can buy for a dog, but not only for its love and companion- everything has recurred in many stories since the ship. Dogs belong to the English race, and by giving story of King Midas. In Charles Dickens's A orders to the dog in English, he would feel a sense Christmas Carol, Scrooge learns eventually that of power. He buys a puppy that wags its tail at him. some things are more important than money. In He gives it an English name, Brownie. "The Rocking Horse Winner" by D. H. Lawrence, an Three months later, Ashamanja Babu breaks a entire family is haunted by the need for more stool and falls to the floor, and he hears Brownie money. Paul loses his life for race track winnings so giggle. When Brownie laughs on other occasions, he can give his mother money in exchange for her Ashamanja Balm tries to borrow a dog encyclopedia love. In PAPER by Catherine Lim, a man's greed from his neighbor, a retired professor, who dismiss- leads to his loss of fortune and eventually to his es him condescendingly. death. M L

RIPAAT, ALCM. ANOTHER EVENING AT THECLUB. Egypt World Writers Today Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995. Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies.

Author: Alifa Rifaat, the pen name of Fatma ing for fifteen years while she reared three children, Abdullah Rifaat (1930-), grew up in a traditional studied religion, and read world literature. Rifaat is a Muslim family in which her father insisted she get faithful Muslim who writes about women. married rather than attend a university. Although her husband disapproved of her writing, she wrote under Story: A young wife, Samia, is apprehensive about a pseudonym from 1955 to 1960, thcn stopped writ- her husband's return, for she has something to tell


him. Rifaat uses a flashback to tell of the circum- more hours of beatings. His main concern is what stances of the marriage "only a few years ago." Sarnia everyone else in town would think if they knew was still in secondary school when she was about their having accused an innocent girl. To cover promised to Abboud Bey, a successful man almost their mistake, he decides to take the ring to Cairo forty years old, well-dressed, and very aware that his and exchange it for something else. social position is above that of his bride's family. He Samia reluctantly gives him the ring, but she can- tells her on their i vedding night how lucky she is to not look him in the eye. He pats her cheeks, and she be marrying some one with a successful career realizes her position in society and in life: the man ahead and stresses to her that the most important has the responsibilities; the woman's job is to be thing to be concerned about is what others; particu- happy and obedient. She resigns herself to her fate. larly your equals and seniors, think of you. As he pats her cheeks in a "fatherly, reassuring gesture," he Comparison: The easiest comparison is to Guy urges her to tell people that her father is a judge. de Maupassant's THE NECKLACE. The wives in both The day on which the story opens, Samia had stories feel the same immediate horror when they arisen after an evening with her husband and a glass discover the missing jewelry. Yet the Maupassant of wine "at the club" to discover that an emerald ring, story turns on irony, whereas the Rifaat story is per- a gift from her husband, is missing. The only person vaded by a sense of helplessness and hopelessness. besides Samia and Abboud Bey to have entered the Miss Emily in William Faulkner's"A Rose for bedroom is Gazia, a young servant girl. When Abboud Emily" is excused for her eccentric behavior Bey arrives home and hears about the missing ring, he because of her social position, reflected in the questions Gazia. When she denies knowing anything town's calling her "Miss Emily." She appears to be a about it, Abboud Bey slaps her. She begins to cry from harmless old woman, which makes her crime, when fear and humiliation. Abboud Bey calls the police, discovered, especially shocking. Abboud Bey also assuring Samia that there is nothing more to worry appears to be the model citizen, yet he allows an about, for the police have ways of getting confessions. innocent servant girl to be brutalized for a crime The next day, Sarnia finds the ring stuck between she did not commit. is betrayed by the seem- the wall and a table leg. She is panic-stricken, even ingly innocent Miss Emily; Samia is betrayed by the thinking of throwing the ring into the river to avoid superficial social graces of her husband, who will having to admit her mistake to her husband. When sacrifice anything to save his reputation. he returns that evening, she holds up her finger, dis- In Alice Walker's novelMe Color Puige, playing the ring, and asks him what they must now Celie's first husband is a man similar to Abboud Bey. do for Gazia."Nothing, of course: is his reply. Abboud Celle is treated like a possession because that is Bey explains that the police can keep Gazia only what he believes her to be. He is as immoral as forty-eight hours if they have neither a confession Abboud Bey, a fact that shocks Celie as profoundly nor evidence. He decides that Gazia can take a few as Samia is shocked. G

RUMAT, ALMA.AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI HOUSEHOLD. Egypt World Writers Today.Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1995. Translated by Denys Johnson-Davies.

Author: See ANOMIER EVENING AT THE CLUB. ter in a Muslim family. Zeinat, her mother, is a good woman who says her prayers and does her rituals. Story The story deals with a contemporary prob- Ni'ma's father is working in Libya for a year, so lem: teenage pregnancy. Ni'ma is the eldest daugh- Zeinat must manage the household, the land, and

140 154


the livestock, as well as the family. When Ni'ma dis- most dear to ensure the happiness of the other. The covers she is pregnant, she tells her mother that she narrator in John Updike's "A & P" sacrifices not only must drown herself by appearing to fall accidentally his job, but also his youthful idealism to save the into a canal. Zeinat is horrified and assures her honor of three young girls. daughter that they will find a solution to the prob- Another popular plot illustrated in this story is lem before her father returns. thwarting social restraint. In " Which Took The plan Zeinat develops comes as a surprise to People In" from The Tale of Genii, a couple Ni'ma. When a neighbor comes to take Ni'ma to mar- involved in a liaison frowned upon by their feudal ket as usual, Zeinat says the girl has gone to visit rela- society pretend to commit suicide. The ploy is elab- tives. Ni'ma is perplexed."What relatives are you talk- orately planned, ultimately fooling the right people, ing about?" she asks. Zeinat responds by giving the and the two can start their life together anew. The girl her"life savings" and telling her to take the train movie Ju Dou tells a similar story of deception. Two to Cairo, where she'll find protection and a way to young people are deeply in love, but the woman has make a living until the baby's birth. Zeinat goes on to been promised to her lover's much older brother. tell Ni'ma that, after the baby is born, she is to return While she marries the older man, she becomes . home in the middle of the night and to let no one pregnant by his younger sibling. She decides to try see her or the child. After giving Ni'ma these instruc- to convince her husband that he is the father of the tions, Zeinat begins winding clothes around her Own child, not the uncle. The true father, then, must con- 'waist, under her . To Ni'ma she explains sim- tent himself with being an uncle, not a father. ply,"Isn't it better ... for your father to find himself The theme of family pride is also important. with a legitimate son than an illegitimate grandson?" The lengths to which Zeinat will go to protect her family and her daughter from scandal can be com- Comparison: Stories dealing with sacrifice are pared to the sense of pride that the boy in William numerous. In 0. Henry's "The Gift of the Magi," a Faulkner's "Barn Burning" must Fminmon in order to young man and woman each sacrifice something tell a lie to protect his father. 0 G

11011111F03, RODIS. THE CANDIDATE. Greece Eighteen Texts: Writings by contemporuty Greek Authors.Cambridge:Harvard University Press,1972. Translated by Rodis Roufos and Sarah Kafatou.

Author: Rodis Roufos (1924-1972) was born in one hand, Roufos and other writers of the Athens. He wrote, under the pseudonym Rodis literary-political opposition who published in Provelenghio, a trilogy: Chronicle of a Crusade Eighteen Texts understood that it would not be pru- (1954),March in the Darkness (1955), and The dent to challenge the Colonels' policies on freedom Other Shore (1958). Under his own name, he pub- of thought and the press. On the other hand, they lished two novels and a play and completed several ki-xw that if the intellectuals did not publish, the translations from the ancient Greek. The story THE government's "re-education" of the Greek people CANDIDATE is taken from a collection published in would go unopposed. Thus, they decided to pub- Athens in 1970 and two years later in the United lish, taking only the precaution of setting their sto- States under the title Eighteen Texts. The collection ries, poems, and essays in other countries. was published immediately after the lifting of cen- sorship imposed by the military government during Story: A !though Roufos sets his story in South the "Occupation of the Colonels" (1967-74). On the America, he reader can easily transpose it to


Greece during the military occupation of the As he reads, his exhaustion and bitterness disap- Colonels. The main characterjuan, is a professor pear. When he finishes the note, he makes his way, who concentrates on his chemistry, stays out of with deep satisfaction, to the meeting of the illegal politics, and tries to cooperate with the reigning opposition. authorities. He is rather proud of his ability to stay in his university and a bit disdainful of his many Comparison: The professor in this story wants colleagues who leave or have been driven away. At desperately to believe that his academic work cuts the time of this story, Juan hopes to obtain the uni- him off from the political sphere. In 's versity's chair in organic chemistry. During the loy- "The Chrysanthemums," a lonely housewife exhibits alty interview, one of the last stages of screening, the same intensity of desire to believe against all Juan learns about the government and himself. odds. Both are devastated when they face the truth Roufos describes in detail the official questioning they had probably known all along: that dictators to make certain that the candidate understands that use citizens and that the word of a traveling sales- the role of the chair will be to support the power man is often not to be believed. In "I'm a Fool," structure and to spy for the authorities. Finally, Sherwood Anderson writes about a young man when Juan is asked to accept or decline the posi- whose enlightenment comes from himself. He has tion, he declines:Exhausted, he makes his way to a lied about himself once too often, knowing that he bar, and, as he sits there, he reads a note from a for- should not do so, but doing it anyway. Now, devastat- mer colleague who has joined the revolutionaries. ed, he must live with the consequences. E M

RASHAD. ANGUISH. Egypt Arabic Writing Today. New York: Three Continents, 1976. Translated by Louis Morcos.

Author: Rashad Rushdi (1915-1981) was profes- address a nonresponding Mr. , much as Fri sor of English language and literature at Cairo Lippo Lippi and J. Alfred Prufrock addressed tl left University. During his active academic career, he silent interlocutors. was Egypt's premier scholar, critic, and translator of The revelations that the narrator of ANGUISH English literature, noted especially for his champi- makes are shameful: he so fears women, their capac- onship of the poetry of T. S. Eliot and the fiction and ity to injure him and his incapacity to control or drama in English translation of Anton Chekhov. As a manipulate them, that he confesses his deliberate literary artist, he is as noted for his creations in abuse of two wives. Yet his abuse of them is more drama as in the short story, producing many plays stupid than injurious. We understand easily that he for the UAR broadcasting service and the Cairo harmed himself more than the attractive and decent stages. He also served as President S'Alat's advisor women whom he beat, alienated, and finally on cultural affairs. divorced. By the story's end, we see Ismail exposed as the foolish victim of his own delusions of jeal- Stoty: While professor of English language and lit- ousy and paranoia. erature at Cairo University, Rashad Rushdi promot- Ismail's first marriage is a traditional, arranged ed the study of Robert Browning and T. S. Eliot for marriage to "a relative"; the second is his marriage their command of the dramatic monologue. It is of choice and defiance to "a girl from the city." The this technique that he employs exclusively in the first lasts one year; the second threc months. During short story ANGUISH, wherein we hear a man his first marriage ("one long, endless torment"),


Ismail imagines his young, naive wife as easy prey three months later in the arms of her servant. for seducers, particularly "one of these dandified Another is a physician's wife whom he has barbers living in the same house," who arouses sus- observed in assignations "in a huge Buick with a picion by sending his sister to keep the young wife strange man." Yet another is the wife of his friend company. After a year of mounting suspicionsall and neighbor who tries to seduce him and then projections onto the wife of Ismail's own sup- falsely accuses him when spurned. And finally even pressed sexual fantasieshe rushes from his shop his landlady is a Jezebel of this general type, one night in a fury of jealousy and assaults his wife "bulging out of her tight blue dress!" while she is"singing in the bathroom": The long-suffering and self-righteous Ismail ends his narration by declaring himself well rid of What did I do? Si Ismail? Just what did I do? women, but, in so doing, he reveals how much he To take a bath at ten o'clock, you shameless has lost in his narrow life of jealousy:"Give in? Not woman! on your life! When I was married I used to look at What's wrong with that? my wife lying beside me, fair, blooming, lovely. I was What about the bed? Why is the bed messy? unable to sleep after that and spent the rest of the I was having a rest after I'd finished cooking. night tossing and turning in such agony."

Ismail's quick association of an evening bath and Comparison: Rushdi's short stories can be com- messy bed is not wholly unreasonable. Following pared with the poetry of Browning and Eliot. Since Islamic teachings on ablutions, most Arabs take ANGUISH explores marriage and sexual anxiety, showers or baths after sexual relations. "My List Duchess" and "The Love Song ofj. Alfred Waiting for no further explanation, Ismail quick- Prufrock" would be good choices. The comparisons ly divorces this woman and soon marries Ha : should reveal poetry's greater resources of figura- "She was dark, tall and lusty, and so jolly." Playful tive expression and fiction's greater power of Ha lima soon arouses his suspicions by her jokes and drama. Though silent, Mr. Salah emerges as a dra- fun. His fantasies of her daytime jollity center on matic personality in the pauses, turns, and inflec- "the manly figure of Saad the carpenter in his tight tions of Ismail's responses to the body language blue trousers and rubber belt," a projection of desire and facial expressions the reader can imagine him that suggests Ismail's suppressed homosexuality. making. After three months, Ha lima leaves on an innocent Rushdi's psychological probing of neurotic journey to her village for the funeral of her father, characters could also be compared to similar efforts and Ismail seizes this opportunity to divorce her by by Russian authors Nikolai Gogol, Anton Chekhov, o sooner had she gone to the village ... than Fyodor Dostoevski, Yuri Olesha, and Vladimir I seth t her the divorce paper and got rid of her, and Nabokov, though Rushdi's exploration is more shal- delivered myself from this agony." low than theirs. He is more interested in the neuro- Ismail completes his monologue on woman's sis than the psyche and exploits the neurotic symp- perfidy by telling Mr. Salah several anecdotes of toms for their comic and satiric value. In this immoral women, each an obvious projection of his respect, his deftly comic portrait of Ismail's petu- own lusts. The first is of a "beautiful woman, lance and debilitating self-consciousness bears strik- white-skinned, with green eyes and blond hair" a ing resemblance to the style of the American comic damning portrait of Ismail's sexual, class, and racial writer John Barth, particularly in his ironic autobio- fantasieswho tempted an important civil servant graphical sketch "Life-Story" from Lost in the to abandon his wife and family only to betray him Funhouse. nt


SAND, GEORGE.THE MARQUISE. France Bedside Book of Famous French Stories. New York: Random House, 1945.

Author: , the pen name of Armandine amorous glances and lines to her. Despite her Lucile Aurore Dupin, Baroness Dudevant intense feelings, the Marquise realized that her pas- (1804-1876), was born in Paris and lived there spo- sion was intellectual, that she was in love with a fic- radically with her mother, but most of her child- titious being who did not exist outside the theater. hood was spent with her aristocratic grandmother After five year" Lelio was replaced in the in the little village of Nohant. At fourteen, she began Comédie Francaist.efore he left France, he wrote her formal education at a Parisian convent. A mar- a frantic letter, begging the Marquise for one meet- riage of convenience in 1822 to a country squire, ing before he departed. When he arrived at the ren- Casimir Dudevant, produced two children. When dezvous, dressed as the character Don Juan, she was their marriage failed, she moved to Paris, where she mesmerized by his youthful, romantic appearance. collaborated with Jules Sandeau, launching her liter- At first, they embraced and vowed eternal love, but ary career. Her many love affairs with famous men, soon the Marquise insisted that they separate forev- most notably Frederick Chopin and Alfred de er. Lelio, crushed by despair, transformed before her Musset, and her habit of smoking cigars and wear- eyes into a wretched old man,"the shadow of a ing men's attire in public resulted in much notori- lover and a prince:' She ends her story by saying ety. Her pronounced individualism and her belief in that she never saw him again. political and sexual freedom were reflected in her prolific writing.She produced sixty novels, Comparison: The artist's role in society and the twenty-five plays, and volumes of essays, correspon- problem of class distinctions are common literary dence, and memoirs. THE MARQUISE was published subjects. Sand treats art and the artist's life in a num- in 1832. ber of works, must notably C'onsuelo, a novel about a gypsy girl who becomes an opera star. Story: Sand uses a conversation between a young Thomas Mann in Confessions of Felix Krull: man and an elderly beauty, the Marquise de R , Confidence Man depicts a protagonist's reactions as a frame for the story The Marquise tells him of to seeing an actor performing on stage and then the past, recalling the one time she really fell in seeing him later without the illusion created by love. A disastrous early marriage had made her bit- makeup and costume. Both Felix and the Marquise ter toward all men, alienating her many suitors. are shocked by the change in each actor's appear- Surprisingly, she found herself becoming infatuated ance. with an Italian actor, Lelio, in the Comédie Francaise The main theme of THE MARQUISE, the dispari- as she admired him from afar in his performances. ty between the visions of the imagination and the Since actors were considered beneath her sordidness of reality, is a pervasive one in literature. social class, she began attending the theater dis- Certainly lbsen's Hedda Gablet; Tolstoy's Anna guised as a man so that her friends would not recog- Karenina, and Flaubert's Madame Bovary come to nize her. One night, she followed Lelio to a cafe and mind as works depicting women seeking love that was shocked to see how withered, old, and vulgar will live up to their dreams. A specific incident in he looked without stage makeup and a handsome Madame Bova?), parallels closely the situation in costume. Disillusioned, she refrained from going to THE MARQUISE. Emma Bovary attends the opera one the theater for several days. When she did return to night and finds herself intensely attracted to the lead- see him perform, however, she fell so desperately in ing actor because of the role he is playing. Emma is love that she continued to attend his plays. Lelio, easily taken in by illusion, be it the magic spell of the becoming aware of her adulation, began directing theater or the empty promises of her lovers. Unlike


Emma, however, who attempts to turn her dreams The need for illusion in people's lives is a into reality through affairs, the Marquise realizes the major theme in many works. Dr. Relling's life-lie necessity of preserving the illusion. She keeps her concept in Ibsen's Wild Duck provides a prime love idealized by refusing to consummate it. example. MAF

SANTOS, BIENVEIMIDO N. THE DAY THE DANCERS CANE. Philippines Asian and Pacific Short Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1974.

Author: Born in , Bienvenido N. Santos dancers from the Philippines and fantasizes how he (1911-) was educated both in the Philippines and the will greet them and host them in his home. He United States and has lived and worked in both coun- anticipates their excitement over their first experi- tries. He was president of Legazpi College, now ence with snow. He cleans his car and apartment Aquinas University, and the University of Nueva and plans to be most attentive in his service to Caceres in the Philippines. He was also Fulbright pro- them. He buys front-row tickets to their perfor- fessor of English and a lecturer at the Writers mance, but his roommate is too worried over an Workshop at the University of Iowa and distinguished undiagnosed illness to be in the same spirit. writer in residence at Wichita State University. Fil first goes to the hotel and tries to mingle Having spent much of his life outside of his among the dancers. Even as he admires the beauty native Philippines, Santos writes about Filipinos of the girls and rehearses his introductory com- who find themselves in foreign lands. He himself ments, the dancers are in their own world and was forced to leave his country in the 1970s by acknowledge him in a cursory manner. He rehearses Philippine martial law following a serialization of a grandiose speech, but knows he would be foolish his novel The Praying Man. delivering it. He approaches two of the boy dancers Santos has won a long list of awards and honors, and invites them to his apartment, but they too among them first prize in the New York Herald move away. When finally someone touches his Tribune's international short story contest, a shoulder, he finds that he is in the way of a camera. fellowship, a Guggenheim Later that evening, he goes to the theater and fellowship, the Republic Cultural Heritage Award in records the performance on his "magic sound mir- Literature, the American Book Award from the ror," his prized tape recorder. Back at the apartment, Before Columbus Association Foundation, a National he turns on the machine to evoke the dancers in his Endowment for the Arts fellowship, and several hon- living room. His sick roommate interrupts his fanta- orary doctoral degrees. His works include the short sy by asking him to turn the sound off. By accident, story collections You Lovely People (1955),Brother he hits the erase button and loses the memory. My Brother (1960), and Scent of Apples (1979); the The story is a poignant recreation of the plight novels Villa Magdalena (1965),The Volcano of immigrant Americans, who have their feet in nei- (3965),The Praying Man (1982) and What the Hell ther world. The poignancy is doubled by the gener- for You Left Your Heart in San Francisco (1987); ation gap, where the glittering world of youth can- and the poetry collections The Wounded Stag not admit even the most hospitable intrusion of (1956) and Distances in Time (1983). older compatriots.

Stmy: Set in Chicago, the plot centers around two Comparison: Countless numbers of characters naturalized U.S. citizens who share an apartment. have borne the brunt of being victims of alienation, Filemon Acaya anxiously awaits the arrival of v,nether in circumstances where they should have


felt at home or where they have been thrust into a to a concert in Boston, bursts into tears, and does foreign environment. This sense of not belonging is not want to leave. Like Fil, she finds herself far more probably best captured by Franz Kafka in THE at home there than in the tough, real life that she METAMORPHOSIS, where Gregor Samsa sees him- faces day after day. Fil's being bypassed because of self as a bug in the midst of a familiar and what an age gap is captured in Hemingway's "A Clean, should be comfortable world. Well-Lighted Place," in which an older waiter Another parallel can be found in Willa Cather's describes the plight of an old customer who has "A Wagner Matinee." A Nebraska farmer's wife goes recently attempted suicide. m

SARANG. V1LAS.THE TERRORIST. India Short Story International. October 1983. Translated by the author in collaboration with Breon Mitchell.

Author: Vilas Sarang (1942-) is one of the most banal information seemingly intended to cover up gifted and creative Indian writers of his generation. the true messages. While he is waiting, he fantasizes Born in Bombay, he studied English and compara- about a young woman named Dolores who works tive literature in both India and the United States, behind the wall of mailboxes at the post office. Their earning two doctorates. A fine scholar and prolific relationship seems to be developing toward some literary translator both from and into Marathi, his end when a curfew is suddenly announced, security native language, Sarang taught for some time at the in the city is tightened, and the "terrorist" is forced to University of Basra in Iraq before returning home to hide in his apartment, awaiting the possibility of head the English department at the University of arrest. As the story ends, we learn that the line Bombay. He has since founded a literary magazine, between reality and fantasy may have been blurred continued his scholarly career, and achieved best- for the "terrorist" as well as for the reader. His pack- seller status with a collection of short stories enti- age is harmless, his letters almost nonexistent, his life tled Fair Tme of the Void, published in 1990. Sarang a confused dream of love and freedom. has also provided an important bridge between the literatures of India and the rest of the world. His Comparison: The unnamed protagonist of this translations of Ezra Pound, W. H. Auden, Samuel story appears to be a cross between Dostoevski's Beckett, T S. Eliot, and others have contributed a "underground man" and James Thurber's Walter major impetus to young Marathi writers, while his Mitty, although the tale is marked more strongly by own stories offer concrete examples of a highly cre- a sense of menace than by humor. Paul Bowles's ative blend of traditional Indian and European mod- enigmatic story "If I Should Open My Mouth," set in ernist and postmodernist concerns. New York and written in diary form, offers an excel- lent American comparison. Sarang has studied mod- Story: The "terrorist" has recently arrived in a ernist and postmodernist literature carefully, and his strange city in the Middle East on an apparent mis- own work bears traces of the writers he reveres: sion. He finds an apartment, arranges for a post office Kafka, Beckett, and Borges, among others. Beneath box, and settles in to wait for further instructions. A the carefully observed realistic detail lie deeper fun- package wrapped in brown paper rests at the bot- damental questions of a philosophical nature. For tom of his suitcase. lie begins to receive letters from example, the dividing line between truth and fanta- a person calling himself "Joseph George." Their care- sy in this story is a function of the loneliness and fully guarded exchanges include pages of extraneous, alienation of the protagonist.


Sarang's tale may be compared thematically to ideological nature. In this case, ideology and politi- tales in which the protagonist is a single young man cal revolution are mere dreams in a world where trying to come to grips with his own life. In THE the human condition is one of fundamental and TERRORIST, the political dimensions of revolution inescapable alienation and where perception is and terrorism, as well as the setting in a socialist inexorably conditioned and limited by our fantasies country, offer parallels to stories of a more overtly and desires. a hi

SARANTI, GALATEA.SUNLIGHT. Greece The Charioteer: A Review of Modern Greek Culture. No. 9. New York: Parnassos, Greek Cultural Society of New York, 1967. Translated by Katherine Hortis.

Author: Galatea Saranti (1920-) was born in the child had died. The old man then remembers Patras. She studied at the Arsakeion School for Girls what his mother, his grandmother, and his aunt had and the University of Athens School of Law. Her told him about why the murderer's son had died. He short stories have been published in the most examines their perception that the death of a son is important literary magazines of Greece. She has a punishment, and he tries vainly to reconcile their won numerous prestigious awards, such as the 1960 position with his own situation. I am not a murder- State Prize for the novel Our Old House and the er, the old man thinks in deep sorrow. Why did my 1959 Kostas Ouranis Prize for The Return. In addi- son die? tion to several novels, she has also published Paints You Can Trust (1962),a collection of short stories Comparison: Aging affects people differently. that includes SUNLIGHT, and "The Boundaries" This story presents the old man with an opportuni- (1966), about an unsatisfied man who withdraws ty to ponder past events. For Phoenix Jackson in from his family and departs for foreign lands. Saranti Eudora Welty's"A Worn Path," the infirmities of age is noted for her inward-looking narrative technique are simply barriers that must be overcome as she and for her tendency toward surrealism. She is an travels for medicine to ease her grandson's recur- important Greek literary figure whose works have ring pain. The aging of the church choir soloist in been highly acclaimed by critics in Athens and Mary E. Wilkins Freeman's story "A Village Singer" is internationally. brought home to her by the sudden and cruel loss of her job. And for Washington Irving's lazy "Rip Van Story: The story is told from the viewpoint of an Winkle," aging on a high magic mountain enables old man who is examining the vagaries of life. him to return to a better world in which everyone Saranti makes it clear that the old man likes living in who had expected responsible action from him is Athens. He enjoys the sunlight and his good friends now dead. In John Steinbeck's "The Leader of the there. But now he is thinking of his birth village and People:an old man's constant recounting of the a man from the village who visited his family when high points of his life is brought to a halt by his he was a boy. This man, fnistrated because his wife son-in-law's impatience. The other topic of this gave birth to a daughter rather than a son, had killed Saranti story, punishment, is examined in numerous his wife so that he could marry a young woman short stories, such05Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The who might give birth to a boy. She had done so, but Minister's Black Veil." E M


SARTRE, ZEAN-PAIIIL. THE WALL. France Introduction to Literature: Stories. New York: Macmillan, 1963. Translated by Maria Jolas.

Author: A leading existentialist philosopher and wall as hard as I can with my back, and the wall writer, Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) was born in won't give in." Paris, where, except for his travels, he spent most of The three must wait, think about their fate, and his life. Following his schooling, he taught, traveled, face the knowledge that their lives will end in a studied further in Berlin, was a journalist, and at the matter of hours. Each suffers his own kind of weak- start of World War II enlisted in the army as a pri- ness, made all the worse by the presence of a vate. He was soon captured and imprisoned for nine Belgian doctor who, unlike the three captives, can months before escaping and joining the French "plan for tomorrow" Juan, the youngest, begins to underground. After the war, he founded a journal, lose his dignity earlyexcept, perhaps, when he Les Temps Modernes, and was its editor for many bites the doctor's hand extended in sympathy. Tom years. His career as a writerwhich included some wets his pants. Pablo, the narrator, reveals to the philosophical books and essays but mainly , reader his every tremor. novels, and short storiesreached its peak in 1964, Finally, Juan and Tom are removed from the cell when he was awarded, but refused to accept, the and shot. Pablo is taken out ami interrogated about Nobel Prize for Literature. THE WALL was first pub- the hiding place of Ramon Gris. Sure that Ramon is lished in 1939. in a farmhouse, Pablo tells his captors that Ramon is Sartre's admiration for dctective stories is evi- in the cemetery. Later, in the hospital courtyard, he dent in the dialogue and interrogation scenes found finds out from another prisoner that Ramon Gris is in much of his fiction, and the influence of literary dead. He had just been found in the cemetery and naturalists shows up in the types of detail used, the shot. apparent determinism, and the power of circum- stance. Comparison:Sartre's play Deaths without Burial Existentialism, though, is the strong force compares with ME WALL in that the situation, the behind the plots, characters, and general situations small number and types of characters, and Sartre's found in Sartre's fiction. As is the case in THE WALL, purpose are very nearly the same. His No Exit and characters are put in situations in which their only "The Room" may also be compared, particularly for resort is to their own inner strength, courage, and bringing the existentialist pyspective into sharp conviction. In his dramas No Exit, The Flies, and relief. The Victors or Deaths without Burial, principal Other existentialist works where the charactcrs characters must go through a process of are forced to search for their own "being" and to soul-searching to find the strength that will lead to find meaning in a godless universe are Albert responsible action. There is no help otherwise, Camus's THE GUEST, Miguel Unamuno's "Saint since for Sartre, there is no God. Emmanuel the Good Martyr," and Friedrich Diirrenmatt's "The Tunnel." Story:Set hi the basement of a hospital, THE With existentialist fiction at times coming very WALL is the story of three men awaiting death: Juan close in overall "look" to the fiction of literary natu- Mirbal, Tom Steinbock, and Pablo Ibbieta. The time ralists, further comparison of THE WALL with Maxim is the , and the three are prisoners. Gorky's story "Twenty-Six Men and a Girl" and his Their presumption is that they will be shot. As Tom play The Lower Depths will be useful. The situation, says,"Somebody will shout 'Shoulder arms!' and I'll the activities and fears of the characters, and the gen- sce all eight rifles aimed at me:I'm sure I'm going to eral absence of helpfrom God or otherwisein all feel like going through the wall. I'll push against the three works are remarkably similar. R S


Scull Lz, Einumo. COCKROACHES. Poland The Complete Fiction of Bruno Schulz New York: Walker, 1989. Translated by Celina Wieniewska.

Author: Bruno Schulz (1892-1942) is considered across the floor, his father's screams of horror as he one of the greatest Polish writers of this century, yet leaped up on a chair, spearing the insects with a during his lifetime his work was largely unknown. javelin. But gradually his father's fascination with An art teacher at a secondary school for boys in a and horror of the insects began to drive him mad. small village in the countryside, he wrote in his Black spots like the scales of a cockroach began to spare time for his own pleasure. He was forty years appear on his nails and skin. At night, the obsession old before his stories were finally published with took control; he lay on the floor, moving like an the help of a well-known novelist in , and insect. The boy's father was given up for lost; he they won critical acclaim. His first collection, in was being transformed into a cockroach. He disap- which COCKROACHES appeared, bore the title peared for weeks on end. His family ceased to rec- Cinnamon Shops and was published in 1934. This ognize him; he merged completely with that black was followed three years later by Sanatorium uncanny tribe. under the Sign of the Houtglass. Along with a And yet the boy is sure the condor is his father. novella that appeared in a contemporary literary As the story ends, his mother assures him that his journal, these works represent the sum total of his father is simply on a trip. He has a job as a commer- published writing. cial traveler and comes home only at night. Even after his work had achieved a certain mea- sure of success, Schulz continued to live in the small Comparison: The stories of Bruno Schulz are a village where he taught school. At the outbreak of unique mixture of poetry and the grotesque, a cross World War II, he was confmed to a ghetto along between and Kafka. In the present story, the with other Jews. It is said that he was supposedly relationship to Kafka's famous THE METAMORPHO- "protected" by an officer of the Gestapo who liked SIS, in which Gregor Samsa is transformed into a his drawings. In 1942, he ventured outside the ghet- gigantic insect, is self-evident, but the comparison is to with what he believed to be a safe pass. He was particularly rich in overtones because of the way in spotted by another S.S. officer and shot dead in the which the story interweaves another thematic con- street. In the late fifties, his work was at last redis- cern:that of a son's search for his lost father. In this covered, translated into several languages, and search, the mother may be seen as an antagonist, accorded worldwide recognition. much like the mother in V. S. Naipaul's story ME ENEMY. Stoty: A boy questions his mother about the dis- As in Kafka, the theme of alienation is strong: a appearance of his father. On the shelf in the draw- human being so obsessed with horror that he liter- ing room, only one specimen remains from his ally becomes the object of his own loathing. For the father's collection of stuffed birds: a condor, its eyes sensitive child, however, the ultimate source of fallen out, its coat of feathers moth-eaten. The boy's authority and security is undermined as well, and hidden resentment of his mother for the ease with the world becomes a mysterious and threatening which she seems to have recovered from his place, a sort of waking nightmare. In this world, a father's loss results in a strange question: has his young man's passage into manhood becomes a dan- father returned in the form of the condor? gerous one, a passage in which his own sense of His mother assures him otherwise. She reminds worth is constantly undermined. Only the child's him about the cockroaches. He remembers the sensitivity, the power of his poetic vision, seems to invasion of the cockroaches, how they flowed offer some form of escape.


SHOLOKHOY, MIKHAIL. THE COLT. Russia Nobel Parade. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1975. Translated by Miriam Morton.

Author: Although his fame is overshadowed, at Story: Set in the area of the Don during the civil least in the Western world, by that of his exiled com- war that followed the , this story patriot Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Mikhail Sholokhov opens with a contrast between death, symbolized (1905-1984) is nevertheless known for his masterful by shellfire and the sound of machine , and life, portrayal of the life of the of the Don River signified by the birth of a colt to soldier Trofim's region of southern Russia. In 1965, this achievement mare. The contrast is accentuated by describing this was recognized when he received the Nobel Prize initial sec ne from the viewpoint of the colt. Then for Literature, chiefly for his epic novel And Quiet Trofim enters, and the story shifts to his viewpoint. Flows the Don. His Nobel citation reads,"For the A basic conflict emerges between the necessities of artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic war and the memories of home and peacetime of the Don, he has given expression to a historic brought back by the appearance and antics of the phase in the life of the Russian people: colt. Though Trofim is directed several times to Born of middle-class parents in the Cossack vil- shoot him, he cannot bring himself to do this. In an lage of Kroujiline, Sholokhov learned to love the encounter between the Red forces, to which Trofim majestic Don River and the vast steppes through belongs, and , who are their enemies, which it flows. Except for brief periods, Sholokhov the Red troops must swim the fast-flowing Don always lived in the Don region. His works reveal an River under enemy fire. Assigned to a canoe carry- almost poetic appreciation of the natural beauty of ing the troopers' saddles, Trofim sees the colt the area. Sholokhov portrays the caught in a whirlpool and hears its desperate sometimes described as half-warrior, half-farmer neighs.Jumping out of the canoe, he swims to it. three-dimensionally, using his acute ear to record the The enemy commander, seeing what is happening, nuances of their dialect. Ordinarily, he chose t9 write orders his men to cease fire. Trofim succeeds in res- about the period in Russian history beginning just cuing the colt and getting it to shore, where its before World War I and ending after World War II. mother is waiting. Then, just as he is about to rise, When, after the Russian Revolution of 1917, he is shot in the back and killed by the enemy com- civil war broke out, Sholokhov joined the mander. Communist revolutionaries. He became a Throughout the story; the life-giving force, Communist Party member in 1932 and remained exemplified by the colt and by the evocative loyal to it, some critics think at the expense of his descriptions of the natural world, is opposed to the literary output. death-giving force, exemplified by the war and its Between 1924 and 1926 appeared the stories agents, the soldiers. Though the ending of the story later collected in Tales from the Don. Sholokhov is a surprise, Sholokhov has laid the foundation for then spent fourteen years on his masterpiece And it: it is easier for a soldier to kill another soldier, his Quiet Flows the Don. Although some chapters enemy, than it is to kill the colt, who reminds him were published serially in 1926, the fourth and last of peacetime and life. Students may question the part was not completed until 1940. By this time, the enemy commander's motive and may identify work was so famous that crowds of Russians stood strongly with Trofim, but they should also be aware in line at bookstores to obtain a copy. From 1932 to. that in another minute Trofim would be attempting 1959, Sholokhov worked on Virgin Soil Upturned, to kill the Cossacks. Certainly the author's respect a novel about the collectivization of the Don region. for life is uppermost among the many emotions These three remain his major works. Though his this story evokes and the many messages it carries. output is small, his work has been translated into at It thus becomes a surprisingly strong antiwar least thirty-two languages. piece.

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Comparison:Sholokhov has written a story in Ambrose Bierce, especially in Bierce's stories of the which an animal provides readers with a better American Civil War, most notably "An Occurrence at understanding of human nature. From this stand- Owl Creek Bridge" and "The Coup de Grace." point, his work may be compared with Faulkner's Obviously, this story deals with the adverse effect of "" or Steinbeck's The Red Pony. From the war. It therefore lends itself to comparison with the structural standpoint, Sholokhov's ironical surprise many selections in this subgenre, among them ending has much in common with those of Milovan Djilas's WAR. -HMM

SHOLOKHOV, MIKHAIL. THE FATE OF A HAN. Russia Russian and Eastern European Literature. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1970. Translated by Miriam Morton.

