Multidisciplinary Project Dictionary Version 0.0.2

February 15, 2006


DRAFT Cambridge-MIT Institute Multidisciplinary Design Project

This Dictionary/Glossary of Engineering terms has been compiled to compliment the developed as part of the Multi-disciplinary Design Project (MDP), which is a programme to develop teaching and kits to aid the running of mechtronics projects in and Schools. The project is being carried out with from the Cambridge-MIT Institute undergraduate teaching programe.

For more about the project please visit the MDP website at http://www-mdp.eng.cam.ac.uk or contact

Dr. Peter Long Prof. Alex Slocum Cambridge Engineering Department Massachusetts Institute of Trumpington Street, 77 Massachusetts Ave. Cambridge. Cambridge MA 02139-4307 CB2 1PZ. USA

e-mail: [email protected] e-mail: [email protected] tel: +44 (0) 1223 332779 tel: +1 617 253 0012

For information about the CMI initiative please see Cambridge-MIT Institute website :- http://www.cambridge-mit.org CMI CMI, University of Cambridge Massachusetts Institute of Technology 10 Miller’s , 77 Massachusetts Ave. Lane, Cambridge MA 02139-4307 Cambridge. CB2 1RQ. USA

tel: +44 (0) 1223 327207 tel. +1 617 253 7732 fax: +44 (0) 1223 765891 fax. +1 617 258 8539 . DRAFT 2 CMI-MDP Programme 1 Introduction

This dictionary/glossary has not been developed as a definative work but as a useful reference book for engi- neering students to search when looking for the meaning of a word/phrase. It has been compiled from a of existing glossaries together with a number of local additions. Each reference has a standard layout

Transistor [Elec]

Where [Elec] indicates the engineering where the definition is used and the original source, see section 1.1. In a number of cases there are multiple definitions, these have been kept to indicate the variation in use even within the same industry. The MDP project is very grateful to the compilers of the other collections for their kind permission to reuse their data, but accepts responsibility for any or mistranscription. Links to some of the original data sources are given in section 1.1 and the users is urged to consult these if additional information is required.

1.1 Engineering Disciplines & thermodynamic engineering involves developing, designing, testing items related to aircraft generating .

• [aeroth] - general

Agricultural & engineering involves every aspect of food production, processing, , and distribution. applies engineering principles and design to the and medical arena to improve care and the of those with medical impairments. Bringing together from many engineering disciplines and technical fields, biomedical design medical instruments, devices, and ; develop new procedures; conduct ; and solve clinical problems. applies principles of and physics to the design and production of that undergo chemical changes during their manufacture. Civil & involves planning, designing, and a wide variety of and fa- cilities, including , roads and highways, , high-rise , airports, treatment centers, industrial and processing facilities, and sanitation .

• [civilst] - general • [civil-1] - see http://urban.arch.virginia.edu/km6e/reference/glossary/struc-glossary.html

Computer & involves the design, , and operation of systems. • [soft] - general • [soft1] - see http://www.apl.jwww.apl.jhu.edu Control involves the design and manufacture of and ways to control dynamic processes automatically. Electrical & is the practical application of . Covering the area from very low power/ to high power and systems. • [elec] - general Environmental engineering is the development of processes and for the supply of water, the disposal of waste, and the control of all kinds of . • [enviro] - general uses the principles of to analyze and predict the behavior of materials in engineering situations.DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 3 • [geotech] - general Instrumental engineering • [instrum] - general • [instrum-1] - see http://www.omega.com Manufacturing engineering includes all aspects of manufacturing operations, including the behavior and properties of materials and materials processes; the design of products, equipment, and tooling neces- sary for their manufacture; of manufacturing enterprises; and, the design and operation of manufacturing systems Materials engineering focusses on materials design, testing and processing techniques (e.g. , , ) • [mat] - general • [mat-1] - see http://www.justinline.com/glossary applies the principles of mechanics and to the design of and devices. Perhaps the broadest of all engineering disciplines, mechanical engineering is generally combined into three broad : energy, structures and in mechanical systems, and manufacturing. • [mech] - general • [mech-1] - materials related see http://www.tulane.edu/ bmitche/book/glossary.html • [mech-2] - Welding http://www.meg.co.uk • [mech-3] - Fasteners see http://www.boltscience.com engineering comprises all aspects of discovering, removing, and processing from the earth. involves the design, construction, and operation of plants for power gen- eration, of nuclear submarines, the handling of nuclear and the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. • [nuclear] - general • [nuclear-1] - see http://www.usanuclear engineering involves sustaining the flow of and , including , recovery, storage, and transportation of petroleum. • [petro] - general • [petro-1] - see http://www.statoil.com is a branch of civil and environmental engineering that deals with sanitary issues affecting public health, such as safe drinking water and sewage disposal. Among other things, sanitary engineers deal with preventing toxins and dangerous from endangering the public in such systems.

DRAFT 4 CMI-MDP Programme 5

4GL Fourth generation language . [soft] Access hatch An airtight door that pre- serves the integrity of a reactor contain- 88open A consortium with the aim of creating a ment while allowing access to personnel multivendor open based and equipment. [nuclear-1] on the Motorola 88000 RISC processor family [soft] ACE Adaptive Environment, a C++ Wrapper Library for from the University of California at Irvine [soft] AB ACE Advanced Computing Environment: a consor- tium to agree on an open based on the MIPS R4000 chip. A computer architecture AAP DTD A DTD document type for scientific ARCS be defined, on which either OS/2 or documents, defined by the AAP [soft] Open Desktop can be run [soft] AAP The Association of American Publishers: en- a that yields gaged in standardisation efforts in document when dissolved in water. [mat-1] preparation. [soft] Acid deposition or acid Refers loosely to a ABI Application Binary Interface: the interface by ofwet and dry ”deposition” (deposited which an application program gains access to op- material) from the atmospherecontaining higher erating system and other services, designed to than ”” amount of nitric and sulfuri- permit porting of compiled binary applications cacids. The precursors or chemical forerunners between systems with the same ABI. [soft] of formationresult from both natural abrasion a process where hard are forced sources, such as volcanoes and decayingvegeta- against and moved along a . [mat-1] tion, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of andnitrogen resulting from abrasive a hard and -resistant material (com- .[mining-1] monly a ) that is used to wear, grind, or cut away other material. [mat-1] Acid mine water - Mine water that contains free sulfuricacid, mainly due to the of Abrasive A hard and wear-resistant material that .[mining-1] is used to wear, grind or cut away other material.[mech-1] ACM Association for Computing Machinery [soft] abrasive a grinding wheel composed of an Acorn Nut A nut (so-called because of its ) abrasive grit and bonding agent. [mat-1] that has a domed top so that [mech-3] Abstract Class In object-oriented programming, acoustic emission a of integrity of a ma- a class designed only as a parent from which terial determined by emission when a ma- sub-classes may be derived, but which is not it- terial is stressed. [mat-1] self suitable for instantiation . Often used to Acrobat A platform-independent text and ”abstract out” incomplete sets of features which formatter/viewer from Adobe Systems [soft] may then be shared by a of sibling sub- classes which add different variations of the miss- acrylic synthetic made from acrylic acid or a ing pieces. [soft] thereof; acrylics possess the of and offer flame resistance. [mat- Abutment - In mining, (1) the of the rocksabove a narrow roadway is transferred to 1] the solid coal along thesides, which as abut- Actis An approach to integrated CASE by Apollo . ments of the arch of strata spanning theroad- [soft] way; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a long- wall face istransferred to the front abutment, activated flux mixture of rosin and small that is, the solid coal ahead ofthe face and the amounts of organic- activators or organic- back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind acid activators. [mat-1] theface.[mining-1] activation energy the energy required to initiate ACA Application Control Architecture: DEC’s im- a , such as diffusion. [mat-1] plementation of ORB [soft] Activation The process of making a radioisotope A vector equal to the by bombarding a stable element with that changes with .DRAFT [struc-1] or . [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 6

activator substance that enhances the ability of a AD/Cycle (AD = Application Development): a flux to remove oxides and other contaminants of SAA -compatible IBM-sponsored products for from being joined. [mat-1] program development, running on accessing a central repository on a mainframe. Active DBMS A conventional or passive DBMS The stages requirements, and de- combined with a of detection and ,production of the application, building and condition monitoring. Event handling is often testing, and maintenance. used in- rule-based , as with an expert system . [soft] clude code generators and knowledge based sys- Active fuel The -to-end of tems, as as languages and debuggers. [soft] fuel material within a fuel element. [nuclear-1] ADDD A Depository of Development Documents. A public domain Software Engineering Envi- Active object An object that encompasses its own ronment from GMD developed as part of the thread of control. [soft] project [soft] Active workings - Any place in a mine (1) the attractive between adjacent where miners arenormally required to work or surfaces in a frictional contact; (2) the in travel and which are ventilated andinspected which two surfaces are held together by interfa- regularly.[mining-1] cial . [mat-1] ActiveX A kit from Mi- a substance that bonds together the sur- crosoft for develpment of applications faces of two other materials.[mech-1] and content [soft] Adit - A nearly horizontal passage from the surface Actor A in Chorus denoting the unit of re- bywhich a mine is entered and dewatered. A source allocation. [soft] blind horizontal opening intoa mountain, with only one entrance.[mining-1] Actor In object-oriented programming, an object which exists as a concurrent process. [soft] ADL Assertion (or API) Definition Language. A project for Automatic Interface Generation Actra A multiprocessor Smalltalk project. [soft] [soft] Ada A high-level computer language sponsored by ADT : a class of data struc- the US Department of Defense. It has a mul- tures described by means of a set of operations titasking , and a number of features rather than by physical representation, such as a useful for software engineering [soft] class in object-oriented programming.. [soft] AdaIC Ada Information Clearinghouse - More in- Advanced Ceramic a value-added technical ce- formation. [soft] ramic .[mech-1] Adaline given by Widrow to ADAptive LIn- Advance - Mining in the same direction, or order ear NEurons, that is neurons (seeMcCulloch- ofsequence; first mining as distinguished from Pitts ) which learn using the Widrow-Huff Delta retreat.[mining-1] Rule (see also Madaline ). [soft] Aegis A CASE for project change management, ADAMO A data management system written at part of the GNU software. [soft] CERN based on the Entity-Relationship model AENOR Asociacion Espanola de Normalizacion y [soft] Certificacion. The Spanish standards organisa- Adaptable User Interface A toolkit from Ora- tion. [soft] cle allowing applications to be written portably AEP Application environment profile . [soft] for different windowing systems. It provides one call level interface along with a resource manager Aerotight Nut it prevents contact with the exter- and editor across a range of ”standard” GUI s, nal thread. [mech-3] including Macintosh, Windows and the X Win- dow System . [soft] AES Application environment specification: a set of specifications from OSF for programming and Adaptive learning Learning in which a system user interfaces, aimed at providing a consistent programs itself by adjusting or strengths application environment on different hardware until it produces the desired output. Same as platforms. It includes O/S for the operating sys- Hebbian . [soft] tem (user commands and program interfaces), U/E for the User Environment (), and N/S DRAFTfor Network services. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 7

