Material and Making/

Stark County High Schools 2016 Agenda

What is Science Engineering

Basics of Steel Making

Steel Processing and Properties

2 What is Material Science Engineering (MSE)

Wikipedia Definition of Material Science: • The discovery and design of new , incorporates elements of , , and engineering • Material emphasize understanding how the history of a material (its processing) influences its structure, and thus the material's properties and performance. • Origins of stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand observations in metallurgy and

What is was like studying Material Science: • Study 3 material types: , and • Majority of your study is focused on metals, as metals is the building block for all other materials. • Understanding structure, properties and processing of materials • Classes: chemistry, math, physics, labs, material science

3 Careers in Material Science Engineering

Unlimited opportunities • Aerospace (Boeing, Nasa, Rolls-Royce) – design and material selection for aircrafts and aerospace applications • Medical Fields – design and material selection of prosthetics, joint replacements, surgical equipment • Automotive (GM, Honda) – design and material selection for all components of a • Consumer Goods (Food manufacturing) – product development, packaging material selection, processing equipment material selection

• Steel Metallurgy – design of new , improvement of current steels, , material processing & properties optimization

4 Metallurgy Summary

Processing Structure Properties Performance

5 TimkenSteel - Overview

In 1917, the steel business was established within Timken Bearing Company to address supply and needs

TimkenSteel Corporation became an independent company in 2014

Focus in manufacturing quality steel bars and billets for critical applications

Developed precise metallurgical practices and state-of-the-art manufacturing processes

We are one of North America’s leading producers of large diameter and immediate-size special bar quality (SBQ) steel

6 TimkenSteel – Where Are We?

TimkenSteel Headquarters

Harrison Steel Plant

7 Faircrest Steel Plant Gambrinus Steel Plant Agenda

What is Material Science Engineering

Basics of Steel Making

Steel Processing and Properties

8 Steel Making Production

1. Melting


3.  Bottom Pour =  Strand Cast = Blooms

4. Press Bottom Pour


6. Piercing (optional)

9 Melting – Electric Arc Furnace

Steel scrap is loaded into the Electric Arc Furnace

In 60 minutes the scrap is melted into 175 tons of molten steel

10 Refining – Arc Degasser (VAD)

Once the molten steel reached 3000˚F the steel is poured into a ladle and transported to the refiner

Alloy Addition System Vacuum Degassing System (Precise Chemistry Control) ( Removal) Ladle Refining System

Reheat System (Precise Control)

Refining / Teeming Ladle

11 Casting Bottom Poured Ingots OR

Once refining is complete the ladle is taken to bottom pour which produces steel ingots or to the continuous caster which produces steel blooms.

12 Forge Press

Some ingots and blooms go through an in-line forge press to improve centerline soundness.

13 Rolling Mill

The rolling mill controls the shape and size of the steel bar

14 Piercing

Reheat Pierce ElongateReduce Size Gage Mill Anneal

Hot Bed Cool

15 Faircrest Steel Plant

 Opened in 1985 Capabilities:   Located in Canton, OH, USA State-of-art large bar facility  EAF - LRS - BP 28” Sq. (711mm)  Finish sizes 5.5” - 16” (140mm – 406mm) rds/rcs; 11 x14-3/4 bloom cast  1,000,000+ TPY capacity

16 Harrison Steel Plant

 Opened in 1916 Capabilities:   Located in Canton, OH, USA $100 million in upgrades  EAF - LRS - bloom cast  Finish sizes 1” – 7.5” (25mm – 191mm) rds/rcs; round corner squares 3.188” – 6” (81mm to 152 mm)  750,000+ TPY capacity

17 17 Gambrinus Steel Plant

 Opened in 1928 Capabilities:   Located in Canton, OH, USA Tube making, thermal treatment, finishing, inspecting and shipping operations  One of the most advanced continuous thermal treatment facilities in the world  Three tube piercing mills producing products from 1.9” to 13” (48.5mm – 330mm) in diameter  New intermediate finishing line advances testing quality and reduces processing times

18 Agenda

What is Material Science Engineering

Basics of Steel Making

Steel Processing and Properties

19 Treating

20 in Steel

Different heat treat recipes result in Characteristics different structures in steel •Softest structure Spherodite (microstructures) •Good for •Most stable structure Pearlite • Moderately soft Different microstructures have •Good different properties •Intermediate and strength Bainite •Maintains ductility We can use microscopy to identify and •Very high hardness and strength Martensite •Very brittle and no ductility study the microstructure of different •Requires to be useful products

Martensite Pearlite Spherodite 21 Steel Properties

Customers will specify property requirements based off the application

Samples are cut from the steel product after heat treat and prepared for various tests

Steel properties are measured by a variety of tests • Tensile Test  Strength  Ductility

• Charpy Impact  Toughness

• Hardness

• Jominy Test 

22 The Tensile Test

Measures: • Strength  How much a material can withstand without deforming  vs elastic deformation • Ductility  Materials ability to deform when under stresses  Material ability to stretch  Opposite of brittle

Results in a stress strain curve and values for the strength and ductility

23 The Stress vs. Strain Curve Measurement of strength: Strength & Ultimate Tensile Strength Measurements of ductility: Elongation & Reduction of Area

Elastic Region Plastic Region Once stress is Permanently removed returns to deformed by the original shape and stress size

24 The Stress vs. Strain Curve

25 The Charpy V Notch Impact Test

Measures: •  Measure of the amount of required to fracture a material that contains a crack  The amount of energy required to make a crack grow  Usually a reverse relationship between ductility and toughness

Testing occurs at various and results in a that shows the toughness at different temperature, as as the brittle to ductile transition zone

26 Charpy “V” Notch Impact Toughness

Temperature ( oC) -100 -50 0 50 100 150 120 120 110 110 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10

CharpyImpact Energy (Ft-lbs) 0 0 -200-150-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Temperature (F)

27 Hardness

Measures the resistance of a material to deformation due to a D constant compression load from an object

Measures the dimensions of an indentation left by a specifically dimensioned and loaded indenter

Types: • Brinell (1) • Rockwell B (2/3) • Rockwell C (4/5)

28 Jominy Test - Hardenability STEEL


• A measure of the ability for HARDNESS steel to harden in depth SURFACE CENTER SURFACE CROSS SECTION • Prepare a sample, heat it to temperatures, cool from one end at a controlled rate Cooling Rate Hardness DECREASES DECREASES • Measure the hardness variation along the sample Cooling Rate Hardness HIGHEST HIGHEST

29 Steel Making Jominy End Quench Curve - 1045 Steel OILQUENCH 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" OIL QUE NC H .4-.5 H v .4-.5 Hv 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" MILD WATE R 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" MIL D WATE R AIR Q UE NCH QUE NC H 1" 2" 3" 4" 5" 6" 7" QUENC H C OOL ING F F F F F F C OOLING / S / S / S /S /M /M F F F F F F R ATE 5 5° 2 5° 12° 7° 290° 2 00° R ATE 55° /S 25° /S 12° /S 7° /S 290° /M 200° /M . G 614 60 614 60 G. SS L E 484 L 50 484 50 E W WELL K

372 40 K – 3000

ARDN 372 40 SS – 3000– SS K H OC E "

283 R 30 ROCK ESS ESS 283 30 "C "C" HARDNESS "C" N

RDN 230 20 230 20 A H

L 185 90 185 90 L L H L L E E LL IN 150 80 150 80 E IN R B W WELL

128 70 BR ARDNESS 128 70 "H

107 ROCK 60 B 107 ROCK 60 " "B" HARDNESS "B"



30 Metallurgy Summary

Processing Structure Properties Performance

31 Discussion