Author: See ME COLT While working in Uryupinsk, Sokolov encoun- tered Vanya, a homeless waif whose mother and Story: This, the most famous of Sholokhov's short father had been killed in the war. After convincing stories, is set in the Upper Don region as spring Vanya that he was the boy's father, Sokolov "adopt- arrives in the first year after World War II. ed" him. When the narrator encounters Sokok;v, ne Sholokhov uses a first-person frame story told by an has just lost his job and is on his way to Kashary in unnamed narrator to recount the tragic history of search of another. At the end of the story, when Andrei Sokolov, evidently the victim of an unsympa- Vanya looks back and waves to the narrator, the nar- thetic, almost vindictive fate. The narrator describes rator must turn away for, as he explains,"The most Sokolov as a weary, middle-aged man wearing important thing is not to wound a child's heart, not patched clothes, accompanied by Vanya, a little boy to let him see the unwilling hot tear that runs down of five or six, whose bright blue eyes and natural the cheek of a man." friendliness make him unforgettable. Sokolov's mother, father, and sister died of Comparison: From the structural standpoint, hunger in the famine of 1922, leaving him without Sholokhov's use of the frame story may be com- relatives. After marrying and having three chil- pared with Conrad's use of it in Heart of drena boy and two girlsSokolov was called up Darkness. Likewise, the lyrical descriptions of as soon as World War II broke out. He became a nature, which form an essential background for the driver, but was captured by the Germans while story and which are intensified by Sholokhov's eye trying to deliver a load of shells to his for fine detail, may be compared with those of hard-pressed division. After a number of years at Conrad or of such modern American authors as hard labor in prison camps, Sokolov managed to Eudora Welty. escape and return to the Russians, only to discover The tragic events in Sokolov's life may be com- that his wife and daughters had been killed two pared with those of Matryona in Solzhenitsyn's years earlier by a German bomb. Learning of the MATRYONA'S HOME. This cOmparison will be par- tragedy, his'son, who was away at the time it ticularly effective if the opposed political view- occurred, immediately enlisted and rose to the points of the two authors are considered, especially rank of captain. Just as Sokolov was expecting to with regard to the endings of the two stories. be reunited with him, he received word that his Sholokhov's tale may also be considered an son had been killed by a sniper's bulleton. May antiwar story. As such, it bears comparison with all 9, Victory Day. of that subgenre, including his own THE COLT


Russian literature often deals with the concept might like to discuss why Sokolov was, or was not, of the "," the person whose life- a superfluous man. Melville's"Bartleby the time means nothing, without whose existence the Scrivener" makes for good comparison in this area. world would remain totally unchanged. Students -HMM

SIDD11011, SHAUKAT. A NAN OF HONOR. Pakistan Short Story International. April 1978.

Author: A native of Punjab; Shaukat Siddiqi is knocks himself out. Finally, he walks to the club- renowned in Pakistan as a journalist, novelist, and house himself, where "the smell of cooked food short story writer. He is the recipient of several maddened him." Finding the dustbin, he forsakes his Pakistani literary awards. pride and eats the scraps of bread he finds scattered there. As he eats, his wife emerges from the bin's Story: A MAN OF HONOR is a social commentary other side, and, together, they eat the bin's offerings. concerning the struggles of the poor to obtain the basic needs for physical survival. It is also an ironic Comparison: The detrimental effect of pride as tale of the metamorphosis of human pride under an overriding theme is not uncommon in the short the emotional pressures of the struggle to survive. story genre. It appears in Sally Benson's "The The story opens when Farzand Mi, a school- Overcoat" and in Guy de Maupassant's THE NECK- teacher, has been unemployed for an entire month. LACE. Siddiqi's tale is most like de Maupassant's in This "Masterji," who is"going through hard times," that the pride displayed by the protagonists causes has friends and neighbors willing to help. One, undue hardship. In the latter, the borrower of the Abdullah, offers to employ the Masterjrs wife as necklace, a woman forever desiring more than her cook and household manager for his family. The station in life allows, fails to admit the loss of the Masterji's pride, however, provokes him into a rage: necklace to its owner. She toils at menial tasks for a "It's perhaps God's Wish that we should be dis- lifetime to repay the debt for having a duplicate graced like this." necklace made, only to find out that the original Farzand Mi's wife shares his views. When told necklace was a fake. Playing the martyr makes her of the job offer, she remarks angrily,"If father ever cynical, bitter, and old. comes to know of this, he will blame us for barter- In none of these stories, however, does pride ing away our pride, our honor and dignity and the reach the tragic proportions of Chinua Achebe's worthy name of our family to scoundrels." This atti- novel Things Fall Apart, in which Okonkwo, of the tude prevails, despite their great hunger."Hunger. Nigerian Ubi tribe, strives to achieve all that his Eternal Hunger. Unbearable Hunger." Farzand Ali's father, a lazy man, did not. Okonkwo spends his children too are hungry. entire life trying to compensate for the fact that he He eventually lies to his wife about future is the only man of the Ubi not to have inherited any employment prospects. When he tries to purchase possessions or titles. His pride, emanating from a kerosene oil on credit, the grocer makes him return sometimes haughty sense of individual achieve- it. Farzand Ali even resorts to stealing money from ment, coupled with his tribal rigidity and inability to Pahalwan, the milkman. He is caught and publicly adaptchange, culminates in his suicide, a taboo humiliated. When he learns that his wife has taken in Ubi culture that ultimately causes his very memo- food from the trash behind the town's club building ry to be disdained forever. The novel, like A MAN to feed herself and her children, he thrashes her vio- OF HONOR, truly demonstrates the adage "Pride lently and beats his own head against a wall until he goeth before a WI." -JAG


SIENICIEWICZ, HENRYK. THE LIGHTHOUZE-HEEPER. Poland Nobel Prize Library: Giorgis Seferis, Mikhail Sholokhov, Hentyk Sienkiewicz, Carl Spate ler New York: Helvetica Press, 1971. Translated by Monica M. Gardner.

Author A national hero to the Poles, Henryk acre of island on which it stands. Soon he begins to Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) was born into a wealthy withdraw more and more, becoming somewhat of a family that lived just outside Warsaw. After being mystic, not leaving his tower even to meet the boat tutored at home, he entered the University of that brings him his daily provisions. One afternoon, Warsaw and later traveled extensively throughout he finds beside the provisions a small package of Europe and the United States. A prolific writer, he Polish books, sent to him by the Polish Society in produced many novels and short stories, including New York, to which he had sometime earlier sent a THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER in 1882 and YANKO THE sizeable donation. Picking up a book of poetry, he MUSICIAN in 1879. Most of his novels are epical, becomes so absorbed in it and his memories of based on history. The most famous of these is Quo Poland that he neglects to light the lantern. The Vadis? (1895-96), a history of the persecution of next day, he loses his post, and shortly thereafter, early Christians under , translated into English much aged physically, he must take up his wander- under the same title and as Whither Goest Thou? ings again. On a ship to New York, he carries against In 1905, Sienkiewicz was awarded the Nobel his breast the book of poetry, grasping it from time Prize for Literature. His citation reads,"Because of to time in fear that it too will be taken from him. his outstanding merits as an epic writer." The Nobel Presentation Address refers to "the moving story of Comparison: An unusual story of human isolation, Yanko the Musician" and "the brilliant portrait of the in this case caused by a combination of old age and Lighthouse Keeper." In 1900, to celebrate weariness, ME LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER lends itself to Sienkiewicz's twenty-fifth anniversary as a writer, comparison with other stories of human isolation. In the Polish people took up a subscription and pre- Thomas Mann's "Tobias Mindernickel," Tobias's isola- sented him with an estate where he could relax and tion is also the result of old age, but results in the meditate. At the outbreak of World War 1, mistreatment of his dog. In Ivo Andric's THE Sienkiewicz fled to , Switzerland, where he SCYTHE, Vitomar's isolation is geographic, because busied himself organizing help for his olountry. of the sparsely populated area in which he lives. In There he died unexpectedly in 1916. Eight years Solzhenitsyn's THE RIGHT HAND, the narrator's later, in 1924, after a state funeral, his remains were social isolation is caused by a combination of his ill- interred in a place of honor in Warsaw Cathedral. ness and his earlier prisoner status. In Andric's A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH, Professor Norgess's isola- Story: Sienkiewicz manages to evoke in the mind tion is psychological, perhaps even psychotic, caused of his reader the total isolation of life in a light- by his losing touch with reality In D. H. Lawrence's house, with its extended vistas of sea and sky. "The Island," the protagonist's isolation is voluntary Skawinski, a seventy-year-old Pole, has been hired as and progressive. And in Kafka's ME METAMORPHO- the lighthouse-keeper of Aspinwall, near Panama. SIS, Gregor Samsa's isolation, an exaggeration of the The loneliness of the post, which the keeper may way his family had treated him, is caused by his leave only on Sundays, means that finding a keeper being transformed into a giant insect. is difficult. Thus, despite his age, Skawinski has been Finally, 's "The Fog-Horn," a Mend taken on, near the end of an adventurous life that of and psychology, is set in a light- has carried him to all quarters of the globe, but house and recreates vividly the immense loneli- somehow has managed to thwart all his attempts at ness of the keeper's lifeand that of a gigantic finding security. Skawinski is tired and glad to settle prehistoric creature, the sole survivor of its down in his lighthouse. He comes to love it and the species.-HMN


SIENKIEWICZ, HENRYK. YANK() THE MUSICIAN. Poland Nobel Parade. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1975. Translated by .

Author: See THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER. caught. He is arrested and sentenced to be flogged. The cruel beating is too much for his frail frame, Story: Kept from being overly sentimental by its and he dies after asking his mother if he will be able ending, this story deals with a boy who nearly died to have a real fiddle in heaven. The owners of the at birth but lived to grow up in a hostile world. mansion return from Italy, praising the musicians Often hungry frequently beaten, forced to work there and bemoaning the absence of talent at home. when scarcely past the toddler stage, Yanko has a head that is filled with music. He hears it in the for- Comparison- This tragic story of a boy whose est, in the wind, in the fields, in the shrubbery His passion for music leads to his death may be com- mother cannot take him to church because he is pared with Thomas Mann's "The Infant Prodigy," in overly affected by the organ music and the singing its own way equally tragic because of the exploita- of the choir. Eventually, he tries to make a fiddle out tion of its young protagonist's musical talent. of a shingle and some horsehair, but its sound is Yanko's harsh, often cruel treatment at the hands of poor. Often he hides in the bushes outside the vil- well-meaning adults may be compared with lage mansion to listen to a servant play the fiddle. Mrozek's treatment of a similar theme in CHILDREN. One day, the fiddle is hanging on the wall, but no But because Mrozek's intent is satiric, his children one is around. Overcome by temptation, the boy are from affluent baCkgrounds, and the ending is not sneaks into the house to steal the fiddle, but he is seatimentally tragic but ironic.-HMM

SIWERTZr SIGRRID. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING. Sweden A World of Great Stories. New York: Crown, 1947.

Author:Sigfrid Siwertz (1882-1970) was born in coolly plans to leave for America and have the baby Stockholm. His primary success as a writer was adopted by wealthy, childless relatives living there. always in the rc Im of the short story A Handful of Her ability to move ahead so resolutely with her Feathers and Old People are his best-known collec- plans confounds Eric, whose rights as the child's tions, though the novel Downstream was also well father Agda never considers. He becomes lost in an received by critics and readers. Siwertz typically emotional and psychological quagmire, powerless portrays the lives of lonely, disillusioned beings to stop Agda or to claim his child. whose paths cross those of other solitary souls, yet Years later, Agda returns to visit Eric. Their who conveige only in brief, illusory moments of reunion only intensifies the symbiotic misery they happiness. seem destined to share. Forced to acknowledge to himself that he has not managed to overcome his Story:Eric, a sensitive, idealistic student, is physi- addiction to Agda, Eric laments,"I know your fail- cally attracted to the sensuous Agda. Later on in the ings, your deceit, your hardness when you think affair, however, he is morally repulsed by the callous yourself secure, your heavy and helpless emptiness manner in which she reacts to her pregnancy. Agda when you are alone; and yet I live only in you, all my ANNOTATIOA4

dreams are in you.... I hate you." Th:y are together, Agda's plea to Eric:"My life has ben so restless and yet still apart, as the story ends. confused.... You must help me, talk with me. You know more about me than I do about myself?' Of Comparison: Despite the temptation to view IN primary comparative importance is Somerset SPITE OF EVERYTHING as a somewhat sordid melo- Maugham's Of Human Bondage, though the astute drama, students will find many beautifully phrased reader may find in Siwertz's ending the suggestion passages in the story. There are strong echoes of of a chance for progress that Eric and Agdamay yet Emily Bronte's , particularly in make together. -PGL

SOLZHENITSYN, ALEXANDER.MATRYONA'S HOME. Russia Russian and Eastern European Literature. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman,1970. Translated by H. T. Willette.

Author: Among the most famous of all twentieth- area that formed the setting for MATRYONA'S century authors is Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1918-), HOME. After One Day in the Life of Ivan the son of Cossack intellectuals. He was born six Denisovich was published in Noty Mir in months after his father's death, grew up in November 1962, during the "thaw" that followed the Rostov-on-the-Don, and gtuduated from Rostov Stalinist regime, Solzhenitsyn became famous. University with a degree in mathematics. He also Shortly thereafter, he was able to give up teaching took correspondence courses in philology. to spend all his time writing. MATRYONA'S HOME Solzhenitsyn served in the army as an artillery was published during this period, in 1963.1n 1964, officer until February 1945, when he was arrested however, he came under serious and continuing by the secret police because of unfavorablecom- attack. His works were banned in Russia, and hewas ments about Stalin made in correspondence with a excluded from the Soviet Writers' Union. friend. When Solzhenitsyn's belongings were ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH was published in 1966. searched, notes for some short stories were found In 1970, Solzhenitsyn's greatness was given in his mapcase, adding to official suspicion. In July international recognition when he received the 1945, he was sentenced to eight years of imprison- Nobel Prize for Literature. His citation reads,"For the ment in corrective labor camps. Because of his ethical force with which he has pursued the indis- knowledge of mathematics, he spent four years of pensable traditions of Russian literature." Though this time in a research institute. In March 1953, he Solzhenitsyn accepted the prize, he did not travel to was released from prison but sentenced to perpetu- Sweden for the ceremony, afraid that if he left Russia al exile in Kazakhstan. In 1954, he underwent suc- he would not be permitted to re-enter. Finally, in cessful treatment for cancer. These experiences 1975, after a brief imprisonment, Solzhenitsyn was formed the basis for the nonfictional Gulag forced into exile, eventually settling in the United Archipelago and for three of his novelsOne Day States. In 1994, after the dissolution of the Soviet in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (penal camps), The Union, Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia. First Circle (prison research institute), and The Cancer Ward (Cancer hospital in )and Story: This first-person narrative is told by also for a number of short stories. Ignatich, who, like Solzhenitsyn, spent a number of Released from exile in 1957, Solzhenitsyn was years in Russian prison camps. Recently released, cleared of all charges a year later. He became a 1gnatich is searching for the "Old Russia" he remem- mathematics teacher in Ryazan, in central Russia, an bers as being simple and good. His search takes him


to Torfoprodukt, where he teachesmathematics and which, like it, was published in Russia, and THE boards with Matryona. RIGHT HAND, which was not published there. The story itself, however, is primarily that of MATRYONA'S HOME is, in fact, one of only four Matryona, whom Solzhenitsyn evidently intends to Solzhenitsyn short stories ever published in rtu;ssia. represent Mother Russia. Even her namecontributes Because of its depth and complexity; MATRY- to this impression. Aging, of unfailinggood nature, ONA'S HOME lends itself to comparison in several Matryona is always willing to help others, who are areas. As an analysis of the characterof the Slav equally willing to take advantage of her. To provide peasant, it may be compared withSolzhenitsyn's lumber for her niece to build a house, Matryona sac- ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH,Sholokhov's THE COLT, rifices a part of her own home, an act that ironically Andric's THE SCYTHE, Djilas's WAR and THE OLD results in her death. As a tractor is pulling a sledge MAN AND THE SONG, Sienkiewicz's YANKOTHE loaded with the lumber from Matryona's home,the MUSICIAN, and Mrozek's ON A JOURNEY. It may tow rope breaks, leaving the sledgestranded on the also be related to the theme of the superfluous railroad tracks. Two unlighted engines, backing out manin this case, the superfluous womanthe of the Torfoprodukt station, plow into it, killing person whose life and deathpresumably mean Matryona. After her funeral, Ignatich realizes that nothing to the world. Here it may be compared Matryona was the "righteous person" referred to in with Sholokhov's THE FATE OF A MAN or the Russian proverb "No village can exist without Sienkiewicz's YANKO THE MUSICIAN. The ironic ending of this story may be com- one righteous person." pared with those of Sienkiewicz's YANKO THE Comparisow This story may be compared to two MUSICIAN, Sholokhov's THE COLT, Djilas's WAR, or Mrozek's CHILDREN. - H M others by Solzhenitsyn: ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH,

SOLZHENITSYN, ALEXANDER.THE RIGHT HAND. Russia Stories and Prose Poems of AlexanderSolzhenitsyn. New York: Bantam, 1972. Translated by Michael Glenny.

Author: See MATRYONA'S HOME. Though he is dreadfully emaciated and weak, the stomach of the sick man is enormous and hangs Story: Much of this story appears to beautobio- down, obviously dropsical. graphical. It is obviously related to The Cancer Going to the counter in the reception office, Ward, for its setting is the samethe hospitalin the narrator encounters a very young, snub-nosed lipstick and nail polish. Tashkent, the same hospital in whichSolzhenitsyn nurse, who is wearing violftt himself was cured of cancer. Told by an unnamed She is engaged in reading a spy and narrator, who may be Solzhenitsyn, the storydeals refuses to do anything about admitting the sick During the in its early part with the impressionspring makes man, saying he must wait until morning. ensuing argument, the sick man tries withhis right on the narrator, who isbeginning to realize that he takcs on new hand, which he is scarcely able to move, to take a is recovering. Everything around him the meaningthe park, the girls, even the fresh new tattered piece of paper from his wallet. When narrator helps him, the paper turns out tobe a com- grass. In the park, the narrator sees a small, poorly mendation for"personally eliminating large num- dressed man, evidently ill and weakly asking bers of counterrevolutionary terrorists." The narra- tor mentally compares the man's nowalmost We- passers-by for help. The narrator helps him to a when bench near the reception office for thehospital. less right hand with the strength it once had

's 156 170 ANNOTATIONS

he was swinging a sabre to chop off enemy heads. regime because he dislikes it or because he wants it Unable to persuade the nurse to listen, the narrator to improve in certain areas? quietly lays the commendation on her comic book Solzhenitsyn has said that the writer's task is "to and leaves. treat universal and eternal themes: the mysteries of the heart and conscience, the collision between life Comparison: Since this short story could not be and death, the triumph over spiritual anguish." How published in Russia, it is probably best contrasted well does THE RIGHT HAND carry out the aims with Solzhenitsyn's MATRYONA'S HOME and described in this statement? How does it compare ZAKHAR-THE POUCH, which were published there. with the other two short stories in this connection?

.Probably the best area for comparison is the criti- The theme of humanity's inhumanity, evident in cism each story contains of the Communist bureau- this story, can also be seen in Djilas's WAR, cracy. What about THE RIGHT HAND wouldmake it Sienkiewicz's YANKO THE MUSICIAN, and to a less- unwelcome in Russia? In this respect, how does it er degree in Mrozek's CHILDREN. The stories may differ from MATRYONA'S HOME and ZAKHAR-THE- be analyzed to see what may lie at the base of that POUCH? Is Solzhenitsyn criticizing the Communist inhumanity. HMM

SOLZHENITSYN, ALEXANDER.ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH. Russia Stories and Prose Poems of Alexander Solzhenitsyn. NewYork: Bantam, 1972. Translated by Michael Glenny.

Author: See MATRYONA'S HOME. the narrator because inside one flap of his overcoat is sewn a pouch just the right size to hold the visi- Story: Probably owing something to Turgenev's tors' book for the monument. Hunting Sketches, this almost plotless short story is As the sketch progresses, it is possible to see set in the Don River region, specifically at Kulikova how carefully Solzhenitsyn has intermingled the iso- Field, the site of an important battle fought in 1380 lated, natural beauty of Kulikova Field, accounts of between Russians and an invading Tartar army. The the damage done by vandals and local peasants to Russians were victorious, but ninety percent of the iron monument and the church that stands them were killed in battle. As Solzhenitsyn remarks beside it, and historical detail. In the midst of all this, during the story, so many died that it took eight the character of Zakhar emerges detail by detail. He days to bury the dead. is devoted to his job and to the historical site. His The site, now a Russian historical monument, is sack contains bottles and jelly jars left by picnicking visited on a summer cycling holiday by the first-per- tourists, and he gives up his shelter, a shed, so the son narrator and some companions. Interestedin narrator and his companions can spend the night in the historical background, they are attempting to it. Solzhenitsyn ends his sketch, which has included reconstruct in their own minds the progress of the some incidental criticism of the waythe govern- battle During the day, they encounter several other ment maintains the site,with the followingwords: tourists and the keeper of Kulikova Field, Zakhar Dmitrich, who becomes the focus of interest. Tall, That was two years ago. Perhaps the place is tidier now and better cared for. I have been abit slow red-haired, unshaven, wearing a long overcoat of about writing this, but I haven't forgotten the Field of indeterminate color, he carries a peasant's sack from Kulikova, or its Keeper, its red-haired tutelary spirit. which comes the sound of clinking bottles. At first curt and unfriendly, he later thaws and becomes And let it be said that we Russians would be very almost pleasant. He is dubbed Zakhar-the-Pouch by foolish to neglect that place.


111 Comparison: This is the last of Solzhenitsyn's The reverence for past history that Solzhenitsyn short.stories to be published in Russia. The most shows in this piece may be compared with Benét's immediate comparison is, therefore, with later stories treatment of history in such familiar short stories as like THE RIGHT HAND, which were banned there. "The Devil and Daniel Webster" and "A Tooth for For technique, ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH may be Paul Revere." compared with some of Turgenev's Hunting Weaknesses of the Communist bureaucracy that Sketches. Zakhar himself, as a representative of the appear in this selection may be compared with those Russian peasantry, may be compared with Matryona Solzhenitsyn touches on in MATRYONA'S HOME and in Solzhenitsyn's MATRYONA'S HOME or with THE RIGHT HAND and also with those Sholokhov Trofim in Sholokhov's THE COLT. mentions in THE FATE OF A MAN.HMM

SURANIGKHAWANG. K. THE GRANDMOTHER. Thailand Asian and Pacific Short Stories. Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1974. Translated by the Thailand P.E.N. Club.

Author: A novelist and short story writer, to scold the children for their behavior and, in the K. Surangkhanang depicts the plight of the poor meantime, asks the old woman for money. By now and the weak. When traditional social structures the grandmother has learned to defend herself by erode and new structures have not yet matured, claiming that she has money only for the next sup- the poor, the weak, and the elderly are victims ply of dumplings, for the children have eaten the without support systems. Surangkhanang observes profit. Embarrassed,the mother berates the chil- with a sharp eye how, in the struggle for survival, dren, while the grandmother, going to the kitchen people tend to serve their own interests. As a to eat the meager leftovers of thinned rice, remem- result, the elderly are cast aside and left to fend for bers that none of her other children would even themselves, sometimes living lives that have no take her in. Later in the evening when the father direction or meaning. comes home with sweets, no one thinks to invite the old wormn to partake in the joy of the family Story: An old woman who lives with her married gathering. daughter and family buys tapioca dumplings from a The next day, after she has made an offering to wholesale dealer and sells them on the streets each the monks, she goes about her daily routine. At a day. On the day before she dies, a whole morning bridge, she feels faint and falls into the water. A few passes before anyone expresses any interest in her bubbles disturb the water, but all that remains of the wares. The customer complains because the old old woman are a few banana leaves from her basket woman has forgotten the parsley, but buys some floating on the surface. dumplings anyway because the child on her waist demands them. Other potential customers complain Comparison: Katherine Mansfield's vivid depic- that the vendor is old and dirty. tion of "Miss Brill" brilliantly captures the separate- When at last she comes home from a long day, ness of the world of the aging and aged, even as it her daughter urges the grandchildren to snatch coexists with the world of youth. Hemingway's "The whatever has been left over for the day. The grand- Old Man and the Sea" portrays the determination of mother yields, but saves two pieces as her offering the old fisherman to function as he did in his prime. to monks, her deed of charity that might ensure a In Flannery O'Connor's "A Good Man Is Herd to better life when she is reborn. The mother pretends Find," when the grandmother leans forward as if to

158 1 '7 2 ANNOTATIONS

touch the Misfit and murmurs,"Why, you're one of her three times through the chest. Then he put his my babies. You're one of my own children; the gun down on the ground and took off his glasses Misfit recoils "as if a snake had bitten him and shot and began to clean them."

Swim*, IITALO. IN KY INDOLENCE. Italy Short Fiction: A Critical Collection. 2d ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1969. Translated by Ben Jonson.

Author: Born Ettore Schmitz (1861-1928) in reproducing it..cif." Thus, to "hoodwink Mother Trieste of Italian-Austrian Jewish parents, Svevo Nature into believing that I was still fit for reproduc- chose a pseudonym reflecting his background. tion; he takes a mistress, an act "equivalent; he Translated, it means "Ita lo the Swabian." Brought up feels,"to entering a pharmacy." and educated to be a businessman, he began writing His affair with Felicita, as ironically named as is in his twenties, but the poor reception of his first his wife, Augusta, is a remarkably commercial and novels persuaded him to return to his career in passionless undertaking. The proprietress of the business. Paradoxically, however, that decision led to small tobacco shop, she and her brother live togeth- literary success, since making business his career er and are both extremely concerned with provid- led him to seek instruction in English, and the ing themselves a sound financial future. The note of instructor he chose happened to be James Joyce. a business arrangement in the "love affair" is clear: Joyce read his early novels, liked them, and encour- "At the beginningrather, before drawing up terms, aged him to write more. His next novel, Confessions and to encourage me to do itshe threw her arms of Zeno (1923), completed only after the First around me and said,`I assure you, I don't find you World War, was praised by Joyce and the influential repulsive.'" critic to whom he passed it on. But Svevo was As the affair goes on, the narrator attempts to unable to capitalize on the "overnight" success this persuade himself that Felicita genuinely cares for review brought, as he was killed in an automobile him, but the closest she comes to expressing affec- accident two years later. IN MY INDOLENCE was tion is to remark frequently,"Isn't it curious! I don't published posthumously in 1928. find you repulsive:' She is primarily concerned with getting more money from him, supposedly for Story: IN MY INDOLENCE is an interior mono- clothes and furs, leading him to conclude that "she logue containing the reflections of its narrator on was certainly the most costly woman I have known the period of his life following his retirement from in my life." But until he finds another elderly "lover" business. Convinced that his life is best viewed now in her apartment, he is willing to be "plundered" as as a "struggle against disease," he doses himself with the price of his continued hoodwinking of Mother a variety of medicines, since "it has to be under- Nature. That discovery leads to her reprimanding stood that every one of my organs cannot help feel- him for appearing on a day when he was not ing fagged out after so many years of work." In addi- expected and to his feeling offended:"It was dis- tion to his medicines, he attempts, without much gusting to see myself limited to fixed days at the success, to lose weight and gives up eating meat as price I was paying." a substitute for abstaining from smoking, a task that After the discovery, the two elderly gentlemen is too difficult for him. But these measures are not leave Felicita's apartment together, each pretending sufficient. Mother Nature will only "maintain life he was there only to order cigarettes. But as they within an organism so long as there is hope of its talk, the truth comes out. The other man, Miscela,


admits he will return to Felicita, since at his age young women, a recent glance drawing the com- "there's no harm in making love occasionally; but ment from a watching older woman,"Old lecher." we mustn't become jealous, because we easily He thinks,"She called me old. She was summoning come to look ludicrous." Resolving not to return, the death. I said to hen'You old fool.'" narrator regards the affair as over, but Felicita's brother comes to his home to deliver the cigarettes Comparison: On the surface a humorous story of he had ordered and demands payment for the rest man's rationalizations and almost absurd fear of aging of the month. Thinking that since he has paid for and death, IN MY INDOLENCE also suggests, on a the time, he should use it, the narrator returns one somewhat more profound level, the alienation of a evening to Felicita's apartment. Surprised by his man unable to feel love since he is incapable of get- arrival and not seeing him clearly, Felicita utters a ting beyond himself and his own fears. In its concern name that is neither his nor Miscela's. When she with death, the story might be compared to James recognizes her visitor, she rejects him, saying,"You Joyce's "The Dead" or Eudora Welty's "A Curtain of might return on the first of the month, if you wish. Green," although neither of these stories deals with I'll see. I'll think about it." Angered, he leaves for alienation and in both of them the mystery of death good, and after a time realizes that "she was my last confronts the characters on a far more profound love." Condemned now "to the career of an old level. In its ironic theme of love's growing out of the man; he realizes that "in the field of love, I am biological nature of its charactersMother Nature in worth no more than I pay." the storySvevo's story can be contrasted with D. H. Now his attempts to hoodwink Mother Nature Lawrence's "The Horse Dealer's Daughter:which have been reduced to sidelong glances at attractive treats that theme seriously. -PTM

TAGORE. RABIMPRAMATH. KABULIWALLAH. India Selected Short Stories. London: Penguin, 1991. Translated by William Redice.

Author:First to write short stories in Bengali, Though he wrote mostly in Bengali, he translated Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was also a poet, many of his own works into English. novelist, dramatist, philosopher, educator, actor, musician, painter, editor, and reformer. Winner of Story: The narrator, a Bengali gentleman, watches the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, Tagore was as his little daughter Mini develops a friendship revered as a great man and a prophet of enlightened with Rahamut the Kabuliwallah, an itinerant trader humanism. The poetic flash of insight into the truth from Afghanistan. As Rahamut makes his rounds, of the nature of things that runs through the vast busy though he might be, he always stops to visit collection of his works earned him the reputation Mini, the two of them so enchanted by each other of gurudev or rist (sage) in his native India. His that they develop private jokes and routines at career as a short story writer began with material which they laugh heartily. For instance, when for a journal that he and his family ran, his subject Rahamut would say,"Little one, don't ever go off to matter frequently drawn from his observations of your svasur-bari,"Mini, not understanding that sva- Indian life as he expanded his contacts beyond his sur-bari refers to the home of a woman's in-laws, aristocratic background while managing his family would respond,"Are you going to your svasupbarir estates. From 1891 to 1895, he wrote forty-four sto- Rahamut would then shake a huge fist at an imagi- ries, half of his total output in this genre, before nary father-in-law, and Mini would burst into laugh- switching his interest to the psychological novella. ter at this encounter with an unknown creature.


Mini's mother's fears and suspicions of the relation- ships, such as the relationship between Jim and Huck ship end when one day Rahamut is jailed for assault- in Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, between Juliet ing a customer who refused to pay him. and her nurse in Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, Years later, on Mini's wedding day, Rahamut and between Paul and the butler Basil in "The happens to drop by to renew his friendship. At first Rocking Horse Winner" by D. H. Lawrence. In each the narrator refuses to admit him. He learns, howev- case, the older friend, of lower socialclass, serves as er, that years ago, Rahamut had left his owndaugh- intimate companion and confidante in such a way as ter, the same age as Mini, behind in his native coun- to touch the heart of the younger friend. Thisinter- try and that he always carries a small handprintof generational bond sharply contrasts with the lack of her. The narrator is so moved by the Kabuliwallah's communication in "A Visit of Charity" by Eudora story that he diverts part of the funds for the wed- Welty, in which a fourteen-year-old girl is stunned ding banquet to enable Rahamut to go home. In fac- and frightened and runs from the old women in the ing each other at last, Mini and Rahamut hardly rec- nursing home she visits. ognize each other, but Rahamut's reference to one The underlying theme of love of parents for of their old jokc , brings past and present poignantly children, which motivates the actions of Rahamut to focus: "Are you going to your svasur-bari?" and the narrator, can be found in many stories in which parental concern constellates as context or Comparison: The intergenerational, interclass instigates the action of the plot. Romeo and Juliet friendship that develops between man and girl is and "The Rocking Horse Winner" are two examples. commonly depicted in stories of same-sex relation- M L

TANASI, ARON.FLASHES RH THE NIGHT. Hungary Russian and Eastern European Literatum. Glenview,IL: ScottForesman, 1970. Translated by Alexander Harsanyi.

Author: Mon Tamasi (1897-1966) was born in in America (1934), and some of his short stories Transylvania. In 1920, Transylvania, formerly a part are based on his American experience.FLASHES IN of Hungary,was annexed by Romania. Like other THE NIGHT was published in 1958. authors who shared his background, Tamasi feared that his national culture would be destroyed by the Story: Set in a remote mountain district of annexation. L rawing upon his peasant background, Hungary, this story is narrated against the back- he became a regionalist, writing about the country- ground of a fierce storm marking "the birthpangs of side and the sturdy peasants who inhabited it. spring." Paralleling the storm, increasing in intensity Lyrical in style, his works often contain elements of as it does, are the labor pains of Aniska,the wife of folklore and ballads. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT is emi- Henke Ku. Nature descriptions of the sky and moun- nently a regional piece, rich in descriptions of tains before the storm are lyrical and peaceful, rich nature and the isolated countryside, yetsurprisingly in imagery and figurative language. The mood is sophisticated in its ability to combine and interre- broken by a single event, a flight of nine fighter late a fierce spring storm, the birth of a child, and a plane's across the sky, directing attention to the fact strong but subtle antiwar message. In 1923,Tamasi that World War II is not yet over, that men are still emigrated tO the United States, but returned to his killing and being killed. homeland in 1925, fearing that he would lose his As.the story opens, Benke, who is a carpenter, is national identification if he remained here. A novel working at his trade, and his dog Mop is keeping him dealing with the adventures of a peasant lad, Abel company. Because Benke is slightly lame, hehas not


been drafted. When he and Mop go into the house for After a moment of silence, the old man says, tears in dinner, they find that Aniska is going into labor a his eyes,"Girls are what the world needs: month early and many miles over the mountains from By the time he has finished, the storm is over, the midwife. They decide to take Aniska to the mid- "and the moon, like a young girl growing up, wife, and Benke puts her into a farm cart, drawn by a smiles." Word comes from the house that a baby girl half-broken colt. Mop leads the way down the moun- has been born. Overjoyed, Benke runs into the tain through the darkness, which falls early because house, and the old man looks at the dawn,"his heart of the storm. The storm is punctuated by constant alight with a faith that joy may yet come to the flashes of lightning, accounting for the story's title. world after all." Just as the storm seems about to overwhelm them, Benke sees the light of Marton Zadog's sheep- Comparison.- The vivid descriptions of nature fold, and they find shelter with him and his wife. and the delineation of the peasant characters are The two men sit outdoors by a fire, sheltered from typical of eastern European writing. Especially good the rain by the roof of the hut, waiting for the birth. comparisons may be made with Solzhenitsyn's When Benke says he would like a boy, the old MATRYONA'S HOME and Sholokhov's THE COLT, farmer responds dubiously that a boy may be better which deal with both topics, and Andric's SUMMER for the parents, to which Benke asks,"Doesn't the IN THE SOUTH, in which nature descriptions are child belong to the parents?" The old man does not important but the characters are not peasants. quite agree and replies,"In a way of speaking, for FLASHES IN THE NIGHT also lends itself to a con- the child belongs to the world and the world is full trast with Andric's THE SCYTHE in the character of of trouble, much trouble, all of it caused by men the peasant and the unstated implications of the who want the sun and stars; and under their striving story. In essence, however, FLASHES IN THE NIGHT feet, the earth is ravaged. Yet we live here on this is a subtle antiwar story, with a strong current of earth, man's home, and if it is to be a home, we rebirth and more than a hint of parallels to the need a blesSing on it: warmth, joy and smiling fruit." Christian Nativity.-HMM

TANIZAWI ZUMICHIRO. TATTOO. Japan Modern Japanese Stories:An Anthology Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1980. Translated by Ivan Morris.

Author: Taniraki (1886-1965) was a major fig- Later, he shed the superficial veneer of Western ure in Japanese literature. His life spanned the ways and became absorbed in the Japanese past. In period of "growing pains" Japan experienced dur- this period, he produced The Makioka Sisters. In the ing the period of Westernization that began with last period of his career, Tanizaki seems to have been the Meiji Restoration. Born in Tokyo to obsessed by human sexual perversity and the effect of merchant-class parents, Tanizaki displayed his bril- Western literature and film on the Japanese mind. Two liance as a writer early. For a while, he lived a novels, The Key and The Diary of a Mad Old Man, bohemian lifestyle and was infatuated with the both done in diary form, depict perverted streaks in West. The aesthetic and epicurean "diabolism" of men as they record their thoughts and observations. his early works was the direct result of his immer- Mon in the works of Poe, Wilde, and Baudelaire. Story: The great ambition of the famed tattoo The publication of his first story, TATI'00, in 1910 artist, Seikishi, is to "have under his needle the lus- brought him sudden fame. trous skin of some beautiful girl, on which he


he will be her first soul." He is now free of all fear and that dreamed of tattooing, as it were, his very the rays of the the beauty of her victim. As he asks to see her tattoo, first recognizes his fantasy girl by fire to the spider." foot as she mounts a palanquin. A yearlater, she morning sun "seemed to set happens to be sent to him on an errandby a geisha Comparison: The theme of theartist creating friend of his, who also asks him todo what he can from the depths of his souland being ruled or to help launch the girl inher career as a geisha. in Fascinated by her as he studies herface and destroYed by his own creation has its prototype and shows the myth of Daedalus, who, atleast twice, was his recognizes her foot. he leads her upstairs in the labyrinth he her two pictures: one of the lovelyChinese imperial own victim: his incarceration built and losing his son Icarusafter fitting him with princess Mo Hsi languidly watchingthe execution woman with the wings he made. In "The RealThing," Henry James of a prisoner and the other of a young Pygmalion theme with a "pride and satisfaction" leaning uses a variation of the an expression of painter who hopes to become a greatartist by choos- against a cherry tree and gazing atthe corpses of comparing the present state ing flawless models for hisworks. In "Secret Miracle" men laid at her feet. In character creates a foretells that she by Jorge Luis Borges, the main of the girl to the pictures, Seikishi effort has declaring that he play, but finds not only that the creative will become a "," devoured him, but also that he is hissole audience. alone has the power to make herinto a beautiful The theme of the transitionfrom innocence to woman. in all types After drugging her with an injection,he works experience is explored in great variety of literature. One starkly differentstory, Ernest all through the day and night onhis masterpiece. Hemingway's "The Killers," studies aninexperi- The design of an enormous spiderspreads across discovers the dark the girl regains enced and idealistic youth as he the girl's back. When in the morning In John Steinbeck's "The consciousness and asks to see thiswork of art, he power of evil in his life. Chrysanthemums;' a lonely farm wife issuddenly tells her to take a bath first tobring out the colors. that she needs to is that of an possessed by powerful feelings The look on her face as she emerges by a man who has experienced woman rather than thatof the inno- hide after she is disappointed manipulated her emotions. M L cent girl of the day before.She announces that she

TAIMIZA111 Zumcwino.THE THIEF. Japan Translated by H. Hibbett. World Writers Today. Glenview,IL: ScottForesman, 1995.