AFIPS American Federation of Information Pro- Air split - The division of a current of air into two cessing Societies. [soft] ormore parts.[mining-1] AFNOR Association Francaise pour la Normalisa- Airway - Any passage through which air is carried. tion: the French national standards institute, a Alsoknown as an air course.[mining-1] member of ISO . [soft] AIS Advanced Informatics Support project for ad- AFS Andrew File System . [soft] ministrative work at CERN [soft] aging a change in the properties of certain AIX Advanced Interactive eXecutive: IBM’s ver- and alloys that occurs at ambient or moderately sion of , taken as the for the OSF elevated after , [soft] treatment, or a working operation. [mat- 1] ALARA Acronym for ”as low as (is) reasonably achievable.” Means making every reasonable ef- AGL Atelier de Genie Logiciel: French for IPSE . fort to maintain exposures to ionizing [soft] as far below the dose limits as practical, con- sistent with the purpose for which the licensed AGOCG Advisory Group on Computer . activity is undertaken, taking into account the Advising UK Higher on Computer state of technology, the of improve- Graphics, and [soft] ments in relation to state of technology, the eco- Agreement State A state that has signed an nomics of improvements in relation to benefits to agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commis- the public health and safety, and other societal sion under which the state regulates the use of and socioeconomic considerations, and in rela- byproduct, source, and small of spe- tion to utilization of nuclear energy and licensed cial nuclear material in that state. [nuclear-1] materials in the public interest [nuclear-1] AIA Application Integration Architecture: DEC’s alclad composite wrought product comprised of an ”open standards” specifications. [soft] aluminum having one or both sur- faces as metallurgically bonded aluminum or AI Artificial Intelligence . [soft] aluminum alloy that is anodic to the core, and thus electrochemically protects the core AICA Associazione Italiana di Calcolo Automatico. against . [mat-1] [soft] Algol A high-level devel- AIFF Audio IFF. A format developed by Apple for oped in the 1950s . [soft] storing high- sampled sound and musical instrument info; also used by SGI and several A systematic procedure guaranteed to professional audio packages. [soft] produce a after a finite number of steps. [soft] Airborne radioactivity area A room, enclosure, or area in which airborne radioactive materials, a metal in group IA of the peri- composed wholly or partly of licensed material, odic table that form strongly alkaline exist in that (1) exceed the de- (, , , , cesium, rived air limits or (2) would result ). [mat-1] in an individual in the area without respi- ratory protection exceeding, during those , a metal in group IIA of the 0.6 percent of the annual limit on intake or 12 (, , , derived air concentration-hours [nuclear-1] , , ). [mat-1] air-lock an intermediate enclosed chamber of a vac- allotriomorphic a crystal having a nor- uum or pressure system through which an object mal structure, but with an imperfect out- may be passed without materially changing the ward shape due to the influence of its surroud- or pressure of the system. [mat-1] ings. [mat-1] Air sampling The collection of samples of air to the possibility of existence of two or more measure the radioactivity or to detect the pres- different crystal structures for a substance (gen- ence of radioactive material, particulate , erally an elemental solid). [mat-1] or chemical pollutants in the air. [nuclear-1] Allowance An intentional clearance between in- Air Set Cement a cement that sets through loss ternal or external thread and the design form of of water.[mech-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 8

the thread when the thread form is on it’s maxi- Analysis The part of the software development pro- mum metal condition. Not all classes of fit have cess concerned with defining the requirements for an allowance. For metric threads the allowance the product. [soft] is called the fundamental . [mech-3] ANDF Architecture-Neutral Distribution Format: Alloy a metallic solid or formed from an emerging OSF standard for software distribu- an intimate combination of two or more tion. Programs are compiled into ANDF before elements.[mech-1] distribution, and executables are produced from it for the local target system. [soft] alloy a metallic substance that is composed of two or more elements. [mat-1] Andrew File System The distributed file system of the Andrew project , adopted by the OSF . iron the body-centered cubic (BCC) form of [soft] pure iron, stable below 910 C (1670 F). [mat-1] Andrew Message System A multimedia interface Alpha A positively to electronic mail and bulletin boards, developed ejected spontaneously from the nuclei of some as part of the Andrew project [soft] radioactive elements. It is identical to a he- lium nucleus that has a number of 4 and Andrew Project A distributed system project for an electrostatic of +2. It has low pene- support of educational and research computing trating power and a short range (a few centime- at Carnegie Mellon University [soft] ters in air). The most energetic will generally fail to penetrate the dead layers of Andrew Toolkit A portable user interface toolkit cells covering the skin and can be easily stopped developed as part of the Andrew project , run- by a sheet of paper. Alpha particles are haz- ning on the and distributed ardous when an alpha-emitting is inside with X11R5 . [soft] the body. [nuclear-1] Anemometer - Instrument for measuring air Alternating Copolymer a , in which the velocity.[mining-1] different mer units systematically alternate posi- Controlled Tightening A tightening pro- tions along the molecular .[mech-1] cedure in which a fastener is first tightened by Alvey A funding programme for collaborative re- a pre-selected (called the snug torque) so search in the UK. [soft] that the clamped surfaces are pulled together, and then is further tightened by giving the nut an AMADEUS A PC client for Hyper-G . [soft] additional measured . Frequently bolts ami Applications of Metrics in Industry (Assess, are tightened beyond their by this Analyze, Metricate, Improve). A method for method in order to ensure that a precise preload software and process im- is achieved. Bolts of short length can be elon- provement [soft] gated too much by this method and the bolt ma- terial must be sufficiently ductile to cater for the Amoeba A distributed developed involved. Because of the bolt by A.Tanenbaum and others at Amsterdam [soft] being tightened beyond yield, its re-use is lim- ited. [mech-3] Amorphography the branch of concerned with the determination of struc- Angle of dip - The angle at which strata or tures and their systemmatic classification (see mineraldeposits are inclined to the horizontal also ).[mech-1] .[mining-1] Amorphous having no long-range order.[mech-1] Angle of draw - In coal mine subsidence, this angle amorphous non-crystalline, without long-range or- isassumed to bisect the angle between the verti- der. [mat-1] cal and the angle ofrepose of the material and is 20o for flat seams. For dippingseams, the angle AMS Andrew Message System . [soft] of break increases, being 35.8o from the vertical- for a 40o dip. The main break occurs over the Anaerobic Adhesive An adhesive which hardens seam at an angle fromthe vertical equal to half in the absence of air, such are often the dip.[mining-1] used as a thread locking medium. [mech-3] Angle of repose - The maximum angle from hor- analog circuit electrical circuit that provides a con- izontal atwhich a given material will rest on a tinuous relationship between its input and out- given surface without orrolling.[mining-1] put. [mat-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 9

Anion A negatively charged . [nuclear-1] electrode that corrosion occurs and metal ions enter . [mat-1] anion a negatively charged non-metallic ion. [mat- 1] anodic protection a technique to reduce the cor- rosion rate of a metal by polarizing it into its Anisotropic exhibiting different values of passive , where dissolution rates are low. a property in different crystallographic [mat-1] directions.[mech-1] anodic reaction electrode reaction to material characteristic of exhibiting dif- a transfer of positive charge from the electronic ferent values of a property in different crystallo- to the ionic conductor; an anodic reaction is an graphic directions. [mat-1] oxidation process. [mat-1] ANL Argonne National , USA [soft] anodizing a conversion coating on a metal Anna A specification language from Stanford Uni- surface by anodic oxidation; most often applied versity for formally specifying Ada programs. It to aluminum. [mat-1] has a Specification Analyzer and a Consistency ANSA Advanced Network Systems Architecture: Checking System. [soft] an architecture for distributed computer systems a generic term used to denote a heat based on a model developed as an Esprit project treatment wherein the microstructrure and, con- [soft] sequently, the properties of a material are al- ANSI American National Standards Institute, re- tered. Frequently, refers to heat treatment sponsible for approving U.S. standards in many whereby a cold-worked metal is softened by al- areas, including and communications. lowing it to recrystallize.[mech-1] ANSI is a member of ISO - More information. annealing a generic term used to denote a heat [soft] treatment where the and proper- ANSI/SPARC Architecture A layered model ties of a material are altered; it frequently refers of database architecture comprising a physical to a heat treatment where a previously cold- , a conceptual schema, and user views. worked metal is softened by allowing it to re- [soft] crystallize. [mat-1] ANSI Z39.50 See Z39.50 . [soft] Annealing A technique which can be applied to any minimization or learning process based on AnswerGarden A help desk software package from successive update steps (either random or deter- MIT. [soft] ministic) where the update step length is propor- tional to an arbitrarily set which can Anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) play the role of a . Then, in ATWS is one of the ”worst case” accidents, with the annealing of metals, the temperature is consideration of which frequently motivates the made high in the early stages of the process for NRC to take regulatory . The accident faster minimization or learning, then is reduced could happen if the system that provides a for greater stability. [soft] highly reliable means of shutting down the re- actor (scram system) fails to work during a re- annealing twin a twin formed in a crystal during actor event (anticipated transient). The types recrystallization. [mat-1] of events considered are those used for designing the . [nuclear-1] Annual limit on intake (ALI) The derived limit for the amount of radioactive material taken into Anticline - An upward fold or arch of the body of an adult worker by inhalation or in- strata.[mining-1] gestion in a . ALI is the smaller value of intake of a given in a year by the a observed in reference man that would result in a commit- some materials in which complete magnetic mo- ted effective dose equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 siev- ment cancellation occurs as a result of antipar- ert) or a equivalent of 50 rems allel of adjacent or ions. The (0.5 ) to any individual or . macroscopic solid possesses no net magnetic [nuclear-1] .[mech-1] the electrode of an at which antiferromagnetism a phenomenon where com- oxidation occurs; flow away from the plete cancellation occurs as a anode in the external circuit;DRAFT it is usually at the result of antiparallel coupling of adjacent atoms CMI-MDP Programme 10

or ions; the macroscopic solid possesses no net Appletalk The proprietary local area network pro- magnetic moment. [mat-1] tocol developed by Apple for their Macintosh range of processors. Current implementations Anti- Coating AF are dry lu- exist on Localtalk and Ethertalk. [soft] bricants consisting of suspensions of solid lubri- cants, such as , PTFE or molydbenum Applet A small application, often downloaded from disulphide of small particle in a binder. Such a remote server and run in a controlled environ- coatings can be applied to fastener threads to re- ment. Typically written in a language such as place metallic coatings such as and Java browser. [soft] and offer maintenance free permanent lubrica- tion. By careful selection of the , AF Applied force see external force. [struc-1] coatings can be designed to meet specific applica- APSE Ada Programming Support Environment. tions. The coatings are permanently bonded to [soft] the metal surface and provide a lubricating film preventing direct metal to metal contact. [mech- - A water- bed of porous rock, 3] oftensandstone.[mining-1] Anti-Seize Compound An anti-seize compound A software engineering research project by is used on the threads of fasteners in some appli- a consortium of US universities [soft] cations. The purpose of the compound depends upon the application. It can prevent of Archie An archive server database and query sys- mating surfaces - such compounds are frequently tem operated by the McGill University School of used with stainless fasteners to prevent this . Services remote requests for effect from occurring. In some applications it information on software kept on archives - is used to improve corrosion resistance to al- wide and available via ftp [soft] low the parts to be subsequently dis-assembled Arching - processes around a mine Thirdly, it can provide a barrier to water pene- opening, leadingto stabilization by an arching tration since the threads are sealed by use of the effect.[mining-1] compound. [mech-3] ARC (Previously ARCS) Advanced RISC Comput- AOCE Apple Open Collaboration Environment. A ing Specification: the standard hardware archi- set of software for e-mail, directory services etc. tecture of ACE ., specifying the baseline hard- [soft] ware requirements to create ACE-compatible APA Application Portability Architecture: DEC’s systems. [soft] for portable applications software. [soft] ARCS see ARC . [soft] apE A graphics package from the Ohio Supercom- Area (of an airway) - Average width multiplied puter . [soft] by averageheight of airway, expressed in Apertos An object-oriented operating system from feet.[mining-1] Sony Computer Science Laboratory [soft] Arjuna A system for reliable API Application Program Interface: a term for the from the Computing Laboratory, University of interface by which an application program gains Newcastle upon Tyne. It supports atomic trans- access to operating system and other services, actions on persistent objects. [soft] defined at source-code level. [soft] ARL ASSET Reuse Library. [soft] APL A Programming Language developed by Iver- ARL Association of Research Libraries (North son for mathematical applications. [soft] America) - More information. [soft] Apollo , now a division of ARPANET U.S. Department of Defense (DARPA Hewlett-Packard, also the name of a range of ) wide area network. It became operational in workstations manufactured by this . 1968 and was the forerunner of the Internet . [soft] [soft] AppKit A set of objects used by the application Artifex A CASE environment from ARTIS of Turin builder for the NeXTstep environment. [soft] for the development of large event-driven dis- Apple Apple Computer Inc, manufacturers of the tributed systems. It has code-generation and Macintosh range of PersonalDRAFT Computers. [soft] rapid prototyping features [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 11

