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GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE  1 / 98

The Bauhaus

1 The Bauhaus Masters 3

2 The Visiting Artists 67

3 The Unsung Heroes 71

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS 2 / 98

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1919–1933 The Bauhaus Masters

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 5 / 98

JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 6 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Wasilly Kandinsky, Black Relationship, 1924 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 7 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 8 / 98

JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 9 / 98

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© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Oscar Schlemmer, Tiadic Ballet, 1924 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 11 / 98

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© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Oscar Schlemmer, Utopia, 1921 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 14 / 98

JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 15 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Lyonel Feininger, Cathedral for Program of the State Bauhaus in , 1919 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 16 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Lyonel Feininger, New European Graphics, 1922 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 17 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 (left) Lyonel Feininger, Church at Gelmeroda XII, circa 1919 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 18 / 98

JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 19 / 98

1895–1946 László Moholy-Nagy

A master in the fields ofphotography , typography, sculpture, , printmaking, and industrial design.

• He was highly influenced by • Strong advocate of the integration of technology and industry into the arts.

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László Moholy-Nagy

He coined the term “The New Vision” for his belief that photography could create a whole new way of seeing the outside world that the human eye could not.

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 26 / 98

1900–85 Herbert Bayer Bayer becomes of the newly added typography and graphic design workshop at age 26.

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Herbert Bayer, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 27 / 98

1926–33 Herbert Bayer • Sans-serif fonts were used almost exclusively • Print contracts added another income stream and gave Bayer a platform for experimentation • Extreme contrasts of type size and weight • Visual hierarchy of emphasis determined by an objective assessment of the relative importance of the words

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1926–33 Herbert Bayer • Bars, rules, points, and squares were used to subdivide the space, unify diverse elements, lead the viewer’s eye across a page, and call attention to important elements • Open composition on an implied grid and a system of sizes for type, rules, and pictorial images brought unity to the designs

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1926–33 Herbert Bayer • Elementary forms and the use of black with one bright, pure hue • Dynamic composition with strong horizontals and verticals (and, on occasion, diagonals)

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 35 / 98

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 37 / 98

1920–1922 STUDENT 1925–1933 YOUNG MASTER Hinnerk Scheper Scheper headed the wall painting workshop at the Bauhaus, was involved in developing the Maljarstroi building institute in and later took over the public agency for the preservation of monuments in .

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 41 / 98

1920–1927 BAUHAUS MASTER Muche was one of the youngest Bauhaus masters. The Haus am Horn, based on his designs, was in fact the “dream house” he had designed for himself and his young wife El.

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 46 / 98

1919–1925 STUDENT 1925–1932 YOUNG MASTER Joost Schmidt Known to all as “Schmidtchen,” Joost Schmidt came to the Bauhaus as a student and was among the young masters appointed by Gropius in 1925. He stayed until 1932.

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 50 / 98

1920–1924 STUDENT 1925–1928 YOUNG MASTER Marcel Breuer He was the first furniture designer ever to use tubular steel. Breuer quickly grasped how to use this material, combining it with for optimum comfort.

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 59 / 98

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JOSEF LÁSZLÓ WALTER PAUL OSKAR ALBERS MOHOLY- NAGY GROPIUS KLEE SCHLEMMER

GEORG JOOST MARCEL LYONEL MUCHE SCHMIDT BREUER FEININGER

HINNERK HERBERT WASSILY GUNTA SCHEPER BAYER KANDINSKY STÖLZL

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 The Bauhaus Masters on the Dessau Roof, 1926 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Bauhaus Masters 62 / 98

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1919–1933 The Visiting Artists

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Visiting Artists 68 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 , Nelly and Theo van Doesburg, 1922. GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Visiting Artists 69 / 98

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© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Constructivist and Dadaist Congress, Weimar, September 25–26, 1922. GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE ARTS & CRAFTS MOVEMENT 71 / 98

1919–1933 The Unsung Heroes

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Annie Albers

Took over the workshop in 1931. Brought an innovative approach to patterns that anticipated minimalism several decades later. Moved Black Mountain College with husband Josef after the closing of the Bauhaus.

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 (left) , With Verticals (cotton and linen), 1946. (right) Anni Albers works in her weaving studio at Black Mountain College in 1937 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 73 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Anni Albers, Design for a Rug, 1927 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 74 / 98

Marianne Brandt • Experimented in lamp design in the metal workshop (1924) • Took over the metal workshop from Moholy-Nagy (1928) • Designed the first lighting fixtures for the Bauhaus Building in Dessau • Left the Bauhaus to become a teach elsewhere and start her own industrial design practice (1929)

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 75 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 , Kandem Table Lamp, 1928 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 76 / 98

The elegant tea infuser MT 49 was made by the Bauhaus student Marianne Brandt in 1924, her first academic year. She attended the metal workshop and was trained by its master, László Moholy-Nagy.

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Marianne Brandt, Tee-Extraktkännchen (MT 49), 1924. Photo by Lucia Moholy, 1924. GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 77 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Marianne Brandt, Ashtray, 1924. Manufacturer Bauhaus Metal Workshop, Weimar, . GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 78 / 98

1919–1924 Gertrud Grunow Developed her own music theory exploring the basic relationships between colour, sound, and movement.

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 79 / 98

1919–1924 Gertrud Grunow Developed her own music theory exploring the basic relationships between color, sound, and movement.

• 1919 — Invited by to hold a lecture at the Bauhaus and recommended her for a position as an assistant teacher • First female teacher and the only woman teacher during the school’s Weimar years • Theory of Harmony (free course) • Worked on a fee basis as a temporary employee until the summer of 1923 • Later awarded a contract as an associate teacher

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 80 / 98

Grete Reichardt

Heavily active in the weaving workshop at the Bauhaus. Helped generate income and notoriety for the school by producing innovative fabrics that were installed into German airplanes, among numerous other industrial applications.

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Lucia Moholy-Nagy

Came to Weimar with her husband László Moholy-Nagy and together they moved to Dessau. Gropius comissioned Lucia to record life at the Bauhaus with her camera while Moholy taught the Vorkurs classes.

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 87 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Lucia Moholy, László Moholy-Nagy, 1925. GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 88 / 98

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Otti Berger Berger was acting head of Weaving after Gunta Stölzl left. She later opened her own “Textile Studio” but being Jewish she was soon banned from practicing her trade.

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Portrait of / Photo: Lucia Moholy, Dessau 1927–1928 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 94 / 98

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© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Otti Berger, Christmas and New Year Card, 1937 GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 96 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Otti Berger, Party at Otti Berger’s, Berger, back row far right, with headdress, October 1930. GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 97 / 98

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Otti Berger photographed by GRAPHIC DESIGN HISTORY / THE BAUHAUS / The Unsung Heroes 98 / 98

To become an artist, one has to be an artist and to become one when one is already an artist, then one comes to the Bauhaus, and the task of the Bauhaus is to make a human being of this ‘artist’ again.

– OTTI BERGER

© Kevin Woodland, 2020 Judit Kárász- Portrait of Otti Berger with the facade of the Bauhaus, double exposure