As it happens, the narrator isthe thief. He is Author: See TATTOO. caught stealing checks fromanother roommate, from the beginning. Story: The narrator, huddling over acandle with Ilirata, who has disliked him The episode ends with the narratortelling the two his three roommates at a collegepreparatory guard! You two in the dormitory. trusting roommates,"So be on your school, hears about recent thefts made friends with a thief becauseof your gullibility. Recause the thief was seen in ajacket with a wiste- You're likely to run into troublewhen you go out ria emblem, which happens tobe his family crest, better grades in around him. Both into the world. Maybe you get he begins to sense the suspicion school, but Hirata is a better man.You can't fool his lack of ease and the gulfbetween him and oth- Hirata!" ers grow until one roommate,a good friend, con- testimony to despite what the rest The story ends with the narrator's fesses his trust in the narrator the reader that the entire accountis true, but per- of the school thinks.


haps the reader cannot believe him unless the read- comes between the two is similar to that er happens to belong to the thief's "own depicted species:' by R. K. Narayan as he retellsan old Hindu myth in THE MIRROR. Comparison: The aura of doubt created when In suggesting that the thief isa special species, one person suspects another can leadto many psy- with a point of view that is perfectly chological and actual natural to the consequences. In the Greek thief, Tanizaki draws attention myth of Cephalus and Procris, told to a perspective that by Ovid in The is at odds with what might beconsidered the norm Metamorphoses, the goddess Aurora leadsCephalus in society. In the same way, the Russian to doubt his wife, Procris. Although writer Gogol Procris is and the Chinese writer Lu Xuncreate the perspec- unquestionably faithful to him, his doubt ofher tive of the madman in stories by the engenders her suspicion of him. The same title, division that DIARY OF A MADMAN. M L

TAYLOR, APIRANA.THE CARVING. New Zealand Maori He Rau Aroba: A Hundred Leaves of Love. Auckland, NewZealand: Penguin, 1986. Author: Born in Wellington, New.Zealand, Story: The act of carving is sacred forthe Maori, Apirana Taylor (1955-), Maoriwriter, is descend- ed from Te Whanau-a-Apanui, who are well known for their workin this art form. Ngati Porou, and Willy Paraha, a laborer, spends hisspare time carv- Taranaki. He spent some of hischildhood in ing figures. Before starting . He was educated at Te a figure, he makes a spiri- Aute College and tual connection with the piece ofwood:"he'd seen Massey University. Over theyears, he has been a hidden in the Kahikatea the shapethat was this feel- laborer, journalist, carpenter, fisherman,and actor. ing." The figure he is working He is a member of the Te Ohu Whakaari, on begins to take a a Maori militant stance, with upraised arm,"gapingmouth theater that dramatizes myths,songs, poetry, and with a flicking tongue that stuck street theater and also presents significant out and curved," pro- the Maori representation ofwar. The figure, named ductions by Maori authors. He hasbeen described Te Toa, also has in his eyes "the as a stunning actor. Taylor's poetry has been strong warmth of a man who loved." To complete this figure, Parahatat- anthologized in The Penguin Bookof New toos the wooden man in imitation of theancient Zealand Verse (1985), Eyes of theRuru (1979), Maori tradition of decorating bodies withspirals. and Three Shades (1981). His shortstories are col- lected in He Rau Aroha (1986), "Willy did not realize it but somethingin the figure which was run- made the carving look like him:' ler-up in the Pegasus Book Awards, and Ki Te Ao Months go by, and Te Toa stands behindboxes (1990). In 1993, his first novel, He TangiAroha, in the corner of Paraha's workshop. was released. A modern love story, it tells the One day, Willy tale sees on television scenes of Maori marchesto of young urban Maori. Within thiscontext are protest the loss of their land. Overcome with issues with which New Zealanders emo- are grappling: tion, he rushes to his workshop. Therehe grabs Te race, violence, and work. Taylor currentlypartici- Toa and cuts out his tongue because pates in the Writers in Schools project and the Maori lan- makes guage has almost disappeared. Then, hecuts off his audio cassettes in Maori for educationalinstitu- tions. legs because the wooden figure hasno land to stand on. Finally, he cuts off thearms, chops a hole The Maori are the indigenous peopleof New in Te Toa's stomach, and puts Zcaland and comprise less than a beer bottle in its ten percent of the mouth. Paraha moans,"Perhapsyour own weakness population. Those of European descentare called caused this, Te Toa. But that's Pakeha. not just it. Pakeha, you did this." Now that Te Toa is dead, hiscreator feels


the same way. But it is time for a new creation. without a voice is a kind of living death. This was Paraha sets out to create a "man/woman warrior of true in South Mrica and in New Zealanduntil politi- thit; day. One that could not be killed. He wanted cal movements during the last decades began mak- Me Maori to be like that." And so the cycle of cre- ing progress to correct the situation. ation and death begins again, but this time with In much of Australian Aboriginal writing, the more self-knowledge and culturalunderstanding. Land is a central, living character. Indeed, it is the umbilical cord that connects present to past and Comparison: As anyone who b- lost a homeland future. Maoris see the Land as a sacred place where or been displaced knows, the grief onefeels in this their ancestors once walked. For Paraha, then, his situation is overwhelming. The connection to the carved warrior has been displaced and literally has land that many indigenous people feel, includingthe nowhere to stand. Australian Aborigine, the African tribal member, and In Ngrigi wa Thiong'o's novel Weep Not Child, the Amerindians in Latin America, is profound.When the Giktiyfi of Kenya saw their land taken by the they lose this connection, their identity is lost. British. Just as the Maori land protestors were on a Nadine Gordimer's "Home" examines the politi- march for their rights, so too the Giknyü sought cal significance of being a black person in the for- justice. The question that the son asks the father is mer apartheid society of South Mrica.There is fear, relevant to THE CARVING: "How could these peo- betrayal, and mistrust between Nils, a Swede, and ple have let the white man occupy the land without Teresa, his "colored" wife. They have both been dis- acting?" The Africans have chosen to act and have placed from their respective lands, emotionally as gained their independence. The Maoris are continu- well as politically. To be cut off from one's heritage, ing to fight for their rights under the Treaty of to feel alienated where one lives, to believeoneself Waitangi. J s

THEovouls, KONSTADITINIOS.VILLAGE LIFE. Greece Introduction to Modern Greek Literature: AnAnthology of Fiction, Drama, and Poetry. New York: Wayne, 1969. Translated by Mary P Gianos.

Author: Konstantinos Theotokis (1872-1923) Story: Theotokis based his short storiesprimarily of the was born into a literary family onthe Ionian Island on historical events or on examinations of Zakinthos (Zante). He studied in Paris and trav- inflexible customs and morals of Greek village eled widely in Europe, returning to Zakinthos at provincials. This is, as the title indicates, a village totally the age of nineteen with his wife, the Baroness tale. The author presents characters who are Ernestine von Mallowitz. They lived at the family controlled by their jealousies, hatreds, and petty castle on the island, where he devoted himself to deceitscharacters, customs, and attitudes that writing and to translating foreign authors into have not totally disappeared from Greek villages. modern Greek. A socialist for a time, he reflected As the story begins, a landowner waits inhis matchmaker, to that view in his story "Honor and Money" (1914). remote village for an old man, a Besides his collections of short stories, Theotokis arrive with the good news that Margaro, a young wrote several novels. Among them was oneof the woman whom the landowner hasselected to be the first social novelF in Greece, Slaves and Their bride of his only son, Demetris, has accepted the Bonds (1922), pulYished a year before his deathin offer. But the news the matchmaker brings is not 1923. A realist, he wrote carefully and criticallyin good. While the family his been pleased with the demotic Greek. landowner's offer, their daughter has scorned


Demetris, even going so far as to say that heresem- fights for his revenge in an indirect, instead of bles a monkey From that moment on, the landown- direct, way. er has but one thought: how he will make Margaro Anna, the principal character of Laura Furman's and her family pay for such an insult. Although the "Watch Time Fly," has an opportunity to makeup for women in Greece are under the control of their some of the insulting treatment she has received husbands, they nevertheless carry the family honor. from her soon-to-be-ex-husband and his new Thus, the landowner knows where and howto woman. After letting the chance go by several strike. By the time he is finished, Margaro's father is times, she accepts it with some satisfaction. The cursing her, and the landowner is satisfied."She will revenge in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Cask of never be able to marry" he says."She will always live Amontillado" is of a more serious order. in sin." Theotokis has filled the story with details Two stories that center on family relationships about life in a Greek village and about Greek are Eudora Welty's "Why I Live at the PO." and Susan Orthodox Christian family relationships. Glaspell's "A Jury of Her Peers." In the Welty story,a family member who cannot tolerate the bad treat- comparison: The main character of this story ment she receives at home moves out and lives in knows that he can accomplish his goal of the building where her job is located. In the Glaspell revenge against the young woman because the story, two small-town women, wives laughed at and harsh realities of life under a severe patriarchal discounted by their husbands, learn the horrible system give him all the benefit of doubt. By con- truth about the oppressive life of one of their trast, in James Thurber's "The Catbird Seat," the friends. Without talking about it directly, and under main character, though also living in a patriarchal the clear impression that murder is sometimes justi- system, finds it necessary to get what he wants fied, they withhold evidence that might haveproven by using the techniques of powerless people. He that the friend killed her husband. E M

TOILS Toy, LEO. THE DEATH OF IIVANILYICH. Russia The Continental Edition of World Masterpieces. New York:Norton, 1986. Translated by Louise and Aylmer Maude.

Author: Leo Nikolaevich Tolstoy (1828-1910), ters, including the rearing of thirteen children, to Russian short story writer and novelist, was born at free 'Folstoy to pursue his literary endeavors. Yasnaya Po Irina, about 130 miles south of Moscow. In the 1880s, Tolstoy developed a mystical He was able to trace his ancestry back to distin- approach to Christianity that eventually separated guished nobility. Although he was an aristocrat, he him from the Orthodox church. He spoke openly sympathized with the plight of the peasants in his against religious ritual, church organization, priest- homeland. In 1847, after studying Eastern languages hood, and the evils of materialism, emphasizing the and law briefly at Kazan University, he returned to need for spiritual awareness. Moral lessons and ethi- his inherited family estate. In 1851, he entered the cal issues became the focus of his short stories. military and served in the Crimean War. Shortly THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH was written after his after his marriage to Sofya Andreyevna Bers in conversion and expresses his belief that man rvxds 1862, he wrote , a realistic historical to reform, to return to nature and the basic essen- war novel based on the Crimean War, and Anna tials. HOW MUCH LAND DOES ti MAN NEED illus- Karenina, two of the great masterpieces of Russian trates his belief that private ownership of land fiction. His wife managed the estate and family mat- engenders greed, the root of all evil. In 1861, he


freed his serfs, many of whom became suspicious in a personal God, and thus he was able to defeat of his intentions. Nevertheless, he was dedicated to and transcend death, the supreme antagonist of his teaching them and to instituting land reforms on life. He could declare finally that "Death is finished," their behalf. In 1901, he was excommunicated from but the reader recognizes the horror of carrying out the church. a revealing self-examination too late to reverse life's After a quarrel with his wife concerning the course chaos caused by his vision of reform, he left her and died alone in a stationmaster's house while on a reli- Comparison: The idea of finding happiness gious pilgrimage. Tolstoy was an important force in through human contact and in living for others is Russia at the time of its emergence from feudalism. found throughout Tolstoy's work, particularly in and in his novellas Family Story: The story begins after the death of Ivan Happiness and Master and Man. Chekhov's "A Ilyich Golovin, revealing a world in which Ilyich Dreary Story" also deals with the reminiscence of a was never a real person to anyone, nor were other man who dies realizing that he has led a spiritually people real to him. His funeral is a cliche, just as his bankrupt life. The Chekhov story, however, does not life had been. share Tolstoy's hint of an optimistic ending. A flashback illustrates that, despite the depress- The strong existential base of the story suggests ing quality of his funeral, he had lived a pleasant life. many works of literature, from Camus's The Myth of He had been a judge and always acted out of a Sisyphus to Sartre's play No Exit, in which there is sense of propriety, an "F.veryman" enjoying superfi- the need to confront death in the midst of life. The cial pleasures and concerned primarily with advanc- difference is that the existentialist insists upon ing his career. Suddenly, he was plagued by a recur- meeting the challenge without a spiritual dews ex ring pain that struck as a result of something as inachina, whereas Tolstoy finds an answer in Ivan's insignificant as fixing a curtain. He tried to ignore leap to faith. the pain, but it persisted relentlessly throughout a One is also reminded of Eliot's "The Love Song slow and painful movement toward death. of J. Alfred Prufrock" insofar as both Prufrock and During that time, he was forced to examine the Ivan come to realize that they have "measured out events of his past life. He came to recognize how [their lives] in coffee spoons." But once again, false and empty a life he had led, having been cut Tolstoy expresses a kind of romantic spirituality to off from meaningful human contact and emotion. which Eliot and many writers of the twentieth cen- He realized that only a few incidents in his child- tury do not subscribe. Tolstoy's faith in nature and hood appeared to have been truly happy. Even as he the goodness of natural humanity is far more akin to was dying, his only meaningful human contact was Thoreau's thinking than to Sartre's or Camus's. with his servant, Gerisim, whose proximity to Although there are many aspects of Edgar Allan nature and patient and simple devotion to his mas- Poe's "The Cask of Arnontillado" that are very differ- ter showed Ivan how his life should have been ent from those in Tolstoy's story, the suspense and lived. He recognized the contrast between that ideal the horrendous and chilling experience of moving and the coldness and deceit of those who surround- toward a slow and inevitable death are common ed him and pretended to care about his comfort. denominators in both stories and provide an inter- And like Everyman in the middle of the journey of esting basis for comparison and contrast. his life, finding himself confronted with disease and Boll's story MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES death, he was forced to face the reality of some- also makes a plea for spiritual values and points up thing he knew as it, his own mortality. the hypocrisy of the masses of people who have In the last moments before his death, Ivan chosen to delete God from their lives, leaving them found the light and joy of faith and an intense belief nothing in its stead. R ii M


TOLSTOY. LEO. NOW MUCH LAND DOES A NAN NEED. Russia Classics in World Literature. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1989. Translated by Louise and Aylmer Maude.

AuthorSee THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH. story "Where Love Is, God Is," Tolstoy directly incor- porates several verses from the gospel of Luke into Story:In a Russian country village, the devil over- the plot. hears a poor peasant, Pahom, boast "that if he had Pacts with the devil, such as the one in HOW plenty of land he would not fear the Devil himself" MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED, abound in folk- The devil arranges a series of opportunities for lore and literary works. In Christopher Marlowe's Pahom to obtain land, each time increasing the play Dr Faustus and Goethe's drama Faust, the amount gained. Pahom becomes more acquisitive main character enters into a contract with the devil, and keeps moving his family to new areas where he but his quest for all knowledge and experience is can obtain more rich acreage. One day, a passing more idealistic than Pahom's purely materialistic dealer advises Pahom that far away in the area aim to gain more land. roamed by the Bashkers, land is plentiful and cheap. The purpose for the pact with the devil is dif- Planning to take advantage of the simple tribesmen. ferent in Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, Pahom travels to their camp. The Bashkers agree to but the outcome is the same. Dorian too wants sell him all the land he can circle on foot in one day more than life ordinarily offers. He wants eternal for just one thousand rubles, providing he returns youth and beauty. To obtain them, he inadvertently to his starting place before sunset. Pahom's greed deals with the devil. Only with the passing of time gets the better of him, and he realizes he has and the acquisition of wisdom does he come to "grasped too much" when he has to run a long dis- know that outward appearances and other people's tance to get back to his initial spot as the day ends. opinions are not important when compared to the He reaches his goal but collapses and dies. He then benefits of leading a naturalflawed but uncornipt- receives all the land a man needs"six feet," edlife. The destruction of the devilishly defiled enough for his grave. painting, the symbol for Dorian's soul, is equivalent to Tolstoy's six-foot grave. Comparison: The theme of the evil engendered Washington Irving's short story "The Devil and by greed is common throughout world literature. Tom Walker" offers a satirical treatment on the evil The moral lesson of Tolstoy's story is similar to that of greed. In this humorous tale, the avaricious Tom in the biblical parable found in the gospel of St. Walker sells his soul to the devil In exchange for Luke about the wealthy fool who tears down his great wealth and later tries to cheat the devil of his barns to build bigger ones to store all he harvests. due but is unsuccessful. Stephen Vincent Benét's He ignores his spiritual side as he greedily amasses short story "The Devil and Daniel Webster" and the his earthly treasures, thereby remaining unprepared one-act opera based on it also portray the bargain when God comes to claim his soul. In the short with the devil in a comic manner. 51 A F


ToRGENFV, IVAN. YERNOLAY AND THE HILLER'S WIFE. Russia Sketches from a Hunter's . London: Penguin, 1990.Translated by Richard Freeborn.

Author: Born in Oryol, Ivan Turgenev (1818- Arina was devastated, and six months later she 1883) was a member of the gentry and the first asked Mr, Zverkhov for permission to marry Of Russian writer to enjoy an international reputation. course, she was again refused, but this time He was ruled by a tyrannical mother and was against Zverkhov realized the seriousness of her intentions serfdom from his youngest years. He studied in and decided to take drastic action. Arina's hair was Moscow and St.Petersburg, then traveled to Berlin, cut and she was banished to the country. where he was introduced to German Liberalism. The narrator wonders how she happened to Upon his return to Russia, he became a liberal and a become the miller's wife. He looks at her sympa- "Westernist." His fame came with his brilliant pic- thetically and asks how long she has been married. tures of peasant life. Turgenev's writings are known "Two years," she replies. Puzzled by why her master for their poetic settings, pictures of country atmos- had a change of heart and allowed her to marry the phere, the contrast between hero and heroine, and miller, he asks her how this came about. The answer heroes representing stages of the developing intelli- is simple: the miller bought her freedom on the con- gentsia during the period from 1840 to 1870. He dition that she would marry him. was so sorely disillusioned at the criticism of his "It seems that she is not well, is that so?" the Fathers and Sons that he spent the rest of his life in narrator asks of Yermolay. But Yermolay dismisses Europe, where he wrote Smoke (1867) and Virgin the question and advises that they should get some Soil (1877). His greatest work is Sportsman's sleep before the hunt the next day. Sketches or Sketches from a Hunter's Album. Comparison: The story is so rich with character Story: YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S WIFE is writ- and descriptions that it lends itself to many compar- ten in first person, as are all the stories in Sketches isons. For example, the work opens with the univer- from a Hunter's Album. The narrator sets off on a sal anticipation of the hunt. One can compare this bunting expedition with Yermolay, his hunting partner. to the boys in Ernest Hemingway's "Big The two hunters seek shelter for the night at a Two-Hearted River" or William Faulkner's descrip- miller's farm. They ask for some straw for a bed, for tion of men getting ready to hunt in "The Bear." which they will gladly pay. The miller's workman The characters in the story are typically Russian, agrees, and soon straw and hay are brought out to with little quirks like those in Anton Chekhov's The them, along with a . The miller's wife brings Cherry Orchard. Yermolay and his dog have a rela- out some milk, eggs, potatoes, and bread. The story tionship like James Thurber's character did with his then shifts to a revelation of her past. Airedale, Muggs, in "The Dog That Bit People." Both Arina Timofeyevna is about thirty, hut thin and dogs are eccentric, much like their masters, but haggard. Yet her face "still contains traces of a remark- Yermolay's Valetka possesses a remarkable sense of aLle beauty." The narrator remembers that she was loyalty He is also indifferent to everything, while once a serf belonging to Mr. Zverkhov. Luckily, she Muggs is indiscriminate in whom he chooses to nip. became his wife's chambermaid, and thus she lived in The bittersweet life of the miller's -.vife is but a the house and was taught to read and write. small part of the story. One can compare it to Alice Unfortunately, Arina fell in love with Petrushka, anoth- Walker's , except that at the end er servant of Zverkhov's. She asked permissionof her of that novel, Celie has hope and has made a life for master to marry. She was denied on the grounds that herself. The life of the miller's wife is hopeless, but, she was a chambermaid and could remain in that as the narrator insists,"You see why I feelsympathy position only as long as she was single. for her." 6


VALENIZIONLAr LIMA.I'M YOUR NORSE IN THE NIGHT. Argentina Other Weapons. : Ediciones del Norte, 1985. Translated by Deborah Bonner.

Author:.Luisa Valenzuela (1938-) was born in Story: The story is told from the point of view of Buenos Aires and has become the most translated a woman rejoining her lover,"Betó," which, she Latin American woman author. Her work includes notes, is "not his real name but one I can say out four novels and five collections of short stories and loud." They meet passionately, and the mystery sur- novellas, including Strange Things Happen Here. rounding him deepens."I poured out one question She has contributed to various magazines and after another, revealing how I never stopped think- newspapers and has written radio programs. She ing about him.`You're much better off not knowing participated in the International Writers Program at what I've been up to," he replies. As they drink the University of Iowa, received a want from the cachaca, talk, and make love, they play a Gal Costa National Arts Foundation of Argentina to research record and discuss the lyrics of one of the songs: North American literature, and has accrued many "'I'm your horse in the night: It's a saint's song... awards. She now lives primarily in the United someone in a trance saying she's the horse of the States. spirit riding her." In the hest tradition of contemporary Latin Suddenly, the phone rings, and the woman is American fiction, her prose is both critical and revo- dragged from sleep. A voice informs her that"They lutionary. Central to her criticism is the parody of found Betó dead floating down the river." Fifteen the conventions of bourgeois society and the fatu- minutes later, the police arrive to search her house. ous nature of the art of writing itself. She aims her "My real possession was a dream, and they can't critical barbs at social structures that allow poverty, deprive me of that. But their questions demand the hunger, and humiliation to exist. tangible, the kind I couldn't begin to give them. I Poking fun at the well-known adage "Absence haven't heard from him in months, he's abandoned makes the heart grow fonder" and the sacrosanct me, I hate him." They torture her, and she tells them tradition of "courtly lover for example, her nothing."I know I dreamed you last night; but if by "Cat-O-Nine-Deaths" portrays a couple who must be chance there's a bottle of cachaca and a Gal Costa far apart in order to make love to each other. When record in my house, I will them out of existence." the man begins to gyrate in a theater, seeking con- tact with his beloved, those about him join in until Comparison: The movie Official Story brought all experience universal love. to the screen the atrocity of the "Disappeared." However humorous her parodies, the revolu- Within that context, Valenzuela's story illustrates tionary element in her prose links violence and through passion the female acceptance of the male death to metamorphosis, eroticism, ritual, and myth. and through torture the male dominance of the Fertility and primordial vitality can issue forth only female. This endurance of both passion and torture from dispersion, destruction, and cataclysm. This creates the interplay between the surreal imaginary protean "becoming" evolves in characters assuming and the real. The main character can endure disguises and undergoing physical mutations. because the surreal has greater power than the Through surrealistic and dreamlike sequences real. As in a Dail or Magritte painting, or even a inside transformational realities, her eroticism infus- Cartier-Bresson photograph, the tangible, ever so es repression, to-wre, and disappearance with mys- slightly distorted or out of focus, reveals how the tical realism. A very tangible reality of authoritarian subconscious controls motives and actions. Like the power and its consequences lie within the short movie Missing, which portrays the American wife story I'M YOUR HORSE IN ME NIGHT. and father of an American "Disappeared r ANNOTATIONS

Valenzuela's depiction of a lover caught up in her to depict the "Disappeared" from a male point of beloved's ordeal captures the intensity felt by those view, while I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT personally surrounded by that atrocityjulio depicts the same situation from a female perspec- Cortizar's Manual for Manuel employs the surreal tive. --DVD

VEGA, AMA LYDIA. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN. Puerto Rico Her True-True Name: An Anthology of Women's Writing from the Caribbean.Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1990.11 insiated by Mark McCaffrey.

Author: Ana Lydia Vega (1946-), born in Puerto United States Navy. Thrust into the ship's hold, they Rico, is a prize-winning writer of fiction whose are initially grateful to hear Spanish being spoken. audience outside Latin America is growing rapidly. Butjust as "the parched lips of each of the trio She is currently professor of French and Caribbean were curving upwards into a smile ... a Puerto literature at the University of Puerto Rico, where Rican voice growled through the gloom:1f you she received her undergraduate education. She want to feed your bellies here you're going to have holds a doctorate in comparative literature from the to work, and I mean work. A gringo don't give noth- University of Provence. Vega has written film scripts, ing away. Not to his own mother: Then a black arm reviews, scholarly and critical essays, and textbooks, thrust through the crates to hand them dry clothes:' but is best known for her fiction. Named author of the year by the Casa del Auto Puertorriqueno in Comparison: CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN is a 1985, Vega has received other awards for her short political satire written with irreverent humor and a story collections Virgins and Martyrs (coauthored scathing criticism of so-called Caribbean, even with Carmen Lugo Fillipi in 1981), Cloud Cover pan-African, solidarity. It may be interpreted as an and Other Stories of Shipwreck (1982), and allegory, with the three men representing different Pasion de Historia y Otras Historias de Pasion countries, literally and figuratively adrift in a sea of (1987). uncertain political, economic, and social conditions. Vega's language is particularly exciting as she com- Story: This brief short story depicts the adven- bines colloquial tropes, classical allusion, and popu- tures and interactions of three characters from dif- lar metaphors. The opening paragraph serves as an ferent Caribbean countriesHaiti, the Dominican example:"September, the agent provocateur of hur- Republic, and Cubaas they try to make their ricanes, has declared war, filling the seas with escape by boat to the United States. Antenor, the urchins and men o'war. A suspicious breeze swells Haitian, reluctantly rescues Diogenes, a Dominican, the guayabera, makeshift sail for this makeshift ves- from shipwreck, and the two of them rescue sel. The sky is conga drum stretched tight for a Carmelo,"the restless Cuban," whom they find "bob- bembe ceremony." bing along beside the proverbial plank of the ship- Vega's story belongs in the tradition of political wrecked sailor." Unwitting comrades, the three ban- literature and invites comparison with fiction by ter, vie for the scant food and rum on board, and Franz Kafka (THE METAMORPHOSIS), Nadine imagine the better lives awaiting them in America. Gordimer ("The Termitary"), and Langston Hughes When they capsize, they are picked up by the ("Slave on the Block"). R ii S


IIIENEZISr ELIAS. MYCEDIAE. Greece Introduction to Modern Greek Literature: An Anthology of Fiction, Drama, and Poetry New York: Twayne, 1969. Translated by Mary P. Gianos.

Author:Elias Venezis, the pen name of Elias try to resolve conflicts between the demands of Mellowvenezis (1904-1973), was born in Aivali, society and their own sense of justice and freedom. Turkey, into a family that could be considered . The lands they occupied had belonged to Story:Originally published in a collection of short Greece since the days of ancient Troy. They were stories entitled Winds (1944), MYCENAE begins in lands that, according to the Greek dream called the Anatolia, Turkey. Its main character is a Greek noble- Megale (Grand) Idea, would one day be a part of a. woman.Katerina Palls, widowed right after the renewed Greek Empire. In 1922, that dream was shat- birth of her son, is determined to prepare the boy tered by what is called "The Asia Minor Disaster" or properly for manhood. To do so, she tells him not "The Catastrophe." Greeks who had settled in Turkey only about his father, but also about the gods of and Turks who had settled in Greece were uprooted Olympus and the heroes of Greece. One of the sto- and exchanged. One million Greeks and Turks died ries she often relates is about how King in the process. The eighteen-year-old Venezis was Agamemnon left Queen Klytemnestra and went arrested before he could flee Turkey and placed in a with other warriors to rescue Helen, Queen of labor battalion. His novel Number 31328, written Sparta. She tells him how the warriors had to wait after his release from captivity, is the recognized mas- and wait for a fair wind to sail to Troy, and how the terpiece of that period of Greek history. soothsayers finally told Agamemnon that a young In addition to novels, travel impressions, histo- woman must be sacrificed if they were ever to be ries, and a play, Venezis wrote numerous literary and able to Ieave. The daughter of Agamemnon and journalistic articles for Greek magazines and news- Klytemnestra, named Iphigenia, then offered herself papers. He wrote in demotic Greek and is one of as that sacrifice, and, when it was done, the winds the most widely translated of modern Greek writ- became favorable. The mother also told the boy ers. At one time, he worked as an executive with how Agamemnon, when he returned from his tri- the Bank of Greece, and he was the secretaryLadvi- umph over Troy, was murdered by his queen, who sory director of the Greek National Theater. wanted his kingdom. When her son was old Aeolian Soil and Beyond the Aegean are proba- enough, Pallis took him to Mycenae, where bly the best known of his works outside Greece. Agamemnon and Klytemnestra reigned, and to Stunning descriptions and narration, dreamlike Agamemnon's tomb. atmosphere, and a lyric quality are usually hallmarks Years later, after her son dies in "The of his works, -and, like so many twentieth-century Catastrophe: Palls revisits Agamemnon's tomb. This Greek writers, Venezis shows repeatedly a reverence time she goes into the tomb of Klytemnestra as for the landscape and the heritage of Greece. In well. There she learns another version of the legend 1939, he received the Greek National Prize in of Troy. A brutal king named Agamemnon, the story Literature. MYCENAE was published in 1944. Venezis goes, learned from travelers of the many riches of died in Athens in 1973. Along with Lilika Nakos and Troy and decided that he must have them. He sent Eli Alexiou, Venezis was a member of the for warriors to join him, but none of the ships could "Generation of the 1930s," a group of writers who sail until the wind became favorable. The soothsay- broke from ethnography, the description of manners ers told him that he must sacrifice his daughter, and morals of Greek folklore, to write about the lphigenia, to appease the gods. Agamemnon sent human being within society He is especially noted word to Klytemnestm to send their daughter to for his short stories, in which his characters often him, that he had found a suitor for her. lphigenia


was sent by her mother only to be murdered on the knowledge of the Greek culture can come from beach by her father. alternate versions. Comparisons of these two ver- Katerina Pallis hears the heartbroken screams sions can also be a springboard for research into of Klytemnestra when she learned of her daughter's how and why they came about. sacrifice, and she hears Klytemnestra's curses that MYCENAE is, on one level, a nostalgic story of filled the land. Finally, Pallis learns that Agamemnon the past and of the meaning of tradition. It may be was murdered by Klytemnestra years later not to compared with Alexander Solzhenitsyn's story inherit his kingdom, but rather in revenge for their ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH and with poems such as daughter's death. Giacomo Leopardi's "To Italy" and Alfred de Vigny's "The Sound of the Horn," which show a similar con- Comparison. The traditional rescue-Helen story cern with the past. of Troy is exceedingly well known, but if it needs On another level, MYCENAE is about Katerina's reviewing, it can be found in the play Agamemnon learning the true meaning of death through the loss by Aeschylus and in other works based on the of her son. At this level, the story compares well Iphigenia story by Goethe, Racine, Kenneth with such works as John Steinbeck's "The Gift" from Rexroth, and Walter Savage Landon Pictures of the The Red Pony, 's , remains of Mycenae, including the acropolis, Lion's Sherwood Anderson's "Death in the Woods," and GaN, and royal tombs, may be found in such books Edwin Arlington Robinson's "Reuben Bright." as George E. Mylonas's Mycenae and the Mycenaen Richard Connell, in his story "The Most Age (Princeton University Press, 1966). Dangerous Game," writes of a violence comparable The great significance of this story by Venezis is to that in MYCENAE. A man falls from a ship, swims that it presents, in a most readable form, the same to a nearby island, and receives what he at first story from an entirely different viewpoint. There is a believes to be the traditional, hospitable welcome good chance that Venezis's story comes closer to the given shipwrecked people.Very soon, however, he truth than the legend of Troy as often related. In any finds himself being hunted by his host in a life and case. the version Katerina Pallis hears in Klytemnestra's death contest. Another story of bizarre violence is tomb is well known in Greece. Those who teach the Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery" Still another strange old tales of Greece as though they were historically ritual of destruction is depicted in Graham Greene's correct can benefit from understanding that many of "The Destructors," where boys completely destroy a them were politically motivated and that a deeper man's home. E M and It S

VIERGA, PROPERTY. Italy Of Time and Place:Comparative World Literature in Translation.Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1976. Translated by D. H. Lawrence.

Author: Giovanni Verga (1840-1922) was born in with the struggle for existence of the Sicilian peas- Cataffia, Sicily. verga abandoned his university stud- ant. These stories of daily life, written in a realistic ies there to turn to journalism and the writing of style quite different from that of his earlier work, melodramatic, sentimental novels, which, while typically show people as victims of circumstances popular, are quite different from the works of what that they are powerless to change and unable even has been called his "mature" period. That period, to understand, making Verga a pioneer of verismo, beginning in 187 i, saw the writing of stories, the Italian version of naturalism. The best known of including PROPERTY in 1880, and novels dealing these mature works are the two novels The House


by the Medlar Tree (1881) and Mastro Don old, came to realize that even all the wealth he had Gesualdo (1888), which were to have formed parts acquired could not buy him renewed youth and of a trilogy dealing with the destruction of a Sicilian vigor or protect him from death."So that when they family of fishermen. The third novel, however, was told him it was time to be turning away from his never written."Cavalleria Rusticana," written as a property and thinking of his soul, he rushed out story in 1880, was recast as a play in 1884 and into the courtyard like a madman, staggering, and formed the basis of Mascagni's opera of that name. went around killing his own ducks and turkeys, hit- ting them with his stick and screaming,`You're my Story: Though like a parable in its focus on the own property, you come along with me:" Midas theme of corruption wrought by fmancial suc- cess, PROPERTY is built up of precisely observed, Comparison: In its theme of the corruption and very specific details not characteristic of parables. It isolation brought by wealth, PROPERTY can be com- opens with a lengthy description of extensive farm- pared to Dickens's A Christmas Carol, although the lands, orchards, and grazing herds of the Sicilian transformation of Scrooge at the end of that story countryside, all owned by a certain Mazzarb, who, has no counterpart here. Similarly, PROPERTY might though born a Sicilian peasant, had been taken in his be contrasted with 0. Henry's "Gift of the Magi," youth by the local baron "out of charity, naked and which shows in a comparably parable-like fashion ignorant, to work on his fields." While working, he that unselfishness rather than graspingness leads to noticed the baron's inattention to the details of the love and happiness. D. H. Lawrence's "The Rocking work on his lands and discovered how easy it was to Horse Winner" demonstrates, in a more psychologi- steal from him. Believing that "property doesn't cally complex and profound manner, the same seem- belong to those that have got it, but to those that ingly inevitable conflict between lasting happiness know how to acquire it," Mazzarô soon became sin- and love on the one hand and the single-minded gle-thinded in his acquisitiveness. As the story puts pursuit of material wealth on the other. it,"in that way Mazzarb little by little became master In its focus on the inevitable operation of mate- of all the baron's possessions." rial laws on human destiny, PROPERTY might be Although the townspeople admired his success, compared with the works of such naturalistic writ- they had become dependent on him for their living, ers as Theodore Dreiser, Frank Norris, James T. and he was a merciless taskmaster, always looking Farrell, and Richard Wright, although their focus is for a chance to acquire more wealth by demanding generally on the poor and the unsuccessful, as is more work or cheating them of what little they had. Verga's in many cases, rather than on those who Consequently, Mazzarb, with his growing wealth, succeed only to find that their success is in reality a became more and more isolated and, as he grew failure. PTM -/

VILLIERS DE L'ISLE-ADAII. THE DESIRE TO BE A NAN. France French Stories and Tales. New York: Knopf, 1954. Translated by Pierre Schneider.

Author:Villiers de L'Isle-Adarn, the pen name of where he enjoyed a bohemian lifestyle. Yet he still Comte Jean Mark Mathias Philippe de August devoted a considerable quantity of time to read- (1838-1889), was born in Saint-Brieuc, the descen- ingEdgar Allan Poe was one of his favorite dant of a long line of Breton Catholic nobility. As a authorsand to his highly poetic, elegant writing. young man, he moved from the provinces to Paris, Unfortunately, his literary efforts produced little rev-


enue, and he spent most of his adult life in penuri- not form deep emotional attachments. In Oscar ous circumstances. Reflecting his proud heritage, he Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, Sibyl Vance, a called himselfle prince ignore." Much of his work lovely, talented young actress, finds herself unable to contrasts an idealized world to stark reality His give a satisfactory performance once she has experi- plays and his fantastic tales, collected in Contes enced real passion, her love for Dorian Gray. Matthew Cruets (1883) and Nouveaux Contes Cruets (1888), Arnold's poem "The Buried Life" treats the difficulty reflect his Romanticism. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN of expressing or even knowing trie emotion. was first published in 1882 and THE TORTURE BY Chaudval's calm, deliberate plotting of an atro- HOPE in 1888. He is usually classified as a precursor cious crime resembles that of Raskolnikov in of the French symboiist movement. Dostoevski's Crime and Punishment. Yet the impoverished intellectual in this novel, believing Story: A famous tragedian, Esprit Chaudval, upon himself an amoral superman, expects to feel no reaching the age of fifty realLzs that he has never remorse. Even when his conscience eventually tor- experienced any true emotions, only feigned them ments him into confessing, he does not feel sorry as an actor. Believing that passion, emotions, and for his actions. real acts are what constitute a man, he decides to The painting Self-Portrait by Parmigianino commit a heinous crime in order to suffer remorse, could be used to illustrate the concentration on self the one emotion he believes he can experience. He that can lead to destructiveness. The subject is a sets a nuge fire that kills nearly a hundred people man's image reflected in a convexsmirror, an image and renders many families homeless. Escaping to an distorted by the shape of the glass. Chaudval poses isolated lighthouse, he hopes to be plagued b, often in front of mirrors and windows, fascinated by ghosts of regret and guilt. But "contrary to all his his appearance. hopes and expectations, his conscience" gives "him The desire to "be a man" is a central theme in no pangs." The old actor eventually dies, having felt Richard Wright's short story "Almos' a Man." The "nothing, absolutely nothingr leading character, Dave, a seventeen-year-old black teenager, has been belittled by his fellow field work- Comparison: In several works, there is a similar ers, oppressed by his white boss, and beaten by his inverse relationship between the ability of perform- father. Determined to prove himself a man that no ers to enact the passions of others and their ability to one can "run over; he buys a gun. Like Chaudval, he experience real emotion. A famous singer in the play looks unsuccessfully for objects and experiences The Tenor by Frank Wedekind is another who can- that will guarantee his manhood. -1k1AF

Illmiens DE LisLE-ADAM. THE TORTURE By HOPE. France Isaac Astmov Presents the Best Horror and Supernatural of the 19th Century. New York: Beaufort Books, 1983.