Artificial Intelligence The subfield of computer parts of the mathematical models that the an- science concerned with the and meth- alyst expects will hold true for the range of so- ods of symbolic by computer, and the lutions used for making decisions. Without as- symbolic representation of the knowledge to be sumptions, even the most powerful computers used in making - More information. may not be able to provide useful for [soft] the models. [nuclear-1] ASCII American Standard Code for Information Atactic a type of polymer chain configuration Interchange. [soft] wherein side groups are randomly poitioned on one side of the polymer backbone or the ASDL Abstract-Type and Scheme-Definition Lan- other.[mech-1] guage: developed as part of Esprit project GRASPIN , as a basis for generating language- atactic a type of polymer chain configuration where based editors and environments. It combines side groups are randomly positioned on one side an object-oriented type system, syntax-directed of the chain or the other. [mat-1] schemes and a target-language inter- AtFS Attributed File System: the basis of the face. [soft] Shape VC toolkit. Cooperative work within projects is supported by a status model con- ASE Advanced Software Environment: an object- trolling of version objects, locking, and oriented application support system from - ”long transactions” for synchronizing concurrent dorf. [soft] updates. The of object attributes pro- ASIC Application-Specific : an vides a basis for storing management information integrated circuit designed to perform a partic- with versions and passing this information be- ular by defining the interconnection of tween individual . This mechanism is useful a set of basic circuit building blocks drawn from for building integrated environments from a set a library provided by the circuit manufacturer. of unrelated tools. [soft] [soft] Athena Project Athena: a distributed system ASIS Ada Semantic Interface Specification. An in- project for support of educational and research terface between an Ada library and any tool re- computing at MIT . Much of the software devel- quiring information in it [soft] oped is now in wider use, especially the X Win- dow System [soft] ASIS Installation Server at CERN [soft] Atherton Atherton Technology developed the Soft- ware BackPlane framework. Their Atherton ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers: Tool Integration Services were the basis for the involved in CAD standardisation. [soft] ATIS standard. [soft] ASN.1 Abstract Syntax 1: an ISO ATIS A Tools Integration Standard: an object- /CCITT standard for the description of data. It oriented interface to a set of services that allows is intended to facilitate the exchange of data be- the saving, accessing, and managing of informa- tween application programs. [soft] tion in a common repository . Developed by Atherton Technology and DEC, based on an ex- ASPECT An IPSE developed by an Alvey to spec- tended version of the Software BackPlane , now ify the object-management system and tool in- proposed as an industry standard. [soft] terface. [soft] ATK The Andrew Toolkit [soft] ASQ Automated Software Quality. The use of soft- ATM Adobe Type Manager. [soft] ware tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality. [soft] ATM Asynchronous Transfer . A transmis- sion system for [soft] ASQC American Society for Quality Control. [soft] Atomic Energy Commission Federal agency cre- ASSET Asset Source for Software Engineering ated in 1946 to manage the development, use, Technology. A programme to promote software and control of nuclear energy for and reuse by the DoD - More information. [soft] civilian applications. Abolished by the Energy Assumptions (for IPEs, IPEEs, and PRAs) Reorganization Act of 1974 and succeeded by the In the context of PRAs, assumptions are those Energy Administra- tion (now part of the U.S. Department of En- ergy) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commis- DRAFTsion. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 12

Atomic energy Energy released in nuclear reac- Autolok Nut A torque prevailing nut of an tions. Of particular interest is the energy re- all metal construction. Covered by UK patent leased when a initiates the breaking up 1180842 the nut is marketed by GKN and or fissioning of an ’s nucleus into smaller Fasteners Limited. [mech-3] pieces (fission) or when two nuclei are joined together under millions of degrees of heat (fu- Auxiliary feedwater Backup water supply used sion). It is more correctly called nuclear energy. during nuclear plant startup and shutdown to [nuclear-1] supply water to the generators during ac- cident conditions for removing decay heat from Atomic number The number of positively charged the reactor. [nuclear-1] protons in the nucleus of an atom. [nuclear-1] Auxiliary operations - All activities supportive of (APF) the of the but notcontributing directly to mining.[mining- of a that is occupied by ”hard 1] ” atoms or ions. [mat-1] Auxiliary ventilation - Portion of main ventilat- atom percent (at%) concentration specification ing currentdirected to face of dead end entry by on the basis of the number of moles (or atoms) means of an auxiliary fan andtubing.[mining-1] of a particular element relative to the total num- ber of moles (or atoms) of all elements within an Average planar linear heat generation rate alloy. [mat-1] (APLGHR) The average value of the linear heat generation rate of all the control rods at Atom The smallest particle of an element that can- any given horizontal plane along a fuel bundle. not be divided or broken up by chemical means. [nuclear-1] It consists of a central core of protons and neu- trons, called the nucleus. Electrons revolve in AVL Abstract Visualization Language in the Tecate in the region surrounding the nucleus. project. [soft] [nuclear-1] AVS Application Visualisation System: a portable The process by which the number of modular UNIX -based graphics package sup- particles or entering a body of matter is ported by a consortium of vendors including reduced by and scattered radiation. Convex, DEC, IBM, HP, SET Technologies, [nuclear-1] Stardent and WaveTracer [soft] AUE Andrew User Environment. Part of the An- AWK A scanning and processing language drew project [soft] named after its authors: Aho, Weinberger and Kernighan. [soft] Auger - A rotary drill that uses a de- vice topenetrate, break, and then transport the A text editor for the X-Window-System . [soft] drilled material(coal). [mining-1] Axial force A system of internal forces whose resul- AUI Adaptable User Interface from Oracle . [soft] tant is a force acting along the longitudinal axis of a structural member or assembly. [struc-1] AUIS Andrew user Interface System [soft] Azimuth - A term that references the face-centered cubic iron; also iron and anglemeasured clockwise from any meridian (the steel alloys that have the FCC . established ofreference). The bearing is used [mat-1] to designate direction. The bearing ofa line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and Austenite face-centered cubic iron; also iron and theline. [mining-1] steel alloys that have the FCC structure.[mech- 1] Bachman Proposed a style of Entity-Relationship modeling which differs from the original Chen austenitizing forming austenite by heating a fer- proposals. [soft] rous alloy above its upper critical temperature - to within the austenite region from the Backfill Mine waste or rock used to support the . [mat-1] roof aftercoal removal.[mining-1] AutoCAD A CAD software package for mechanical Radiation from cosmic engineering marketed by Autodesk Inc. [soft] sources; naturally occurring radioactive materi- als, including (except as a decay product DRAFTof source or special nuclear material) and global CMI-MDP Programme 13

fallout as it exists in the environment from the Barrier - Something that bars or keeps out. - testing of nuclear devices. It does not rier pillarsare solid blocks of coal left between two include radiation from source, byproduct, or spe- mines or sections of a mineto prevent accidents cial nuclear materials regulated by the Nuclear due to inrushes of water, gas, or from explosion- Regulatory Commission. The typically quoted sor a mine fire.[mining-1] average individual from background ra- diation is 360 millirems per year. [nuclear-1] Baseline See Released version . [soft] Back-propagation An important algorithm for BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruc- learning in feed-forward networks which makes tion Code: a programming language, usually in- use of a mathematical trick when the network terpreted, suitable for simple applications. [soft] is simulated on a digital computer, yielding in Basic Thread Profile This is the theoretical pro- just two traversals of the network (once forward, file of external and internal threads with no man- and once back) both the difference between the ufacturing tolerance applied. [mech-3] desired and actual output, and the of this difference with respect to the connection an of aluminum consisting of moder- weights. [soft] ately pure hydrated alumina -Al2O32H2O. [mat- 1] Back - The roof or upper part in any underground miningcavity.[mining-1] Bayesian estimation A mathematical - tion, using Bayes’ theorem, by which the like- Backus Naur A formal language for syntax speci- lihood of an event can be estimated taking ex- fication. [soft] plicit consideration of certain contextual features (such as amount of data, of decision, etc.). B A Formal method of program design - More in- [nuclear-1] formation. [soft] Bayesian prior A way to express the context of Bainite a Fe-C composition consisting of a fine dis- a Bayesian estimation in which initial data are persion of cementite . It is an austenitic trans- updated as new data become available. [nuclear- formation product that forms at temperatures 1] between those at which pearlite and martensite transformations occur.[mech-1] BBN Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc.,of Cambridge, Massachusetts, was awarded the original con- bainite an austenitic transformation product found tract to build the ARPANET and has been ex- in some and cast ; it forms at tensively involved in Internet development. It temperatures between those at which pearlite is responsible for managing NNSC, CSNET, and and martensite transformations occur; the mi- NEARnet. [soft] crostructure consists of alpha- and a fine of cementite. [mat-1] BCS Binary Compatibility Standard: the ABI of 88open . [soft] Bamboo A trusted third-party authentication sys- tem from the University of Iowa, similar to Ker- BCS British Computer Society. [soft] beros - More information. [soft] BEA Basic programming Environment for Energy for and insu- interactive-graphical Applications, from lators, the that lie between the -Nixdorf. [soft] and conduction bands.[mech-1] - A bar or straight girder used to support band gap energy for semiconductors and insula- a span ofroof between two support props or tors, the energies that lie between the valence walls.[mining-1] and conduction bands; for intrinsic materials electrons are forbidden to have energies within Beam building - The creation of a strong, inflex- this range. [mat-1] ible beamby bolting or otherwise fastening to- gether several weaker layers. Incoal mining this Barren - Said of rock or vein material contain- is the intended basis for roof bolting.[mining-1] ing nominerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal inseams too thin to be Bearing A surveying term used to designate di- workable.[mining-1] rection. Thebearing of a line is the acute hor- izontal angle between the meridianand the line. Barricading - Enclosing part of a mine to prevent The meridian is an established line ofreference. inflow ofnoxious gasses from a mine fire or an Azimuths are measured clockwise from explosion.[mining-1] DRAFTanymeridian.[mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 14

Bearing plate - A plate used to distribute a given BETA An object-oriented language and associated .In roof bolting, the plate used between the programming environment from Mjolner Infor- bolt head and theroof.[mining-1] matics, Aarhus [soft] Bearing The surface pressure acting on a A charged particle emitted from a joint face directly as a result of the force applied nucleus during , with a mass by a fastener. [mech-3] equal to 1/1837 that of a . A negatively charged beta particle is identical to an . (Bq) The unit of radioactive decay A positively charged beta particle is called a equal to 1 disintegration per . 37 billion 10 . Large amounts of beta radiation may (3.7 x 10 ) = 1 (Ci). [nuclear- cause skin burns, and beta emitters are harm- 1] ful if they enter the body. Beta particles may Bed - A stratum of coal or other sedimentary de- be stopped by thin sheets of metal or plastic. posit. [mining-1] [nuclear-1] Bedrock A C++ class library for Macintosh user Beyond design-basis accidents This term is used interface portability. [soft] as a technical way to discuss accident that are possible but were not fully considered in Belt conveyor - A looped belt on which coal or oth- the design process because they were judged to ermaterials can be carried and which is generally be too unlikely. As the regulatory process strives constructed offlame-resistant material or of rein- to be as thorough as possible, ”beyond design- forced rubber or rubber-likesubstance.[mining-1] basis” accident sequences are analyzed to fully understand the capability of a design. [nuclear- Belt idler - A roller, usually of cylindrical shape, 1] whichis supported on a frame and which, in turn, supports or guides aconveyor belt. Idlers are BHT Budget Holder’s Toolkit (at CERN ) - More not powered but turn by contact with themoving information. [soft] belt.[mining-1] Bifunctional Monomer a monomer unit that has Belt take-up - A belt , generally under a con- two active bonding positions.[mech-1] veyorbelt and inby the drive pulley, kept under strong parallel tothe belt line. Its pur- Bihexagon Head A bolt or screw whose cross pose is to automatically compensate for anyslack section of its head is in the shape of a 12 pointed in the belting created by start-up, etc.[mining-1] . [mech-3] Benchmark A standard set of programs which can Binder - A streak of in a coal be run on different platforms to compare perfor- seam.[mining-1] mance [soft] The minimum energy required to Bench - One of to or more divisions of a coal seam- separate a nucleus into its component neutrons separated by slate or formed by the process of and protons. [nuclear-1] cutting the coal.[mining-1] Bioassay The determination of kinds, quantities, moment A system of internal forces or concentrations and, in some cases, locations of whose resultant is a moment. This term is most radioactive material in the body, whether commonly used to refer to internal forces in by direct (in vivo counting) or by beams. [struc-1] analysis and evaluation of materials excreted or removed (in vitro) from the human body. Beneficiation - The treatment of mined material, [nuclear-1] making itmore concentrated or richer. [mining-1] Biological half- The time required for a biolog- Bento A multi-vendor initiative allowing files to ical system, such as that of a human, to elimi- contain typed parts, to allow standard access be- nate, by natural processes, half of the amount of tween parts of a compound document indepen- a substance (such as a radioactive material) that dent of the file system. [soft] has entered it. [nuclear-1] Berkeley UNIX see BSD . [soft] Biological shield A mass of absorbing material placed around a reactor or to Berm - A pile or mound of material capable of re- reduce the radiation to a level safe for . straining avehicle.[mining-1]DRAFT[nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 15

BITNET An academic and research network con- BMP Bitmap format (for Windows ) - More infor- necting approximately 2500 computers, often mation. [soft] IBM mainframes. It provides interactive elec- tronic mail, and file transfer services via a store- BNF Backus-Naur Form. [soft] and-forward technique based on IBM NJE proto- BOCS Berard Object and Class Specifier, an cols. BITNET and Internet traffic are exchanged Object-oriented from Berard Software - via several gateway hosts. It is now operated by ing. [soft] CREN . [soft] Body-centered Cubic (BCC) a common crystal Bit - The hardened and strengthened device at the structure that contains atoms located at the cor- end of adrill that transmits the energy of ners of a cubic cell and one atom at the cell center breakage to the rock. The sizeof the bit deter- .[mech-1] mines the size of the . A bit may be eitherde- tachable from or with its supporting drill body-centered cubic (BCC) within the cubic rod.[mining-1] unit cell atoms are located at corner and center cell positions [mat-1] A middle rank coal (between subbituminousand anthracite) formed by addi- An external force acting throughout tional pressure and heat onlignite. Usually has the mass of a body. is a body force. An a high Btu value and may be referred to as inertial force is a body force. [struc-1] ”softcoal.”[mining-1] Boehm B. Proposed the COCOMO technique for Bolts And Nuts The word black refers evaluating the cost of a software project. [soft] to the comparatively wider tolerances employed and not necessarily to the colour of the surface Bohr Magneton[mech-1] finish of the fastener. [mech-3] water reactor (BWR) A reactor in which Black damp - A term generally applied to water, used as both and moderator, is dioxide.Strictly speaking, it is a mixture of - allowed to boil in the core. The resulting steam bon dioxide and . Itis also applied to an can be used directly to drive a and elec- depleted of , rather thanhav- trical , thereby producing electricity. ing an excess of .[mining-1] [nuclear-1] Blasting agent - Any material consisting of a mix- Bolt A bolt is the term used for a threaded fastener, ture of afuel and an oxidizer. [mining-1] with a head, designed to be used in conjunction with a nut. [mech-3] Blasting cap - A detonator containing a charge ofdetonating compound, which is ignited by elec- Bolt torque - The turning force in -pounds tric current or the sparkof a fuse. Used for deto- applied to aroof bolt to achieve an installed nating .[mining-1] tension.[mining-1] Blasting circuit - Electric circuits used to fire elec- Boltzmann’s Constant The per : 1.381x10−23 J/atom K; 1.381x10−16 tricdetonators or to ignite an igniter cord by −5 means of an electricstarter.[mining-1] /atom K; or 8.63x10 eV/atom K.[mech-1] Bleeder or bleeder entries - Special air courses BoM Bill of Materials. [soft] developedand maintained as part of the mine BON Better Object Notation. Used in the Esprit ventilation system and designed tocontinuously Classes project [soft] air- emitted by the gob or at theactive face away from the active work- bonding energy the energy required to separate ings and into mine-return aircourses. Alt: Ex- two atoms that are chemically bonded to each haust ventilation lateral.[mining-1] other. [mat-1] block copolymer a linear copolymer in which iden- Bonding Energy the energy required to separate tical mer units are clustered in blocks along the two atoms that are chemically bonded to each molecular chain. [mat-1] other.[mech-1] Block Copolymer a linear copolymer units seeker A radioisotope that tends to accumu- are clustered in blocks along the molecular late in the when it is introduced into the chain.[mech-1] body. An example is strontium-90, which be- DRAFThaves chemically like calcium. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 16

Bookreader DEC’s CD-ROM-based online docu- a metal joining technique that uses a mentation browser. [soft] molten filler metal alloy having a tem- perature greater than about 425 degrees C (800 Bookviewer A hypertext documentation system F). [mat-1] from Oracle based on Oracle Toolkit . It allows the user to create private links and bookmarks, Breakaway Torque The torque necessary to put and to make multimedia annotations. [soft] into reverse rotation a bolt that has not been tightened. [mech-3] BOOM Berard Object-Oriented [soft] Break line - The line that roughly follows the rear Borehole - Any deep or long drill-hole, usually as- edgesof coal pillars that are being mined. The sociatedwith a drill.[mining-1] line along which the roof ofa coal mine is ex- BOS A data management system written at DESY pected to break.[mining-1] and used in some HEP programs. [soft] Breakloose Torque The torque required to effect Boss - Any member of the managerial ranks who reverse rotation when a pre-stressed threaded as- is directlyin charge of miners (e.g., ”shift-boss,” sembly is loosened. [mech-3] ”face-boss,” ”fire-boss,”etc.).[mining-1] Breakthrough - A passage for ventilation that is Bottom - Floor or underlying surface of an cutthrough the pillars between rooms.[mining-1] undergroundexcavation.[mining-1] Breeder A reactor that produces more nuclear Bourne A common UNIX - More information. fuel than it consumes. A fertile material, [soft] such as -238, when bombarded by neu- trons, is transformed into a fissile material, such Box-type magazine - A small, portable magazine as -239, which can be used as fuel. used tostore limited quantities of explosives or [nuclear-1] detonators for short periodsof time at locations in the mine which are convenient to the blast- carrier - A rubber-tire-mounted mobile ingsites at which they will be used.[mining-1] conveyor,about 10 meters long, used as an in- termediate unit to create a systemof articulated BPM Business Process Modelling. [soft] conveyors between a mining and a room or entryconveyor.[mining-1] BPR Business Process Reengineering. [soft] Bridge conveyor - A short conveyor hung from the Bragg’s Law a relationship that stipulates the con- boom ofmining or lading machine or haulage sys- dition for diffraction by a set of crystallographic tem with the other end attachedto a receiving bin planes.[mech-1] that dollies along a frame supported by the room Branched Polymer a polymer having a molecular orentry conveyor, tailpiece. Thus, as the ma- structure of secondary chains that extend from chine boom moves, the bridgeconveyor keeps it in the chains.[mech-1] constant connection with the tailpiece.[mining-1] branched polymer a polymer having a molecular Brinell test a test for determining the structure of secondary chains that extend from hardness of a material by forcing a hard steel or the primary main chains. [mat-1] of specified into it under a specified load; the result is expressed as the a -rich copper-zinc alloy.[mech-1] Brinell hardness number. [mat-1] brass copper (Cu) based alloy with zinc (Zn) as the British Standard Brass A specialist thread form main alloying element. [mat-1] based upon the Whitworth thread and consist- ing of 26 threads per whatever the thread Brattice or brattice cloth - -resistant fab- diameter. [mech-3] ric orplastic partition used in a mine passage to confine the air and forceit into the working (Btu) The amount of heat place. Also termed ”line brattice,” ”line can- required to change the temperature of one vas,”or ”line curtain.”[mining-1] of water one at level. [nuclear-1] [mech-1] Brittle A brittle structure or material exhibits Brazing a metal joining technique that uses a low , meaning that it exhibits very lit- molten filler metal alloy having a melting tem- tle inelastic deformation before complete failure. perature greater than aboutDRAFT 425 C.[mech-1] [struc-1] CMI-MDP Programme 17 brittle crack propagation a very sudden propa- Btu British thermal unit. A measure of the energy gation of a crack with the absorption of no en- requiredto raise the temperature of one pound of ergy except that stored elastically in the body. water one degreeFahrenheit.[mining-1] [mat-1] Bug dust - The fine particles of coal or other ma- Brittle Fracture fracture that occur by rapid crack terialresulting form the boring or cutting of the propagation and without appreciable macro- coal face by drill ormachine.[mining-1] scopic deformation.[mech-1] Bump (or burst) - A violent brittle fracture separation of a solid with little or of the mineworkings which is attributed to no macroscopic plastic deformation; fracture oc- severe stresses in the rocksurrounding the curs by rapid crack propagation with less expen- workings.[mining-1] diture of energy than for ductile fracture; brittle tensile have a bright, granular appear- Bump Thread A modified thread profile patented ance and exhibit little or no ; typical frac- and trade mark of the Bosco Tool Inc. The ture mode of a or ceramic. [mat-1] thread form has a small projection at the pitch diameter that eliminates the clearance from the the tendency of a material to fracture thread assembly on both flanks. By doing this it without first undergoing significant plastic defor- is claimed that resistance to loosening mation. [mat-1] is significantly improved. [mech-3] a copper-rich copper- alloy.[mech-1] Burgers Vector a vector that denotes the magni- tude and direction of lattice distortion associated bronze copper (Cu) based alloy with tin (Sn) as the with a dislocation.[mech-1] main alloying element. [mat-1] Burgers vector (b) a vector that denotes the mag- Brow - A low place in the roof of a mine, givingin- nitude and direction of lattice distortion associ- sufficient headroom.[mining-1] ated with a dislocation. [mat-1] Browser A tool for navigating around hypertext Butt cleat - A short, poorly defined vertical cleav- documents. [soft] ageplane in a coal seam, usually at right angles Brushing - Digging up the bottom or tak- to the long facecleat.[mining-1] ing down the top togive more headroom in Butt entry - A coal mining term that has different roadways.[mining-1] meaningsin different locations. It can be syn- BSD Berkeley Source Distribution: the versions of onymous with panel entry, submainentry, or in UNIX developed and distributed by the Univer- its older it refers to an entry that is ”butt” sity of California at Berkeley. Many commer- ontothe coal (that is, at right angles to cial UNIX implementations such as SunOS and the face).[mining-1] Dynix are derived from it. [soft] Byproduct Byproduct is (1) any radioactive - Bsf British Standard Fine. A thread form based rial (except special nuclear material) yielded in, upon the British Standard Whitworth form but or made radioactive by, exposure to the radia- with a finer thread (more threads per inch for tion incident to the process of producing or using a given diameter). This thread form was first special nuclear material (as in a reactor); and (2) introduced in 1908, the thread form is specified the tailings or wastes produced by the extraction in BS 84: 1956. [mech-3] or concentration of uranium or from ore [nuclear-1] BSI British Standards Institution: a member of ISO . [soft] A data unit of several bits smaller than a com- puter word: usually 8 bits. [soft] BSP method A CASE method from IBM . [soft] Bsw British Standard Whitworth. A thread form developed by Sir Joseph Whitworth in 1841. CD The thread form has rounded roots and crests, the thread form is specified in BS 84: 1956. This thread form was superceded by the Unified Cache A small fast memory holding recently- thread in 1948 and then the metric thread form. accessed data, designed to up further ac- [mech-3] DRAFTcess. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 18

CACI A company marketing SIMSCRIPT , MOD- C A language developed in conjunction with the SIM , and other software products. UNIX operating system at AT&T Bell Labora- [soft] tories by D.Ritchie and now an ANSI standard. It has grown popular due to its simplicity, ef- CACM Communications of the ACM . [soft] ficiency, and flexibility. C programs are often CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design/Computer easily adapted to new environments - More in- Aided Manufacturing (see CAD ) [soft] formation. [soft] CAD Computer Aided Design: usually applied to a high-temperature reaction whereby that part of CAE which has to do with the draw- one solid material dissociates to form a gas and ing or physical layout steps of engineering design. another solid.[mech-1] [soft] The adjustment, as necessary, of a CADD Computer Aided Detector Design: a project measuring device such that it responds within to develop standards and methods to allow coop- the required range and accuracy to known val- eration between HEP detector designers working ues of input. [nuclear-1] in different institutes [soft] Calorific value - The quantity of heat that can be- Cadmium Coating of threaded liberated from one pound of coal or oil measured fasteners with cadmium can provide the parts in BTU’s.[mining-1] with excellent corrosion resistance. The appear- CALS Computer-Aided Acquisition and ance of the coating is bright or if Support: a DoD standard for electronic exchange subsequently passivated. The friction values as- of data with commercial suppliers [soft] sociated with this coating are also comparatively low. A chromate conversion coating is frequently Caml A functional programming language in the applied to the surface to improve corrosion re- style of ML [soft] sistance. Cadmium is not now frequently used because of the environmental and worker health C++ An extension to the C language developed problems associated with the coating process and primarily by B.Stroustrup at AT&T Bell Labora- should not be used in applications above 250C or tories: it supports object-oriented programming when contact with food is possible. [mech-3] among other enhancements [soft] CADRE A software engineering vendor in the US. Cannel coal - A massive, non-caking block coal [soft] with a fine,even and a which has a high ofhydrogen, burns CAE Common Applications Environment of with a long, yellow flame, and is extremely easy X/Open , based on POSIX . [soft] toignite.[mining-1] CAE Computer Aided Engineering: a technique for Canopy - A protective covering of a cab on a using computers to help with all phases of engi- miningmachine.[mining-1] neering design work. As CAD , but also involving the conceptual and analytical design steps. [soft] Capability The maximum load that a generating station can carry under specified conditions for a Cage - In a mine shaft, the device, similar to an given period of time without exceeding approved elevatorcar, that is used for hoisting personnel limits of temperature and stress. [nuclear-1] and materials.[mining-1] the charge-storage ability of a capaci- CAI Computer Aided Instruction. [soft] tor, defined as the of charge stored on either plate divided by the applied voltage.[mech- CAIS-A Common APSE Interface Set: DoD-STD- 1] 1838A. [soft] capacitance the charge-storing ability of a capac- CAIS Common APSE Interface Specification. [soft] itor, defined as the magnitude of charge stored CAiSE Conference on Advanced Information Sys- on either plate divided by the applied voltage. tems Engineering. [soft] [mat-1] CAJUN CD-ROM Acrobat Journals Using Net- Capacity factor (gross) The of the gross works. A project at Nottigham University More electricity generated, for the time considered, to information. [soft] the energy that could have been generated at continuous full-power operation during the same DRAFTperiod. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 19