Author: See ME DESIRE TO BE A MAN. fire that he describes. That night, Abarbanel discov- ers that his cell door is unlocked. He cautiously Story: Rabbi Aser Abarbanel, imprisoned during crawls down the long, dark corridor, clinging to the the Spanish Inquisition, is tortured for over a year but wall in terror as others pass by. Finally, he reaches a refuses to adjure his faith. One evening, the Grand door that opens on a garden. As he savors his first Inquisitor announces that the next day the rabbi will glimpse of freedom, he suddenly finds himself in the be included in the auto-da-fe, a slow, painful death by clasp of the Grand Inquisitor. He then realizes that


"all the phases of this fatal evening were only a intense fear of being captured as he inches his way prearranged torture, that of HOPE." along the dark corridor. The ironic twist at the end when he realizes that his supposed escape was just Comparison: "The Legend of the Grand the ultimate torture is quite different from the res- Inquisitor" from Dostoevski's The Brothers cue of the protagonist in Poe's story. Karamazov has a similar setting and general topic. The deliberate shattering of the illusion of hope The most obvious comparison is to Edgar Allan as a form of torture can also be found in much of the Poe's "The Pit and the Pendulum; although THE Holocaust literature centering on religious persecu- TORTURE BY HOPE is much shorter. Villiers even tion. Kafka's IN THE PENAL COLONY, with its death included an epigraph from Poe's tale: "Oh, for a machine, has a comparable macabre tone. And the voice to speak!" Both protagonists are prisoners of anticipation of death is central in Sartre's THE WALL. the Spanish Inquisition who have been tortured and A fitting companion piece of art would be Edvard sentenced to death. The atmosphere of mounting Munch's painting The . This work depicts a tcrror is similar. In Poe's tale, it is due to the physical person on a bridge with his hands over his ears and dangers, especially the relentless slow descent of his mouth open, apparently screaming in anguish, the razor-sharp pendulum over the victim's shack- while two shadowy figures in the background show led body. In THE TORTURE BY HOPE, the agony is no reaction. The despair and agony expressed parallel psychological in origin, induced by the rabbi's the rabbi's feelings upon his capture. -MAF

WELLER, ARCHIE. GOING NONE. Australian Aborigine Going Home. North Sydney, : Allen & Unwin Pry, 1990.

Author: Archie Weller (1957-) is an Aboriginal of the Aboriginal writing, Us Fellas (1987). Two of his stories Bibulman people. Born in Cranbrook, he was brought were produced for film, Blackfellas from The Duy of up on a farm in southwest Western Australia. His early the Dog and Saturday Night, Saturday Morning from years were isolated until his parents divorced when he Going Home. Nidgera ("children crying softly"), which was twelve, and he went with his mother to live in East he wrote for the Melbourne Workers Theatre, examines Perth, in those days a semislum district inhabited by a Koori (Aboriginal) family's encounter with prejudice migrants, Aboriginals, and poor whites. His grandfa- while looking for work. Weller is currently working on ther's love of books inspired him. His first story, "Dead a science-fiction book that incorporates Aboriginal leg- Dingo," was published in 1977. His first novel, The Day ends, particularly Aboriginal respect for the land, the of the Dog, was published in 1981 and details the cm- old people, and humanity itself. elty and violence of Aboriginal life in inner-city Perth. Although the land has always been central to Story:Billy Woodward, who is half-Aboriginal, has Aboriginal life, urban Aboriginals have lost this pro- denied his black heritage to live in a white world found connection and, as Weller indicates, suffer the for the past five years. He is now returning home on consequences. In 1986, Weller published a collection of his twenty-first birthday He is doing so in a new car short stories in an anthology entitled Going Home, bought with proceeds from his first art exhibition. "ont of the most singular and impressive collections of Successful in the white matfs worlds of both sport contemporary stories to appear in Australia," according and painting, Woodward thinks about the past as he to Th.? Australian. This anthology was the first drives down the highway toward home. He picks book length collection of short stories published by an up Darcy Goodrich, a fellow Aboriginal, who Aboriginal writer. Weller also coedited an anthology of updates him on his family, including the fact that


Woodward's father was killed by a hit-and-run driver Likewise, in James Baldwin's "Sonny's Blues," the several years back. The fact that he didn't know this elder brother succeeds in a white world and disso- about his own family disturbs him. When the two ciates himself from his family and from his brother men stop to get liquor at a local bar and are hassled, Sonny's world of drugs and alienation and music. Woodward realizes about himself,"Yet when it comes Sonny's brother has become a teacher and sees him- down to it all, he is just a black man." It doesn't make self in a better position than Sonny, just as Billy sees any difference to the prejudiced barman that he has himself as better situated than his Aboriginal family. "made it" in the white world. All he is judged by is By accepting Sonny's music and understanding its the color of his skin. importance to his brother's identity, the narrator Billy is not recognized by his own family until begins to accept his own black heritage. In sharing Darcy introduces him. He learns that his cousin his brother's guilt, Billy too accepts his heritage. Rennie's girl is pregnant, and he listens to his mom's Both understand what it means to be judged by skin reprimand that he was too good even to return for his color and what it means to be denied a "fair go" at father's funeral. Rennie and Billy's brother Carlton go being successful. It is this realization that brings to get more liquor for a party to celebrate Billy's birth- them back from their "white" successful lives to day. The next morning, as Billy is returning from the rejoin the lives of the rest of their family. waterhole he has been visiting to rekindle memories Ann Petry's story "The Migrane Workers," set in of his father, a police van pulis up. The police accuse New York State, captures the hopelessness of African Carlton and Billy of robbing the liquor store. Billy Americans just as Weller's story captures that of knows he is innocent, but he also knows the others Australian Aborigines. In Petry's story, Pedro, the are guilty."Billy returns their gaze with the look of a truck stop owner,"decided that they were so accus- cornered dingo who does not understand how he was tomed to being pushed around that they accepted it trapped yet who knows he is about to die." Billy's as a normal part of their lives." In much the same way, going home to be with his "mob" costs him his life. Darcy Goodrich, Billy's friend, accepts that in order to be served in a white bar, he has to act servilely. When Comparison:Billy Woodward is clearly someone one of Petry's "migrane workers" jumps from the caught between two worlds: his Aboriginal heritage truck transporting him to the next job, the attendant and the white world. Must he choose in which to asks,"Where'd you come from? ... Where's your live? To be successful, he feels he must choose the home?" The "migrane worker" answers,"1 don't white world, not the world of the dilapidated know. I don't rightly know, boss: He said it apologeti- "humpies" where his Aboriginal family lives. And he cally." Woodward doesn't know, either. He's caught in succeeds in that white world, but at what price? the in-betwecn world, the shadows.-- M J s

YANEZ, NIRTA. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE. Cuba Her True-True Name: An Anthology of Women's Writing from the Caribbean. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1990. Translated by Claudette Williams.

Author: Born in Havana, Cuba, in 1947, Mirta Yitfiez Activities in the University Extension Service. She has published poems, short stories, and a novel. She published a novel,La Hora de los Mameyes,in 1983. received a degree in Spanish language and literature She has also published two short story collections: from the University of Havana in 1970 and has taught HavanaEs una Ciudad bien Grandein 1980 and Spanish-American literature:11er deep interest in cul- Todos los NegrosTomamosCafein 1976. WE tural history is illustrated by her fiction and the time BIA:KS ALL DRINK COFFEE, from the latter collec- she served as director of the Department of Cultural tion of the same name, draws on Yiiiez's experiences


as a "brigadista: a member of the brigades of young change." She mocks what she believes is her moth- Cubans who in the 1960s and 1970s did agricultural er's inexperience (in the mountains where they work. Yáriez worked on a coffee plantation in rural pick coffee, or so she has heard, she has never seen Cuba. it with her own eyes"). The daughter longs to escape from "this castle which is the protective Story: Although WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE shell of my family life" and live a life not only of is a monologue, it seems to open in the middle of a adventure, but also of political value. conversation between a mother and daughter and has in it the familiar ingredients of generational con- Comparison.- This very brief story invites com- flict complicated by the particular issues of color parison with a range of "growing-up" stories. From and political activism. The unnamed narrator, the Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger to Annie John daughter, wants to become a "brigadista: a decision by Jamaica Kincaid, teenagers in literature, as in life, her mother both opposes and fears. have decried the lack of understanding, feeling, and The fifteen-year-old's mother cites age as suffi- experience of their parents. In both of those works, cient reason for her to stay at home. In the daugh- th, voice is also that of the young persoit. Doris ter's paraphrase,"She says that I don't even know Lessing's early work provides an how to wash my own clothes." Leaving would be interesting comparison because of the difficult selfish, certain death to her grandmother, claims the political reality in which a young white girl comes mother, and the country has "so many dangers: such of age in what was Rhodesia, now . as disease. The more compelling reasons emerge, Fiction with similar themes but with a view- however, as the story unfolds. This girl is the oldest point shifted to the mother includes "Everyday Use" and, in her mother's view, spoiled child of a by Alice Walker. In that story, the mother is also seen respectable middle-class white family. The mother is as old-fashioned and unenlightened, someone who concerned that the young girl will become pregnant. cannot keep up with changing times. Though sever- Worse, she might "even fall in love with a Negro, [the al years older, the daughter, Dee, like the narrator in mother] says in a powerless rage." To this, the daugh- WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE, believes that she ter hurls a challenge to white respectability:"who understands the larger world and the political issues knows what kind of blood anyone has?" that matter more deeply than her mother ever With the young girl as narrator, the viewpoint is could. An interesting counterpoint might be Tillie hers. She is sarcastic as she recalls her mother's Olsen's "I Stand Here Ironing," because it shows the accusations and claims (e.g.,"The blood pressure of mother reflecting upon the impact her own hard life grandmothers and aunts can fall precipitously has had on her nearly grown daughter. because of a 'brigadista' who picks coffee"). But Comparisons on the basis of form might be regardless of tone, the point of departure is clear: made with other short fiction, such as "The Jilting of the daughter believes her mother lives hopelessly Granny Weatherall" by Katherine Anne Porter and far in the past. Clearly suggesting her mother's "The Waltz" by , though the themes inability to keep up, the narrator muses,"How times are dissimilar. R ii s

YIEHOSMIA. ABRAHAM B. FACING THE FOREST. Israel Three Days and the Child. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1970. Translated by Miriam Arad.

Author: Abraham B. Yehoshua (1937-), a fifth-gen- a high school teacher. Aftzr :!:3ctoral work in com- eration Jerusalemite, studied philosophy and parative literature at the Univetsi y of Paris. he was Hebrew literature at Hebrew liniversity and became appointed secretary of the World Union of Jewish


Students in Paris. His military experience included a appears before his eyes; born anew in its basic out- stint in the agricultural-military unit of the Israel lines as an abstract drawing, as all things past and Defense Forces. Married and the father of a daugh- buried. He smiles to himself, a thin smile." Arson is ter, he has published numerous works, including discovered. The smell of kerosene lingers with the short stories, novels, radio scripts, and a play. He has smell of smoke and dew. The Arab reappears, and received many literary awards. the questioning ensues, first of the fire watcher and then of the Arab. The hot day and persistent interro- Story: "Another winter lost in fog. As usual he did gation break him. He points to the Arab as the cul- nothing." This introduces a protagonist who is root- prit. As the Arab is driven away, the narrator sees in less, without conscience, self-absorbed, and living a his eyes "a gratified expression ... a sense of life of dissipation. An "eternal student" who once had achievement." There is no such sense of achieve- a bright idea or two, this man, now approaching thir- ment for the narrator. He returns to the city, to the ty, dreams only of "solitude?' He allows himself to rootlessness and apathy he left behind. become convinced that he might find solivide in sum- mer employment as a "fire watcher," a forest scout. Comparison:Israeli literature spans three themat- He is sent to one of the larger forests, where he ic periods: the Diaspora to 1948, with its optimism will be working with a laborer, an Arab. When he upon gaining statehood; 1948 to the Six DayWar, arrives, he finds the forest breathtakingly beautiful. with its pioneering idealism; and 1969 to the pre- His Arab assistant, who lives with his small daugh- sent, with its difficulty in defining its character amid ter, had his tongue cut out during the war."By one an increasingly hostile Arab populace. Becausehis of them or one of us? Does it matter?" The narrator work bridges all three periods, Yehoshua's writing tries talking to the Arab, but the man does not offers a distinct view of the emerging Israeli charac- understand Hebrew. At long last, he turns to his ter. As an example of third-period literature, FACING books, to his thesis on the subject of "The THE FOREST deals with the continuing Arab prob- Crusades." The summer grows hot. He finds concen- lem. The story illustrates an understanding of the tration difficult. By the middle of summer, he has Arab in an occupied land, just as Camus's THE covered only "the preface to a preface." Early in the GUEST perceives the plight of the native Algerian summer, when hikers started small fires, he had held captive by French conquerors. worried about the safety of the forest. By the end of Controlled by the same ennui found in T S. the summer,"he would welcome a little conflagra- Eliot's "Hollow Men," the protagonist drifts into tion, a little local tumult." his job as a fire watcher just as Conrad's Marlowe The most interesting discovery of the summer is became a fresh water sailor in Heart of Darkness. the fact that the forest he is guarding has been plant- Whereas Marlowe lied about Kurtz's final words, ed over the top of a ruined Arab village. In fact, one of the fire watcher is forced to tell the truth about the most visible ruins is that of the former home of the Arab to save the young daughter. In "Six Feet his Arab companion. The fire watcher hears rumorS of the Country" by Nadine Gnrdimer, the white that the Arab may be laying in a stock of kerosene. To overlords think nothing of lying to the black this, as to everything else, he remains indifferent. workers or even of carelessly discarding the When the nights grow longer and the desert remains of their dead. When lies are uncovered, winds mingle with rain, the fire watcher packs his the white conquerors make no attempt to rectify belongings for tomorrow's departure. The Arab has them. How to handle an indigenous captive popu- disappeared. The child sleeps. From his window, the lation, as well as how to understand its plight, is suddenly spies fire. Taking the child, leaving illustrated in a number of stories and movies, not his other possessions behind, he heads down the the least of which is Dances with Wolves. Thus, road to safety. Yehoshua presents a picture of the Occupied as At dawn, he returns to the window from which Luisa Valenzuela in I'M YOUR HORSE FOR TI iE he had watched so patiently for fire. From there, NIGHT depicts the plight of Argentina's "out of the smoke and haze, the ruined village "Disappeared?' n v


YIZHAR, S. HABAKUK. Israel Midnight Convoy and Other Stories.Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1969. Translated by Miriam Arad.

Author:S. Yizhar (1916-) belongs to the first gener- own future: "he kept his lips firmly closed and ation of Israeli writers. Born in a family of writers, he never let fall a hint about that shell hitting him out taught in secondary school, fought in the 1948 War of of a clear sky, there beside the kibbutz dining-hall, Independence, and became a member of the Knesset on the lawn?' Adding words to his music, he until 1967, when he traveled extensively abroad. weaves magic. The prophet and Goethe and the Considered the foremost writer of the Palmah period, Nazarene and even Beethoven himself move Yizhar has written short stories, novellas, and novels. among them. He conjures pictures combining his- As a romantic with a deep attachment to his native tory and fantasy and faith and mysticism. In his wild landscape, he uses complex rhetoric in the style hands, Bach's "Sonata for Unaccompanied " of Faulkner. His characters are Israeli youths torn becomes the story of humankind, moving from a between conflicting moral values within a dynamic peaceful beginning to rising terror."The holocaust situation. His stories have aroused protest because grows and spreads. ... Even nature is relentless. they suggest a controversial side to the War of There is no escape.... what wag even yesterday Independence: the consequent corruption of the vic- the image of everything good and pure and valiant tor and the vanquished. A struggle within the hero's is now exposed in all its vanity and meanness, soul recurs in all his stories, suggesting the struggle powerless to withstand the great test, the day of for the high standard of morality popularly associated trial." Years later, the narrator wonders,"Did Bach with the pioneering spirit. really write all this? Or is Bach only in brackets and is it Habakuk come to prophesy on his own and as Story: "I'm not at all certain this story won't be he played, lo, the Spirit of God was upon him?" sad," warns the narrator at the opening of From the moment of profound emotion that fol- HABAKUK. Habakuk's real name is Jedidiah, but the lows the Bach Sonata, the story draws to a quick boys call him Habakuk. The narrator is a young stu- close. All the boys become members of the dent who chances to see Habakuk carrying a violin Haganah and commanders of the Palmah, each liv- and talks him into playing the only piece of classical ing under the shadow of his own stars. The shell music with which the narrator is familiar. Habakuk falls on Habakuk. The narrator attends a Memorial leads the boy down to his bare basement room and Day service at a cemetery where the violinist lies. plays Beethoven's Violin Concerto."I was absorbed," With a somber heart, he prays that Habakuk's spirit the narrator reports,"lost in this man and his play- soars to a higher place, for the heaven he has come ing, fascinated by the very reality of notes being to know is empty."What is demanded of us here?" produced before my eyes." Habakuk further surpris- he asks Habakuk."What must we do? Where go?" In es the boy by turning astrologer, drawing a circle the end, he prays to his old friend:"Say, speak to us, and placing lines, curves, angles, and boxes within be not silent, not now, speak. Thou that seest in the it, muttering to himself the whole time."An stars, thy companions hearken to thy voice." astrologer," Habakuk calls himself."Or prophet." The boy "grew to be a regular visitor in the Comparison: Habakuk's predictions hint of the man's basementthe kingdom of music and stars." Kabala. Word and music weave psalm and history He shares his fascination with several friends, and within a cloud of mystery. Ambrose Bierce's "An they too are mesmerized by the music and Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge:' especially in its intrigued by glimpses of the future. Habakuk tells film version, Offers that same sense of two different the boys' fortunes and protects them from unfavor- time frames within a misty enigma. Whereas "An able predictions, including his knowledge of his Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" involves past and


evidence present, Julio Cortizar's NIGHT FACE UPprojects Music likewise provides the only tangible the past into the present through the use of the of a hidden reality within Luisa Valenzuela'sI'M degra- flartl forward. His story reveals youth sacrificed on YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT. Enduring the only the attar of social ritual. Unlike the reluctant partici- dation of a search, Valenzuela's narrator hears pants in both Cortázar's NIGHT FACEUP and the voice of her lover, whereas Yizhar's narrator Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery," Yizhar's young men hears the voices of his companions, whose sound it in the bond to pledge themselves to the commonweal resonates in the one who has experienced through the shared experiences of the music maker. stars. -1:YVD

ZOLA, EMILE.THE INUNDATION. France Literature of the Western World. NewYork: Macmillan, 1984. Translated by EdwardVizetelly. of the Author: Emile Zola (1840-1902) was born in Paris, cued, in a dead faint and clinging to the top but spent most of his younger years in Aix,the setting lone chimney in the region left above water, suffer, to for many of his novels and short stories. Returning to Roubieu wonders why he has been left to what once Paris at age eighteen, he worked as a literarycritic witness around him the destruction of farms. None of his and journalist before devoting his time towriting fic- were two thousand homes and loved ones are recovered, but he is shown apicture tion, mainly novels in the long Rougon-Macquart locked in series, Nana and L'Assommoir among them. The of his granddaughter and her fiancé, dead, series was intended to be similar to Balzac's even a firm embrace. He weeps. longer Human Comedy sedes. Zola's philosophyof by fiction was different from Balzac's, however, inthat Comparison: THE INUNDATION, inspired study of news of a devastating flood inthe Garonne River he took a clinical,"scientific" approach to the the humanity and nature. His interest in the effects of valley, is in many important ways comparable to Roubieu heredity, environment, and social station onthe lives Bible's Book of Job. Both Job and Louis of his characters led him away from Balzacianrealism have happiness and wealth before experiencing to literary naturalism, which he iscommonly regard- dreadful losses. Other interesting comparisons ed as having founded. His death came as theresult of include adaptations of the Book ofJob, such as Horace Kallen's The Tragedy ofjob andArchibald accidental asphyxiation. MacLeish'sf.B., both dramas. River The theme of human suffering additionallylinks Story: The richest farmer in the Garonne works, such as valley, seventy-year-old Louis Roubieu, is suddenly . THE INUNDNIION to a host of other and for the first time in his life victimizedby nature. Aeschylus's Prometheus Bound, Sophocles's Women. A flood, greater than any in his memory, comesand Oedipus Rex, and Euripides's The Trojan fields, Even works like Franz Kafka's TheTrial, Fyodor gradually destroys all that was his: first his the then his livestock, then his friends andtheir homes. Dostoevski's Crime and Punishment, and in medieval Icelandic Saga of Ifrafnkel maybe com- Eventually', the waters submerge the farmhouse suffering which he and his family live, forcing them tothe pared with THE INUNDATION for the way roof. One by one, he sees his brother and sister,his has varying causes and effects. his Louis Roubieu, at age seventy, is initiatedinto son and wife, his grandchildren, even initiation great-grandchildren taken by the flood. Hishelpless- the horrors of life. The story, in light of its defeats him, and he feels theme, may be compared with such works as ness through It all slowly Million, his prosperity had been a lie. When heis.at last res- Voltaire's , Nathaniel West's A Cool


and J. D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye, in which initi- ing, knows of no cause, and is not the progenitor of ation is a calamitous sequence of events for the hero. a new human race. Further still, Louis Roubieu can be comparedto The landscape painters of the FrenchAlftcd the Ione survivor in numerous flood myths from Sisley, Camile Pissarro, Honoré Daumier, Jean around the world. Like the other survivors, he clings Francois Millet, and Theodore Rousseaucouldpro- atop an eminence and is witness to the devastation. vide an excellent visual counterpoint to THE INUN- Unlike many of them, however, he receivesno warn- DATION. R S

ZOLA, EMILE. NAYS IMICOULIN. France The World in Literature. Rev. ed. Glenview, IL:ScottForesman, 1967.

Author: See THE INUNDATION. her; he is rich, works very little, and has parents who pamper him. What is most important, Nals is Story: M. Rostand, a wealthy attorney, ownsa flattered by the attentions of someone of such high chateau on an estate at the seashore, where the estate and is an easy conquest for Frederic. Micoulins work as caretakers and where most of the The disillusionment that causes Nais to lose her story is set.While Frederic, Rostand's son, is away at beauty is similar to that of Nana Bouilloux in college, largely wasting his parents' money gambling Colette's THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL. Class dis- and carousing, the hardworking Nals Micoulin tinctions destroy the romantic dreams of both char- becomes a very beautiful young woman. Her beauty acters. As a mainstream naturalistic story, NAYS captivates Frederic, and the two become secret MICOULIN bears close resemblance to the works of lovers. They are discovered, however, by Nis's other naturalists. The stereotyped situation wherein father, who twice tries to kill young Rostand, and by a wealthy man has sexual access to a woman of Toine, a hunchback who is Nais's colleague ina tile lower station is found in many of them: Thomas factory where she works. Micoulin is killed ina land- Hardy's Tess of the d'Urbervilles, Stephen Crane's slide above which Toine has been seen digging. Maggie:A Girl of the Streets, 's Although Frederic and Nils are now free to continue Countess , Theodore Dreiser's Sister , their love affair, the death of old Micoulin dampens and Guy de Maupassant's "Clochette," among them. Frederic's interest, and he leaves to try his luck with Nals Micoulin herself, wronged and left to a bleak city girls. Some time later, he is informed that NaIs future, invites comparison with those heroines and has lost her looks, has grown old in appearance "te a great many others, especially in the way in which way peasant girls do at a young age," and will be they cope with having been wronged: Félicité in married to Toine, the hunchback. The story ends Gustave Flaubert's A SIMPLE HEART, Antonia with Frederic, unconcerned at the news, celebrating Shimerda in Willa Cather's My Antonia, in his cutlet as "a breakfast of sunshine." Shakespeare's , in 's Alice Adams, Medea in Euripides' Comparison: While simple in outline, the story is Medea, even Cho-Cho San in Giacomo Puccini's rich in the kinds of detail favored by literary natural- Madame Butterfly. ists. Zola goes to great length to show the differ- The paintings of peasant life by Jean Francois ences in station of Mils and Frederic: she is a peas- Millet, The Gleaners among them, provide good ant who must work hard and has a father who beats visual accompaniment to NAN MICOULIN. R S

182 196

TITLE We have included the following Mdex forteachers searching for story annotations by title.See other indexes to search by country, theme, orEnglish-language source.

THE AFRICAN GRANNIE THE BET THE CALL OF LIFE by Cubena by Anton Chekhov by Knut Hamsun Panama Russia Norway ALL AT ONE POINT ME BEWITCHING OF THE AGA THE CANDIDATE by Italo Calvino by Alexandros Papadiamantis by Rodis Roufos Italy Greece Greece ANGUISH . BIRDS OF PASSAGE THE CARVING by Rashad Rushdi by Martin Andersen Nem) by Apirana Taylor New Zealand Maori Egypt Denmark ANOTHER EVENING AT THE BLANKETS THE CHASE by Alberto Moravia CLUB by Alex La Guma by Alifa Rifaat South Mrica Italy Egypt BONES ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG by Hayashi Fumiko ENTERTAINMENT by Youssef Idris by Satyajit Ray Japan Egypt India THE BOUND MAN AS ME NIGHT THE DAY by Ilse Aichinger CHILDREN by Abioseth Nicol Germany by Slawomir Mrozek Poland Sierra Leone BRIEF DIALOGUE CHILDREN OF THE SEA THE ATHEISTS MASS by Kay Cicellis by Honore de Balzac Greece by Haiti France THE BROKEN DOLL CINCI THE AUTOPSY by Lilika Nakos by Luigi Pirandello by Georg Heym Greece Italy Germany B. WORDSWORTH by V. S. Naipaul Trinidad


CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN THE DREAM OF A RIDICULOUS FRECKLES by Ana Lydia Vega MAN by Fakir Baykurt Puerto Rico by Fyodor Dostoevski Turkey Russia COCKROACHES FROM BEHIND THE VEIL by Brune Schulz END OF THE GAME by Dhu'l Nun Ayyoub Poland by Julio Cortázar Iraq Argentina THE COLT GAMES AT TWILIGHT by Mild tail Sholokhov THE ENEMY by Anita Desai Russia by V. S. Naipaul India Trinidad THE CONJURER MADE OFF THE GARDEN OF FORKING WITH THE DISH EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP PATHS by Naguib Mahfouz by Peter Abrahams by Jorge Luis Borges Egypt South Africa Argentina ME DARLING FACING THE FOREST GIRLS AT WAR by Anton Chekhov by Abraham B. Yehoshua by Chinua Achebe Russia Israel Nigeria ME DAUGHTER THE FALL GOING HOME by H. I. E. Dhlomo by Alberto Moravia by Archie Weller South Africa Italy Australian Aborigine THE DAY THE DANCERS CAME THE FATE OF A MAN LA GRANDE BRETECHE by Bienvenido N. Santos by Mikhail Sholokhov by Honoré de Balzac PhiliPpines Russia France THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH THE FATHER THE GRANDMOMER by Leo Tolstoy by Björnstjerne BjOrnson by K. Surangkhanang Russia Norway Thailand THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN FATHER AND I GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE by Villiers de L'Isle-Adam by Par Lagerkvist by Lao She France Sweden China A DEVOTED SON FATHER'S HELP THE GREAT BEYOND by Anita Desai by R. K. Narayan by Cyprian Ekwensi India India Nigeria DIARY OF A MADMAN THE FIGHTING CRICKET THE GUEST by Lu Xun by P'u Sung-Ling by Albert Camus China China France DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW A FISHER NEST HABAKUK by Thomas Mann by Henrik Pontoppidan by S. Yizhar Germany Denmark Israel THE DOCUMENT FLASHES IN THE NIGHT HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED by S. Y Agr on by Aron Tamasi by Bessie Head Israel Hungary South Africa


THE HEIR IN MY INDOLENCE LIGHTS ON THE SEA by Kiwon So by Italo Svevo by Petros Haris Korea Italy Greece HELENITSA IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING LILY by Lilika Nakos by Sigfrid Siwertz by Haldor Laxness Greece Sweden Iceland HER WARRIOR IN THE PENAL COLONY ME LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL by Jonathan Kariara by Franz Kafka by Colette Kenya Czech Republic France THE HONEST MIEF THE INUNDATION LITTLE WILLIE by Fyodor Dostoevski by Emile Zola by Nadine Gordimer Russia France South Africa A HORSE AND TWO GOATS THE JAY A MAN OF HONOR by R. K. Narayan by Kawabata Yasunari by Shaukat Siddiqi India Japan Pakistan HOW MUCH LAND DOES A THE JUDGMENT THE MAN WHO WALKED Mrtii NEED by Franz Kafka THROUGH WALLS by Leo Tolstoy Czech Republic by Marcel Aymé Russia France KABULIWALLAH HOW PORCIONCULA THE by Rabindranath Tagore THE MAN WITH THE PACKAGE MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE India by Tadeusz :Borowski Poland OFF HIS BACK ME KEY by Jorge Amado by Phi En Vd ME MAO BUTTON Brazil Vietnam by Feng Jicai A HUNGER ARTIST China THE KISS by Franz Kafka by Anton Chekhov THE MARQUISE Czech Republic Russia by George Sand I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT France THE LAST LESSON by Luisa Valenzuela by Alphonse Daudet THE MARTYR Argentina France by James Ngugi IN A GROVE Kenya THE LAUGHINGSTOCK by Akutagawa Ryimosuke by Siegfried Lenz THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Japan Germany by Es'kia Mphahlele AN INCIDENT IN THE South Africa LAZARUS GHOBASHI HOUSEHOLD by Leonid Andreyev MATRYONA'S HOME by Alifa Rifaat Russia by Alexander Solzhenitsyn Egypt Russia THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER IN GOD'S PLAINS by THE METAMORPHOSIS by Necati Cumali Poland by Franz Kafka Turkey Czech Republic


THE MIRROR NO SWEETNESS HERE THE POET by R. K. Narayan by Ama Ata Aidoo by Hermann Hesse India Ghana Germany MONUMENT THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG POONEK by Hebe Meleagrou by Milovan Djilas by Lim Beng Hap Greece Montenegro Malaysia THE MOON ON THE WATER THE OW MAN OF USUMBURA THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA by Kawabata Yasunari AND HIS MISERY by Anatole France Japan by Taban Lo Liyong France Uganda MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES PROPERTY by Heinrich Boll ON A JOURNEY by Giovanni Verga Germany by Slawomir Mrozek Italy Poland MYCENAE 'ME RETURN OF THE PRODI- by Elias Venezis ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT GAL SON Greece WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL by André Gide MORNING France MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE by Murakami Haruki by Octavio Paz THE RIGHT RAND Japan Mexico by Alexander Solzhenitsyn THE OUTLAWS Russia NAEMAWHEREABOUTS by Selma Lager lof THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE UNKNOWN Sweden by Mohammed Dib by Isak Dinesen Algeria PAPER Denmark by Catherine Lim NA.IS MICOULIN THE SCYTHE Singapore by Emile Zola by Ivo Andric France PAPER BOAT Bosnia-Herzegovina by Kundanika Kapadia THE NAME SEASIDE VILLAGE India by Aharon Megged by.0 Yong-su Israel PAPER IS MONEY Korea by Razia Fasia Ahmad THE NECKLACE SHADOW Pakistan by Guy de Maupassant by Hahn Mod-sook France THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Korea by Naguib Mahfouz THE NEW APARTMENT A SIMPLE HEART Egypt by Heinz Huber by Gustave Flaubert Germany PASTORAL France by Tommaso Lando lfi NIGHT FACE UP THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Italy by Julio Conant. by Dino Buzzati Argentina PATRIOTISM Italy by Mishima Yukio A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE NOBODY WILL LAUGH Japan by Milan Kundera by Nadine Gordimer Czech Republic THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS South Africa by Colette France 201 188 TITLE INDEX

SORROW-ACRE TRISTAN A WAY OF TALKING by Isak Dinesen by Thomas Mann by Patricia Grace Denmark Germany New Zealand Maori SUICIDES THE TWO ELENAS WE BIACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE by Cesare Pavese by Carlos Fuentes by Mirta Yaiiez Italy Mexico Cuba A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH TWO WORDS WHITE NIGHTS by Ivo Andric by Isabel Allende by Fyodor Dostoevski Bosnia-Herzegovina Chile ILAssia SUNLIGHT AN UNSOUND SLEEP A WHOLE LOAF by Galatea Saranti by Nhat-Tien by S. Y. Agnon Greece Vietnam Israel TATTOO VENGEFUL CREDITOR A WORLD ENDS by Tanizaki Junichiro by Chinua Achebe by Wolfgang Hildesheimer Japan Nigeria Germany TATUANA'S TALE THE VENUS OF ILLE YANKO THE MUSICIAN by Miguel Asturias by Prosper Mérimée by Henryk Sienkiewicz Guatemala France Poland THE TERRORIST VILLAGE LIFE YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S by Violas Sarang by Konstantinos Theotokis WIFE India Greece by Ivan Turgenev Russia THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED ME VOTER by Eli Alexiou by Chinua Achebe ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Greece Nigeria by Alexander Solzhenitsyn Russia THE THIEF THE WAGES OF GOOD by Tanizaki Junichiro by Birago Diop Japan Senegal THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN THE WALL by Maryse Conde by Jean-Paul Sartre Guadeloupe France TONIO KROGER WANTED: A TOWN WIMOUT A by Thomas Mann CRAZY Germany by Muzaffer lzgü Turkey THE TORN VEIL by Mabel Dove-Danquah WAR Ghana by Milovan Djilas Montenegro THE TORTI1RE BY HOPE by Villiers de L'Isle-Adam WAR France by Luigi Pirandello Italy

189 202 COUNTRY We have included the following index for teachers searching for story annotations by country. See other indexes to search by title, theme, or English-language source.



191 203 -/71:74.71.m.



GERMANY ICELAND Aichinger, Ilse. ME BOUND MAN Laxness, Haldor. LILY Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Hesse, Hermann. THE POET INDIA Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Huber, Heinz. ME NEW APARTMENT Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT Lenz, Siegfried. ME LAUGHINGSTOCK Narayan, R. K. FATHER'S HELP Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH


IRAQ MEXICO Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE ISRAEL MONTENEGRO Agnon, S.Y. THE DOCUMENT Agnon, S.Y. A WHOLE LOAF Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND ME SONG Megged, Aharon. THE NA ME Djilas, Milovan. WAR Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Yizhar, S. HABAKUK NEW ZEALAND MAORI Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING ITALY Taylor, Apirana. ME CARVING Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT NIGERIA Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Svevo, (tato. IN MY INDOLENCE NORWAY Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY Björnson, Björnstjerne. THE FATHER .Hamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE JAPAN Akutagawa Ryiinosuke. IN A GROVE PAKISTAN Hayashi Fumiko.. BONES Ahmad, Razia Fasih. PAPER IS MONEY Kawabata Yasunari, THE JAY Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON THE WATER Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY MO PERCENT PANAMA WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Tanizald Junichiro. TATTOO TaniZaki Junichiro. THE THIEF PHILIPPINES KENYA Santos. Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS CAME Kariarajonathan. HER WARRIOR Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR POLAND KOREA Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE PACKAGE Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Hahn Mou-sook. SHADOW Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Kiwon So. THE HEIR Schulz,13runo. COCKROACHES 0 Yong-su. SEASIDE VILLAGE Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN MALAYSIA Lim Beng Hap. POONEK


PUERTO RICO SWEDEN Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I Lagerlof, Selma. THE OUTLAWS RUSSIA Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS THAILAND Chekhov, Anton. THE BET Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A RIDICU- TRINIDAD LOUS MAN Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Naipaul, V. S. B. WORDSWORTH Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT




06 194 ENGLISH-LANGUAGE SOURCE We have included the following index for teachers searching for story annotations by English-language source. See other indexes to search by title, country, or theme.