Capacity factor (net) The ratio of the net elec- Cask A heavily shielded container used to store tricity generated, for the time considered, to the and/or radioactive materials. and energy that could have been generated at con- steel are common materials used in the manu- tinuous full-power operation during the same pe- facture of casks. [nuclear-1] riod. [nuclear-1] Cast - A directed throw; in strip-mining, the over- Cap - A miner’s safety helmet. Also, a highly sensi- burden iscast from the coal to the previously tive,encapsulated explosive that is used to deto- mined area.[mining-1] nate larger but lesssensitive explosives.[mining-1] CAST Computer Aided Software Testing. [soft] Cap block - A flat piece of inserted between the topof the prop and the roof to provide bear- casting generic term referring to a process where a ing support.[mining-1] fluid material (usually a molten alloy) is made to flow into a shaped mold cavity where it solidifies; CApH Conventions for the Application of HyTime this method is used to produce complex compo- . An activity of the GCA [soft] nent and properties difficult to achieve otherwise. [mat-1] CAQ Computer Aided Quality. [soft] a ferrous alloy; the carbon content is Car - A railway wagon, especially any of the wag- greater than the maximum in austenite ons adaptedto carrying coal, ore, and waste at the eutectic temperature. [mat-1] underground.[mining-1] Cast Iron a ferrous alloy with carbon content be- Carbide bit - More correctly, cemented tween 2 and 4.5 wt%.[mech-1] carbide. Acutting or drilling bit for rock or coal, made by fusing an insert ofmolded tung- CATE Computer Aided Test Engineering: CASE sten carbide to the cutting edge of a steel bit methods applied to testing and linked shank.[mining-1] to CAE [soft] steel which owes its properties chiefly Cathodic Protection a means of corrosion preven- to various of carbon without sub- tion whereby electrons are supplied to the struc- stantial amounts of other alloying elements; also ture to be protected from an external source such known as ordinary, straight carbon, or plain car- as anoother more reactive metal or a dc power bon steel. [mat-1] supply.[mech-1] Carburizing the process by which the surface Cation A positively charged ion. [nuclear-1] carbon concentration of a ferrous alloy is increased by diffusion from the surrounding cation a positively charged metallic ion. [mat-1] environment.[mech-1] CAUSE An international (mainly North American) CARDS Central Archive for Reusable Defense nonprofit association for managing and using in- Software of the DoD . [soft] formation technology in - More information. [soft] Car-dump - The mechanism for unloading a loaded car.[mining-1] cb C Beautifier . [soft] CASE Computer Aided Software Engineering: a C Beautifier A tool for tidying the syntax of C technique for using computers to help with the source code. [soft] systematic analysis, design, implementation and CBT Computer-Based Training. [soft] maintenance of software. Adopting the CASE approach to building and maintaining systems CCI Common Client Interface for Mosaic [soft] involves software tools and training for the de- velopers who will use them. [soft] CCITT A committee of the ITU responsible for making technical recommendations about tele- CASE [soft] phone and systems for PTTs and suppliers. Plenary sessions are held CASE framework A set of products and conven- every four to adopt new standards. [soft] tions that allow CASE tools to be integrated into a coherent environment. [soft] CCL Common Command Language. A standard for bibliographic information retrieval systems. CASE tools Software tools to help in the appli- [soft] cation of CASE methods to a software project. [soft] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 20

CCS Common Communication Services: the stan- CERA Concurrent Engineering : Research and Ap- dard program interface to networks in SAA . plications. An international journal - More infor- [soft] mation. [soft] CDA Compound Document Architecture: DEC’s ceramic a compound of metallic and nonmetallic set of standards for compound document cre- elements, for which the interatomic bonding is ation, storage, retrieval, interchange and manip- predominantly ionic. [mat-1] ulation. [soft] Ceramic inorganic, nonmetalllic products for CDC Control Data Corporation [soft] which the interatomic bonding is predominantly ionic.[mech-1] CDD/Plus DEC’s CASE . [soft] CERC Concurrent Engineering Research Center, CDE C Development environment from IDE [soft] West Virginia University [soft] CDE Common . A Desktop a composite materials.[mech-1] manager - More information. [soft] CERNLIB The CERN Program Library [soft] CDF Common Data Format. A library and toolkit for multi-dimensional data sets [soft] CERN The European Laboratory for . [soft] CDIF CASE Data Interchange Format: an emerg- ing standard.for interchange of data between CERT Computer Emergency Response Team. Now CASE tools [soft] CERT Coordination Center, works with the In- ternet community on security problems [soft] CDM Content Data Model. An SGML -based DoD specification for interactive manuals. [soft] Certified - Describes a person who has passed anex- amination to do a required job.[mining-1] CEBAF Continuous Electron Beam Facility in Newport News, VA USA - More information. CFI CAD Framework Initiative. A consortium [soft] working on interface standards for integrating CAD tools and data. [soft] Cecil An object-oriented language from Washington University intended to support rapid construc- CFOOT Corporate Facilitators of Object-Oriented tion of high-quality, extensible software [soft] Technology. [soft] CE Concurrent Engineering . [soft] CGI A (French) software engineering vendor in the US. [soft] Cement a substance that can be used to build to- gether aggregates of or stone into a cohesive CGI Common Gateway Interface. A standard for structure. May be a single compound or a mix- running external programs under a WWW or ture. May be hydraulic set .[mech-1] similar information server - More information. [soft] cementite iron carbide. [mat-1] CGM Metafile: a standard file Cementite iron carbide (Fe3C).[mech-1] format for storage and communication of graphi- CEN Conseil Europeen pour la Normalisation: a cal information, widely used on personal comput- body coordinating standardisation activities in ers and accepted by desktop publishing systems. the EEC and EFTA. countries. [soft] (ANSI/ISO [soft] CENELEC CEN -electricite. [soft] Chain conveyor - A conveyor on which the ma- terial is movedalong solid pans (troughs) by the Center of Gravity The location of the resultant of action of scraper crossbars attachedto powered gravity forces on an object or objects [struc-1] chains.[mining-1] Centroid Similar to the concept of center of grav- Chain pillar - The pillar of coal left to pro- ity, except that it applies to a two dimensional tect thegangway or entry and the parallel shape rather than an object. For a given shape, airways.[mining-1] the centroid location corresponds to the center of gravity for a thin flat plate of that shape, made A reaction that initiates its own from a homogeneous material. [struc-1] repetition. In a fission chain reaction, a fission- able nucleus absorbs a neutron and fissions spon- DRAFTtaneously, releasing additional neutrons. These, CMI-MDP Programme 21

in turn, can be absorbed by other fissionable nu- Chock - Large hydraulic jacks used to support clei, releasing still more neutrons. A fission chain roof inlongwall and shortwall mining systems. reaction is self-sustaining when the number of [mining-1] neutrons released in a given time equals or ex- ceeds the number of neutrons lost by absorption Choices An object-oriented operating system from in nonfissionable material or by escape from the University of [soft] system. [nuclear-1] Chorus A distributed operating system developed at INRIA . [soft] Change Management A consistent set of tech- niques that aid in , composition and CIAC Computer Incident Advisory Capability of management of the design and implemen- the US DoE [soft] tation of an object or system. [soft] CIC Committee on Institutional Cooperation. An Charged particle An ion. An academic consortium of American Universities carrying a positive or negative . [soft] [nuclear-1] CICERO Control Information system Concepts Charm A portable object-oriented parallel pro- based on Encapsulated Real-time Objects. A gramming system from University of Illinois CERN DRDC proposal . [soft] [soft] CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing (on the In- Charpy test an test in which a V-notched, ternet ) [soft] keyhole-notched, or U-notched specimen, sup- CIL Component Integration . An effort ported at both ends horizontally, is struck be- to create a common framework for interoperabil- hind the notch by a striker mounted at the lower ity between applications on desktop platforms, end of a ; the energy that is absorbed formed by Apple, IBM, Novell, Oracle, Taligent, in fracture is calculated from the height to which WordPerfect, and Xerox [soft] the striker would have risen had there been no specimen and the height to which it actually rises CIM Computer Integrated Manufacturing. [soft] after fracture of the specimen. [mat-1] circuit interconnections of electrical elements and Check curtain - Sheet of brattice cloth hung devices that perform a desired electrical function. across anairway to control the passage of the air [mat-1] current.[mining-1] Case Integration Services: a committee formed Chemical recombination Following an to discuss CASE tool integration standards re- event, the positively and negatively charged ion lated to ATIS . [soft] pairs may or may not realign themselves to form the same chemical substance they formed before CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer. [soft] ionization. Thus, chemical recombination could CISI A French software house. [soft] change the chemical composition of the material bombarded by . [nuclear-1] CIX Commercial Internet eXchange. A non-profit trade association of Public Data Internetwork Chemical Set Cement a cement that sets through service providers - More information. [soft] reaction or . Often subjected to a high temperature during manufacture or Cladding The thin-walled metal tube that forms use.[mech-1] the outer jacket of a rod. It pre- vents corrosion of the fuel by the coolant and Chen Peter Chen developed the Entity- the release of fission products into the coolant. Relationship model. [soft] Aluminum, , and alloys are common cladding materials. [nuclear-1] CHEOPS A satellite-based batch data dissemina- tion project between CERN and member state Clamping Force The compressive force which a institutes. [soft] fastener exerts on the joint. [mech-3] Child version A version of a version. See change Class A language developed by the Andrew Project management . [soft] : one of the first attempts to add object-oriented features to C . [soft] CHILL CCITT High-Level Language. A real-time language used in telecommunications. [soft] Class library A library of reusable classes for use with an object-oriented programming system - DRAFTMore information. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 22

Class Of Fit The Class of Fit is a measure of the cleavage transcrystalline fracture along specific degree of fit between mating internal and exter- crystallographic planes; usually associated with nal threads. Three main Classes of Fit are de- low-energy fracture; may exhibit river fined for metric screw threads : FINE: This has and/or tongues. [mat-1] a tolerance class of 5H for internal threads and 4h for external threads. MEDIUM: This has a Cleveloc Nut A torque prevailing nut of all metal tolerance class of 6H for internal threads and 6g construction. The collar of the nut is elliptical in for external threads. COARSE: This has a tol- and it is this that provides the flexi- erance class of 7H for internal threads and 8g for ble locking element. The nut is pre-lubricated to external threads. For Unified threads, a similar reduce the tightening torque. Cleveloc is a reg- designation as for metric threads is used. The istered trade name of Forest Fasteners. [mech-3] thread classes used are 1A, 2A and 3A for ex- CLHEP A C++ class library for high energy ternal threads and 1B, 2B and 3B for internal physics applications - More information. [soft] threads. Cleveloc Nut [mech-3] Client A system or process that requests a service Class-Relation Method A design technique based from another system or process. [soft] on the concepts of object-oriented programming and the Entity-Relationship model from the CLOS Common Lisp Object System: an object- French company Softeam. [soft] oriented language derived from Common Lisp [soft] Class The prototype for an object in an object- oriented language; analogous to a derived type CLP Constraint Programming. [soft] in a procedural language. [soft] CL See Common Lisp . [soft] vein - A body of clay-like material that fills a voidin a coal bed.[mining-1] CLU An object-oriented programming language de- veloped at MIT by Liskov et al. [soft] Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 A com- prehensive set ofamendments to the federal law CLX The Common Lisp interface to the X Window governing the nation’s air quality. TheClean System , equivalent to . [soft] Air Act was originally passed in 1970 to ad- CMA Concert Multithread Architecture from DEC dress significant airpollution problems in our . [soft] cities. The 1990 amendments broadened and- strengthened the original law to address specific CM Configuration Management. [soft] problems such asacid deposition, urban , hazardous air pollutants andstratospheric CML Chemical Markup Language. A means for depletion.[mining-1] interchanging chemical information, based on SGML [soft] Clean Coal Technologies A number of innovative, newtechnologies designed to use coal in a more CMM Capability Maturity Model for software de- efficient andcost-effective manner while enhanc- velopment organisations, from SEI [soft] ing environmentalprotection. Several promising CMS A code management system from DEC. [soft] technologies include: fluidized-bedcombustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, - CMVC Configuration Management Version Con- stoneinjection multi-stage burner, enhanced flue trol from IBM. [soft] gas desulfurization (or”scrubbing”), coal lique- faction and coal gasification.[mining-1] CMZ A portable interactive code management sys- tem from CodeME S.A..L in use in the high- Cleanroom A software development approach energy physics community. [soft] aimed at producing software with the minimum number of errors [soft] CNET Centre national d’Etudes des Telecommuni- cations: the French national telecommunications Cleanup system A system used for continuously research centre at Lannion. [soft] filtering and demineralizing a reactor coolant system to reduce contamination levels and to CNI Coalition for Networked Information. Pro- minimize corrosion. [nuclear-1] motes the creation of and access to information resources in networked environments in order to Cleat - The vertical cleavage of coal seams. The enrich scholarship and enhance intellectual pro- main setof joints along which coal breaks when ductivity - More information. [soft] mined.[mining-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 23

CNRI Corporation for National Research Initia- Code Management A source code management tives, Reston, VA. A US research and devel- system helps program developers keep track of opment organisation in information processing version , releases, parallel versions etc. technology [soft] There are several in popular use [soft] Coal - A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly Coefficient Of Friction A dimensionless number stratifiedcombustible carbonaceous rock, formed representing the ratio of the friction force to nor- by partial to completedecomposition of vege- mal force. Typically for threaded connections it tation; varies in from dark to is between 0.10 to 0,18 but can vary significantly black;not fusible without decomposition and very depending upon the materials used and whether insoluble.[mining-1] a has been used. [mech-3] Coal dust - Particles of coal that can pass a No. Cognitech A French software house specialising in 20sieve.[mining-1] Artificial Intelligence. [soft] Coal Gasification The conversion of coal into a DEC’s CASE environment. [soft] gaseousfuel.[mining-1] A hard, dry carbon substance produced by Coal mine - An area of land and all structures, heating coalto a very high temperature in the facilities,machinery, tools, equipment, shafts, absence of air.[mining-1] slopes, tunnels, excavations, andother property, Cold shutdown The term used to define a reac- real or personal, placed upon, under, or above tor coolant system at and thesurface of such land by any person, used in ex- at a temperature below 200 degrees Fahrenheit tracting coal from itsnatural deposits in the earth following a reactor cooldown. [nuclear-1] by any means or method, and the work ofprepar- ing the coal so extracted, including coal prepara- plastic deformation of a metal at a tionfacilities. British term is ”colliery”.[mining- temperature below that at which it recrystallizes; 1] increasing the amount of cold work causes the dislocation to rise in the material, mak- Coal reserves - Measured tonnages of coal that ing it more difficult to plastically deform the ma- have beencalculated to occur in a coal seam terial and eventually cause brittle fracture. [mat- within a particular property.[mining-1] 1] Coal washing The process of separating undesir- Cold Working the plastic deformation at a temper- ablematerials from coal based on differences in ature below that at which it recrystallizes.[mech- . Pyritic sulfur,or sulfur combined with 1] iron, is heavier and sinks in water; coal islighter and floats.[mining-1] Collage A synchronous collaborative data analysis tool for use over the Internet - More information. Coastdown An action that permits the reactor [soft] power level to decrease gradually as the fuel in the core is depleted. [nuclear-1] Collar - The term applied to the timbering or con- cretearound the mouth or top of a shaft. The COBOL COmmon Business Oriented Language: beginning point of a shaft ordrill hole at the sur- an early and widely-used programming language face. [mining-1] for business applications. [soft] dose The sum of the individual doses re- COCOMO Constructive Cost Model: a method for ceived in a given period by a specified population evaluating the cost of a software package pro- from exposure to a specified source of radiation. posed by B.Boehm, ”Software Engineering Eco- [nuclear-1] nomics” Prentice-Hall 1987 [soft] Colliery - British name for coal mine.[mining-1] CODA An object-oriented data-acquisition system at CEBAF [soft] columnar structure coarse structure of parallel of grains caused by highly directional so- Codd’s First Normal Form see Normal Form . lidification of molten metal resulting from sharp [soft] thermal . [mat-1] CodeCenter A proprietary software development flotation A precombustion coal cleaning environment for C programs, offering an inte- technologyin which coal particles attach to air grated toolkit for developing, testing, debugging bubbles rising in a verticalcolumn. The coal is and maintainance (formerlyDRAFT Saber-C) [soft] then removed at the top of the column.[mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 24

COM Common Object Model. An open architec- It is common to express a vector in terms of com- ture from DEC and Microsoft, allowing interop- ponents which are parallel to the x and y . eration between ObjectBroker - More informa- [struc-1] tion. [soft] Composite a material brought about by combining COMIS a COMpilation and Interpretation System. materials differing in composition or form on a A interpreter use by the PAW sys- macroscale for the purpose of obtaining specific tem [soft] characteristics and properties. The constituents retain their identity such that they can be phys- COMMA Common Object-oriented Methodology ically identified and they exhibit an interface be- Metamodel Architecture from OPEN [soft] tween one another.[mech-1] Commingling A term used to describe the unde- Compound A chemical combination of two or more sirable practice of mixing fasteners from different elements combined in a fixed and definite propor- batches that are the same size and grade in the tion by weight. [nuclear-1] same container. [mech-3] Compression Data files are often compressed to Comminution - The breaking, crushing, or grind- take up less network bandwidth, memory etc. ing of coal,ore, or rock.[mining-1] Common examples are program executables and Committed dose equivalent This is the dose to visual images. Many and utilities ex- some specific organ or tissue that is received from ist for this - More information. [soft] an intake of radioactive material by an individual COMSOFT Consortium for the Management of during the 50-year period following the intake Emerging Software Technologies - More informa- [nuclear-1] tion. [soft] Committed effective dose equivalent The com- Concentrated force A force considered to act mitted dose equivalent for a given organ multi- along a single line in . Concentrated forces plied by a weighting factor [nuclear-1] are useful mathematical idealizations, but can- Common Lisp An ANSI standard version of Lisp not be found in the real world, where all forces . [soft] are either body forces acting over a volume or surface forces acting over an area. [struc-1] COMNET A simulation tool from CACI for analysing wide-area voice or data networks, Concentrated load An external force which a con- based on SIMSCRIPT .. [soft] centrated force. [struc-1] Compact A group of two or more states formed Concrete a consisting of aggre- to dispose of low-level on a re- gate particles bound together in a solid body by gional basis. Forty-two states have formed nine a cement.[mech-1] compacts. [nuclear-1] Concrete Class In object-oriented programming, Compaq A US manufacturer of IBM PC- a class suitable to be instantiated.(as opposed to compatibles. [soft] an abstract class ). [soft] Competent rock - Rock which, because of its phys- Concurrent Clean A functional language for the ical andgeological characteristics, is capable of Macintosh from the University of Nijmegen. sustaining openings withoutany structural sup- [soft] port except pillars and walls left during min- Concurrent Engineering An approach where all ing(stalls, props, and roof bolts are not con- aspects of a product’s life-cycle are considered sidered structuralsupport).[mining-1] as early as possible in the design, manufacturing component an element or that and maintenance process [soft] helps make up a material system; the composi- Condensate Water that has been produced by the tion of a phase or system can be described by cooling of steam in a condenser. [nuclear-1] giving the relative amounts of each component. [mat-1] polymerization the formation of polymer by an intermolecular Component (of a vector) Any vector can be ex- reaction involving at least two monomer species, pressed as a collection of vectors whose sum is usually with the production of a by-product of equal to the original vector. Each vector in this low molecular weight, such as water. [mat-1] collection is a component ofDRAFT the original vector. CMI-MDP Programme 25

Condensation Polymerization the formation of member with respect to another. For each re- species, usually with the production strained degree of freedom, there is a correspond- of a low molecular weight by-product such as ing force transferred from one member to the water.[mech-1] other; forces associated with unrestrained de- grees of freedom are zero. See fixed connection Condenser A large designed to cool and pin connection. [struc-1] exhaust steam from a turbine below the boil- ing point so that it can be returned to the heat Construction recapture The maximum number source as water. In a pressurized water reactor, of years that could be added to the license expi- the water is returned to the steam generator. In ration date to recover the period from the con- a boiling water reactor, it returns to the reac- struction permit to the date when the operating tor core. The heat removed from the steam by license was granted. A licensee is required to sub- the condenser is transferred to a circulating wa- mit an application for such a change. [nuclear-1] ter system and is exhausted to the environment, Constructor A function provided by a class in either through a or directly into a C++ to instantiate an object. [soft] body of water. [nuclear-1] Contact - The place or surface where two differ- Conduction Band the lowest-lying electron en- ent kinds ofrocks meet. Applies to sedimentary ergy band that is not completely filled with rocks, as the contact between alimestone and electrons.[mech-1] a , for example, and to metamorphic conductivity, electrical the proportionality con- rocks; andit is especially applicable between ig- stant between and applied elec- neous intrusions and theirwalls.[mining-1] tric field; a measure of the ease with which a Container class A class whose instances are collec- material is capable of conducting an electric cur- tions of other objects. Examples include stacks, rent. [mat-1] queues, lists and arrays. [soft] Load This is an axial applied force Containment structure A gaslight shell or other applied to a nut when it is seated on a cone enclosure around a to confine fis- shaped washer which has an included angle of sion products that otherwise might be released 120 degrees. Failure in this test is usually due to the atmosphere in the event of an accident. to the nut splitting. The intention of the test is [nuclear-1] to introduce a nut dilation operation which will assess the detrimental effects of surface Contamination Undesired radioactive material discontinuities. This type of test is sometimes that is deposited on the surface of or inside struc- applied to nuts which are intended for high tem- tures, areas, objects, or people. [nuclear-1] perature service. [mech-3] Continuous miner - A machine that constantly Configuration[mech-1] extracts coalwhile it loads it. This is to be distin- guished from a conventional, orcyclic, unit which Configuration management The process of iden- must stop the extraction process in order forload- tifying, defining, recording and reporting the ing to commence.[mining-1] configuration items in a system and the change requests. Controlling the releases and change of Contour - An imaginary line that connects the items throughout the life-cycle See also code all points on asurface having the same management [soft] elevation.[mining-1] conformal coating a thin nonconducting coating Controlled area At a nuclear facility, an area out- that is either plastic or inorganic; it is applied to side a restricted area but within the site bound- a circuit for environmental and mechanical pro- ary, access to which the licensee can limit for any tection. [mat-1] . [nuclear-1] Conformation[mech-1] Control rod A rod, plate, or tube containing a ma- terial such as , , etc., used to con- Congruent Transformation a transformation of trol the power of a nuclear reactor. By absorb- one phase to another that does not involve any ing neutrons, a control rod prevents the neutrons change in composition.[mech-1] from causing further fissions. [nuclear-1] Connection Connection is similar to the concept of Control room The area in a support, except that connection refers to a rela- from which most of the plant power production tionship between members in a structural model. and emergency safety equipment can be operated A connection restrains degreesDRAFT of freedom of one by . [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 26

Conventional mining The first fully-mechanized CORDIS The European Community R&D infor- undergroundmining method involving the in- mation service [soft] sertion of explosives in a coal seam,the blast- ing of the seam, and the removal of the coal CORE Chemistry Online Retrieval . A onto a conveyoror shuttle car by a loading project to publish American Chemical Society machine.[mining-1] journals electronically. [soft] Conveyor - An apparatus for moving material from Core damage An expression of the one pointto another in a continuous fashion. likelihood that, given the way a reactor is de- This is accomplished with anendless (that is, signed and operated, an accident could cause the looped) procession of hooks, buckets, wide rub- fuel in the reactor to be damaged. [nuclear-1] berbelt, etc.[mining-1] Core melt accident An event or of events COOL A class library for C++ from Texas Instru- that result in the melting of part of the fuel in ments [soft] the reactor core. [nuclear-1] Coolant A substance circulated through a nuclear Core sample A sample generally 1-5 in reactor to remove or transfer heat. The most diameterdrilled out of an area to determine the commonly used coolant in the is geologic and chemical analysisof the overburden water. Other include , air, and coal.[mining-1] carbon dioxide, , liquid sodium, and a Core The central portion of a nuclear reactor con- sodium-potassium alloy. [nuclear-1] taining the fuel elements, moderator, neutron CooL Combined object-oriented Language from the , and support structures. [nuclear-1] ITHACA project, which combines C -based lan- Corrosion Deteriorative loss of a metal as a result guages with database technology. [soft] of dissolution environmental reactions.[mech-1] Cooldown The gradual decrease in reactor fuel rod Cortex An experimental slow controls project at temperature caused by the removal of heat from CERN [soft] the reactor coolant system after the reactor has been shutdown. [nuclear-1] COS Corporation for Open Systems: an interna- tional consortium of computer users and vendors, Cooling tower A heat exchanger designed to aid set up to provide ways of testing OSI implemen- in the cooling of water that was used to cool tations. [soft] exhaust steam exiting the of a power plant. Cooling towers transfer exhaust heat into COSE Common Open Software Environment. An the air instead of into a body of water. [nuclear- initiative by Hewlett-Packard, , IBM, Nov- 1] ell, Univel and SCO to move towards consistency and interopability between Unix suppliers. [soft] the number of atomic or ionic nearest neighbors. [mat-1] COSINE Cooperation for Open Systems Intercon- nection Networking in . A EUREKA Coordination Number the number of atomic or project. [soft] ionic nearest neighbors.[mech-1] Cosmic radiation Penetrating ionizing radiation, COOTS Conference on Object-Oriented Technolo- both particulate and electromagnetic, originat- gies and Systems. [soft] ing in . Secondary cosmic rays, cope the top half of a horizontally parted mold. formed by in the Earth’s atmo- [mat-1] sphere, account for about 45 to 50 millirem of the 360 millirem background radiation that an copolymer a polymer that consists of two or more average individual receives in a year. [nuclear-1] dissimilar mer units in combination along its molecular chains. [mat-1] COSS Common Object Services Specification in CORBA . [soft] Copolymer a polymer that consists of two or more dissimilar mer units in combination along its CoST A set of software tools for SGML documents. molecular chains.[mech-1] [soft] CORBA Common Object Request Broker Archi- COTS Commercial Off The Shelf solution [soft] tecture: an OMG [soft] coulombic force a force between charged particles, DRAFTsuch as ions. [mat-1] CMI-MDP Programme 27