Africa Is Thunder and Wonder New York: Scribner, Bedside Book of Famous French Stories. New 1972. York: Random House, 1945. Lo Liyong, Taban. TIlE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON AND HIS MISERY France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA Sand, George. THE MARQUISE African Rhythms:Selected Stories and Poems. New York: Washington Square Press, 1974. The Best Short Stories of Dostoevski. New York: Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE Modern Library n.d. Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF African Writing Today. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1967. By Women: An Anthology of Literature. Boston: Diop, Bimgo. THE WAGES OF GOOD Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Afro-Hispank Review May 1983. Colette. THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Catastrophe: The Strange Stories of Dino Buzzati. Anton Chekhov's Short Stories New York: Norton, London: Calder ind Boyars, 1965. 1979. Buzzati, DMo. 'ME SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING The Catch and Other Stories. Tokyo: Kodansha Arabic Writing Today New York: Three Continents, International, 1981. 1976. Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH The Charioteer: An Annual Review of Modern Asian and Pacific Short Stories. Rutland, VT: Greek Culture. No. 7-8. New York: Parnassos, Charles E. Tuttle, 1974. Greek Cultural Society of New York, 1965/66. Hahn Moo-sook. SHADOW Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Lim Beng Hap. POONEK The Charioteer: An Annual Review of Modern Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP Greek Culture. No. 9. New York: Parnassos, 0 Yong-su. SFASIDE VILIAGE Gtrek Cultural Society of New York, 1967. Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT CAME Surangkhanang, K. ME GRANDMOTHER


The Charioteer: An Annual Review of Modern Eighteen Texts: Writings by Contemporary Greek Greek Culture. No. 22-23. New York: Authors. Carr ,:lridge: Harvard University Press, Parnassos, Greek Cultural Society of New 1972. York. 1980/81. Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE The Children's Inferno:Stories of the Great Famine End of the Game and Other Stories. New York: in Greece. Hollywood, CA: Gateway Books, Random House, 1967. 1946. Cortizarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA English and Western Literature. New York: Classics in World Literature. Glenview, IL: Macmillan, 1984. ScottForesman, 1989. Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED The Eye of the Heart:Short Stories from Latin America. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1973. The Collector of Treasures. Portsmouth, NH: Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCII:JNCULA THE Heinemann, 1977. MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Cortizarjulio. END OF THE GAME The Complete Fiction of Bruno Schulz. New York: Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Walker, 1989. Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Fifty Great European Short Stories. New York: The Continental Edition of World Masterpieces. Bantam, 1971. New York: Norton, 1986. Björnson, Björnstjerne. ME FATHER Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH A Flag on the Island. London: Andre Deutsch, 1967. Continental Short Stories: The Modern Tradition. Naipaul V. S. THE ENEMY New York: Norton, 1968. Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN Flowers of Fite:Twentieth Century Korean Stories. Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986. Kiwon So. ME HEIR The Continental Short Story: An Existential Approach. New York: Odyssey Press, 1969. Form in Fiction. New York: St. ?.,iartin's Press, 1974. Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE ?OINT Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Death in Midsummer and Other Stories. New Franz Kafka: The Complete Stories. New York: York: New Directions, 1966. Schocken, 1948. Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Death in Venice and Seven Other Stories. New Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS York: Vintage Books, 1936. Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW French Stories and Tales. New York: Knopf, 1954. Mann. Thomas. TRISTAN Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN .4 Doctor's Visit:Short Stories by Anton Chekhoit New York: Bantam. 1988. French Stories/Contes Francais: 4 Bantam Dual- Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS Language Book. New York. Bantam, 1960. Balzac, Honore de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS


Friday's Thotprint and Other Stories. New York: Her True-True Name: An Anthology of Women's Viking, 1960. Writing from the Caribbean. Portsmouth, Gordimer, Nadine. arra WILLIE NH: Heinemann, 1990. Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Games at Twilight and Other Stories. London: Yaiiez, Mirta..WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Heinemann, 1978. Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT H. I. E. Dhlomo: Collected Works. New York: Raven Press, 1985. German Stories: Deutsche Novellen. New York: Dhlomo, H. I. E. ME DAUGHTER Bantam, 1946. Hesse. Hermann. THE POET Introduction to Literature:Stories. New York: Macmillan, 1963. Girls at War and Other Stories. Greenwich, CT: Sartre,Jean-Paul. THE WALL awcett, 1972. Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Introduction to Literature:Stories. 3d ed. New Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR York: Macmillan, 1980. Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Going Home. North Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin PO, 1990. Introduction to Modern Greek Literature: An Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Anthology of Fiction, Drama, and Poetry. New York: Twayne, 1969. Great German Short Stories. New York: Dell, 1960. Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Great Modern European Short Stories. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1967. Isaac Asimov Presents the Best Horror and Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Supernatural of the 19th Century. New York: Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Beaufort Books, 1983. Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. ME TORTURE BY HOPE Great Stories by Nobel Prize Winners. New York: Krik? Krak! New York: Soho Press, 1995. The Noonday Press, 1959. Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Llamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE Lagerlof, Selma. THE OUTLAWS Labyrinths. New York: New Directions, 1962. Laxness, Haldor. LILY Borges, Jorge Luis. ME GARDEN OF FORKING Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST PATHS Green Cane and Juicy Flotsam: Short Stories by Laughable Loves. New York: Knopf, 1974. Caribbean Women. New Brunswick, NJ: Kundera, Milan. NOBODY WILL LAUGH Rutgers University Press, 1991. Life and Letters Today: An International Quarterly Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHAT- of Living Literature. Winter 1936. TAN Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL Harper's Magazine January 1947. Literature of the Western World. New York: Ayme, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Macmillan, 1984. THROUGH WALLS Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Ik Rau Aroba: A llundred Leaves of Love. Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin, 1986. Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING


Literature: The Human Experience. 3d ed. New Of Time and Place:Comparative World Literature York: St. Martin's Press, 1982. in Translation. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST 1976. Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY Midnight Convoy and Other Stories. Jerusalem: Israel Universities Press, 1969. One World of Literature. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Yizhar, S. HABAKUK 1993. Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHERFABOUTS Modern African Prose. London: Heinemann, 1964. UNKNOWN Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Phfen V& ME KEY Ngugi, James. ME MARTYR Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Other Weapons. Hanover: Ediciones del Norte, 1985. Modern Arabic Short Stories. New York: Three Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN ME Continents, 1976. NIGHT Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ENTER- TAINMENT Prentice Hall Literature World Masterpieces. Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER EnglewOod Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991. ChekhoV, Anton. THE BET Modern Indian Short Stories. New Delhi: Indian Council for Cultural Relations, 1976. Reading Modern Short Stories. Glenview, IL: Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT ScottForesman, 1955. Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Modern Japanese Stories: An Anthology Rutland, VT: Charles E. Tuttle, 1980. Restless City and Christmas Gold. London: Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON ME WATER Heinemann, 1975. Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Nobel Parade. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1975. Röshomon and Other Stories by Akutagawa Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Ryanosuke. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle, 1983. Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Akutagawa Ryimosuke. IN A GROVE Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO ME MUSICIAN Russian and Eastern European Literature. Nobel Prize Library: Giorgis Seferis, Mikhail Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, 1970. Sholokhov, Hemyk Sienkiewicz, Carl Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Spitteler New York: Helvetica Press, 1971. Djilas, Milovan. WAR Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. New Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN York: Norton, 1992. Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Gide, Andre. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT SON Secret Weavers. Fredonia, NY: White Pine Press, Notes from Underground, "White Nights,"The 1992. Dream of a Ridiculous Man,"and Selections Allende, IsabeL TWO WöRDS .from "The House of the Dead." New York: New American Library, 1961. Selected Short Stories. London: Penguin, 1991. Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Tagore, Rabindranath, KABULIWALIAH RIDICULOUS MAN Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS


Selected Stories. Auckland, New Zealand: Penguin, A Soldier's Embrace:Stories. Baltimore: Penguin, 1982. 1991. Gordimer, Nadine. A SOLDIEWS EMBRACE Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING The Stone and the Violets. New York: Harcourt Selected Stories of Lu Xun. New York: Norton, Brace Jovanovich, 1971. 1977. Djilas, Milovan. THE OW MAN AND THE SONG Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Stories and Prose Poems of Alexander The Selected Stories of Siegfried Lenz. New York: Solzhenitsyn. New York: Bantam, 1972. New Directions, 1989. Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH A Selection of African Prose.Oxford: Clarendon A Story-Teller's World. London: Penguin, 1989. Press, 1964. Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. Hong Kong: 17 from Everywhere: Short Stories by World Kelly & Walsh, 1968. Authors. New York: Bantam, 1971. P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I Tales from a Greek Island. Baltimore: johns Short Fiction: A Critical Collection. 2d ed. Hopkins University Press, 1987: Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1969. Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE OF THE AGA Short Stories, African (English). Winchester, MA: The Tender Shoot and Other Stories by Colette of Faber and Faber, 1965. the Academy Goncourt. New York: Farrar, Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Straus & Cudahy, 1959. Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Short Story International April 1978. Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen. Baltimore: Penguin, 1967. Short Story International. June 1978. Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS PACKAGE Short Story International. April 1982. Three Days and the Child. Garden City, NY: Ahmad, Razia Fasih. PAPER IS MONEY Doubleday, 1970. Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Short Story International. April 1983. A Treasury of Russian Literature. New York: Megged, Aharon. THE NAME Vanguard, 1943. Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Short Story International. October 1983. Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Twenty-One Stories. New York: Schocken, 1970. Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Short Story International. February 1993. Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A lInder the Banyan Tree and Other Stories. New CRAZY York: Viking, 1985. Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS Sketches from a Hunter's Album. London: Penguin, 1990. The Venus of Me and Other Stories. London: Turgenev, Ivan. YEI1MOIAY AND THE MILLER'S Oxford University Press, 1966. WIFE Merimee, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE


A Walk in the Night and Other Stories. Evanston, World Writers Today. Glenview, IL: ScottForesman, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1967. 1995. La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL A Whole Loaf:Stories from Israel. New York: Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Vanguard Press, 1962. Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Kawabata Yasunari. THE JAY Winter's Tales. New York: Random House, 1942. Lim, Catherine. PAPER Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF WITH THE DISH The World in Literature. Rev. ed. Glenview, IL: Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PER- ScottForesman, 1967. CENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Narayan, R. K. FATHER'S HELP Zola, Emile. NAIS MICOUUN Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB A World of Great Stories. New York: Crown, 1947. Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI Dinesen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE 'HOUSEHOLD Nem:3, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHIW:

21 2 200 SUGGESTED COMPARISONS-THEMES We have included the following index to help teachers identify stories with comparablethemes. Titles of works annotated in this text are capitalized wherever they appear.

Connell, Richard. "" AGE/AGING Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Alexiou, El li. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON UNKNOWN Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Djilas, Milovan. WAR Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Joyce, James. "Clay" Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Laxness, Haldor. LILY Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Megged, Aharon. THE NAME Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR Nexo, Martin Andersen, BIRDS OF PASSAGE O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP O'Flaherty, Liam. "The Sniper" O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Weatherall" Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Steinbeck, John. "Flight" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Stuart, Jesse. "Split Cherty Tree" Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Williams, William Carlos. "The Use of Force" Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" ALIENATION/ISOLATION/LONELINESS AGGRESSION/VIOLENCE Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Akutagawa RyCinosuke. IN A GROVE Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" Alexiou, Eli, THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED


Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCIUNCULA THE MULAT- Salinger, J. D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" TO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY ME DANCERS Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" CAME Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Sienkiewicz, Henryk. ME LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER THROUGH WALLS Steinbeck,John. "The Chrysanthemums" Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Steinbeck, John. "Flight" Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Stuart, Jesse. "Split Cherry Tree" Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Thurberjames. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Chekhov, Anton. THE BET Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A RIDICU- Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." LOUS MAN Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING ME FOREST Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" ARTIST'S PLACE IN SOCIETY Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN Gordimer, Nadine. A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Hahn Moo-sook. SHADOW Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Gide, André. THE RETURN OF TFIE PRODIGAL Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" SON Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Henry, 0. "The Cop and the Anthem" Hesse, Hermann. ME POET Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" James, Henry. "The Real Thing" Joyce, James. "Araby" Joyce,James. "Araby" Joyce ,James. "Clay" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Kariarajonathan. HER WARRIOR Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Kundera, Milan. NOBODY WILL LAUGH Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Lawrence, D. H. 'The Rocking Horse Winner" Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE Laxness, Haldor. LILY Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Lenz, Siegfried. ME LAUGHINGSTOCK Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Mann, Thomas, TRISTAN CHILDHOOD/YOUTH Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Megged, Aharon. THE NAME Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Phien VC). THE KEY Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of thc !louse of Usher" Conradjoseph. "Youth" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Cortázar, Julio. END OF THE GAME


Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Henry, O. "The Gift of the Magi" London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" Joyce, James. "Araby" Narayan, R. K. FATHER 'S HELP Ligerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I O'Flaherty Liam. "The Sniper" Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Roufos, Rodis. ME CANDIDATE Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Steinbeck, John. "Flight" WIT'H THE DISH Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Updike, John. "A & P" Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Villiers de L'IsLt-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Williams, William Carlos. "The Use of Force" Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY CRIME AND PUNISHMENT Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Narayan, R. K. FATHER'S HELP Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT ME DAY Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Salinger,J. D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" Henry 0. "The Cop and the Anthem" Kafka, Franz. IN ME PENAL COLONY Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Kariam, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Steinbeck, John. "Flight" Lagerläf, Selma. ME OUTLAWS Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Lo Liyong, Taban. THE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Stuart, Jesse. "Split Cherry Tree" AND HIS MISERY Ngugi,James. THE MARTYR Tagore, RabindranatIt KABULIWALLAH O'Connor, Flannery "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Updike,John. "A & P" Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Welty Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Williams, William Carlos. "The Use of Force" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI Yifiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE HOUSEHOLD Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT COURAGE OR COWARDICE Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Ow Creek Steinbeck, John. "Flight" Bridge" Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" Conrad,Joseph. "Youth" DEATH Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Amado. Jorge. HOW PORCIONCULA THE MULAT- Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS TO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK UNKNOWN Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Bridge"


Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE ENTRAPMENT PACKAGE Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears. Idle Tears" Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Balzac, Honore de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" Bridge" Cortázarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" Djilas, Milovan. WAR Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" ENTERTAINMENT Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Jacobs, W. W "The Monkey's Paw" Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST Joyce, James. "Clay" Rifaat, Alifa, ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR WIFE Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of La Guma, Alex. BIANKETS Calaveras County" Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" EPIPHANY Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Faulkner, William. "The Bear" O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" O'Flaherty, Liam. "The Sniper" Joyce, James. "Araby" Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Updike, John. "A & P" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" ESCAPE Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny THROUGH WALLS Weatherall" Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Salinger, J. D. "A Perfect Day for Banarafish" PACKAGE Sartre, Jean-Paul. "The Wall" Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Steinbeck, John. "Flight" Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the TiFt." Gide, Andre. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL ThIstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH SON Verga, Gkwanni. PROPERTY Hawthorne, Nathaniel. ' Young Goodman Brown" Villiers de Ulsle-Adam. ME TORTURE BY HOPE


Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Poe, Edgar &Ilan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" O'Flaherm Liam. "The Sniper" Thurber,James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN ME GHOBASHI FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS HOUSEHOLD Salinger, J. D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Alexiou, Eli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Steinbeck,John. "Flight" Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Stuartjesse. "Split Cherry Tree" Björnson, Björnstjerne. ME FATHER Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Cather, Willa. "Paui's Case" Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Dhlomo, H. I. E. THE DAUGHTER Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Williams, William Carlos. "The Use of Force" Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Yaiiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS FATE OR FREE WILL Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING PACKAGE Head, Bessie. THE COLLECTOR OF TREASURES Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Henry, O. "The Cop and the Anthem" Joyce, James. "Araby" Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Joyce, James. "Clay" Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT O'Flaherty, Liam. "The Sniper" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Kariara,Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Kawabata Yasunari. THE JAY Kiwon So. THE HEIR FORGIVENESS OR REVENGE Lagerktrist, Par. FATHER AND I Diop, Birago. THE WAGES OF GOOD Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Head, Bessie. THE COLLECTOR OF TREASURES Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Megged, Aharon. THE NAME Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Nakos, Lilik. THE BROKEN DOLL Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Narayan, R. K. FAMER'S HELP Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP 217 205 TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

FRIENDSHIP Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED Twain, Mark. "The Man That Corrupted Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Hadleyburg" Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Dostoevski, Fyodor. AN HONEST THIEF GUILT AND REPENTANCE Harte, Bret. "Tennessee's Partner" Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Head, Bessie. THE COLLECTOR OF TREASURES Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT Ekwensi, Cyprian. ME GREAT BEYOND Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Lager löf, Selma. THE OUTLAWS Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Lagerla, Selma. THE OUTLAWS Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher!' Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH Phien V& ME KEY Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" GRATITUDE OR INGRATITUDE Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH ME PACKAGE HERO AND ANTI-HERO Diop, Birago. THE WAGES OF GOOD Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Bridge" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Naipaul, V S.B. WORDSWORTH Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Stuartjesse. "Split Cherry Tree' UNKNOWN Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" GREED/SELFISHNESS Henry, O. "The Cop and the Anthem" Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Kariarajonathan. HER WARRIOR Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" Chekhov, Anton. THE BEI' Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Henry, 0. "The Gift of the Magi" O'Flaherty, Liam. "The Sniper" Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE Joyce, James. "Clay" Sartrejean-Paul. ME WALL Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Steinbeck, John. "Flight" Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Lim, Catherine. PAPER Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Lo Liyong, Taban. THE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Updike, Jolm. "A & P" AND HIS MISERY Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTI IRE BY HOPE


HYPOCRISY Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Achebe, Chinua. ME VOTER Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT Grace, Pavicia. A WAY OF TALKING WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING OF Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" ME AGA James, Henry. "The Real Thing" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Kundera, Milan. NOBODY WILL LAUGH Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Liwrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE CAME Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Atuontillado" Sarang, Vilas. ME TERRORIST Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Williams, William Carlos. "The Use of Force" Thurberjames. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. ME TORTURE BY HOPE ILLUSION AND REALITY Akutagawa Ryfinosuke. IN A GROVE INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIETY Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Abrahams, Peter: EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Aichinger, Ilse. ME BOUND MAN Bridge" Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED PATHS THROUGH WALLS Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Camus, Albert. ME GUEST Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Colette. THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Corazarjulio. END OF THE GAME Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily". Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" SON Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Gordimer, Nadine. A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Henry, 0. "The Cop and thc Anthem" Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" CRAZY James, nry. "The Real Thing" James, Henry. "The Real Thing" Joyce,James. "Araby" Joyeejames. "Clay" Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON THE WATER Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Lim, Catherine. PAPER Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK


Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Lessing, Doris. "Through the Tunnel" Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" WIT'H THE DISH Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN O'Connor, Flannery "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH O'Flaherty Liam. "The Sniper" Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Phien VO. THE KEY O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN ME GHOBASHI Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" HOUSEHOLD Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Updike, John. "A & P" Steinbeck, John. "A Leader of the People" Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Zola, Emile. ME INUNDATION Stuartjesse. "Split Cherry Tree" Zola, Emile. NAIS MICOULIN Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Updike, John. "A & P" JEALOUSY Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Lola. Emile. NAIS MICOULIN Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE INITIATION/LOSS OF INNOCENCE Narayan, R. K. ME MIRROR O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" JUSTICE AND INJUSTICE' Chekhov, Anton. ME KISS Conrad,Joseph. "Youth" Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON Akutagawa Ryfmosuke. IN A GROVE Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Borowski, Tadeusz. ME MAN WIM ME UNKNOWN PACKAGE Dinesen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE Chekhov, Anton. THE BET Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Diop, Birago. 'THE WAGES OF GOOD Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Henry, 0. "The Cop and the Anthem" Joyce, James. "Araby" Jackson, Shirley. "The Lotter y" Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT Mérimee, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Stockton, Frank. "The Lady. or the Tiger"


Stuart, Jesse. "Split Cherry Tree" Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" WIFE Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Sartre, Jean-Paul. ME WALL Steinbeck,John. "The Chrysanthemums" LOSS OF HUMANITY Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR MAN AND WOMAN Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE PACKAGE. Akutagawa Rytmosuke. IN A GROVE Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCIUNCULA THE Dinesen, lsak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Djilas, Milovan. WAR Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A RIDICU- Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL LOUS MAN Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Bridge" Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Bowen, Elizabeth. "Tears, Idle Tears" Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING Huber, Heinz. ME NEW APARTMENT Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" lzgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA CRAZY Dhlomo, H. I. E. THE DAUGHTER Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Dostoevski Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Hahn Moo-sook. SHADOW Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Hamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" SkIdiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Henry 0. "The Gift of the Magi" Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY James, Henry. "The Real Thing" Villiers de L'Isle-Adarn. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN Joyce, James. "Araby" Zola, Emile. NAIS MICOULIN Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON THE WATER Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Lim Beng Hap. POONEK LOYALTY OR BETRAYAL Merimee, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Moravia, Alberto. ME CHASE Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Nakos, Lilika. ME BROKEN DOLL


Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Nexo, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE Hemingway, Ernest. "Old Man at the Bridge" O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES O'Flaherty, Liam. "The Sniper" Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING OF Weatherall" THE AGA Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Salinger, J. D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" Salinger, J. D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" Solihenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" Yizhar. S. HABAKUK Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" NATURE Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" NIGHT Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT METAMORPHOSIS/TRANSFORMATION Landon Tommaso. PASTORAL Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED 0 Yong-su. 5EASIDE VILLAGE THROUGH WALLS Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Steinbeck,John. "Flight" Henry, O. "The Cop and the Anthem" Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Calaveras County" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES OPPRESSION Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE NATIONALISM Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON Bridge" Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Borowski, Tadeusz. ME MAN WITH THE UNKNOWN PACKAGE Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Head, Bessie. THE COLLECTOR OF TREASURES Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR UNKNOWN Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN ME Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND 'THE SONG NIGHT Djilas, Milovan. WAR Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON Weller, Archie. GOING HOME


POLITICS AND THE INDIVIDUAL PRIDE Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Björnson, Björnstjerne. THE FATHER Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Colette. THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" James, Henry. "The Real Thing" POVERTY Joyce, James. "Clay" Lenz, Siegfried. 'ME LAUGHINGSTOCK Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Ahtnad, Razia Fasih. PAPER IS MONEY Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Mphahlele, Es'kia. ThE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB ENTERTAINMENT Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDINT IN THE GHOBASHI La Guma, Alex. BIANKETS HOUSEHOLD Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Nexo, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE Stuartjesse. "Split Cherry Tree" Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR Updike, John. "A & P" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO ThE MUSICIAN Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOThER RELIGION PREJUDICE Balzac, Honore de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND. Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA Asturi;P,. Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Gide, Andre. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Borowski, Tadeusz. T'HE MAN WITH THE SON PACKAGE Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Flenry, O. "The Gift of the Magi" Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Joyce,James. "Araby" Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING Joyce, James. "Clay" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Kariara,Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Lagerlof, Selma. THE OUTLAWS Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH 01: IVAN ILYICH Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Yizhar, S. I IABAKUK Williams, William Carlos. "The Ilse of Force" Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN


SACRIFICE AND SELF-SACRIFICE Borgesjorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING PATHS Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Buzzati, Dino. 1'HE SIAYING OF THE DRAGON Crane, Stephen. "The Open .Boat" Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN UNKNOWN Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A RIDICU- Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE LOUS MAN Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Henry, 0. "The Gift of the Magi" Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Joyce, James. "Clay" Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" CRAZY Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Lim, Catherine. PAPER Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI Pirandello, Luigi. WAR HOUSEHOLD Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Tolstoy. Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH Updike, John. "A & P" Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Yizhar, S. HABAKUK SEARCH FOR IDENTITY Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" SUPERSTITION/SUPERNATURAL Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING Achebe, Chinua. 'ME VOTER Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Allende, Isabel. TWO WORDS Dinesen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE Andreyev, Leonid. LA7ARUS Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Gide, Andre. 1'HE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE SON Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Webster" Joyce, James. "Araby" Dickens, Charles. "A Christmas Carol" 0 Yong-su. SEASIDE VILLAGE Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST DuMaurier, Daphne. "The Blue Lenses" Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" SEARCH FOR MEANING Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Agnon, S. Y. THE DOC( IMENT Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Lim Beng Hap. POONEK Aichinger, Ilse, THE BOUND MAN Mérimee, Prosper. THE VENI IS OF ILLE Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Bjtirnson, Biornstjerne. THE FATHER Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING OF THE AGA


Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" WAR AND ANTI-WAR P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE PACKAGE Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS SURVIVAL UNKNOWN Ahmad, Razia Fasih. PAPER IS MONEY Djilas, Miovan. WAR Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA PACKAGE Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Roufos, Rodis. ME CANDIDATE Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN UNKNOWN Tamasi, Axon. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Henry, O. "The Cop and the Anthem" Lagerkif, Selma. THE OUTLAWS WOMEN'S ROLE/PORTRAYAL OF London,Jack. "To Build a Fire" WOMEN Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA O'Flaherty, Liam. "The Sniper" Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCIONCULA THE Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun, FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING TRADITION Colette. ME LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Head, Bessie. THE COLLECTOR OF TREASURES Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Joyce, James. "Clay" Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT ME CLUB Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI Kawabata Yasunari. THE JAY HOUSEHOLD Kiwon So. THE HEIR Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH I.ao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Lim Beng Hap. POONEK Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Nhat-Tien, AN UNSOUND SLEEP Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S Steinbeek,John. "The Leader of the People" WIeE Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Zola, Emile . NAYS MICOULIN

213 225 SUGGESTED COMPARISONS-LITERARYDEVICES We have included the following index tohelp teachers identify stories that use similarliterary devices. Titles of works annotated in this text arecapitalized wherever they appear.

Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A ALLEGORY/PARABLE CRAZY Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Joyce, James. "Clay" Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE SON Laxness, Haldor. LILY Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Lenz, Siegfried. ME LAUGHINGSTOCK Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS WITH THE DISH Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Mahfouz, Naguib. ME PASHA'S DAUGHTER Ray, Satyaiit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Megged, Aharon: THE NAME Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" CHARACTER STUDY Naipaul, V. S. B. WORDSWORTH Nexo, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE Ahmad, Razia Fasih. PAPER IS MONEY Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Alexiou, El li. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED O'Connor, Flannery. "The Life You Save May Be Balzac, Honore de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Your Own" Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Catlier, Willa. "Paul's Case" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House ofUsher" Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Colette. THE LI1TLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Salinger, J. D. "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART CAME Fuentes, Carlos. ME TWO ELENAS Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME ENTERTAINMENT Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH


Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" Naipaul, V S.B. WORDSWORTH Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Phien V6. THE KEY NEED Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME DIARY/JOURNAL/LETTERS Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Stuart, Jesse. "Split Cherry Tree" Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" UNKNOWN Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S Keyes, Daniel. "Flowers for Algernon" WIFE Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Updike, John. "A & P" Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Welm Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Williams, William Carlos. "The Use of Force" FANTASY Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Agnon, S. Y THE DOCUMENT Allende, Isabel.' TWO WORDS FRAME STORY Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE THROUGH WALLS Conradjoseph. "Heart of Darkness" Buzzati, Dino. 'ME SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A RIDICU- Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" LOUS MAN Lo Liyong, Taban. THE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF AND HIS MISERY Kawabata Yasunari. THE JAY Mérimee, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING OF Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN THE AGA Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Phien V6. THE KEY Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Salingerj. D. "For Esinewith Love and Squalor" Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of FIRST PERSON Calaveras County" Ahmad, Razia Fasih. PAPER IS MONEY Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" HORROR/GOTHICISM Conradjoseph. "Heart of Darkness" Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Cortlizarjulio. END OF THE GAME Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING Kafka, Franz. IN TIIE PENAL COLONY Joycejames. "Araby" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR


Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Merimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Kundera, Milan. NOBODY WILL LAUGH Moravia, Alberto. ME CHASE Laxness, Haldor. LILY Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Lo Liyong, Taban. ME OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" AND HIS MISERY Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKIACE 'Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT Villiers de Lisle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST HUMOR Sartrejean-Paut THE WALL Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE NEED Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Villiers de L'Isle-Adam.. THE TORTURE BY HOPE THROUGH WALLS Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT LOCAL COLOR Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER ENTERTAINMENT Allende, Isabel. TWO WORDS Kundera, Milan. NOBODY WILL LAUGH Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCIONCULA THE Lenz, Siegfried. ME LAUGHINGSTOCK MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS Djilas, Milovan. WAR Nexo, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S O'Connor, Frank. "My Oedipus Complex" ENTERTAINMENT Thurberjames. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of CRAZY Calaveras County" Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." WITH THE DISH Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE IRONY Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Nem& Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE THROUGH Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Sarang, Vitas. THE TERRORIST PACKAGE Sholokhov, Mikhail. T'HE COIX Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Chekhov, Anton. THE BET Steinbeck, John. "Flight" Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON Stuartjesse. "Split Cherry Tree" Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Dhlomo, H. I. E. ME DAUGHTER Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON Calaveras County" Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Hamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE 228 2 1.7 TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

MONOLOGUE SATIRE Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES THROUGH WALLS Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON Weatherall" Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE Kundera, Milan. NOBODY WILL LAUGH Yairtez, Mina. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN MYTHOLOGY/FOLKLORE/FABLE Mahfouz, Naguib. 'ME PASHA'S DAUGHTER Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG PATHS Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Diop, Birago. THE WAGES OF GOOD Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" SLICE OF LIFE Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Cortázarjulio. END OF 'ME GAME Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" NATURE AS LITERARY DEVICE Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN NEED Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Updike, John. "A & P" Dinesen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT SURPRISE ENDING Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Gwl Creek Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Bridge" Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS 0 Yong-su. SEASIDE VILLAGE Hamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE Henry, O. "The Cop and the Anthem" Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Henry, 0. "The Gift of the Magi" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Kundera, Milan. NOBODY WILL LAUGH Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Ngur,i, James. THE MARTYR Steinbeck, John. "The Red Pony" O'Flaherty, Liam. "The Sniper" Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE


Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST UNRESOLVED ENDING Sartre,Jean-Paul. THE WALL Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Akutagawa Rytinosuke. IN A GROVE Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or tite Tiger" SURREALISM Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Aichinger, Use. THE BOUND MAN Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING PATHS Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Cortizarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT Yizhar, S. HABAKUK

SUSPENSE Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Dhlomo, H. I. E. THE DAUGHTER Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE

219 230 CROSS-REFERENCE Finally, we have compiled a comprehensive index to the annotations in Teaching the Short Story to help teachers reference comparative material from virtually any starting point. Titles of works annotated in this text are capitalized wherever they appear.


"A & P" by John Updike Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart see see Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED HOUSEHOLD Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR

Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR compared with compared with Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" I also see also see Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS compared with Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Head, Bessie. "The Collector of Treasures" compared with Achebe, Chinua. Man of the People Achebe, Chinua. Man of the People see Achebe, Chinua. No Longer at Ease Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Ekwensi, Cyprian. Jagua Nana Ibsen. Henrik. An Enemy of the People Achebe, Chinua. No Longer at Ease Soyinka, Wole. The Interpreter I see Twain, Mark. "The Man That Corrupted Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Hadleyburg"


Aeschylus. Agamemnon Ahmad, Razia. PAPER IS MONEY see compared with Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE "Hansel and Gretel" Henry, O. "The Gift of the Magi" Aeschylus. Pmmetheus Bound "Jack and the Beanstalk" see Stella (film) Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Stella Dallas (film) Aesop's Fables Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN see compared with Diop, Birago. THE WAGES OF GOOD Bacon, Francis. Lying Figure (painting) Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus ME AFRICAN GRANNIE by Cubena Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST compared with also see Wright, Richard. Black Boy Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Afterthe Fall I y Arthur Miller Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN see Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT compared with Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Selormey, Francis. The Narrow Path Against the Grain by J. K. Huysman Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret Snow" see see Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Agamemnon by Aeschylus Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER see Akutagawa Ryanosuke. IN A GROVE Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE compared with Agee, James. A Death in the Family Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR see Rose, Reginald. "" Bjornson, Björnstjerne. THE FATHER Albright, Ivan. Into the World There Came a Soul Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Called Ida (painting) Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT see compared with Colette. ME LIME BOUILLOUX GIRL Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Wolfe, Thomas. "For What Is Man?" from You compared with Can't Go Home Again Cather, Willa. "A Wagner Matinee" Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Joyce,James. "Eveline" compared with Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Everyman Mason, Bobbie Ann. "Shiloh" Ferre, Rosario. "The Youngest Doll" Olsen, Tillie. "I Stand Here Ironing" Joyce, James. Dubliners Parker, Dorothy. "The Standard of Living" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST MacLeish, Archibald. J.B.


Alice Adams by Booth Tarkington Anderson, Sherwood. "I Want to Know Why" see see Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN Mann, Thomas DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL ALL AT ONE POINT by halo Ca !vino compared with Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio Barth,John. "Night-Sea Journey" see Joyce, James. "Araby" Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Miller, Arthur. After the Fall ENTERTAINMENT Whitman, Walt. "Song of Myself" Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON ME WATER

Allende, Isabel. 'TWO WORDS Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS compared with compared with How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accent (film) Franklin, Benjamin. "The Ephemera" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Like Water for Chocolate (film) Klaus, Annette Curtis. Silver Kiss Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Aller-Retour by Marcel Aymé Shelley, Percy Bysshe. "Ozymandias" see Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE THROUGH WALLS compared with "Almos' a Man" by Richard Wright Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Maupassant, Guy de. "A Piece of String" see Sholokhov, Mikhail. ME COLT Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONKS HOME WITH THE DISH Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN also see Amado,Jorge. HOW PORCIONCUIA THE MULAT- Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH TO GUI' THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG. compared with Djilas, Milovan. WAR Thtuola, Amos. The Palm-Wine Drinkard Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Twain, Mark. "Baker's Blue-Jay Yarn" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Tamasi, Aron. HASHES IN THE NIGHT Calaveras County" Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Anderson, Sherwood. "Death in the Woods" compared with see Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART DuMaurier, Daphne. "The Blue Lenses" Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Artist of the Beautiful" Anderson, Sherwood. "The Egg" James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw see Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger"


Tamasi, Mon. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Arabian Nights also see alsee Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT "Araby" by James Joyce see ANGUISH by Rashad Rushdi Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES compared with Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Barth, John. Lost in the Funhouse Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS Browning, Robert. "" Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Dib, Mohammed. NAEMA--WHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN Animal Farm by George Orwell Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND ME SONG see Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF WITH THE DISH Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER see Moravia, Alberto. ME FALL Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Naipaul, V. S. B. WORDSWORTH Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH Arnold, Matthew. "The Buried Life" Annie John by Jamaica Kincaid see see Villiers de L'Isle-Adarn. THE DESIRE TO BE A Yifiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE MAN

ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB by Alifa Rifaat "The Artist of the Beautiful" by Nathaniel Hawthorne compared with is see Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN ME SOUTH Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Walker, Alice. The Color Purple ASHAMANJA 13ABU'S DOG by Satyajit Ray compared with The Aphrodite at Cnidos by Praxiteles (painting) Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol see King Midas folktale Mérimee, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Lim, Catherine. PAPER Apollo and Phaethon myth see As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE see Lim Beng Hap. POONEK Cortazarjullo. NIGHT FACE UP The Apparition by Gustave Moreau (painting) AS THE NIGHT ME DAY by Abioseth Nicol see compared with Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Apuleius. The Golden Ass Golding, William. Lord of the Flies see Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Li tter Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery"


Asturias, Miguel. TATUANNS TALE THE AUTOPSY by Georg Heym compared with compared with Hesse, Herman. "Piktor's Metamorphosis" Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Bridge" Ovid's Daphne and Apollo myth Géricault. Severed Heads (painting) Joyce,James. "The Dead" THE ATHEIST'S MASS by Honoré de nalzac rompared with Aymé, Marcel. Aller-Retour Conrad,Joseph. Heart of Darkness see Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Aymé, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby THROUGH WALLS Harte, Bret. "Tennessee's Partner" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Aymé, Marcel. ME MAN WHO WALKED James, Henry. Daisy Miller THROUGH WALLS Tolstoy, Leo. ME DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH compared with also see Aymé, Marcel. Aller-Retour Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" "The Auction of the Spotted Horses" by William Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Faulkner see compared with Cisneros, Sandra. House on Mango Street Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching "August 2002: Night Meeting" by Ray Bradbury God see Marshall, Paul. "Barbados" Walker, Alice. The Color Purple Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING

Bacon, Francis. lying Figure (painting) Baldwin,James. "Sonny's Blues" I see see Aichinger, Use. THE BOUND MAN Weller, Archie. GOING HOME "Baker's Blue-Jay Yarn" by Mark Twain Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS I see compared with Amado,Jorge. HOW PORCIONCULA THE Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness MULATIO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby Baldwin, James. "Previous Condition" Harte, Bret. "Tennessee's Partner" see Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN James, Henry. Daisy Miller


Tolstoy, Leo. ME DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH Barth, John. Lost in the Funhouse also see see Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Balzac, Honoré de. Cousin Bette Barth, John. "Night-Sea Journey" see see Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE "Bartleby the Scrivener" by Herman Melville compared with see Arabian Nights Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Balzac, Honoré de. Cousin Bette Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Balzac, Honoré de. Pere Goriot Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Boccaccio, Giovanni. Decameron Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales CRAZY Conradjoseph. Heart of Darkness La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS James, Henry. The Turn of the Screw Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Melville, Herman. Moby Dick Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Usher" "Battle Royal" by Ralph Ellison Balzac, Honoré de. Pere Goriot see see Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Dove-Danquah. Mabel. ME TORN VEIL Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Bambara, Toni Cade. "The Lesson" Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY see Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES compared with "Barbados" by Paul Marshall Gogol, Nikolai. "Taras Bulba" see Joyce, James. "Araby" Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND ME VEIL "The Bear" by William Faulkner "Barn Burning" by William Faulkner see a see Sholokhov, MikhaiL THE COLT Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S Mahfouz, Naguib. ME CONJURER MADE OFF WIFE WITH THE DISH Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN ME GHOBASHI "The Beast in the Jungle" by Henry James HOUSEHOLD see Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Barrie, J. M. Peter Pan a see Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Blood of the Martyrs" Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF see WITH ME DISH Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM


Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Webster" Yizhar, S. HABAKUK see The Big Glass by Marcel Duchamps (painting) Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL a see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THEPOUCH Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Kafka, Franz. IN ME PENAL COLONY NEED "Big Two-Hearted River" by Ernest Hemingway Benet, Stephen Vincent. "A Tooth for Paul Revere" see see Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH WIFE Benson, Sally. "The Overcoat" "Billy Budd" by Herman Melville see see Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS THE BET by Anton Chekhov BIRDS OF PASSAGE by Martin Andersen Nexo a compared with compared with Norris, Frank. Mc Teague Bontemps, Arna. "A Summer Tragedy" Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Björnson, Björnstjerne. ME FATHER NEED Wall Street (film) compared with Agee,James. A Death in the Family ME BEWITCHING OF THE AGA by Alexandros Djilas, Milovan. WAR Papadiamantis Guest,Judith. Ordinary People a compared with Gunther, John. Death Be Not Proud Buck, Pearl. "The Old Demon" Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour" Black Boy by Richard Wright Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper" Munro, H. H. "The Open Window" a see Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Wharton, Edith. "Roman Fever" Kariara, Jonathan. HER v 'N.RR1OR La Guma, Alex. BLANKE l'S The Bible see "The Black Cat" by Edgar Allan Poe Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN see NEED Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION RIDICULOUS MAN Bierce, Ambrose. "The Coup de Grace" BLANKETS by Alex La Guma see compared with Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Melville, Herman. "Billy Budd" Bridge" Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny see Weatherall" Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Salinger, J. D. "For Esmewith Love and Squalor" Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Wright, Richard: Black Boy


"The Blood of the Martyrs" by stephen Vincent Benét Borges, Jorge Luis. "Death and the Compass" see see Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Borges, Jorge Luis. ME GARDEN OF FORKING PATHS Blow-up (film) see Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Cortizarjulio. END OF THE GAME PATHS compared with "The Blue Lenses" by Daphne DuMaurier Borges,Jorge Luis. "Death and the Compass" in see Borges, Jorge Luis. "The Library of Babel" Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Borges, Jorge Luis. "The Lottery in Babylon" Borges, Jorge Luis. "Theme of the Traitor and the Boccaccio, Giovanni. Decameron Hero" see Ed-Din, Abu Bakr Siraj. The Book of Certainty Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Pinter, Harold. Old Times Pirandello, Luigi. Six Characters in Search of an Boll, Heinrich. "Christmas Every Day" Author see Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Borges, Jorge Luis. "The Library of Babel". see IRK Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING compared with PATHS Cage, John. 4'33 (piano composition) Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Borges, Jorge Luis. "The Lottery in Babylon" Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" see also see Borges,Jorge Luis. ME GARDEN OF FORKING Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH PATHS BONES by Hayashi Fumiko Borges,Jorge Luis. "Secret Miracle" compared with see Butters, Dorothy Gilman. "Sorrow Rides a Fast Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Horse" Borges, Jorge Luis. "Theme of the Traitor and the Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Hero" Bontemps, Arna. "A Summer Tragedy" see see Borgesjorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Nevi, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE PATHS The Book of Certainty by Abu Bakr Siraj Ed-Din Borowski, Tadeusz. ME MAN WIM THE PACKAGE see compared with Borgesjorge Luis. ME GARDEN OF FORKING Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man PATHS Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Kosinskijerzy. The Painted Bird The Book of Job Styron, William. Sophie's Choice see Wright, Richard, Native Son Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION


ME BOUND MAN by Ilse Aichinger The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoevski compared with see Bacon, Francis. Lying Figurv (painting) Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus RIDICULOUS MAN Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA m also see Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. 'ME TORTURE BY HOPE Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Browning, Robert. "My Last Duchess" Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN see Bowles, Paul. "If I Should Open My Mouth" Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH see Browning, Robert. "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST see Bowles, Paul. "You Have Left Your Lotus Pods on Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A the Bus" CRAZY see Buck, Pearl. "The Old Demon" Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS see Bradbury, Ray. "August 2002: Night Meeting" Papadiamantis, Alexandros. ME BEWITCHING see OF THE AGA Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING Buddenbrooks by Thomas Mann Bradbury, Ray. "The Fog-Horn" see see Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Heart of a Dog "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" by Stephen Crane see see Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Phiên Vö. THE KEY Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and Margarita BRIEF DIALOGUE by Kay Cicellis see compared with France, Anatole. ME PROCURATOR OF JUDEA Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" "The Buried Life" by Matthew Arnold m see ME BROKEN DOLL by Lilika Nakos Villiers de I:Isle-Adam. ME DESIRE TO BE A MAN compared with Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Bust of a Woman by (painting) Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow see Wallpaper" Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Hemingway, Ernest. "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" Butters, Dorothy Gilman. "Sorrow Rides a Fast Mansfield. Katherine. "The Garden Party" Horse" see Brontë, Emily. Wuthering Heights HaYashi Fumiko. BONES see Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING



Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON B. WORDSWORTH by V. S. Naipaul compared with compared with Crane, Stephen. "The Monster" Cisneros, Sandra. "Sally" Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Joyce, James. "Araby" Jeffers, Robinson. "Original Sin" Wordsworth's short poems Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY

Cage, John. 4'33 (piano composition) Camus, Albert. The Stranger see see Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Camus, Albert. ME GUEST Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME DREAM OF A THE CALL OF LIFE by Knut Hamsun RIDICULOUS MAN compared with Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour" THE CANDIDATE by Roufos Rodis Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT compared with compared with Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Barth, John. "Night-Sea Journey" Steinbeck,John. "The Chrysanthemums" Joyce, James. "Araby" Miller, Arthur. After the Fall Candide byLtaire Whitman, Walt. "Song of Myself" see Zola, Emile. ME INUNDATION Camus, Albert. ME GUEST compared with Canterbury Tales by Camus, Albert. The Stranger see Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Roth, Philip. "The Defender of the Faith" Lo Liyong, Taban. ME OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Sartre,Jean-Paul. ME WALL AND HIS MISERY also see Capek, Karel. War with the Newts Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Sartre, Jean-Paul. ME WALL see Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" see see Aichinger, Ilse. ME BOUND MAN Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL Tolstoy, Leo. ME DEAM OF IVAN ILYICH


THE CARVING by Apirana Taylor Cather, Willa. "A Wagner Matinee" compared with see Gordimer, Nadine. "Home" Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Thiong'o, NgfigI wa. Weep Not Child Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS CAME "The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" see by Mark Twain Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE see Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCHINCULA THE Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH muutTro GOT ME CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Phien V6. THE KEY The Castle by Franz Kafka Cephalus and Procris myth (from The see Metamorphoses by Ovid) Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT see "The Catbird Seat" by James Thurber Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF see THE CHASE by Alberto Moravia Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE compared with Catch-22 by Joseph Heller Eliot, T S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby see Hemingway, Ernest. "The Short Happy Life of Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Francis Macomber" A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger James, Henry. "The Beast in the Jungle" Lawrence, D. H. "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" see Kiwon So. THE HEIR Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales Yifiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE see Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Lo Liyong, Taban. THE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Cather, Willa. My Antonia AND HIS MISERY see Zola, Emile. NAiS MICOULIN THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ENTERTAINMENT by Youssef Idris Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" a compared with see Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Freemen, Mary Wilkins. "A Village Singer" Gordimer, Nadine. UTILE WILLIE Garland, Hamlin. "Mrs. Ripley's Trip" Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON ME SEA Hurston, Zora Neale. The Eatonville Anthology Kafka, Franz. ME JUDGMENT Jewett, Sarah Orne. "The Town Poor" Kariara,Jonathan. HER WARRIOR O'Connor, Flannery. "The Life You Save May Be Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Your Own" Ngugi,James. ME MARTYR Singer, Isaac B. "Gimpel the Fool" Welty, Eudora. "Petrified Man" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the KY


Chekhov, Anton. ME BET Gaines, Ernest. A Lesson Before Dying compared with Hayden, Robert. "Middle Passage" Norris, Frank. Mc Teague Keyes, Daniel. Flowers for Algernon Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Walker, Alice. The Color Purple NEED Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour" Wall Street (film) see Chekhov, Anton. The Cherry Orchard Hamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE see Papadiamantis, Alexandros. ME BEWITCHING Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND ME MILLER'S OF THE AGA WIFE Christ Before Pilate by Tintoretto (painting) Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING see compared with France, Anatole. ME PROCURATOR OF JUDEA Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens Garcia Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera see Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Chekhov, Anton. "" Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG see Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY Tolstoy, Leo. ME DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH "Christmas Every Day" by Heinrich Boll Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS see mi. compared with Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Joyce, James. "Araby" Updikejohn. "A & P" "A Christmas Memory" by Truman Capote also see see Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov "The Chrysanthemums" by John Steinbeck see see Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND ME MILLER'S Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE WIFE Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO

CHILDREN by Slawomir Mrozek Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE compared with compared with Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO ME MUSICIAN Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" also see CINCI by Luigi Pirandello Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN compared with Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Camus, Albert. The Stranger Crane, Stephen. "The Upturned Face" CHILDREN OF ME SEA by Edwidge Danticat Hemingway, Ernest. "The Short Happy Life of compared with Francis Macomber" Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank Wright, Richard. Native Son


also see Colette. THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL compared with Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Albright, Ivan. Into the World There Came a Soul Called Ida (painting) Cisneros, Sandra. House on Mango Street Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" a see Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun, FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN Condé, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHAITAN Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Cisneros, Sandra. "Sally" compared with see Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary Naipaul, V. S. B. WORDSWORTH Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper" Cisneros, Sandra. "Woman Hollering Creek" Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House see Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler Condé, Maryse. MREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Lessing, Doris. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" by Ernest Hemingway "The Collector of Treasures" by Bessie Head -" see a see Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE The Color Purple by Alice Walker Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS a see CAME Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND 'ME VEIL Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA "Clochette" by Guy de Maupassant Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT ME CLUB a see Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND ME MILLER'S Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE WIFE Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN THE COLT by Mikhail Sholokhov CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN by Ana Lydia Vega compared with compawd with Bierce, Ambrose. "The Coup de Grace" Gordimer, Nadine. "The Termitary" Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Hughes, Langston. "Slave on the Block" Bridge" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Djilas, Milovati. WAR Faulkner, William. "The Bear" COCKROACHES by Bruno Schulz Steinbeck,John. The Red Pony compared with also see Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Naipaul, V. S. I HE ENEMY Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN ME SOUTH also see Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Djilas, Milovan. WAR Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "The Rime of the Ancient Sholqkhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Mariner" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Tamasi, Mon. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Dinesen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE


Condé, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHATrAN C'onsuelo by George Sand compared with see Cisneros, Sandra. House on Mango Street Sznd, George. ME MARQUISE Cisneros, Sandra. "Woman Hollering Creek" Olsen, Tillie. "I Stand Here Ironing" A Cool Million by Nathaniel West Silko, Leslie Marmon. "Lullaby" see Yamamoto, Hisaye. "Seventeen Syllables" Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Confessions of Felix Krull: Confidence Man by Coover, Robert. "A Pedestrian Accident" Thomas Mann see see Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Cortizarjulio. END OF THE GAME THE CONJURER MADE OFF WITH THE DISH by compared with Naguib Mahfouz Blow-up (film) compared with Rostand, Edmund. Cyrano de Bergerac Barrie, J. M. Peter Pan Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Cortizarjulio. Manual for Manuel Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" see "Jack and the Beanstalk" Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE Joyce, James. "Araby" NIGHT Wright, Richard. "Almos' a Man" Cortazarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" compared with a see Conrad,Joseph. Heart of Darkness Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" (film) Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness Yu-Lan Fung. Histoty of Chinese Philosophy see also see .Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Cortázarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP Countess Julie by August Strindberg Kariara,Jonathan. HER WARRIOR see Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST "The Coup de Grace" by Ambrose Bierce Conrad,Joseph. "The Secret Sharer" see see Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Kawabata Yasunari. ME MOON ON THE WATER Cousin Bette by Honoré de Balzac see Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE see Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF see WITH THE DISH Phial Vö. THE KEY


Crane, Stephen. "An Episode of War" Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT ME DAY Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. ME DESIRE TO BE A see MAN Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION UNKNOWN Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Crane, Stephen. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets compared with see Wright, Richard. Black Boy Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Crane, Stephen. "The Monster" a compared with see Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Sholokhov, Mikhail. TIIE COLT Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN ME NIGHT see Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Cupid, Venus, and Vulcan by Tintoretto (painting) Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA see Crane, Stephen. "The Upturned Face" Mérimee, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE see "A Curtain of Green" by Eudora Welty Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI see Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevski Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE see Cyrano de Bergerac by Edmund Rostand Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A see RIDICULOUS MAN Cortizarjulio. THE END OF ME GAME Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF

Daisy Miller by Henry James compared with see Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank Gaines, Ernest. A Lesson Before Dying Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Hayden, Robert. "Middle Passage" Dances with Wolves (film) Keyes, Daniel. Flowers for Algernon a see Walker, Alice. The Color Purple Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Daphne and Apollo myth (from The Metamorphoses by Ovid) Dante. The Divine Comedy see see Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PER- Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF ME SEA CENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING


THE DARLING by Anton Chekhov A Death in the Family by James Agee a compared with see Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary Björnson, Björnstjerne. THE FATHER Garcia Mirquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Cholera "Death in the Woods" by Sherwood Anderson Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON a see a compared with Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Bambara, Toni Cade. "The Lesson" Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Daudet, Alphonse. "The Siege of Berlin" James, Henry. "The Pupil" Death in Venice by Thomas Mann also see see Narayan, R. K. FATHER'S HrLP Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Daudet, Alphonse. "The Siege of Berlin" THE DEAM OF IVAN ILYICH by Leo Tolstoy see a compared with Daudet, Alphonse. ME LAST LESSON Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLEC ED SILENCES Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus ME DAUGHTER by H. I. E. Dhlomo Chekhov, Anton. "A Dreary Story" a compared with Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Sophocles. Oedipus Rex Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Sartre, Jean-Paul. No Exit ME DAY ME DANCERS CAME by Bienvenido N. Tolstoy, Leo. Anna KarenMa Santos Tolstoy, Leo. Family Business compared with Tolstoy, Leo. Master and Man Cather, Willa. "A Wagner Matinee" also see Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS "Death of the Hired Man" by Robert Frost also see see Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PER- Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART CENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Death Without Burial by Jean-Paul Sartre "The Dead" by James Joyce see see Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Decameron by Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE a see "Death and the Compass" by Jorge Luis Borges BalzacMonore de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE a see "The Defender of the Faith" by Philip Roth Borges, Jorge Luis. ME GARDEN OF FORKING see PATHS Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Death Be Not Proud by John Gunther Delvaux, Paul. The Sleeping City (painting) see see Bjornson, Björnstjerne. THE FAMER Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL


Delvaux, Paul. Venus Asleep (painting) A DEVOTED SON by Anita Desai see compared with Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON also see a compared with Kawabata Yasunari. ME JAY Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Dhlomo, H. I. E. ME DAUGHTER also see compared with Kawabata Yasunari. ME JAY Sophocles. Oedipus Rex "The Diamond Lens" by Fitz-James O'Brien Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT a compared with see Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Joyce. James. "Araby" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS "Diary of a Madman" by Nikolai Gogol Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet see THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN by Villiers de L'Isle-Adam Tanizaki Junichiro. ME THIEF a compared with DIARY OF A MADMAN by Lu Xun Arnold, Matthew. "The Buried Life" s compared with Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret Snow" Parmigianino. Self-Portrait (painting) Baldwinjames. "Previous Condition" Wedekind, Frank. The Tenor Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Wilde, Oscan The Picture of Dorian Gray Coover, Robert. "A Pedestrian Accident" Wright, Richard. "Almos' a Man" also see "The Destructors" by Graham Greene Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF see The Diary of Anne Frank by Anne Frank Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES a see Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS "The Devil and Daniel Webster" by Stephen Vincent UNKNOWN Benét a compared with a see Crane, Stephen. "An Episode of War" Dove-Danquah, Mabel. ME TORN VEIL Dos Passos,John. USA Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Joyce, James. "Araby" Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Lessing, Doris. "Through the Tunnel" Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath NEED Steinbeck,John. In Dubious Battle "The Devil and Tom Walker" by Washington Irving Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol a see see Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Ekwensi, Cyprian. ME GREAT BEYOND NEED Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY


Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities also see see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Djilas, Milovan. WAR Dickinson, Emily. "There's a certain slant of light" compared with see Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Hemingway, Ernest. "Old Man at the Bridge" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Dinesen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN compared With Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "The Rime of the Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Ancient Mariner" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ME RIGHT HAND Lessing, Doris. "A Sunrise on the Veld" also see Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant" BjOrnson, BjOrnstjerne. ME FATHER Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND ME SONG compared with Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Gordimer, Nadine. "The Train from Rhodesia" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Sholokhov. Mikhail. THE COLT Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN T'HE NIGHT THE DOCUMENT by S. Y. Agnon a compared with Diop, Birago. THE WAGES OF GOOD a compared with Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Aesop's fables Wolfe, Thomas. You Can't Go Home Again Fontaine's fables Kafka's parables "The Dog That Bit People" by James Thurber see DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW by Thomas Mann Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND ME MILLER'S a compared with WIFE Anderson, Sherwood. "I Want to Know Why" BOIL FIeinrich. "Christmas Every Day" A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen Picasso, Pablo. Bust of a Woman (painting) see Updike, John. "Flight" Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS a also see Don Giovanni by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT (opera) Megged, Aharon. THE NAME see The Divine Comedy by Dante Dove-Danquah, Mabel. ME TORN VEIL see Mérimée, Prosper. ME VENUS OF ILLE Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Don Juan by Moliere Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND ME SONG see compared with Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Dos Passos,John. USA Djilas, Milovan. WAR Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" see Joyce,James. "Araby" Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" UNKNOWN


Dostoevski, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov also see a see Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Douglass, Frederick. The Life of Frederick RIDICULOUS MAN Douglass, An Autobiography France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA see Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Mphahlele, Es'kia. ME MASTER OF DOORNVLEI see Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A compared with RIDICULOUS MAN Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME HONEST THIEF Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT ME DAY Webster" Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. ME DESIRE TO BE A MAN Dante. The Divine Comedy Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME DREAM OF A RIDICULOUS Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy MAN Hollow" compared with Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Camus, Albert. The Stranger Marlowe, Christopher. Dr Faustus Dostoevski, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment (opera) Hilton, James. Lost Horizon Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS also see Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Black Cat" Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle Trumbo, Dalton. Johnny Got His Gun ME DREAM OF A RIDICULOUS MAN by Fyodor Twain, Mark. "The War Prayer" Dostoevski a compared with Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME HONEST THIEF Camus, Allert. The Stranger a compared with Dostoevski, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Hilton, James. Lost Horizon Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Black Cat" also see Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" Balzac, Honore de. ME ATHEIST'S MASS Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle Trumbo, Dalton. Johnny Got His Gun Dostoevski, Fyodor. Notes from Underground Twain, Mark. "The War Prayer" see "A Dreary Story" by Anton Chekhov Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST see Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEAM OF IVAN ILYICH a compared with Dreiser, Theodore. Sister Carrie Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" O'Brien, Fitz-James. "The Diamond Lens" see Wharton, Edith. Ethan Frome Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN


Dr Faustus by Christopher Marlowe "The Duel" by Guy de Maupassant see see Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED DuMaurier, Daphne. "The Blue Lenses" see Dubliners by Jaz les Joyce Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH see Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Durrenmatt, Friedrich. "The Tunnel" see Duchamps, Marcel. The Big Glass (painting) Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL see Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY

The Eatonville Anthology by Zora Neale Hurston Eliot, T. S. "The Hollow Men" see a see Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING rdE FOREST ENTERTAINMENT Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Ed-Din, Abu Bakr Siraj. The Book of Certainty a see see Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Borgesjorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE PATHS Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH "The Egg" by Sherwood Anderson see Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE see Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Ekwensi,Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Dove-Danquah, Mabel. ME TORN VEIL compared with Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Dove-Danquah, Mable. ME TORN VEIL Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter see Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Stevenson, Robert Louis, "Markheim" Borowski, Tadeusz. ME MAN WITH ME PACKAGE Ekwensi, Cyprian. Jagua Nana Ngugi, James. ME MARTYR see Elmer Gantry by Sinclair Lewis Achebe, Chinua. ME VOTER see Fuentes, Carlos. ME TWO ELENAS


END OF ME GAME by Julio Cortizar "An Episode of War" by Stephen Crane compared with see Blow-up (film) Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Rostand, Edmund. Cyrano de Bergerac UNKNOWN

THE ENEMY by V. S. Naipaul Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton is compared with is see Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Welty, Eudora. "Kin" Euripides. Medea Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the PO."

1111 see also see Zola, Emile. NAiS MICOULIN Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Euripides. The Trojan Women An Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen see see Zola, Emile. ME INUNDATION Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER "Eveline" by James Joyce "The Ephemera" by Benjamin Franklin in see see Alexiou, Elli. MEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS "Everyday Use" by Alice Walker EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP by Peter Abrahams insee compared with Megged, Aharon. ME NAME Camus, Albert. "The Guest" Yafiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Everyman Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" see Thurberjames. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF a also see Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE

FACING ME FOREST by Abraham B. Yehoshua THE FALL by Alberto Moravia a compared with compared with Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Anderson, Sherwood. "I Want to Know Why" Conradjoseph. Heart of Darkness Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Dances with Wolves (film) Joyce, James. "Araby" Eliot, T. S. "The Hollow Men" Miller, Arthur. After the Fall Gordimer, Nadine. "Six Feet of the Country" Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT


"The Fall of the House of Usher" by Edgar Allan Poe Faulkner, William. "The Auction of the Spotted see Horses" Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH see Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETtCHE Mahfouz, Naguib. ME PASUA'S DAUGHTER Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Merimée, Prosper. ME VENUS OF ILLE Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" see Family Business by Leo Tolstoy Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED see Mahfouz, Naguib. ME CONJURER MADE OFF Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH WITH THE DISH Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN ME GHOBASHI THE FATE OF A MAN by Mikhail Sholokhov HOUSEHOLD compared with Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness Faulkner, William. "The Bear" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" see Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Sholokhov, Mikhail. ME COLT Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MIII.FR'S also see WIFE Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Djilas, Milovan. WAR Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Colette. THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Hayashi Fumiko. BONES ME FATHER by BjOrnstjerne Björnson Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS compared with Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT ME CLUB Agee, James. A Death in the Family Faust by Johann Goethe Djilas, Milovan. WAR Guest, Judith. Ordinary People see Gunther, John. Death Be Not Proud Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Pirandello, Luigi. WAR NEED FAMER AND I by Par Lagerkvist Feng Jicai. THE MAO BUTTON compared with compared with Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" King Midas folktale Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Ferre, Rosario. "The Youngest Doll" FATHER'S HELP by R. K. Narayan see compared with Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSC.N Twain, Mark. Tom Sawyer THE FIGHTING CRICKET by P'u Sung-Ling compared with Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying Malamud, Bernard. "The Jewbird" see Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels Cortizarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP


A FISHER NEST by Henrik Pontoppidan "The Fog-HOrn" by Ray Bradbury a compared with a see Connell, Richard: "The Most Dangerous Game" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Hartley, L. P. "The Island" Fontaine's fables Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Russell, John. "The Price of the Head" see Diop, Birago. THE WAGES OF GOOD Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby "For Esméwith Love and Squalor" by 1 D.Salinger see Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS see Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS FLASHES IN THE NIGHT by Aron Tamasi "For What Is Man?" from You Can't GoHorne compared with Again by Thomas Wolfe Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE see Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN T'HE SOUTH Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME CRAZY also see The Ibuntainhead by Ayn Rand Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH see Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE 4'33 by John Cage (piano composition) Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary a see see Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING Colette. THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OFJUDEA Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS compared with Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and Margarita Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Dostoevski, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Hardy, Thomas. "God Forgotten" a compared with Tintoretto. Christ Before Pilate (painting) Anderson, Sherwood. "Death in the Woods" Frank, Anne. The Diary of Anne Frank Flaubert, Gustave. Madame 13ovary Frost, Robert. "Death of the Hired Man" a see Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF 'THESEA also see Zola, Emile. NAIS MICOULIN Frankenstein by Mary Shelley see "Flight" by John Updike Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS see Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLYSORROW Franklin, Benjamin. "The Ephemera" see Flowers for Algernon by Daniel Keyes Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS see Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA


FRECKLES by Fakir Baykurt Marshall, Paul. "Barbados" a compared with Walker, Alice. The Color Purple Gogol, Nikolai. "Taras Bulba" Frost, Robert. "Death of the Hired Man" Joyce, James. "Araby" see Freemen, Mary Wilkins. "A Village Singer" Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART a see Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Idris, Youssef. ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ENTERTAINMENT compared with Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises "Fresh Fish" by Siegfried Lenz Lewis, Sinclair. Elmer Gantry see Rand, Ayn. The Fountainhead Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS Furman, Laura. "Watch Time Fly" FROM BEHIND THE VEIL by Dhu'l Nun Ayyoub see a compared with Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Cisneros, Sandra. House on Mango Street Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God

Gaines, Ernest. A Lesson Before Dying Borges, Jorge Luis. "Theme of the Traitor and the see Hero" Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Ed-Din, Abu Bakr Siraj. The Book of Certainty Pinter, Harold. Old Times GAMES AT TWILIGHT by Anita Desai Pirandello, Luigi. Six Characters in Search of an a compared with Author Joyce, James. "Araby" "The Garden Party" by Katherine Mansfield Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS see Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL see Garland, Hamlin. "Mrs. Ripley's Trip" Chekhov, Anton. ME DARLING see 'ME GARDEN OF FORKING PAMS by Jorge Luis Idris, Youssef. 'ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Borges ENTERTAINMENT compared with Géricault. Severed Heads (painting) I3orges, Jorge Luis. "Death and the Compass" see Borgesjorge Luis. "The Library of Babel" Borges, Jorge Luis. "The Lottery in Babylon" Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY


Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Glaspell, Susan. "A Jury of Her Peers" SON a see compared with Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Greuzejean Baptiste. The Return of the The Gleaners by Jean Francois Millet (painting) Prodigal Son (painting) Joycejames. A Portrait of tbe Artist as a Young a see Man Zola, Emile. NAB MICOULIN Sullivan, Arthur. The Return of the Prodigal Son (oratorio) "God Forgotten" by Thomas Hardy Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." see Wolfe, Thomas. Look Homeward, Angel France, Anatole. ME PROCURATOR OF JUDEA also see Goethe, Johann. Faust Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT see "Gift of the Magi" by 0. Henry. Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN see NEED Ahmad, Razia. PAPER IS MONEY Gogol, Nikolai. "Diary of a Madman" Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN ME GHOBASHI see HOUSEHOLD Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY Gogol, Nikolai. "Taras Bulba" Gilbert, W. S. Pygmalion and Galatea see see Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Mérimée, Prosper. ME VENUS OF ILLE GOING HOME by Archie Weller Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper" compared with see Baldwinjames. "Sonny's Blues" Colette. ME PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Petry, Ann. "The Migrane Workers" Nakos, Lilika. ME BROKEN DOLL The Golden Ass by Apuleius Papadiamantis, Alexandros. ME BEWITCHING OF THE AGA a see Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS "Gimpel the Fool" by Isaac B. Singer "The Golden Flower Pot" by E. T. A. Hoffmann a see see Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Hesse, Hermann. ME POET ENTERTAINMENT Golding, William. Lord of the Flies GIRLS AT WAR by Chinua Achebe a see a compared with Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Head, Bessie. "The Collector of Treasures" Nicol, Abioseth. AS ME NIGHT THE DAY "The Giving Tree" by Shel Silverstein "A Ggod Man Is Hard to Find" by Flannery O'Connor see see Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE -.Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOMER


Goodbye, Columbus by Philip Roth "A Grand Day in Schissomir" by Siegfried Lenz see a see Mahfouz, Naguib. ME PASHA'S DAUGHTER Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS

Gordimer, Nadine. "Home" LA GRANDE BRETECHE by Honoré de Balzac see compared with Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Arabian Nights Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Balzac, Honoré de. Cousin Bette compared with Balzac, Honoré de. Pere Goriot Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Boccaccio, Giovanni. Decameron Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness Dove-Danquah, Mabel. ME TORN VEIL James, Henry The Turn of the Screw Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Melville, Herman. Moby Dick Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Gordimer, Nadine. "Six Feet of the Country" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of see Usher" Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST "Grandfather and Grandson" by Isaac B. Singer Gordirner, Nadine. A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE see compared with Megged, Aharon. ME NAME O'Connor, Flannery. "Revelation" THE GRANDMOTHER by K. Surangkhanang Gordimer, Nadine. "The Termitary" compared with see Hemingway, Ernest. Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Gordimer, Nadine. "The Train from Rhodesia" O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" see also see Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP Gorky, Maxim. The Lower Depths GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE by Lao She see compared with Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Apollo and Phaethon myth Gorky, Maxim. "Twenty-Six Men and a Girl" Kelley, William. "A Visit to Grandmother" see a also see Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING compared with The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart see Bradbury Ray. "August 2002: Night Meeting" Dib, Mohammed. NAEMA WHEREABOUTS Heker, Liliana. "The Stolen Party" UNKNOWN Merrick, Elliott. "Without Words"


THE GREAT BEYOND by Cyprian Ekwensi Grosz, George. Pillars of Society (painting) compared with see Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Dove-Danquah, Mable. ME TORN VEIL THE GUEST by Albert Camus Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter compared with Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Camus, Albert. The Stranger Hollow" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" Roth, Philip. "The Defender of the Faith" Sartrejean-Paul. ME WALL The Great Gatsby by E Scott Fitzgerald also see see Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Sartrejean-Paul. THE WALL Moravia, Alberto. ME CHASE Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST "The Great Stone Face" by NathanielHawthorne Guest, Judith. Ordinary People see' see Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Bjornson, BjOrnstjerne. THE FATHER Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift see see Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTEDSILENCES Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT Gunther,John. Death Be Not Proud Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE see Bjornson, Björnstjerne. ME FATHER Greuze, Jean Baptiste. The Return of theProdigal Son (painting) see Gide, André. ME RETURN OF THEPRODIGAL SON

HABAKUK by S. Yizhar Hahn Moo-sook. SHADOW IN compared with compared with Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence atOwl Creek Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PER- CENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Bridge" Cortizar, Julio. NIGHT FACE UP The Hairy Ape by 2ugene O'Neill Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE I see NIGHT Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST


Haley, Alex. Roots Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Great Stone Face" see see Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLE1 Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Hamlet by Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" see see Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Lagerlof, Selma. THE OUTLAWS Hamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE Phien VO. THE KEY a compared with Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter "Hansel and Gretel" a see see Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Ahmad, Razia. PAPER IS MONEY Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Hardy, Thomas. "God Forgotten" see Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Wakefield" France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA see Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Hardy, Thomas. Tess of the d'Urbervilles see Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN see Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL compared with Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Cr. 'her, Willa. "Paul's Case" Lagerlöf, Selma. THE OUTLAWS Gordimer, Nadine. "The Train from Rhodesia" Moravia, Alberto. ME FALL Lessing, Doris. "A Woman on a Roof" Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Harte, Bret. "Tennessee's Partner" compared with a see Butters, Dorothy Gilman. "Sorrow Rides a Fast Balzac, Honore de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Horse" Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Hartley. L. P. "The Island" see Hayden, Robert. "Middle Passage" Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST see Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA "Hautot and His Son" by Guy de Maupassant see A Hazard of New Fortunes by William Dean Howells Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE see Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Artist of the Beautiful" Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE a see Head, Bessie. "The Collector of Treasures" Andric, Ivo. SUMMER IN THE SOUTH see Achebe, Chinua. GIRLS AT WAR


Head; Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Heller, Joseph. Catch-22 compared with see Achebe, Chimia. Things Fall Apart Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Doughm, Frederick. The Life of Frederick Hemingway, Ernest. "Big Two-Hearted River" Douglass, An Autobiography Soyinka, Wole. The Lion and the Jewel see Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND ME MILLER'S The Heart of a Dog by Mikhail Bulgakov WIFE see Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS see Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad Boll, Heinrich. MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES see Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS Cortazar, Julio. NIGHT FACE UP CAME Kariarajonatt-n. HER WARRIOR Hemingway, Ernest. In Our Time Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST see Mishima Yukio. PATIUOTISM HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED by Bessie Head compared with Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart see Douglass, Frederick. The Life of Frederick Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE Douglass, An Autobiography Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Soyinka, Wole. The Lion and the Jewel Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Hedda Gabler by Henrik Ibsen Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea see see Colette. ME PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Surangkhanang, K. ME GRANDMOTHER THE HEIR by Kiwon So Hemingway, Ernest. "Old Man at the Bridge" compared with sr see Salinger,J. D. A Catcher in the Rye Djilas, Milovan. WAR Heker, Liliana. "The Stolen Party" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Short Happy Life of see Francis Macomber" Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING see Moravia, Alberto. ME CHASE HELENITSA by Lilika Nakos Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL compared with Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises Jewett, Sarah Orne. "Miss Tempy's Watchers" London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" see Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS


Henry, O. "Gift of the Magi" a also see see Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT Ahmad, Razia. PAPER IS MONEY Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Hiltonjames. Lost Horizon Rifaat. Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI a see HOUSEHOLD Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY RIDICULOUS MAN HER WARRIOR by Jonathan Kariara History of Chinese Philosophy by Yu-Lan Fung compared with a see Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Cortizarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness Hoffmann, E. T. A. "The Golden Flower Pot" Golding, William. Lord of the Flies a see Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Masque of the Red Death" Wright, Richard. Black Boy "The Hollow Men" by T. S. Eliot a see Hesse, Hermann. "Piktor's Metamorphosis" Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST see Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE "Home" by Nadine Gordimer a see Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING compared with Chekhov, Anton. ME KISS THE HONEST THIEF by Fyodor Dostoevski Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Great Stone Face" compared with Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Hoffmann, E. T. A. "The Golden Flower Pot' Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS James, Henry. "The Real Thing" Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Mann, Thomas. Joseph and His Brothers Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN is also see Moreau, Gustave. The Apparition (painting) Balzac, Honoré de. THE AMEIST'S MASS Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY A HORSE AND TWO GOATS by R. K. Narayan compared with svmpared with Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bowles, Paul. "You Have Left Your Lotus Pods on Bridge" the Bus" Gericault. Severed Heads (painting) Lenz, Siegfried. "Fresh Fish" Joyce, James. "The Dead" Lenz, Siegfried. "A Grand Day in Schissomir"

Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" by D. H. Lawrence a compared with a see Delvaux, Paul. Venus Asleep (painting) Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Grosz, George Pillars of Society (painting) Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher"


House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain see see Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Hughes, Langston. "Slave on the Block" Howells, William Dean. A Hazard of New Fortunes a see see Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Maupa.ssant, Guy de. ME NECKLACE A HUNGER ARTIST by Franz Kafka HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED by Leo compared with Tolstoy Aichinger, llse. THE BOUND MAN compared with Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel Le Guin, Ursula K. "The Ones Who Walk Away Webster" from Omelas" Goethe, Johann. Faust Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN The Gospel of St. Luke O'Neill, Eugene. The Hairy Ape Irving, Washington. "The Devil and Tom Walker" also see Marlowe, Christopher. DK Faustus Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Tolstoy, Leo. "Where Love Is, God Is" Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray Allende, Isabel. TWO WORDS a also see Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Chekhov, Anton. THE BET Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Lo Liyong, Taban. 'ME OLD MAN OF USUMBU- Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS RA AND HIS MISERY Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN HOW PORCIONCULA THE MULATTO GOT THE Hunting Sketches by Ivan Turgenev CORPSE OFF HIS BACK by Jorge Amado see compared with Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Tutuola, Amos. The Palm-Wine Drinkard Twain, Mark. "Baker's Blue-Jay Yarn" Hurston, Zora Neale. The Eatonville Anthology Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of a see Calaveras County" Idris, Youssef. ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accent (film) ENTERTAINMENT see Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching Allende, Isabel. TWO WORDS God a see Huber, Heinz. ME NEW APARTMENT Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND ME VEIL compared with Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Huysman, J. K. Against the Grain Hiklesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS see Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SOR- Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL ROW also see Megged, Aharon. THE NAME


Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House I'M YOUR HORSE IN ME NIGHT by Luisa see Valenzuela Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS compared with Cortazarjulio. Manual for Manuel Ibsen, Henrik. An Enemy of the People Missing (film) a see Official Story (film) Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER also see Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING ME FOREST a see Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS IN A GROVE by Akutagawa Ryimosuke Sand, George. THE MARQUISE compared with Ibsen, Henrik. Wild Duck Narayan, R. K. ME MIRROR Rose, Reginald. "Twelve Angry Men" see

Sand, George. THE MARQUISE . AN INCIDENT IN ME GHOBASHI HOUSEHOLD by Alifa Rifaat Icarus myth compared with see Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Henry, O. "The Gift of the Magi" Idris, Youssef. ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Ju Dou (film) Shikibu Murasaki. "The Lake Which Took People ENTERTAINMENT In" from The Tale of Genii compared with Updike, John. "A & P" Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio Freemen, Mary Wilkins. "A Village Singer" /n Dubious Battle by John Steinbeck Garland, Hamlin. "Mrs. Ripley's Trip" see Hurston, Zora Neale. The Eatonville Anthology Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Jewett, Sarah Orne. "The Town Poor" UNKNOWN O'Connor, Flannery. "The Life You Save May Be Your Own" "The Infant Prodigy" by Thomas Mann Singer, Isaac B. "Gimpcl the Fool" see Welty, Eudora. "Petrified Man" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO ME MUSICIAN Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the PO." IN GOD'S PLAINS by Necati Cumali "If I Should Open My Mouth" by Paul Bowles compared with see Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein Sarang, Vilas. ME TERRORIST Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT "I'm a Fool" by Si terwood Anderson Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT see Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE


IN MY INDOLENCE by Svevo Italo Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison compared with see Joycejames. "The Dead" Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Lawrence, D. H. "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Welty, Eudora. "A Curtain of Green" PACKAGE Ngugi, James.. THE MARTYR /n Our Time by Ernest Hemingway see Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM see Ayme, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING by Sigfrid Siwertz THROUGH WALLS compared with Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Brontë, Emily. Wuthering Heights Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Maugham, Somerset. Of Human Bondage Irving, Washington. "The Devil and Tom Walker" The Interpreter by Wole Soyinka m see m see Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER NEED IN THE PENAL COLONY by Franz Kafka Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" compared with see Duchamps, Marcel. The Big Glass (painting) Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS also see Irving, Washington. "Rip Van Winkle" Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH ME see PACKAGE Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE "The Island" by D. H. Lawrence see Into the World There Came a Soul Called Ida by Ivan Albright (painting) Sienkiewicz, Henryk. ThE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER see "The Island" by L. P. Hartley Colette. ME LITI'LE BOUILLOUX GIRL see THE INUNDATION by Emile Zola Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST compared with "I Stand Here Ironing" by Tillie Olsen Aeschylus. Prometheus Bound see The Book of Job Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Euripides. The Trojan Women Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHAT- ICafka, Franz. The Trial TAN Kallen, Horace. The Tragedy of job Yafiez, Mina. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COI-TEE MacLeish, Archibald. J. B. "I Want to Know Why" by Sherwood Anderson Saga of Hrafnkel Salinger, J. D. A Catcher in the Rye see Sophocles. Oedipus Rex Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Voltaire. Candide Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL West, Nathaniel. A Cool Million


Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Pocket Full of Miracles (film) CRAZY Thoreau, Henry David. "Where I Lived and What compared with I lived For" from Walden Browning, Robert. "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" Wolfe, Thomas. "For What Is Man?" from You Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Can't Go Home Again Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener"

"Jack and the Beanstalk" James, Henry. Daisy Miller see see Ahmad, Razia. PAPER IS MONEY Balzac, Honoré de. ME AMEIST'S MASS Mahfouz, Naguib. ME CONJURER MADE OFF WITH ME DISH James, Henry "The Pupil" see Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Daudet, Alphonse. ME LAST LESSON see Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON James, Henry "The Real Thing" Cortizarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP see Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT ME DAY Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST James, Henry The Turn of the Screw Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE see Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN ME SOUTH Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" see ME JAY by Kawabata Yasunari Lim, Catherine. PAPER compared with Narayan, R. K. ME MIRROR Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Jagua Nana by Cyprian Ekwensi J.B. by Archibald MacLeish see see Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION James, Henry. "The Beast in the Jungle" see Jeffers, Robinson. "Original Sin" Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE see Buzzati, Dino, THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON


"The Jewbird" by Bernard Malamud Joycejames. "The Dead" see a see P'u Sung-Ling. ME FIGHTING CRICKET Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Jewett, Sarah Orne. "Miss Tempy's Watchers" Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE see Joyce, James. Dubliners Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA see Jewett, Sarah Orne. "The Town Poor" Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF see Joyce, James. "Eveline" Idris, Youssef. ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ENTERTAINMENT see Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall" by Katherine Anne Porter Joyce, James. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young see Man La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS see Yatiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Gide, André. THE RETURN OF ME PRODIGAL SON Johnny Got His Gun by Dalton Trumbo see Ju Dou (film) Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A see RIDICULOUS MAN Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI HOUSEHOLD Joseph and His Brothers by Thomas Mann a see THE JUDGMENT by Franz Kafka Hesse, Hermann. THE POET compared with Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Joyce, James. "Araby" Gide, Andre. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL see SON Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Kafka, Franz. The Castle Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Kafka, Franz. The Trial Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Merimée, Prosper. "Mateo Falcone" UNKNOWN Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG The Jungle by Upton Sinclair Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT a see Mahfouz. Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A WITH ME DISH RIDICULOUS MAN Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL "A Jury of Her Peers" by Susan Glaspell Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH a see Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE



KABULIWALLAH by Rabindranath Tagore Gide, Andre. ME RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL compared with SON Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Kafka, Franz. Me Castle Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet Kafka, Franz: A HUNGER ARTIST Twain, Mark. Huckleberry Finn Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" Kafka, Franz. The Trial Merimée, Prosper. "Mateo Falcone" Kafka, Franz. The Castle Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS see compared with Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT .Apuleius. The Golden Ass Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Heart of a Dog compared with Capek, Karel. War with the Newts Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros Kafka, Franz. The Trial Le Guin, Ursula K. "The Ones Who W;lk Away Orwell, George. Animal Farm from Omelas" Ovid. The Metamorphoses Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN O'Neill, Eugene. The Hairy Ape a also see also see Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Allende, Isabel. TWO WORDS Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME DREAM OF A Camus, Albert. ME GUEST RIDICULOUS MAN Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN CRAZY Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Kafka, Franz. IN ME PENAL COLONY compared with Kafka, Franz. ME JUDGMENT Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Duchamps, Marcel. The Big Glass (painting) Szntos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY ME DANCERS Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" CAME Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES also see Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH ME Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVERED CARIBBEAN PACKAGE Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Kafka, Franz. The Trial Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE see Kafka, Franz. ME JUDGMENT Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS compared with Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Gather, Willa. "Paul's Case"


Kafka's parables Keyes, Daniel. Flowers for Algernon see a see Diop, Birago. THE WAGES OF GOOD Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Ka lien, Horace. The Tragedy of Job "The Killers" by Ernest Hemingway a see see Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Cicellis, Kay. BRIEF DIALOGUE Djilas, MiloVan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO compared with "Kin" by Eudora Welty Joyce, James. "Araby" Lessing, Doris. "Through the Tunnel" see Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Kariarajonathan. HER WARRIOR Kincaid, Jamaica. Annie John compared with Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR see Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Yinez, Mirta. WE BIACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness King Midas folktale Golding, William. Lord of the Flies Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" see Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Masque of the Red Death" Feng jicai. ME MAO BUTTON Wright, Richard. Black Boy Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Kawabata Yasunari. THE JAY Kipling, Rudyard. "The Man Who Would Be King" compared wit!, 'see Desai, Anita. A DEVOIED SON Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON THE WATER THE KISS by Anton Chekhov compared with compared with Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio Joyce, James. "Araby" Conradjoseph. "The Secret Sharer" Updike, John. "A & P" Narcissus myth also see Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Kelley, William. "A Visit to Grandmother" Kiwon So. ThE HEIR see compared with Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Salinger,j. D. A Catcher in the Rye THE KEY by Phien VO Klaus, Annette Curtis. Silver Kiss compared with see Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Sky" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Kosinski, Jerzy. The Painted Bird Veil" see Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Calaveras County" PACKAGE



"The Lady or the Tiger" by Frank Stockton THE LAST LESSON by Alphonse Daudet see compared with Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN ME SOUTH Bambara, Toni Cade. "The Lesson" Daudet, Alphonse. "The Siege of Berlin" Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I James, Henry "The Pupil" compared with also see Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Narayan, R. K. FATTIER'S HELP Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" Lager löf, Selma. THE OUTLAWS THE LAUGHINGSTOCK by Siegfried Lenz compared with compared with Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Lawrence, D. H. "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS see compared with Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE Melville, Herman. "Billy Budd" Lawrence, D. H. "The Island" Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny Weatherall" see Salinger, J. D. "For Esméwith Love and Squalor" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. ME LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Wright, Richard. Black Boy Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" "The Lake Which Took People In" from The Tale of see Genii by Shikibu Murasaki Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED al see Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI Lim, Catherine. PAPER HOUSEHOLD Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY compared with Delvaux, Paul. The Sleeping City (painting) Laxness, Haldor. LILY Huysman, J. K. Against the Grain compared with Lawrence, D. H. "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" Sillitoe, Alan. "Uncle Ernest" from Me Loneliness Magritte, René. The Red Model (painting) of the Long Distance Runner Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE LAZARUS by Leonid Andreyev compared with compared with Apollo and Phaethon myth Franklin, Benjamin. "The Ephemera" Kelley, William. "A Visit to Grandmother" Kafka, Fnmz. ME ME1AMORPHOSIS also see Klaus, Annette Curtis. Silver kiss Desai, Anita. A. DEVOTED SON Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Nhat-Tlen. AN UNSOUND SLEEP Shelley, Percy Bysshe. "Ozymandias"


"The Leader of the People" by John Steinbeck Lessing, Doris. "Through the Tunnel" see sce Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT UNKNOWN Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" by Washington Irving Lessing, Doris. "To Room Nineteen" see see Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Lessing, Doris. "A Woman on a Roof" Le .Guin, Ursula K. "The Ones Who Walk Away from see Omelas" Hans, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA see "The Lesson" by Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST see Lenz, Siegfried. "Fresh Fish" Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON see A Lesson Before Dying by Ernest Gaines Narayan, R:K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS see Lenz, Siegfried. "A Grand Day in Schissomir" Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF ME SEA see Lewis, Sinclair. Elmer Gantry Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS see Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS compared with "The Library of Babel" by Jorge Luis Borges Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea see Leopardi, Giacomo. "To Italy" Borgesjorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING see PATHS Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE "Liebestod" from Tristan and Isolde by Richard Lessing, Doris. Martha Quest Wagner (aria) see see Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Yaiiez, Mina. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE The Life of Frederick Douglass, An Autobiography Lessing, Doris. A Proper Marriage by Frederick Douglass see see Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Lessing, Doris. "A Sunrise on the Veld" Mphahlele, Es'kia. ME MASTER OF DOORNVLEI see "The Life You Save May Be Your Own" by Flannery Dinesen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE O'Connor see Idris, Youssef. ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ENTERTAINMENT


THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER by Henryk Sienkiewicz LITTLE WILLIE by Nadine Gordimer compared with compared with Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Bradbury, Ray. "The Fog-Horn" Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Dove-Danquah, Mabel. ME TORN VEIL Lawrence, D. H. "The Island" Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Mann, Thomas. "Tobias Mindernickel" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND "Lokis" by Prosper Mérimée a see LIGHTS ON THE SEA by Petros Haris a compared with Mérimée, Prosper. ME VENUS OF ILLE Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Lo Liyong, Taban. THE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA Gordimer, Nadine. "The Train from Rhodesia" AND HIS MISERY Lessing, Doris. "A Woman on a Roof" compared with Like Water for Chocolate (film) Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales see Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED Allende, Isabel. TWO WORDS London, Jack. "To Build a Fire" LILY by Haldor Laxness compared with see Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Sillitoe, Alan. "Uncle Ernest" from Me Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner The Loneliness of the Long Distance Runner by Lim Beng Hap. POONEK Alan Sillitoe a compared with see Apollo and Phaethon myth Laxness, Haldor. LILY Lim, Catherine. PAPER Look Homeward, Angel by Thomas Wolfe compared with see Jacobs, W W. "The Monkey's Paw" Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" SON Thurberjarnes. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Lord of the Flies by William Golding also see see Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR The Lion and the Jewel by Wole Soyinka Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY see Lost Horizon by James Hilton Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED see THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL by Colette Dostoevski, Eyodor. ME DREAM OF A compared with RIDICULOUS MAN Albright, Ivan. Into the World There Came a Lost in the Funhouse by John Barth Soul Called Ida (painting) see Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Flaubert, Gustave. Madame &wary Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN


"The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson The Lower Depths by Maxim Gorky see see Bn77ati. Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Sartrejean-Paul. THE WALL Cort.izazJulio. NIGHT FACE UP Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL "Lullaby" by Leslie Marmon Silko Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY see Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT ME DAY Condé, Maryse. MREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Yizhar, S. HABAKUK compared with Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret Snow" "The Lottery in Babylon" by Jorge Luis Borges Baldwin, James. "Previous Condition" see Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Coover, Robert. "A Pedestrian Accident" PATHS also see Love in the Time of Cholera by Gabriel Garcia Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Mirquez Lying Figure by Francis Bacon (painting) see see Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING Aichinger, Ilse. ME BOUND MAN "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T. S. Eliot see Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH

MacLeish, Archibald. f. B. Madame Butterfly by Giacomo Puccini see see Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Zola, Emile. NAiS MICOULIN Zola, Emile. ME INUNDATION Maggie: A Girl of the Streets by Stephen Crane Madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert see see Zola, Emile. NAiS MICOULIN Chekhov, Anton. THE DARLING Colette. THE LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL "The Magic Barrel" by Bernard Malamud Colette, THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS see Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER Sand, George. ME MARQUISE


Magritte, René. The Red Model (painting) also see see Huber, Heinz. ME NEW APARTMENT Lando lfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Megged, Aharon. ME NAME Mahfouz, Naguib. ME CONJURER MADE OFF Mann, Thomas. "The Infant Prodigy" WITH THE DISH see compared with Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Barrie, J. M. Peter Pan Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Mann, Thomas. Joseph and His Brothers Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" see "Jack and the Beanstalk" Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Joyce, James. "Araby" Wright, Richard. "Almos' a Man" Mann, Thomas. "Tobias Mindernickel" see Mahfouz, Naguib. ME PASHA'S DAUGHTER Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER compared with Faulkner, William. "The Auction of the Spotted Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Horses" is compared with Heller, Joseph. Catch-22 Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret Snow" Malamud, Bernard. "The Magic Barrel" Joyce, James. "Araby" Roth, Philip. Goodbye, Columbus Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Malamud, Bernard. "The Jewbird" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" see also see P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGHTING CRICKET Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Malamud; Bernard. "The Magic Barrel" Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN see Mahfouz, Naguib. ME PASHA'S DAUGHTER compared with Aichinger, Ilse. ME BOUND MAN Mann, Thomas. Buddenbrooks Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" see Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Mann, Thomas. Buddenbrooks Mann, Thomas. Death in Venice Mann, Thomas. Confessions of Felix Krull: Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Confidence Man Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" see Thurberjames. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Wagner, Richard. "Liebestod" from Tristan and Isolde (aria) Mann, Thomas. Death in Venice al also see see Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW A MAN OF HONOR by Shaukat Siddiqi compared with compared with Anderson, Sherwood. "I Want to Know Why" Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart Boll, Heinrich. "Christmas Every Day" Benson, Sally. "The Overcoat" Picasso, Pablo. Bust of a Woman (painting) Maupassant, Guy de. ME NECKLACE. Updike,John. "Flight"


Man of the People by Chinua Achebe THE MAO BUTTON by Feng Jicai compared with a compared with Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER King Midas folktale Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" "Markheim" by Robert Louis Stevenson a see see Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" a see Marlowe, Christopher. Dr Faustus see Kariarajonathan. HER WARRIOR . Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED "The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg" by Mark Twain ME MARQUISE by George Sand a see a compared with Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler Manual for Manuel by Julio Cortaur Ibsen, Henrik. Wild Duck see Mann, Thomas. Confessions of Felix Kruk Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN ME Confidence Man NIGHT Sand, George. Consuelo Tolstoy, Leo. Anna Karenina 'The Man Who Lived Underground" by Richard Wright Marshall, Paul. "Barbados" see see Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND ME VEIL THE MAN WHO WALKED THROUGH WALLS by Marcel Ayme Martha Quest by Doris Lessing a compared with see Aymé, Marcel. Aller-Retour Yafiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE lonesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros THE MARTYR by James Ngugi Thurber,James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" a compared with "The Man Who Would Be King" by Rudyard Kipling Cattier, Willa. "Paul's Case" see Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" ME MAN WITH THE PACKAGE by Tadeusz Borowski "The Masque of the Red Death" by Edgar Allan Poe a compared with see Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Kafka, Franz. IN ME PENAL COLONY Mason, Bobbie Ann. "Shiloh" Kosinskijerzy. The Painted Bird Styron, William. Sophie's Choice see Wright, Richard. Native Son Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED


Master and Man by Leo Tolstoy Maupassant, Guy de. "The Duel" see see Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov Maupassant, Guy de. "Hautot and His Son" see see France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA Maupassant, Guy de. ME NECKLACE THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI by Es'kia Mphahlele Maupassant, Guy de. "Minuet" compared with see Douglass, Frederick. The Life of Frederick Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Douglass, An Autobiography Haley, Alex. Roots Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Wright, Richard. Native Son comparedwith "Mateo Falcone" by Prosper Mérimée Anderson, Sherwood. "The Egg" III see Henry, O. "The Gift of the Magi" Howells, William Dean. A Hazard of New Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Fortunes MATRYONA'S HOME by Alexander Solzhenitsyn Maupassant, Guy de. "Clochette" compared with Maupassant, Guy de. "The Duel" Maupassant, Guy de. "Hautot and His Son" Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Maupassant, Guy de. "Minuet" Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND ME SONG Maupassant, Guy tie. "A Piece of String" Djilas, Milovan. WAR Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN also see Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT ME CLUB Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Maupassant, Guy de. "A Piece of String" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE also see Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE McTeague by Frank Norris Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Djilas, Milovan. WAR see Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Chekhov, Anton. THE BET Sholokhov, MikhaiL THE FATE OF A MAN Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Medea by Euripides Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKI-LAR-THE-POUCH see Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN Maugham, Somerset. Of Human Bondage Megged, Aharon. THE NAME see compared with Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING Huber, Heinz. ME NEW APARTMENT Maupassant, Guy de. "Clochette" Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Singer, Isaac B. "Grandfather and Grandson" see Singer, Isaac B. "The Oki Man" Maupassant. Guy de. THE NECKLACE Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use" Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN


Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Praxiteles. The Aphrodite at Cnidos (painting) Pushkin, Alexander. The Stone Guest compared with Tintoretto. Cupid, Venus, and Vulcan (painting) Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Venus de Milo (sculpture) Bridge" Kipling, Rudyard. "The Man Who Would Be King" Merrick, Elliott. "Without Words" Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE see Melville, Herman. "Bartleby Scrivener" Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING see The Metamorphoses by Ovid Agnon, S. Y. ME DOCUMENT see Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Aiidric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WIMOUT A PERCENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL CRAZY MORNING La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Tanizaki Junichiro. ME THIEF Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES THE METAMORPHOSIS by Franz Kafka Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN compared with Melville, Herman. "Billy Budd" Apuleius. The Golden Ass see Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Heart of a Dog Capek, Karel. War with the Newts La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Ionesco, Eugene. Rhinoceros Melville, Herman. Moby Dick Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Kafka, Franz. The Trial see Orwell, George. Animal Farm Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Ovid. The Metamorphoses Pirandello, Luigi. WAR also see Merimee, Prosper. "Loins" Agnon, S. Y. ME DOCUMENT see Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS Mérimée, Prosper. ME VENUS OF ILLE Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Merimée, Prosper. "Mateo Falcone" Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A see RIDICULOUS MAN Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME HONEST THIEF Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE CRAZY compared with Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Gilbert, W. S. Pygmalion and Galatea Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Mérimée, Prosper. "Lokis" Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY ME DANCERS Moliere. Don Juan CAME Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni Schulz, Bruno, COCKROACHES (opera) Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHMOUSE-KEEPER "The Fall of the House of Usher" Poe, Edgar Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN

265 275 o ,


"Middle Passage" by Robert Hayden Mishima Yukio. The Sound of Waves see see Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA 0 Yong-su. SEASIDE VILLAGE "The Migrane Workers" by Ann Petry "Miss Brill" by Katherine Mansfield a see see Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR Ngugi, James. ME MARTYR Miller, Arthur. After the Fall Surangkhanang, K. ME GRANDMOTHER see Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Missing (film) Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL see Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE Millet, Jean Francois. The Gleaners (painting) NIGHT see Zola, Emile. NAiS MICOULIN "Miss Tempy's Watchers" by Sarah Orne Jewett a see "The Minister's Black Veil" by Nathaniellf awthorne Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA see Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS Moby Dick by Herman Melville Lagerlof, Selma. ME OUTLAWS see Phien V6. ME KEY Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Pirandello, Luigi. WAR "Minuet" by Guy de Maupassant "A Modest Proposal" by Jonathan Swift see see Maupassant, Guy de. ME NECKLACE Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY THE MIRROR by R. K. Narayan Moliere. Don Juan compared with see Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Ovid. The Metamorphoses "The Monkey's Paw" by W. W. Jacobs also see Akutagawa Ryfinosuke. IN A GROVE a see Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Lim, Catherine. PAPER Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM "The Monster" by Stephen Crane compared with see Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Blood of the Martyrs" Buzzati, Dino. ME SLAYING OF THE DRAGON Hemingway, Ernest. In Our Time MONUMENT by Hebe Meleagrou also see compared with Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" Kipling, Rudyard. "The Man Who Would Be King" Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE


THE MOON ON THE WATER by Kawabata Yasunari Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN a compared with compared with Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Conrad, Joseph. "The Secret Sharer" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Narcissus myth also see Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND compared with Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby compared with Hemingway, Ernest. "The Short Happy Life of Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Francis Macomber" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME James, Henry. "The Beast in the Jungle" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Lawrence, D. H. "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Swift, Jonathan. "A Modest Proposal" Moravia, Alberto. ME FALL a also see a compared with Anderson, Sherwood. "I Want to Know Why" Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Joyce, James. "Araby" "Mrs. Ripley's TriP" by Hamlin clarland Miller, Arthur. After the Fall see Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Moreau, Gustave. The Apparition (painting) ENTERTAINMENT a see Munch, Edvard. The Scream (painting) Hesse, Hermann. ME POET see "The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE see Munro, H. H. "The Open Window" Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST a see Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni (opera) OF ME AGA a see Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT Dove-Danquah, Mabel. ME TORN VEIL WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE compared with Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Daphne and Apollo myth (from Ovid's The a compared with Metamotphoses) Santos, Bietwenido. 'ME DAY THE DANCERS Douglass, Frederick. The Life of Frederick Douglass, An Autobiography CAME Haley, Alex. Roots also see Wright, Richard. Native Son Hahn Moo-sook. SHADOW

277 267 -


MURKE'S COLLECTED SILENCES by Heinrich Boll Leopardi, Giacomo. "To Italy" compared with Robinson, Edward Arlington. "Reuben Bright" Cage,John. 4'33 (piano composition) Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Steinbeck, John. The Red Pony Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" Vigny, Alfred de. "The Sound of the Horn" also see also see Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF WAN ILYICH Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT My Antonia by Willa Cather "My Last Duchess" by Robert Browning see see Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH MYCENAE by Elias Venezis MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE by Octavio Paz compared with compared with Aeschylus. Agamemnon Silverstein, Shel. "The Giving Tree" Agee,James. A Death in the Family The Myth of Sisyphus by Albert Camus Anderson, Sherwood. "Death in the Woods" Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" a see Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Aichinger, Ilse. ME BOUND MAN Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF WAN ILYICH

NAEMAWHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN by also see Mohammed Dib Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES compared with Crane, Stephen. "An Episode of War" NAYS MICOULIN by Emile Zola Dos Passos, John. USA compared with Joyce, James. "Araby" Cather, Willa. My Antonia Lessing, Doris. "Through the Tunnel" Crane, Stephen. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath Dreiser, Theodore. Sister Carrie Steinbeck,John. In Dubious Battle Euripides. Medea Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Hardy, Thomas. Tess of the d'Urbervilles compared with Maupassant, Guy de. "Clochette" Cisneros, Sandra. "Sally" Millet, Jean Francois. The Gleaners (painting) Joyce, James. "Araby" Puccini, Giacomo. Madame Butterfly (opera) Wordsworth's shon poems Shakespeare, William. Hamlet Strindberg, August. Countess Julie Naipaul, V. S. ME ENEMY Tarkington, Booth. Alice Adams compared with also see Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Colette. ME LITTLE BOUILLOUX GIRL Welty, Eudora. "Kin" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O."


Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL The Narrow Path by Francis Selormey compared with see Capote, Truman. "A Christmas Memory" Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEEINESS HERE Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Native Son by Richard Wright Wallpaper" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Short Happy Life of see Francis Macomber" Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party" PACKAGE Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI compared with Crane, Stephen. "The Open Boat" THE NECKLACE by Guy de Maupassant Jewett, Sarah Orne. "Miss Tempy's Watchers" compared with London,Jack. "To Build a Fire" Anderson, Sherwood. "The Egg" Henry, 0. "The Gift of the Magi" THE NAME by Aharon Megged Howells, William Dean. A Hazard of New compared with Fortunes Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT Maupassant, Guy de. "Clochette" Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY Maupassant, Guy de. "The Duel" SORROW Maupassant, Guy de. "Hautot and His Son" Singer, Isaac B. "Grandfather and Grandson" Maupassant, Guy de. "Minuet" Singer, Isaac B. "The Old Man" Maupassant, Guy de. "A Piece of String" Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use" a also see Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB Narayan, R. K. FATHER'S HELP Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR compared with Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON THE NEW APARTMENT by Heinz Huber Twain, Mark. Tom Sawyer a compared with Narayan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS compared with Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW Bowles, Paul. "You Have Left Your Lotus Pods on also see the Bus" Lenz, Siegfried. "Fresh Fish" Megged, Aharon. ME NAME Lenz, Siegfri. "A Grand Day in Schissomir" Nexo, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR a compared with compared with Bontemps, Ama. "A Summer Tragedy" Jacobs, W. W "The Monkey's Paw" Ngugi, James. ME MARTYR Ovid. The Metamorphoses a compared with also see Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Akutagawa Ryfinosuke. IN A GROVE Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Narcissus myth see Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON THE WATER 279 269 TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP "Night-Sea Journey" by John Barth compared with see Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Surangkhanang, K. ME GRANDMOMER No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre NiCol,Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY see compared with Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Tolstoy, Leo. ME DEAM OF IVAN ILYICH Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Golding, William. Lord of the Flies No Longer at Ease bY Chinua Achebe Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter see Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Achebe, Chinua. ME VOTER NIGHT FACE UP by Julio Cortizar Norris, Frank. McTeague compared with see Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness Chekhov, Anton. ME BET Faulkner, William. As I Lay Dying NO SWEETNESS HERE by Ama Ata Aidoo Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Star Wars (film) a compared with Yu-Lan Fung. History of Chinese Philosophy Selormey, Francis. The Narrow Path a also see Notes from Underground by Fyodor Dostoevski Yizhar, S. HABAKUK see Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST

0 Yong-su. SEASIDE VILLAGE O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to Find" compared with see Mishima Yukio. The Sound of Waves Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER O'Brien, Fitz-James. "The Diamond Lens" O'Connor, Flannery "The Life You Save May Be see Your Own" Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS see Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" by Ambrose ENTERTAINMENT Bierce see O'Connor, Flannery. "Revelation" Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY see Meleagrou, H ebe. MONUMENT Gordimer, Nadine. A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Yizhar, S. HABAKUK


Oedipus Rex by Sophocles Old Times by Harold Pinter see see Dhlomo, H. I. E. THE DAUGHTER Borges, Jorge Luis. ME GARDEN OF FORKING Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION PATHS Official Story (film) Olsen, Tillie. "I Stand Here Ironing" see see Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE Alexiou, Ell THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED NIGhT Condé, Maryse. WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Yifiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Of Human Bondage by Somerset Maugham a see ON A JOURNEY by Slawomir Mrozek Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING compared with Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN "The Old Demon" by Pearl Buck Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME u see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAICIAR-THE-POUCH OF THE AGA Swift, Jonathan. "A Modest Proposal" "The Old Man" by Isaac B. Singer also see Mrozek, Slawomin CHILDREN see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Megged, Aharon. THE NAME O'Neill, Eugene. The Hairy Ape "The Old Man and the Sea" by Ernest Hemingway see see Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Lenz, Siegfried. THE LAUGHINGSTOCK Surangkhanang, K. ME GRANDMOTHER "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas" by Ursula ME OLD MAN AND THE SONG by Milovan Djilas K. Le Guin e compared with see Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Andric, Ivo, THE SCYTHE Djilas, Milovan. WAR ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT WOMAN ONE Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" FINE APRIL MORNING by Murakami Haruki Joyce, James. "Araby" Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" a compared with Daphne and Apollo myth (from Ovid's The also see Metamorphoses) Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS "Old Man at the Bridge" by Ernest Hemingway CAME see also see Djilas, Milovan. WAR Hahn Moo-sook. SHADOW ITIE OLD MAN OF USUMBURA AND HIS MISERY "The Open Boat" by Stephen Crane by Taban Lo Liyong see compared with Abrahams, Pete:. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Chaucer, Geoffrey. Canterbury Tales Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED


"The Open Window" by H. H. Munro "The Outstation" by Somerset Maugham see see Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Venezis, Dins MYCENAE OF THE AGA "The Overcoat" by Sally Benson Ordinary People by Judith Guest see see Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR BjOrnson, Björnstjerne. THE FATHER Ovid. The Metamorphoses "Original Sin" by Robinson Jeffers see see Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE Buzzati, Dino. THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON KO a, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 Orwell, George. Animal Farm PERCENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL I see MORNING Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR Tanizaki Junichiro. THE MIEF Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant" see "Ozymandias" by Percy Bysshe Shelley Dincsen, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE see Andreyev, Leonid. LAZARUS THE OUTLAWS by Selma LagerlOf compared with Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown"

The Painted Bird by Jerzy Kosinski Chopin, Kate. "The Story of an Hour" see Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Wallpaper" PACKAGE Munro, H. H. "The Open Window" Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" The Palm-Wine Drinkard by Amos Tutuola Wharton, Edith. "Roman Fever" see PAPER by Catherine Lim Amado,Jorge. HOW PORCIINCULA ME compared with MULATTO GOT ME CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Jacobs, W. W. "The Monkey's Paw" Papadiamantis, Alexandros. ME BEWITCHING OF Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" ME AGA Thurberjames. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" compared with also see Buck, Pearl. "The Old Demon" Ray. Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG


PAPER BOAT by Kundanika Kapadia "Paul's Case" by Willa Cather compared with see Joyce, James. "Araby" Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Lessing, Doris. "Through the Tunnel" Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON ME SEA PAPER IS MONEY by Razia Ahmad Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT compared with Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR "Hansel and Gretel" Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Henry, O. "The Gift of the Magi" Ngugi, James. ME MARTYR "Jack and the Beanstalk" Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Stella (film) Stella Dallas (film) compared with Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Parker, Dorothy. "The Standard of Living" Wallpaper" see Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Wakefield" Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Lessing, Doris. "To Room Nineteen" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Parker, Dorothy. "The Waltz" Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Lived see Underground" Yifiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE Parmigianino. Self-Portrait (painting) compared with see Silverstein, Shel. "The Giving Tree" Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN "A Pedestrian Accident" by Robert Coover THE PASHA'S DAUGHTER by Naguib Mahfouz a see compared with Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Faulkner, William. "The Auction of the Spotted Pere Goriot by Honoré de Balzac Horses" Hellerjoseph. Catch-22 see Malamud, Bernard. "The Magic Barrel" Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BREACHE Roth, Philip. Goodbye, Columbus Peter Pan by J. M. Barrie PASTORAL by Tommaso Landolfi see compared with Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Delvaux, Paul. The Sleeping C4ty (painting) WITH THE DISH Huysman,J. K. Against the Grain "Petrified Man" by Eudora Welty Lawrence, D. H. "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" Magritte, René. The Red Model (painting) see Idris, Youssef. Mr: CHEAPEST NIGHT'S PATRIOTISM by Mishima*Yukio ENTERTAINMENT compared with Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Blood of the Petry, Ann. "The Migrane Workers" Martyrs" see Hemingway, Ernest. In Our Time Weller, Archie. GOING HOME also see Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI


Phren Vö. THE KEY Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI compared with compared with Crane, Stephen. "The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky" Camus, Albert. The Stranger Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Crane, Stephen. "The Upturned Face" Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Hemingway, Ernest. "The Short Happy Life of Calaveras County" Francis Macomber" Mishima Yukio. PATRIOTISM THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS by Colette Wright, Richard. Native Son compared with also see Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary Moravia, Alberto. THE FALL Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper" Ibsen, Henrik. A Doll's House Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler Pirandello, Luigi. Six Characters in Search of an Lessing, Doris. A Proper Marriage Author Picasso, Pablo. Bust of a Woman (painting) see see Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SORROW PATHS The Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde Pirandello, Luigi. WAR see compared with Kawabata Yasunari. ME MOON ON THE WATER Dickinson, Emily. "There's a certain slant of light" Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" NEED Joycejames. "The Dead" Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. ME DESIRE TO BE A MAN Melville, Herman. "The Whiteness of the Whale" from Moby Dick "A Piece of String" by Guy de Maupassant Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI see Sartm Jean-Paul. ME WALL Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE also see Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Björnson, Björnstjerne. THE FATHER "The Pied Piper of Haman" by Robert Browning "The Pit and the Pendulum" by Edgar Allan Poe see see lzgfi, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WIMOUT A Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE CRAZY Pocket Full of Miracles (film) "Piktor's Metamorphosis" by Hermann Hesse see see lzgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WIT'HOUT A Asturias, Miguel. TATUANA'S TALE CRAZY Pillars of Society by George Grosz (painting) Pot, Edgar Allan. "The Black Cat" see see Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Pinter, Harold. Old Times RIDICULOUS MAN see Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING see PATHS Balzae, Honore de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE


Ngugi, James. THE MARTYR Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Weatherall," Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH see Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Yaftez, Mina. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE see Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN ME SOUTH A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Joyce Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS a see Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Masque of the Red Death" Praxiteles. The Aphrodite at Cnidos (painting) see a see Kariarajonathan. HER WARRIOR Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Pit and the Pendulum" "Previous Condition" by James Baldwin see see Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Tell-Tale Heart" , "The Price of the Head" by John Russell see see Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST RIDICULOUS MAN ME PROCURATOR OF JUDEA by Anatole France THE POET by Hermann Hesse compared with compared with Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and Margarita Chekhov, Anton. ME KISS Dostoevski, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Great Stone Face" Hardy, Thomas. "God Forgotten" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Tintoretto. Christ Before Pilate (painting) Hoffmann, E. T A. "The Golden Flower Pot" Prometheus Bound by Aeschylus James, Henry "The Real Thing" a see Mann, Thomas. Joseph and His Brothers Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN A Proper Marriage by Doris Lessing Moreau, Gustave. The Apparition (painting) see Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS compared with PROPERTY by Giovanni Verga Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" compared with Hartley, L. P. "The Island" Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Hem', 0. "Gift of the Magi" Russell,John. "The Price of the Head" Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" POONEK by Lim Beng Hap P'u Sung-Ling. ME FIGHTING CRICKET compared with compared with Apollo and Phaethon myth Makimud, Bernard. "The Jewbird" Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels


Puccini, Giacomo. Madame Butterfly (opera) Pushkin, Alexander. The Stone Guest see see Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN Mérimée, Prosper. ME VENUS OF ILLE "The Pupil" by Henry James Pygmalion and Galatea by W. S. Gilbert see see Daudet, Alphonse. THE LAST LESSON Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE


Rand, Ayn. The Fountainhead Sullivan. Arthur. The Return of the Prodigal Son see (oratorio) Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Welry, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O. " Wolfe, Thomas. Look Homeward, Angel Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG also see compared with Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol King Midas folktale The Return of the Prodigal Son by Jean Baptiste Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Greuze (painting) Lim, Catherine. PAPER see Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL "The Real Thing" by Henry James SON see Hesse, Hermann. ME POET The Return of the Prodigal Son by Arthur Sullivan Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO (oratorio) see Tbe Red Model by René Magritte (painting) Gide, Andre. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON see Landolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL "Reuben Bright" by Edward Arlington Robinson im see The Red Pony by John Steinbeck Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE si see "Revelation" by Flannery O'Connor Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE see Gordimer, Nadine. A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON by André Gide Rhinoceros by Eugene Ion esco compared with see Grcuzejean Baptiste. The Return of the Ayme, Marcel. THE MAN WHO WALKED Prodigal Son (painting) THROUGH WALLS Joycejames. A Portrait of the Artist as a }bung Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST ,f4an Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS


Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB "The Rocking Horse Winner" by D. H. Lawrence a compared with see Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Maupassant, Guy de. THE NECKLACE Lagerkvist, Par. FATHER AND I Walker, Alice. The Color Purple Lim, Catherine. PAPER Ray, Satyajit. ASHAMANJA BABU'S DOG Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASIP Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH HOUSEHOLD Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY compared with "Roman Fever" by Edith Wharton Faulkner. William. "Barn Burning" Henry, 0. "The Gift of the Magi" see Ju Dou (film) Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Shikibu Murasaki. "The Lake Which Took People OF ME AGA In" from The Tale of Genii Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare Updike, John. "A & P" see THE RIGHT HAND by Alexander Solzhenitsyn Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT compared with Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH Djilas, Milovan. WAR "The Room" by Jean-Paul Sartre Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN a see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Roots by Alex Haley also see a see Djilas, Miovan. WAR Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI Mrozek, Slawornir. ON A JOURNEY Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE- Rose, Reginald. "Twelve Angry Men" KEEPER Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Akutagawa Ryiinosuke. IN A GROVE "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" by Samuel "A Rose for Emily" by William Faulkner Taylor Coleridge see see Colette. THE LIME BOUILLOUX GIRL Dinesen, Isak. ME SAILOR BOY'S TALE Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Hayashi Fumiko. BONES "Rip Van Winkle" by Washington Irving Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WrIRLD ENDS see Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVEN AT THE CLUB Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Rostand, Edmund. Cyrano de Bergerac Robinson, Edward Arlington. "Reuben Bright" see see Cortizarjulio. END OF THE GAME Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Roth, Philip. "The Defender of the Faith" see Camus, Albert. THE GUEST


Roth, Philip. Goodbye, Columbus Rushdi, Rashad. ANGUISH see compared with Mahfouz, Naguib. THE PASHKS DAUGHTER Barth,John. Lost in the Funhouse Browning, Robert. "My Last Duchess" Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" compared with Anderson, Sherwood. "I'm a Fool" Russell,John. "The Price of the Head" Steinbeck,John. "The Chrysanthemums" 'see Pontoppidan, Henrik. A FISHER NEST

Saga of Hrafnkel Sand, George. Consuelo see see Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Sand, George. THE MARQUISE ME SAILOR BOY'S TALE by Isak Dinesen Sand, George. ME MARQUISE compared with compared with Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. "The Rime of the Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary Ancient Mariner" Ibsen, Henrik. Hedda Gabler Lessing, Doris. "A Sunrise on the Veld" Ibsen, Henrik. Wild Duck Orwell, George. "Shooting an Elephant" Mann, Thomas. Confessions of Felix Krull: Confidence Man "Saint Emmanuel the Good Martyr" by Miguel Sand, George. Consuelo Unamuno Tolstoy, Leo. Anna Karenina see Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS CAME Salinger, J. D. A Catcher in the Rye compared with see Cather, Willa. "A Wagner Matinee" Kiwon So. ME HEIR Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" Yiiiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Zola, Emile. ME INUNDATION st also see Salinger, J. D. "For Esmé with Love and Squalor" Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 PERCENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL I see MORNING La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Sarang, Vitas. THE TERRORIST "Sally" by Sandra Cisneros compared with I see Bowles, Paul. "If I Should Open My Mouth" Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTH Dostoevski, Fyodor. Notes fmm Undergmund Thurberjames. -1ne secret Life of Walter Mitty"


Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT also see compared with Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins. "A Village Singer" The Scream by Edvard Munch (painting) Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Veil" Irving, Washington. "Rip Van Winkle" a see Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Villiers de L'Isle-Adarn. THE TORTURE BY HOPE Welty, Eudora. "A Worn Path" ME SCYTHE by Ivo Andric Sartre,Jean-Paul. Death without Burial compared with see Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN ME SOUTH Sartre, Jean-Paul. ME WALL Maupassant, Guy de. "A Piece of String" Sholokhov, Mikhail. ME COLT Sartre, Jean-Paul. No Exit Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL also see Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Djilas, Milovan. WAR Sartre,Jean-Paul. "The Room" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN ME NIGHT Sartrejean-Paul. THE WALL SEASIDE VILLAGE by 0 Yong-su compared with compared with Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Mishima Yukio. The Sound of Waves Darrenmatt, Friedrich. "The glinnel" "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber Gorky, Maxim. The Lower Depths Gorky, Maxim. "Twenty-Six Men and a Girl" a see Sartre, Jean-Paul. Death without Burial Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Sartrejean-Paul. No Exit Ayme, Marcel. ME MAN WHO WALKED Sartrejean-Paul. "The Room" THROUGH WALLS Unamuno, Miguel. "Saint Emmanuel the Good Lim, Catherine. PAPER Martyr" Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN also see Papadiamantis, Alexandros. ME BEWITCHING Camus, Albert. THE GUEST OF THE AGA Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE "Secret Miracle" by Jorge Luis Borges The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne see see Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR "The Secret Sharer" by Joseph Conrad Ekwensi. Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND see Nicol, Abioseth. AS THE NIGHT THE DAY Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON T'HE WATER Schulz, Bruno. COCKROACHES Self-Portrait by Parmigianino (painting) compared with see Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Villiers de UIsle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN


Selormey, Francis. The Narrow Path Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek see Bridge" Aidoo, Ama Ata. NO SWEETNESS HERE Djilas, Milovan. WAR Faulkner, William. "The Bear" "Seventeen Syllables" by Hisaye Yamamoto Steinbeck, John. The Red Pony a see also see Condé, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Andric, Ivo. ME SCYTHE Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Severed Heads by Géricault (painting) Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS see Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Heym, Georg. THE AUTOPSY Djilas, Milovan. WAR Sholokhov, Mikhail. ME FATE OF A MAN SHADOW by Hahn Moo-sook Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME compared with Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Murakami Haruki. ON MEETING MY 100 Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN ME NIGHT PERCENT WOMAN ONE FINE APRIL MORNING Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN a compared with Shakespeare, William. Hamlet Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness see Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN Sholokhov, Mikhail. ME COLT Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet also see see Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Desai, Anita. GAMES AT TWILIGHT Djilas, Milovan. WAR Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS "Shooting an Elephant" by George Orwell Shelley, Percy Bysshe. "Ozymandias" a see see Dinescn, Isak. THE SAILOR BOY'S TALE Andreyev, Leonid. LA7ARUS "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" by Ernest Hemingway Shikibu Murasaki. "The Lake Which Took People In" from The Tale of Genii see see Moravia, Alberto. THE CHASE Rifaatklifa. AN INCIDENT IN THE GHOBASHI Nakos, Lilika. ME BROKEN DOLL HOUSEHOLD Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI "Shiloh" by Bobbie Ann Mason Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR see compared with Alexiou, Eli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart Benson, Sally. "The Overcoat" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Maupassant, Guy de. ME NECKLACE compared with Bierce, Ambrose. "The Coup de Grace"