Counter A general designation applied to radia- CREN Corporation for Research and Educational tion detection instruments or survey meters that Networking: responsible for providing network- detect and measure radiation. The that ing service to BITNET and CSNET users [soft] announces an ionization event is called a count. [nuclear-1] Crib - A roof support of prop timbers or ties, laid inalternate cross-layers, log-cabin style. It may A system of forces composed of two equal or may not be filledwith debris. Also may be forces of opposite direction, offset by a . called a chock or cog.[mining-1] A couple is statically equivalent to a moment whose magnitude equals the magnitude of the Cribbing - The construction of cribs or timbers force the offset distance. [struc-1] laid atright angles to each other, sometimes filled with earth, as a roofsupport or as a support for a primary interatomic bond that is machinery.[mining-1] formed by the sharing electrons between neigh- boring atoms.[mech-1] Criticality A term used in reactor physics to de- scribe the state when the number of neutrons re- covalent bond a primary interatomic bond that leased by fission is exactly balanced by the neu- is formed by the sharing of electrons between trons being absorbed (by the fuel and poisons) neighboring atoms. [mat-1] and escaping the reactor core. A reactor is said to be ”critical” when it achieves a self-sustaining Cover - The overburden of any deposit.[mining-1] nuclear chain reaction, as when the reactor is op- CPAN Comprehensive Perl Archive Network - erating. [nuclear-1] More information. [soft] Critical mass The smallest mass of fissionable ma- CPI Common Program Interface: the API of SAA terial that will support a self-sustaining chain re- . [soft] action. [nuclear-1] CPSR Computer Professionals for Social Respon- Critical organ That part of the body that is most sibility. A US non-profit organisation concerned susceptible to under the spe- with the effects of computers on society - More cific conditions under consideration. [nuclear-1] information. [soft] Critical Point[mech-1] CPU Central Processing Unit, usually applied to critical resolved the shear stress, that part of a computer which carries out the resolved within a slip plane and direction, which arithmetic and controls the instruction flow. is required to initiate slip. [mat-1] [soft] cron The daemon in UNIX that executes com- CRAY Cray Research Inc.: manufacturers of a mands at specified dates and times according to range of large powerful mainframes. [soft] instructions in a file - More information. [soft] CRC Class-Responsibility-Collaboration. A tech- Crop coal - Coal at the outcrop of the seam. It nique described in Object-Oriented Software by is usuallyconsidered of inferior quality due to Wirfs-Brock. [soft] partial oxidation, although thisis not always the CREASE Catalog of Resources for Education in case.[mining-1] Ada and Software Engineering. A database Crossbar - The horizontal member of a roof tim- maintained by AdaIC . [soft] ber setsupported by props located either on road- - The forcing of pillars into soft bottom by ways or at the face.[mining-1] theweight of a strong roof. In surface mining, a Crosscut - A passageway driven between the en- very slow movement ofslopes downhill.[mining-1] try and itsparallel air course or air courses for creep the time-dependent permanent deformation ventilation purposes. Also, atunnel driven from that occurs under stress; for most materials it is one seam to another through or across thein- important only at elevated temperatures. [mat- tervening measures; sometimes called ”crosscut 1] tunnel”, or”breakthrough”. In vein mining, an entry to thevein.[mining-1] Creep the time-dependent permanent deformation that occurs under stress; for most materials it is Cross entry - An entry running at an angle with important only at elevated temperatures.[mech- the mainentry.[mining-1] 1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 28

crosslinked polymer a polymer in which adjacent geometry and the atom positions within the linear molecular chains are joined at various po- cell.[mech-1] sitions by covalent bonds. [mat-1] crystal structure for crystalline materials, the Crosslinked Polymer A polymer in which adja- manner in which atoms or ions are arrayed in cent linear molecular chains are joined at various space; it is defined in terms of the unit cell ge- positions by covalent bonds.[mech-1] ometry and the atom positions within the unit cell. [mat-1] Cross software Software developed on one kind of computer for use on another (usually because a scheme by which crystal the other computer does not have itself adequate structures are classified according to unit cell facilities for software development). [soft] geometry.[mech-1] CRS4 Centro di Ricerca, Sviluppo e Studi Superi- CSCW Computer Supported Cooperative Work ori in Sardegna. ( Center for Advanced Studies, (also known as Groupware): software tools and Research and Development in Sardinia). A high technology to support groups of people working performance computing centre with an interest- together on a project, often at different sites [soft] ing information server . [soft] c shell A common UNIX originating on Berkeley Crud A colloquial term for corrosion and wear prod- UNIX [soft] ucts (rust particles, etc.) that become radioac- tive (i.e., activated) when exposed to radiation. cshell See c shell [soft] Because the activated deposits were first discov- csh See c shell [soft] ered at River, a Canadian nuclear plant, ”crud” has been used as shorthand for Chalk CSL Caml Special Light. An implementation of River Unidentified Deposits. [nuclear-1] Caml - More information. [soft] Crusher - A machine for crushing rock or other CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with materials.Among the various types of crushers Detection: a network arbitration are the ball mill, gyratorycrusher, Handsel mill, scheme used on Ethernet . A station with a mes- hammer mill, jaw crusher, rod mill, rolls,stamp sage to send starts sending if there is no carrier mill, and tube mill.[mining-1] detected on the . If a col- lision occurs, transmission is abandoned and re- crystalline the state of a solid material char- tried after a delay. [soft] acterized by a periodic and repeating three- dimensional array of atoms, ions, or . CSNET Computers and Science Network, operated [mat-1] by CREN for US computer science institutes. It provides electronic mail service via dial-up lines, Crystalline the state of a solid material plus X.25 and Internet services. [soft] characterized by a periodic and repeating three-dimensional arrays of atoms, ions, or CSP Communicating Sequential Processes. A pro- molecules.[mech-1] gramming model developed by T. Hoare at Ox- ford University [soft] for polymers, the state wherein a periodic and repeating atomic arrangement is CSS Cascading Style Sheets. A simple mechanism achieved by molecular chain alignment.[mech-1] for adding style to WWW documents [soft] a region within a crystalline polymer in CSTC Computer Security Technology Center of the which all the molecular chains are ordered and US DoE [soft] aligned.[mech-1] CTAN Comprehensive TeX Archive Network [soft] act or process of forming or bodies by elements or compounds solidifying CTI Computer Integration. [soft] so they are bounded by plane surfaces, symmet- CUA Common User Access: the User Interface rically arranged, and are external expressions of standard of SAA . [soft] definite internal structure. [mat-1] The total dose resulting from re- Crystallography[mech-1] peated exposures of ionizing radiation to an oc- Crystal Structure for crystalline materials, the cupationally exposed worker to the same portion manner in which atoms or ions are arrayed in of the body, or to the whole body, over time. space. It is defined in termsDRAFT of the unit cell [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 29 cure to irreversibly polymerize a thermosetting Dacromet A high performance surface coating plastic by subjecting it to a time-temperature that can be applied to fasteners. The coating profile. [mat-1] consists of passivated zinc flakes that are stoved onto the metal surface. The coating can be Curie (Ci) The basic unit used to describe the in- coloured and eliminates the risk of hydrogen em- tensity of radioactivity in a sample of material. 10 brittlement associated with electroplated metal. The curie is equal to 37 billion (3.7 x 10 ) dis- DACROMET is a registered trademark of Metal integrations per second, which is approximately Coatings International, Inc. of Chardon Ohio the activity of 1 of radium. A curie is also [mech-3] a quantity of any radionuclide that decays at a rate of 37 billion disintegrations per second. It is DAD Distributed Adamo Database. An extension named for Marie and , who discov- to ADAMO [soft] ered radium in 1898. [nuclear-1] daemon A process running in the background per- that temperatue above which forming some service (such as handling print a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material be- queues) in UNIX or other operating systems. comes paramagnetic.[mech-1] [soft] Curie temperature the temperature above which DANTE A company established by the national a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material be- research networks in Europe to provide interna- comes paramagnetic. [mat-1] tional network services [soft] curses A set of subroutines in UNIX for handling DARPA Defense Advanced Research Project on a terminal screen using the cursor Agency of the US Department of De- [soft] fense,.responsible for the development of new technology, including ARPANET . [soft] Cutter; Cutting machine - A machine, usually used in coal,that will cut a 10- to 15-cm slot. DASE Distributed Application Support Environ- The slot allows room for expansionof the broken ment . [soft] coal. Also applies to the man who operates the machineand to workers engaged in the cutting of Data See DBMS [soft] coal by pick or drill.[mining-1] Database See DBMS . [soft] CVS A code management system based on RCS Datacom A DBMS from Computer Associates In- [soft] ternational.. [soft] CWI Dutch Centre for Mathematics and Computer Data Definition Language A language enabling Science, Amsterdam - More information. [soft] the structure and instances of a database to be CWIS Campus-Wide Information System. Many defined in a human- and machine-readable form. universities and other institutes have comput- [soft] erised information systems, often based on Data dictionary A set of data descriptions that WWW [soft] can be shared by several applications. [soft] Cycle mining - A system of mining in more than Data Flow Diagram A graphical notation used to one workingplace at a time, that is, a miner takes describe how data flows between processes in a a lift from the face and movesto another face system. An important tool of most structured while permanent roof support is established in analysis techniques. [soft] theprevious working face.[mining-1] Data Model A set of data structures with ma- DAA Distributed Application Architecture: under nipulation and validation operators for gen- design by Hewlett-Packard and Sun. A dis- eral purpose usage. Examples are the Entity- tributed object management environment that Relationship [soft] will allow applications to be developed indepen- dent of operating system, network or windowing DATATRIEVE A query and report system for use system. [soft] with DEC’s VMS system (RMS, VAX Rdb/VMS or VAX DBMS). [soft] DACNOS A prototype network operating system for multivendor environments, from IBM Euro- DataViews development pean Networking Centre and Univer- software from V.I.Corporation, aimed at con- sity of Karlsruhe. [soft] structing platform-independent interactive views DRAFTof dynamic data. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 30

Data Warehouse A database of information in- DDL Document Description Language . [soft] tended for use as part of a decision support sys- tem. The data is typically extracted from an DDTS Distributed Defect Tracking System. [soft] organisation’s operational databases. [soft] Decay heat The heat produced by the decay of Daughter products that are formed by radioactive fission products after a reactor has the radioactive decay of some other isotope. In been shut down. [nuclear-1] the case of radium-226, for example, there are Decay, radioactive The decrease in the amount of 10 successive daughter products, ending in the any radioactive material with the passage of time stable isotope lead-206. [nuclear-1] due to the from the atomic DAZIX Daisy/Cadnetix Corporation: a supplier of nuclei of either alpha or beta particles, often ac- digital electronic CAE systems. [soft] companied by gamma radiation. [nuclear-1] DB2 A DBMS from IBM. [soft] DECdesign A software analysis and design tool from DEC supporting several . DBA DataBase Administrator. [soft] [soft] dBASE III A DBMS from Ashton-Tate Corpora- DEC Digital Equipment Corporation: a computer tion. [soft] manufacturer and software vendor. [soft] DB Database. [soft] DECdns Distributed Naming Service: adopted by OSF as the naming service for DCE . [soft] DBMS Database management system: such sys- tems typically manage large structured sets of Declared pregnant woman A woman who is an persistent data, offering query facilities occupational radiation worker and has voluntar- to many users. They are widely used in busi- ily informed her employer, in writing, of her ness applications: commercial examples include pregnancy and the estimated date of conception. Ingres , Oracle etc. [soft] [nuclear-1] DCA Document Content Architecture.from IBM DECnet The network marketed by DEC to connect [soft] its computers together. [soft] DCE Distributed Computing Environment from Decommissioning The process of closing down a OSF - More information. [soft] facility followed by reducing residual radioactiv- ity to a level that permits the release of the prop- DCF Document Composition Facility. [soft] erty for unrestricted use. [nuclear-1] DCOM Distributed Component Object Model Pro- Decompression Point The point at which there tocol [soft] is zero pressure at the joint interface as a result DCSA Distributed Component Software Architec- of forces applied to the joint. If the applied force ture [soft] is increased beyond the decompression point, a gap will form at the interface. Analytically, a DD Data Dictionary . [soft] criteria of joint failure is often taken as when the applied force on the joint reaches the de- DDE Manager An Oracle product that lets Win- compression point. This is because forces acting dows applications that support the DDE proto- on the bolt(s) can dramatically increase at this col act as front end tools for Oracle. It allows point. Loading beyond this point can also re- applications like Excel, Word, Ami Professional, sult in fretting at the interface that will lead to WingZ, and ToolBook to query, update, graph, bolt tension loss that will subsequently lower the and report information stored in Oracle. [soft] decompression point. This process can continue DDE protocol Dynamic Data Exchange: a Mi- until bolt failure does occur. The failure can be crosoft protocol that allows Windows appli- by or other mechanism but the under- cations to communicate using a client/server lying cause was loading of the joint beyond the model. [soft] decompression point. It is for this reason that it is frequently taken as a failure criteria in analysis DDIF Digital Document Interchange Format. A work. [mech-3] CDA specification for representing compound documents in revisable format; a DEC standard DECON A method of decommissioning in which for document encoding. [soft] the equipment, structures, and portions of a fa- cility and site containing radioactive contami- DDL Data definition languageDRAFT . [soft] nants are removed and safety buried in a low- CMI-MDP Programme 31