"The Siege of Berlin" by Alphonse Daudet A SIMPLE HEART by Gustave Flaubert see a compared with Da).det, Alphonse. ME LAST LESSON Anderson, Sherwood. "Death in the Woods" Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Boyar), Sienkiewicz, Henryk. ME LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Frost, Robert. "Death of the Hired Man" compared with also see Andric, Ivo. ME SCYTHE Zola, Emile. NMS MICOULIN Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Bradbury, Ray. "The Fog-Horn" Sinclair, Upton. The Jungle Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS see Iawrence, D. H. "The Island" Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME DREAM OF A Mann, Thomas. "Tobias Mindernickel" RIDICULOUS MAN Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Singer, Isaac B. "Gimpel the Fool" MUSICIAN Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE see compared with Idris, Youssef THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Mann, Thomas. "The Infant Prodigy" ENTERTAINMENT Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Singer, Isaac B. "Grandfather and Grandson" also see Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS a see Djilas, Milovan. WAR Megged, Aharon. THE NAME Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Singer, Isaac B. "The Old Man" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Solzhenitsyn, Alexander ME RIGHT HAND a see Megged, Aharon. THE NAME "Silent Snow, Secret Snow" by Conrad Aiken Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser see Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN mi see Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN Silko, Leslie Marmon. "Lullaby" Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING a see c(Impared with Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN Bronte, Emily. Wuthering Heights Maugham, Somerset. Of Human Bondage MANHATTAN Sillitoe, Alan. "Uncle Ernest" from The Lonelinessof Six Characters in Search of an Author by Luigi the Long Distance Runner Pirandello see see Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING Laxness, Haldor. LILY PATHS Silver Kiss. Annette Curtis Klause "Six Feet of the Country" by Nadine Gordimer see see Andreyev, Leonkl. LAZARUS Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING 'ME FOREST Silverstein, Shel. "The Giving Tree" "Slave on the Block" by Langston Hughes a see see Paz, Octavio. MY LIFE WITH THE WAVE Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVERED CARIBBEAN


THE SLAYING OF THE DRAGON by Dino Buzzati Sienkiewicz, Henryk. ME LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER compared with Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Crane, Stephen. "The Monster" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Jeffers, Robinson. "Original Sin" Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY a compared with Benét, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel The Sleeping City by Paul Delvaux (painting) Webster" se Benét, Stephen Vincent. "A Tooth for Paul Lardolfi, Tommaso. PASTORAL Revere" Sholokhov, Mikhail. ME COLT A SOLDIER'S EMBRACE by Nadine Gordimer Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN a compared with Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME O'Connor, Flannery. "Revelation" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ME RIGHT HAND Turgenev, Ivan. Hunting Sketches Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME also see compared with Andric, Ivo. ME SCYTHE Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND ME SONG Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Djilas, Milovan. WAR Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Sholokhov, Mikhail. ME COLT "Song of Myself" by Walt Whitman Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN see Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH "Sonny's Blues" by James Baldwin also see see Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Weller, Archie. GOING HOME Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Djilas, Milovan. WAR Sophie's Choice by William Styron Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY see Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Borowski, Tadeusz. ME MAN WITH THE Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND PACKAGE Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN ME NIGHT Sophocles. Oedipus Rex see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Dhlomo, H. I. E. THE DAUGHTER compared with Zola, gmile. THE INUNDATION Djilas, Milovan. WAR Mrozek, Slawomir. CHILDREN SORROW-ACRE by isak Dinesen Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YAINKO THE MUSICIAN compared with Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Gordimer, Nadine. "The Train from Rhodesia" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT also see Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN ME NIGHT Djilas, Milovan. WAR Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY


"Sorrow Rides a Fast Horse" by Dorothy Gilman Steinbeck, John. The Red Pony Butters see see Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Hayashi Fumiko. BONES Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE "The Sound of the Horn" by Alfred de Vigny Stella (film) a see see Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Ahmad, Razia. PAPER IS MONEY The Sound of Waves by Mishima Yukio Stella Dallas (film) see see 0 Yong-su. SEASIDE ViLLAGE Ahmad, Razia. PAPER IS MONEY Soyinka, Wole. The Interpreter Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" see see Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER Abrahams, Peter EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Soyinka, Wole. Tbe Lion and the Jewel Dove-Danquah, Mabel. THE TORN VEIL Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND see Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" see "The Standard of Living" by Dorothy Parker Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH see Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED "The Stolen Party" by Liliana Hekgr Star Wars (film) see Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING see Cortizarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP The Stone Guest by Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" see see Mérimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Roufos, Rodis. THE CANDIDATE "The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin Tanizaki Junichiro. TATI'00 see Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath Hamsun, Knut. THE CALL OF LIFE see Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS OF THE AGA UNKNOWN The Stranger by Albert Camus Steinbeck, John. In Dubious Rattle see see Camus, Albert. 'ME GUEST Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A UNKNOWN RIDICULOUS MAN Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Steinbeck, John. "The Leader of the People" Strindberg, August. Countess Julie see Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG see Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN


Styron , William. Sophie's Choice The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway see see Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS PACKAGE SUNLIGHT by Galatea Saranti SUICIDES by Cesare Pavese compared with compared with Freeman, Mary E. Wilkins. "A Village Singer" Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Minister's Black Wallpaper" Veil" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Wakefield" Irving, Washington. "Rip Van Winkle" Lessing, Doris. "To Room Nineteen" Steinbeck,John. "The Leader of the People" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Welty, Eudora. "A Worn Path" Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Lived Underground" "A Sunrise on the Veld" by Doris Lessing see Sullivan, Arthur. The Return of the Prodigal Son (oratorio) Dinesen, Isak. ME SAILOR BOY'S TALE see Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER Gide, Andre. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL compared with SON Hemingway, Ernest. The Old Man and the Sea A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH by Ivo Andric Mansfield, Katherine. "Miss Brill" O'Connor, Flannery. "A Good Man Is Hard to compared with Find" Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE also see DuMaurier, Daphne. "The Blue Lenses" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "The Artist of the Desai, Anita. A DEVOTED SON Beautiful" Nhat-Tien. AN UNSOUND SLEEP James, Henry The Turn of the Screw Svevo, Italo. IN MY INDOLENCE Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" compared with Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher" Joyce, James. "The Dead" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Lawrence, D. H. "The Horse Dealer's Daughter" Sholokhov, Mikhail. 'ME FATE OF A MAN Welty, Eudora. "A Curtain of Green" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels Stockton, Frank. "The Lady, or the Tiger" Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT see also see P'u Sung-Ling. THE FIGH11NG CRICKET Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Swift, Jonathan. "A Modest Proposal" Sienkiewicz, Henryk. THE LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER see Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY "A Summer Tragedy" by Ama Bontemps see Nexo, Martin Andersen. BIRDS OF PASSAGE


Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH "Taras Bulba" by Nikolai Gogol compared with see Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" Baykurt, Fakir. FRECKLES Shakespeare, William . Romeo and Juliet Tarkington, Booth. Alice Adams Twain, Mark. Huckk ;berry Finn Welty, Eudora. "A Nnsit of Charity" see Zola, Emile. NAB MICOULIN The Tale of Genii by Shikibu Murasaki TATTOO by Tanizaki Junichiro see Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN ME GHOBASHI compared with HOUSEHOLD Borges, Jorge Luis. "Se6et Miracle" Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens Icarus myth see James, Henry "The Real Thing" Fuentes, Carlos. THE TWO ELENAS Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" TATUANA'S TALE by Miguel Asturias Tamasi, Aron. FLASHES IN THE NIGHT compared with compared with Daphne and Apollo myth (from Ovid's The Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Metamorphoses) Hesse, Hermann. "Piktor's Metamorphosis" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME also see Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN ME SOUTH compared with Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Gordimer, Nadine. "Home" Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Thiong'o, Ngügi wa. Weep Not Child Tanizaki Junichiro. TATTOO "The Tell-Tale,Heart" by Edgar Allan Poe compared with see Borges,Jorge Luis. "Secret Miracle" Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Hemingway, Ernest. "The Killers" RIDICULOUS MAN Icarus myth James, Henry. "The Real Thing" "Tennessee's Partner" by Bret Harte Steinbeck, John. "The Chrysanthemums" see Balzac, Honoré de. ME ATHEIST'S MASS Tanizaki Junichiro. THE THIEF compamd with The Tenor by Frank Wedekind Cephalus and Procris myth (from Ovid's The see Metamorphoses) Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN Gogol, Nikolai. "Diary of a Madman" Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN "The Termitary" by Nadine Gordimer Narayan, R. K. THE MIRROR see Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN


THE TERRORIST by Vilas Sarang Gogol, Nikolai. "Diary of a Madman" compared with Lu Xun. DIARY OF A MADMAN Bowles, Paul. "If I Should Open My Mouth" Narayan, R. K. ME MIRROR Dostoevski, Fyodor. Notes from Underground Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" see Tess of the d'Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING see Head, Bessie. HEAVEN IS NOT CLOSED Zola, Emile. NAN MICOULIN Siddiqi, Shaukat. A MAN OF HONOR Thiong'o,Ngagi wa. Weep Not Child Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston see see Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Thoreau, Henry David. "Where I Lived and What I Lived For" from Walden "Theme of the Traitor and the Hero" by Jorge Luis Borges see see Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A CRAZY Borges, Jorge Luis. THE GARDEN OF FORKING YAMS THREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN by Maryse Condé Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE compared with compared with Cisneros, Sandra. House on Mango Street Cisneros, Sandra. "Woman Hollering Creek" Furman, Laura. "Watch Time Fly" Olsen, Tillie. "I Stand Here Ironing" Glaspell, Susan. "A Jury of Her Peers" Silko, Leslie Marmon. "Lullaby" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Yamamoto, Hisaye. "Seventeen Syllables" Thurber, James. "The Catbird Seat" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." "Through the Tunnel" by Doris Lessing see "There's a certain slant of light" by Emily Dickinson Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS see UNKNOWN Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Kapadia, Kundanika. PAPER BOAT THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED by Elli Alexiou Thurber,James. "The Catbird Seat" a compared with see Cather, Willa. "A Wagner Matinee" Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning" Joyce, James. "Eveline" Thurberjames. "The Dog That Bit People" Lawrence, D. H. "The Rocking Horse Winner" see Mason, Bobbie Ann. "Shiloh" Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S Olsen, Tillie. "I Stand Here Ironing" WIFE Parker, Dorothy. "The Standard of Living" Thurberjames. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" THE THIEF by Tanizaki Junichiro see compared with Abrahams, Peter. EPISODE IN MALAY CAMP Cephalus and Procris myth (from Ovid's The Aymé, Marcel. ME MAN WHO WALKED Metamorphoses) THROUGH WALLS


Lim, 'Catherine. PAPER Tolstoy, Leo. Family Business Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN see Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH OF THE AGA Sarang, Vilas. THE TERRORIST Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED Tintoretto. Christ Before Pilate (painting) compared with see Benét, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel France, Anatole. THE PROCURATOR OF JUDEA Webster" Tintoretto. Cupid, Venus, and Vulcan (painting) Goethe, Johann. Faust The Gospel of St. Luke see Irving, Washington. "The Devil and Tom Walker" Mérimée, Prosper. ME VENUS OF ILLE Marlowe, Christopher. Dr Faustus Tolstoy, Leo. "Where Love Is, God Is" "Tobias Mindernickel" by Thomas Mann Wilde, Oscan The Picture of Dorian Gray see also see Sienkiewicz, Henryk. ME LIGHTHOUSE-KEEPER Chekhov, Anton. THE BET "To Build a Fire" by Jack London Lo Liyong, Taban. ME OLD MAN OF a see USUMBARA AND HIS MISERY Nakos, Lilika. HELENITSA Tolstoy, Leo. Master and Man "To Italy" by Giacomo Leopardi see Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH see Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Tolstoy, Leo. "Where Love Is, God Is" Tolstoy, Leo. Anna Karenina is see Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN see NEED Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Tolstoy, Leo. THE DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH Tom Sawor by Mark Twain Tolstoy, Leo. ME DEATH OF IVAN ILYICH see coripared with Narayan, R. K. FATHER'S HELP Boll, Heinrich.. MURKE'S COLLECTED TONIO KROGER by Thomas Mann SILENCES compared with Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret Snow" Chekhov, Anton. "A Dreary Story" Joyce, James. "Araby" Eliot, T S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Sartre, Jean-Paul. No Exit Tolstoy, Leo. Anna Karenina also see Tolstoy, Leo. Family Business Hesse, Hermann. ME POET Tolstoy, Leo. Master and Man Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN also see "A Thoth for Paul Revere" by Stephen Vincent Benét Balzac, Honoré de. THE ATHEIST'S MASS see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH


THE TORN VEIL by Mabel Dove-Danquah Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION a compared with TRISTAN by Thomas Mann Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel Webster" compared with Dante. The Divine Corned)/ Aichinger, Ilse. THE BOUND MAN Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Eliot, T. S. "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Irving, Washington. "The Legend of Sleepy Mann, Thomas. Buddenbrooks Hollow" Mann, Thomas. Death in Venice Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Mann, Thomas. TONIO KROGER Marlowe, Christopher. Dr Faustus Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni Thurber, James. "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" (opera) Wagner, Richard. "Liebestod" from Tristan and Stevenson, Robert Louis. "Markheim" Isolde (aria)

also see also see , Ekwensi, Cyprian. THE GREAT BEYOND Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Gordimer, Nadine. LITTLE WILLIE Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST "To Room Nineteen" by Doris Lessing Tristan and Isolde by see see Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN THE TORTURE BY HOPE by Villiers de Lisle-Adam The Trojan Women by Euripides compared with a see Dostoevski, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Kafka, Franz. IN ME PENAL COLONY Munch, Edvard. The Scream (painting) Trumbo, Dalton. Johnny Got His Gun Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Pit and the Pendulum" see Sartre,Jean-Paul. THE WALL Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A "The Town Poor" by Sarah Orne Jewett RIDICULOUS MAN see "The Tunnel" by Friedrich Diirrenmatt Idris, Youssef. ME CHEAPEST NIGHT'S a see ENTERTAINMENT Sartre,Jean-Paul. THE WALL The Tragedy ofJob by Horace Kallen see Turgenev, Ivan. Hunting Sketches Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION see Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH "The Train from Rhodesia" by Nadine Gordimer see Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S WIFE Dinesen, Isak. SORROW-ACRE Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON THE SEA compared with Chekhov, Anton. Me Cherry Orchard The Trial by Franz Kafka Faulkner, William. "The Bear" see Hemingway, Ernest. "Big Two-Hearted River" Kafka, Franz. THE JUDGMENT Thurberjames. "The Dog That Bit People" Kafka, Franz. ME METAMORPHOSIS Walker, Alice. The Color Purple


The Turn of the Scretti by Henry James Twain, Mark. Tom Sawyer see see Andric, Ivo. A SUMMER IN THE SOUTH Narayan, R. K. FATHER'S HELP Balzac, Honoré de. LA GRANDE BRETECHE Twain, Mark. "The War Prayer" Tutuola, Amos. The Palm-Wine Drinkard see see Dostoevski, Fyodor. ME DREAM OF A Amado,Jorge. HOW PORCIUNCULA ME RIDICULOUS MAN MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK "Twelve Angry Men" by Reginald Rose Twain, Mark. "Baker's Blue-Jay Yarn" see see Akutagawa Ry6nosuke. IN A GROVE Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCIUNCULA ThE "Twenty-Six Men and a Girl" by Maxim Gorky MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Jr, see Twain, Mark. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Sartrejean-Paul. ME WALL Calaveras County" see ME TWO ELENAS by Carlos Fuentes Amado, Jorge. HOW PORCIONCULA THE compared with MULATTO GOT THE CORPSE OFF HIS BACK Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities Phien V6. THE KEY Hemingway, Ernest. The Sun Also Rises Lewis, Sinclair. Elmer Gantry Twain, Mark. Huckleberiy Finn Rand, Ayn. The Fountainhead a see TWO WORDS by Isabel Allende Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH compared with Twain, Mark. "The Man That Corrupted How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accent (film:' Hadleyburg" Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST see Like Water for Chocolate (film) Achebe, Chinua. THE VOTER

Unamuno, Miguel. "Saint Emmanuel the Good AN UNSOUND SLEEP by Nhat-Tien Martyr" compared with see Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Sartrejean-Paul THE WALL Surangkhanang, K. THE GRANDMOTHER "Uncle Ernest" from The Loneliness of the Long Updike, John. "A & P" Distance Runner by Alan Sillitoe see a see Chekhov, Anton. THE KISS Laxness, Haldor. LILY Rifaat, Alifa. AN INCIDENT IN TI1E GHOBASHI HOUSEHOLD


Updike, John. "Flight" USA by John Dos Passos see see Mann, Thomas. DISORDER AND EARLY SOR- Dib, Mohammed. NAEMAWHEREABOUTS ROW UNKNOWN "The Upturned Face" by Stephen Crane see Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI

Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT VENGEFUL CREDITOR by Chinua Achebe a compared with compared with Cortizu Julio. Manual for Manuel Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case" Missing (film) Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal" Official Stoiy (film) Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" also see Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown" Yizhar, S. HABAKUK also see Gordimer, Nadine. LITI1E WILLIE Vega, Ana Lydia. CLOUD COVER CARIBBEAN Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR compared with La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Gordimer, Nadine. "The Termitary" Hughes, Langston. "Slave on the Block" Venus Asleep by Paul Delvaux (painting) Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS see Hildesheimer, Wolfgang. A WORLD ENDS Venezis, Elias. iktYCENAE comparet: with Venus de Milo (sculpture) Aeschylus. Agamemnon see Agee, James. A Death in the Family Merimée, Prosper. THE VENUS OF ILLE Anderson, Sherwood. "Death in the Woods" Connell, Richard. "The Most Dangerous Game" THE VENUS OF ILLE by Prosper Mérimée Greene, Graham. "The Destructors" compared with Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Gilbert, W. S. Pygmalion and Galatea Leopardi, Giacomo. "To Italy" Mérimée, Prosper. "Lokis" Robinson, Edward Arlington. "Reuben Bright" Moliere. Don Juan Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Don Giovanni Steinbeck, John. The Red Pouy (opera) Vigny, Alfred de. "The Sound of the Horn" Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of thc House of Usher" also see Praxiteles. The Aphrodite at Cnidos (painting) Meleagrou, Hebe. MONUMENT Pushkin, Alexander. The Stone Guest Tintoretto. Cupid, Venus, and Vulcan (painting) Venus de Milo (sculpture)


Verga, Giovanni. PROPERTY Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE compared with compared with Dickens, Charles. A Christmas Carol Dostoevski, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamazov Henry, 0. "Gift of the Magi" Kafka, Franz. IN THE PENAL COLONY Lawrence, D. H. "The RockiN Horse Winner" Munch, Edvard. The Scream (painting) Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Pit and the Pendulum" Vigny, Alfred de. "The Sound of the Horn" Sartrejean-Paul. THE WALL see Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE "A Visit of Charity" by Eudora Welty see VILLAGE LIFE by Konstantinos Theotokis Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH compared with Furman, Laura. "Watch Time Fly" "A Visit to Grandmother" by William Kelley Glaspell, Susan. "A Jury of Her Peers" see Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Cask of Amontillado" Lao She. GRANDMOTHER TAKES CHARGE Thurber, James. "The Catbird Seat" Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." Voltaire. Candide see "A Village Singer" by Mary Wilkins Freemen Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION see Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S ThE VOTER by Chinua Achebe ENTERTAINMENT compared with Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Achebe, Chinua. Man of the People Achebe, Chinua. No Longer at Ease Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN Ekwensi, Cyprian. Jagua Nana compared with Ibsen, Henrik. An Enemy of the People Arnold, Matthew. "The Buried Life" Soyinka, Wole. The Interpreter Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Twain, Mark. "The Man That Corrupted Parmigianino. Self-Portrait (painting) Hadleyburg" Wedekind, Frank. The Tenor Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray Wright, Richard. "Almos' a Man"

THE WAGES OF GOOD by Birago Diop Wagner, Richard. "Liebestod" from Tristan and compared with Isolde (aria) Aesop's fabk s see Fontaine's fables Mann, Thomas. TRISTAN Kalka's parables


"A Wagner Matinee" by Willa Cather Wall Street (film) see see Alexiou, Elli. THEY WERE ALL TO BE PITIED Chekhov, Anton. THE BET Santos, Bienvenido N. THE DAY THE DANCERS CAME "The Waltz" by Dorothy Parker see "Wakefield" by Nathaniel Hawthorne Yifiez, Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE see Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A CRAZY by Muzaffer Izgii Walden by Henry David Thoreau compared with see Browning, Robert. "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS CRAZY Melville, Herman. "Bartleby the Scrivener" Pocket Full of Miracles (film) Walker, Alice. The Color Purple Thoreau, Henry David. "Where I Lived and What see I Lived For" from Walden Ayyoub, Dhu'l Nun. FROM BEHIND THE VEIL Wolfe, Thomas. "For What Is Man?" from You Danticat, Edwidge. CHILDREN OF THE SEA Can't Go Home Again Rifaat, Alifa. ANOTHER EVENING AT THE CLUB WAR by Milovan Djilas Turgenev, Ivan. YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S compared with WIFE Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Hemingway, Ernest. "Old Man at the Bridge" Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT see Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Megged, Aharon. THE NAME Sienkiewicz, Henryk. YANKO THE MUSICIAN Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND THE WALL by John-Paul Sartre also see compared with Björnson, BjOrnstjerne. THE FATHER Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Djilas, Milovan. THE OLD MAN AND THE SONG Diirrenmatt, Friedrich. "The Tunnel" Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE COLT Gorky, Maxim. The Lower Depths Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Gorky, Maxim. "Twenty-Six Men and a Girl" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Sartre, Jean-Paul. Death without Burial Sartrejean-PauL No Exit WAR by Luigi Pirandello Sartre, Jean-Paul. "The Room" compamd with Unamuno, Miguel. "Saint Emmanuel the Good Dickinson, Emily. "There's a certain slant of light" Martyr" Hemingway, Ernest. "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" also see Joyce, James. "The Dead" Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Melville, Herman. "The Whiteness of the Whale" Pirandello, Luigi. WAR from Moby Dick Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE TORTURE BY HOPE Pinindello, Luigi. CINCI Sartre, Jean-Paul. THE WALL also see Björnson, Björnstjerne. THE FATHER


"The War Prayer" by Mark Twain Welty, Eudora. "Kin" see see Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE DREAM OF A Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY RIDICULOUS MAN Welty, Eudora. "Petrified Man" War with the Newts. Karel Capek see see Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Kafka, Franz. THE METAMORPHOSIS ENTERTAINMENT

"Watch Time Fly" by Laura Furman Welty, Eudora. "A Visit of Charity" see is see Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Tagore, Rabindranath. KABULIWALLAH

A WAY OF TALKING by Patricia Grace Welty, Eudora. "Why I Live at the P.O." compared with see Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL Bradbury, Ray. "August 2002: Night Meeting" SON . Heker, Li liana. "The Stolen Party" Idris, Youssef. 111E CHEAPEST NIGHT'S Merrick, Elliott. "Without Words" ENTERTAINMENT Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE by Mirta Ydfiez Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE compared with Kincaid, Jamaica. Annie John Welty, Eudora. "A Worn Path" Lessing, Doris. Martha Quest see Olsen, Tillie. "I Stand Here Ironing" Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Parker, Dorothy. "The Waltz" Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny West, Nathaniel. A Cbol Million Weatherall" see Salinger, J. D. A Catcher in the Rye Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use" Wharton, Edith. Ethan Frome Wedekind, Frank. The Tenor see see Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. THE DESIRE TO BE A MAN Wharton, Edith. "Roman Fever" Weep Not Child. Ngügi wa Thiong'o see see Papadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING Taylor, Apirana. THE CARVING OF THE AGA Weller, Archie. GOING HOME "Where I Lived and What I Lived For" from Walden compared with by Henry David Thoreau Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues" see Petry, Ann. "The Migrane Workers" Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A CRAZY Welty, Eudora. "A Curtain of Green" see Svevo, halo. IN MY INDOLENCE 303 293 TEACHING THE SHORT STORY

"Where Love Is, God Is" by Leo Tolstoy Winesburg, Ohio by Sherwood Anderson see see Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S NEED ENTERTAINMENT Kawabata Yasunari. ME MOON ON THE WATER "The Whiteness of the Whale" from Molly Dick by Herman Melville "Without Words" by Elliott Merrick see see Pirandello, Luigi. WAR Grace, Patricia. A WAY OF TALKING WHITE NIGHTS by Fyodor Dostoevski Wolfe, Thomas. Look Homeward, Angel compared with see Conrad, Joseph. "Youth" Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL O'Brien, Fitz-James. "The Diamond Lens" SON Wharton, Edith. Ethan Frome also see Wolfe, Thomas. You Can't Go Home Again Dostoevski, Fyodor. THE HONEST THIEF see Agnon, S. Y. ME DOCUMENT Whitman, Walt. "Song of Myself" Izgii, Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WIMOUT A see CRAZY Calvino, Italo. ALL AT ONE POINT "Woman Hollering Creek" by Sandra Cisneros A WHOLE LOAF by S. Y. Agnon see compared with Condé, Maryse. MREE WOMEN IN MANHATTAN Everyman Ferre, Rosario. "The Youngest Doll" "A Woman on a Roof" by Doris Lessing Joyce, James. Dubliners see Kafka, Franz. A HUNGER ARTIST Haris, Petros. LIGHTS ON ME SEA MacLeish, Archibald. J.B. Wordsworth's short poems "Why I Live at the P.O." by Eudora Welty see see Naipaul, V. S.B. WORDSWORTE Gide, André. THE RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON Idris, Youssef. THE CHEAPEST NIGHT'S A WORLD ENDS by Wolfgang Hildesheimer ENTERTAINMENT compared with Naipaul, V. S. THE ENEMY Theotokis, Konstantinos. VILLAGE LIFE Delvaux, Paul, Venus Asleep (painting) Faulkner, William. "A Rose for Emily" Wild Duck by Henrik Ibsen Grosz, George. Pillars of Society (painting) see Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Sand, George. THE MARQUISE Usher" . also see Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray Huber, Heinz. THE NEW APARTMENT see Kawabata Yasunari. THE MOON ON ME WATER "A Worn Path" by Eudora Welty Tolstoy, Leo. HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN see NEED Saranti, Galatea. SUNLIGHT Villiers de L'Isle-Adam. ME DESIRE TO BE A MAN


Wright, Richard. "Almos' a Man" Wright, Richard. Native Son see see Mahfouz, Naguib. THE CONJURER MADE OFF Borowski, Tadeusz. THE MAN WITH THE WITH THE DISH PACKAGE Villiers de L'Isle-Adarn. THE DESIRE TO BE A Mphahlele, Es'kia. THE MASTER OF DOORNVLEI MAN Pirandello, Luigi. CINCI Wright, Richard. Black Boy Wuthering Heights by Emily Brontë see see Cubena. THE AFRICAN GRANNIE Siwertz, Sigfrid. IN SPITE OF EVERYTHING Kariara, Jonathan. HER WARRIOR La Guma, Alex. BLANKETS Wright, Richard. "The Man Who Lived Underground" see Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES

Yamamoto, Hisaye. "Seventeen Syllables" also see see Cumali, Necati. IN GOD'S PLAINS Conde, Maryse. THREE WOMEN IN Djilas, Milovan. WAR MANHATTAN Mrozek, Slawomit CHILDREN Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Mirta. WE BLACKS ALL DRINK COFFEE Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT RAND compared with Yehoshua, Abraham B. FACING THE FOREST Kincaid, Jamaica. Annie John compared with Lessing, Doris. Martha Quest Olsen, Tillie. "I Stand Here Ironing" Camus, Albert. THE GUEST Parker, Dorothy. "The Waltz" Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness Porter, Katherine Anne. "The Jilting of Granny Dances with Wolves (film) Weatherall" Eliot, T. S. "The Hollow Men" Salinger, J. D. A Catcher in the Rye Gordimer, Nadine. "Six Feet of the Country" Walker, Alice. "Everyday Use" Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE NIGHT YANKO THE MUSICIAN by Henryk Sienkiewicz "The Yellow Wallpaper" by Charlotte Perkins a compared with Gilman Mann, Thomas. "The Infant Prodigy" a see Mrozek, Slawomit CHILDREN Colette. THE PHOTOGRAPHER'S MISSUS Nakos, Lilika. THE BROKEN DOLL .P.apadiamantis, Alexandros. THE BEWITCHING OF THE AGA Pavese, Cesare. SUICIDES


YERMOLAY AND THE MILLER'S WIFE by Ivan "The Youngest Doll" by Rosario Ferre Turgenev see compared with Agnon, S. Y. A WHOLE LOAF Chekhov, Anton. The Cherry Orchard Faulkner, William. "The Bear" "Young Goodman Brown" by Nathaniel Hawthorne Hemingway, Ernest. "Big Two-Hearted River" see Thurberjames. "The Dog That Bit People" Achebe, Chinua. VENGEFUL CREDITOR Walker, Alice. The Color Purple Dove-Danquah, Mabel. ME TORN VEIL Yizhar, S. HABAKUK Hesse, Hermann. THE POET Lagerlof, Selma. THE OUTLAWS compared with Moravia, Alberto. ME FALL Bierce, Ambrose. "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge" "Youth" by Joseph Conrad Cortazarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP see Jackson, Shirley. "The Lottery" Dostoevski, Fyodor. WHITE NIGHTS Valenzuela, Luisa. I'M YOUR HORSE IN THE Mahfouz, Naguib. ME CONJURER MADE OFF NIGHT WIM ME DISH Wm Can't Go Home Again by Thomas Wolfe Yu-I2n Fung. History of Chinese Philosophy see see Agnon, S. Y. THE DOCUMENT Cortizarjulio. NIGHT FACE UP Muzaffer. WANTED: A TOWN WITHOUT A CRAZY "You Have Left Your Lotus Pods on the Bus" by Paul Bowles see Nantyan, R. K. A HORSE AND TWO GOATS

ZAKHAR-THE-POUCH by Alexander Solzhenitsyn also see compared with Andric, Ivo. THE SCYTHE Benet, Stephen Vincent. "The Devil and Daniel Mrozek, Slawomir. ON A JOURNEY Webster" Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Benet, Stephen Vincent. "A Tooth for Paul Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. THE RIGHT HAND Revere" Venezis, Elias. MYCENAE Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE ma Sholokhov, Mikhail. THE FATE OF A MAN Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. MATRYONA'S HOME Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. ME RIGHT HAND Turgenev, Ivan. Hunting Sketches

306 296


Zola, Emile. THE INUNDATION Zola, Emile. NAYS MICOULIN compared with compared with Aeschylus. Prometheus Bound Cather, Willa. my Antonia The Booi: of Job Crane, Stephen. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets Dostoevski, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment Dreiser, Theodore. Sister Carrie Euripides. The Trojan Women Euripides. Medea Kafka, Franz. The Trial Flaubert, Gustave. A SIMPLE HEART Kallen, Horace. The Tragedy ofJob Hardy, Thomas. Tess of the d'Urbervilles MacLeish, Archibald. J.B. Maupassant, Guy de. "Clochette" Saga of Hre-ffnkel Millet, Jean Francois. The Gleaners (painting) Salinger, J. D. A Catcher in the Rye Puccini, Giacomo. Madame Butterfly (opera) Sophodes. Oedipus Rex Shakespeare, William. Hamlet Voltaire. Candide Strindberg, August. Countess Julie West, Nathaniel. A Cool Million Tarkington, Booth. Alice Adams also see Colette. THE LITFLE BOUILLOUX GIRL

307 297 EDITORS

Bonnie H. Neumann (BHN) has been professor of English at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville and dean of undergraduate studies at San Diego State University. A graduate of the University of Wisconsin, the Writ._.; 3 c;"-Irkshop at the University of Iowa, and the University of New Mexico, she has published books on Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley and Robert Smith Surtees and coedited Literature from the Workl. She is currently dean of arts and sciences at East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania. She is past chair of the NCTE Committee on World and Comparative Literature and has served on that committee for more than fifteen years.

Helen M. McDonnell (HMM) received a B.A. from Monmouth University, an M.A. from Seton Hall University, and a Ph.D. from Rutgers University Now retired, she was English department head at Ocean Township High School in OaLhurst, New Jerseyfor almost twenty years. She has served as author or editor fOr nineteen ScottForesman lit- erature and reading texts, including Of Time and Place, Teutonic Literature,Russian and Eastern European Literature, and Classics in World Literature. She has been a member of the NCTE Committee on World and Comparative Literature from1967 to the present and has served terms as chair and associate chair of that committee.Dr. McDonnell continues to write on educational matters.


James De Muth (JDM), now deceased, was associ- Hobart Jarrett (HJ), Ph.D., is professor emeritus of ate professor of English and director of American English of of the City University of studies at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls. New York. A Shakespeare and humanities scholar, He received a B.A. in English from Carleton College he received presidential from two presi- and an M.A. and Ph.D. in American studies from the dents of Brooklyn College and a special citation University of Minnesota. His publications include from CUNY for excellence in teaching. He was the the book Small Town America and articles in The first CUNY professor to conduct a live seminar on Library Chronicle and Studies in American cable television. An activist, he was chief negotiator Humor for the opening of the eating facilities that the sit- ins had won in Greensboro, North Carolina. Mary Alice Fite (MAF) currently holds the John V. Chapman Distinguished Chair of English at The Myrtle J. Jones (MJJ), retired assistant professor of Columbus School for Girls in Columbus, Ohio. A English, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia, is long-standing member of the NCTE Committee on a native of Rome, Georgia. She received her B.A. World and Comparative Literature, she has made from Clark University and her M.A. from New York numerous presentations at NCTE national conven- University. She is coauthor of England in tions and at conferences of the Ohio Association of Literature, a textbook for high school students, and Independent Schools. She is coauthor of Classics in author of the unit on black African literature in World Literature. NCTE's Guide to World Literature. Daphne Grabovoi (DG) has taught high school Paul G. Lankford (PGL) is English department English and journalism in the Clark County School chair at Green Run High School in Virginia Beach, District in Las Vegas for twenty-five years. She has Virginia. A graduate of the College of William and been involved in the Advanced Placement English Mary and Old Dominion University, he was City and program in addition to being an adjunct faculty State English Teacher of the Year in 1982 and member at the Community College of Southern Regional Teacher of the Year in 1991. A former Nevada for the past fifteen years. She received her chair and present member of the NCTE Committee B.A. in English literature from the University of on World and Comparative Literature, Mr. Lankford Washington and an M.A. in English education from is coauthor of Classics in World Literature. the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. May Lee (ML) was born in China, but spent her Judith A. Granese (JAG) received both a B.A. and childhood in India, Taiwan, and Japan and has lived, an M.A. in English from New York's St. John's studied, and taught primarily in the United States. University. During her eighteen years at Valley High Educated Western but raised Asian, she was chal- School in Las Vegas, Nevada, she has implemented a lenged early to integrate international and multicul- Latin program, taught English, and served as English tural elements into her personal experience. Her department chair. She has served as president of the quest to develop and make sense of a global perspec- Southern Nevada Teachers of English and treasurer tive has continued through her years of teaching of the Nevada State Council of Teachers of English. world literature and philosophy, her work in film, and In 1993, she received the Reader's Digest American her pursuit of a doctoral degree in integral studies, Hero in Education Award. with a concentration in East-West psychology.


Peter T. Markman (PTM), professor of English at Renee H. Shea (RHS), associate professor of English Fullerton College in California for thirty-one years, at the University of the District of Columbia, directs holds a B.A. from the University of Texas and an M.A. the M.A. program in composition and rhetoric. A from Claremont Graduate School, where he worked contributing editor to Belles Lettres, A Review of toward the Ph.D. supported by a Woodrow Wilson Books by Women, she has published interviews Fellowship. He teaches writing, the literature of the with Lee Smith, Michelle Cliff, Edwidge Danticat, and United States, literary analysis, and mythology. His Sandra Cisneros. She holds a doctorate from the publications, coauthored with his wife, include 10 University of Pennsylvania in writing assessment and Steps in Writing the Research Ripen Masks of the works with test design for the College Board, Spirit: Image and Metaphor in Mesoamerica, and American Council on Education, Law School The Flayed God:The Mythology of Mesoamerica. Admission Service, and U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Roberta Hoffman Markman (RHM) has been pro- Ron Smith (RS), emeritus professor of English, fessor of comparative literature and comparative Utah State University, is author of Mythologies of mythology at California State University Long the World: A Guide to Sources; A Guide to Post- Beach, since 1968. She holds a B.A. from Hunter Classical Works of Art, Literature, and Music College, an M.A. from and a Based on Myths of the Greeks and Romans; and Ph.D. from Occidental/Claremont Colleges. In 1983, numerous articles in academic journals and popular she was chosen as outstanding professor for the periodicals. He has been a program participant at California State University system. She has chaired more than forty national, regional, and international the NCTE Committee on World and Comparative conventions and was elected to the executive com- Literature and has coauthored, with her husband, 10 mittee of the Conference on College Composition Steps in Writing the Research Pape!: Masks of the and Communication. Spirit: Image and Metaphor in Mesoamerica, and The Flayed God: The Mythology of Mesoamerica. Marilyn J. Strelau (MJS) teaches English at Simsbury High School in Connecticut, where she Elizabeth Max (EM) is professor emerita of English has established a multicultural literature course. She education, Oklahoma State University. She holds a has developed and taught a similar course at Central B.S. from Texas Woman's University, a master's Connecticut State University. She frequently leads degree from the University of North Texas, and an teacher workshops on multicultural issues. She Ed.D. from Oklahoma State University. Her interest holds a B.A. from Valparaiso University and an M.A. in Greek literature, pursued during sabbatical in African literature from the University of Denver. research in Greece, stems from undergraduate the- ater study. Author of numerous journal articles and Donald Van Dyke (DVD) has taught for thirty-four reviews, Dr. Max is a founding member of the years at Glenbrook North High School in Northbrook, Illinois. He holds an M.A. in classical National Women's Studies Association. studies and has taught Latin, English, and humanities Breon Mitchell (BM) is director of the Wells to all levels of students. Scholars Program at Indiana University where he is professor of comparative literature and Germanic Clifton Warren (CW) received his B.A. and M.A. in studies. He is author offames Joyce and the history and English at the University of Richmond Gekman Novel and has published widely on mod- and his Ph.D. in comparative literature and letters ern European and American literature. He has also from Indiana University, where he was associate edi- translated contemporary German novels and short tor of Folio. A well-known book and film critic for story collections by such authors as Heinrich Boll, newspapers, TV, and radio, Dr. Warren's critical arti- Siegfried Lenz, and Franz Kafka. cles have appeared in The Cyclopedia of World Authors and The Encyclopedia of 20th Century Literature, lie is currently dean of the college of lib- eral arts at the UniVersity of Central Oklahoma.

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