level radioactive waste landfill or decontami- delta iron an allotropic (polymorphic) form of iron nated to a level that permits the property to be stable above 2550 F and crystallizing in the body released for unrestricted use shortly after cessa- centered cubic lattice. [mat-1] tion of operations. [nuclear-1] DELTASE A distributed processing environ- Decontamination The reduction or removal of ment concerned with fault-tolerant and process- contaminating radioactive material from a struc- control applications from the Esprit project. ture, area, object, or person. Decontamination [soft] may be accomplished by (1) treating the surface to remove or decrease the contamination, (2) let- Delta The information which differentiates a ver- ting the material stand so that the radioactivity sion from members of its immediate family. See is decreased as a result of natural radioactive de- change management [soft] cay, or (3) covering the contamination to shield DeMarco Tom DeMarco proposed a form of Struc- or attenuate the radiation emitted. [nuclear-1] tured Analysis. [soft] DECstation A range of RISC based workstations DEM Digital Elevation Model. A format for map manufactured by DEC. [soft] files [soft] DECwindows DEC’s windowing environment Demeter A CASE tool developed mainly by Karl based on the X Window System . [soft] Lieberherr (see Aug/Sep 1988 issue of JOOP, DECwrite DEC’s CDA document processing ap- OOPSLA ’89 Proceedings ”Contributions to plication. It can generate and import SGML Teaching Object-Oriented Design and Program- marked-up documents. [soft] ming”) [soft] defect structure relating to the kinds and concen- Demonstrated reserves A collective term for the trations of vacancies and interstitials in a ceramic sum of coalin both measured and indicated re- compound. [mat-1] sources and reserves. [mining-1] Defense-in-depth A design and operational philos- Departure from nuclear boiling ratio ophy with regard to nuclear facilities that calls (DNBR) The ratio of the heat flux to for multiple layers of protection to prevent and cause departure from nucleate boiling to the mitigate accidents. It includes the use of con- actual local heat flux or a fuel rod. [nuclear-1] trols, multiple physical barriers to prevent re- Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) The lease of radiation, redundant and diverse key point at which the from a fuel safety functions, and emergency response mea- rod rapidly decreases due to the insulating ef- sures. [nuclear-1] fect of a steam blanket that forms on the rod Deflection This word usually carries the same surface when the temperature continues to in- meaning as , although it is some- crease. [nuclear-1] times used in place of deformation. [struc-1] Uranium having a percent- Deformation A change in the shape of an object age of uranium-235 smaller than the 0.7 per- or material. [struc-1] cent found in natural uranium. It is obtained from spent (used) fuel elements or as byproduct Degree of Freedom A displacement quantity tails, or residues, from uranium isotope separa- which defines the shape and location of an ob- tion. [nuclear-1] ject. In the two dimensional plane, a rigid object has three degrees of freedom [struc-1] Deposit - deposit or ore deposit is used todesignate a natural occurrence of a useful min- degree of polymerization the average number of eral, or an ore, insufficient extent and degree of mer units per polymer chain molecule. [mat-1] concentration to inviteexploitation.[mining-1] Delphi An object-oriented development system Depth - The word alone generally denotes verti- from Borland [soft] cal depthbelow the surface. In the case of in- cline shafts and boreholes it maymean the dis- Delta-4 Definition and Design of an open Depend- tance reached from the beginning of the shaft able Distributed system architecture. An Es- or hole, theborehole depth, or the inclined prit project investigating the achievement of de- depth.[mining-1] pendability in open distributed systems, includ- ing real-time systems. [soft] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 32

Derived air concentration (DAC) The concen- DESQview A system from Quarterdeck Office Sys- tration of radioactive material in air and the time tems implementing multitasking under MS-DOS. of exposure to that radionuclide in hours. An [soft] NRC licensee may take 2000 hours to represent one ALI, equivalent to a committed effective dose Destructor A function provided by a class in C++ equivalent of 5 rems (0.05 sievert). [nuclear-1] to delete an object. [soft] DES Data Encryption Standard. A NIST encryp- DESY Deutsches Electronen Synchrotron Labora- tion standard. [soft] tory, Hamburg, Germany - More information. [soft] Design-basis accident A postulated accident that a nuclear facility must be designed and built to Detector A material or device that is sensitive to withstand without loss to the systems, struc- radiation and can produce a response signal suit- tures, and components necessary to assure public able for measurement or analysis. A radiation health and safety. [nuclear-1] detection instrument. [nuclear-1] Design-basis phenomena , torna- Detectors - Specialized chemical or electronic in- does, hurricanes, floods, etc., that a nuclear fa- strumentsused to detect mine .[mining-1] cility must be designed and built to withstand Deterministic effect The health effectsof radia- without loss of systems, structures, and com- tion, the severity of which varies with the dose ponents necessary to assure public health and and for which a threshold is believed to exist. safety. [nuclear-1] Radiation-induced cataract formation is an ex- Design-basis threat A profile of the type, com- ample of a deterministic effect (also called a non- position, and capabilities of an adversary. The effect). [nuclear-1] NRC and its licensees use the design-basis threat Deterministic (probabilistic) Consistent with (DBT) as a basis for designing safeguards sys- the principles of ”,” which hold that tems to protect against acts of radiological sab- specific causes completely and certainly deter- otage and to prevent the theft of special nuclear mine effects of all sorts. As applied in nuclear material. [nuclear-1] technology, it generally deals with evaluating the Design Design is usually considered to be the phase safety of a nuclear power plant in terms of the of software development following analysis, and consequences of a predetermined bounding sub- concerned with how the problem is to be solved. set of accident sequences. The term ”probabilis- [soft] tic” is associated with an evaluation that explic- itly accounts for the likelihood and consequences Design Form Of Thread The design form of an of possible accident sequences in an integrated internal or external thread is the thread form in fashion. [nuclear-1] it’s maximum metal condition. It is the same as the basic thread profile except that the thread Detonator - A device containing a small detonat- roots are rounded. If either the internal or ex- ing chargethat is used for detonating an explo- ternal thread form exceeds the design form of sive, including, but not limitedto, blasting caps, the thread profile then a potential interference exploders, electric detonators, and delay elec- exists. [mech-3] tricblasting caps.[mining-1] Design recovery A of in An isotope of hydrogen with one proton which domain knowledge, external information, and one neutron in the nucleus. [nuclear-1] and deduction of fuzzy reasoning are added to Deuteron The nucleus of deuterium. It contains the of the subject system to identify one proton and one neutron. See also heavy wa- meaningful higher level beyond those ter. [nuclear-1] obtained directly by examining the system itself. [soft] Development mining - Work undertaken to open up coalreserves as distinguished from the work of Desktop manager A user interface to system ser- actual coalextraction. [mining-1] vices, usually icon and menu based like the Mac- intosh Finder, enabling the user to run appli- Development The process of analysis, design, cod- cations and use a filing system without directly ing and testing software. [soft] using the command language of the operating system. [soft] Devitrification the process in which a glass (non- crystalline or vitreous solid) transforms to a crys- DRAFTtalline solid[mech-1] CMI-MDP Programme 33

DFD Data Flow Diagram . [soft] Diffusion - Blending of a gas and air, resulting in ahomogeneous mixture. Blending of two or more DGL Data Generation Language: a tool for gener- gases.[mining-1] ating test data for hardware or software systems. [soft] diffusion coefficient (D) the constant of propor- tionality between the diffusion flux and the con- DGL The distributed version of GL . [soft] centration in Fick’s first law; its magni- Dhrystone A benchmark program in C and Ada. tude is indicative of the rate of atomic diffusion. [soft] [mat-1] DIALOG A commercial bibliographic database Diffusion Coefficient the constant of proportion- and retrieval service from DIALOG Information ality between diffusion flux and the concentra- Services. [soft] tion gradient in Fick’s first law.[mech-1] a weak form of induced or nonper- diffusion flux (J) the quantity of mass diffus- manent for which the magnetic sus- ing through and perpendicular to a unit cross- ceptibility is negative. [mat-1] sectional area of material per unit time. [mat-1] Diamagnetism a weak form of induced or nonper- Diffusion mass transport by atomic motion.[mech- manent magnetism for which the magnetic sus- 1] ceptibility is negative.[mech-1] diffusion motion of atoms, ions, or vacancies DIB Device Independent Bitmap, a format for through a material. [mat-1] portable images. [soft] DII Dynamic Invocation Interface. An OMG spec- die (1) a metal form used as a permanent mold for ification. [soft] die casting or for a wax pattern in investment DIIG Digital Information Infrastructure Guide. A casting; (2) an integrated circuit chip as diced or resource to facilitate the development of the NII cut from the finished . [mat-1] [soft] any material that is electrically insulat- Dilute - To lower the concentration of a mixture; in ing. [mat-1] thiscase the concentration of any hazardous gas Dielectric any material that is electrically in mine air by addition offresh intake air.[mining- insulating.[mech-1] 1] dielectric constant a relative measurement of the - The contamination of ore with barren degree of (shift of positive charge to- wall rockin stopping.[mining-1] ward the negative electrode and negative charge DIN Deutsche Institut fuer Normung: the German toward the positive electrode) that occurs when standardisation body, a member of ISO . [soft] a material is placed in an electric field. [mat-1] DIP Document Image Processing: storage, manage- Dielectric Constant the ratio of the ment and retrieval of images. [soft] of a medium to that of a vacuum.[mech-1] a system or object whose one end has a nega- the magnitude of an electric tive charge and the other a positive charge. [mat- field necessary to cause significant current pas- 1] sage through a dielectric material.[mech-1] Dipole (electric) a pair of equal yet opposite Dienst A protocol for a distributed digital docu- electrical charges that are separated by a small ment library built on http [soft] distance[mech-1] Differential pressure (dp or dP) The differ- ence in pressure between two points of a system, Dip - The inclination of a geologic structure (bed, such as between the inlet and outlet of a . vein,fault, etc.) from the horizontal; dip is al- [nuclear-1] ways measured downwards atright angles to the strike. [mining-1] diffraction (x-) constructive interference of x- ray beams that are scattered by atoms of a crys- Direct Tension Indicators Direct Tension Indi- tal. [mat-1] cators (DTI’s) is a term sometimes used to de- scribe load indicating washers. Projections on Diffuser fan - A fan mounted on a continuous miner the face of the washer (usually on the face abut- toassist and direct air delivery from the machine ing the bolt head or nut) that deform under load- to the face.[mining-1] DRAFTing as the bolt is tensioned. An indication of the CMI-MDP Programme 34

tension in the bolt can be made by measuring Document Style Semantics and Specification the gap between the washer face and the nut or Language An ISO standard under preparation, bolt head. The smaller the gap - the greater addressing the semantics of high-quality compo- the tension in the bolt. Commonly used in civil sition in a manner independent of particular for- rather than mechanical engineering applications. matting systems or processes. DSSSL is intended [mech-3] as a complementary standard to SGML for the specification of semantics. [soft] Dirt Design In Real Time: a user interface builder for the X Window System by R.Hesketh [soft] DoD-STD-2167A A DoD standard specifying the overall process of development and documenta- DISA Data Interchange Standards Association tion for mission-critical software - More informa- (USA) [soft] tion. [soft] DISA Defense Information Systems Agency (USA) DoD-STD-2168 A DoD standard for software [soft] quality assurance procedures. [soft] Dislocation a linear crystalline defect around DoD The US Department of Defense, responsible which there is an atomic misalignment.[mech-1] for sponsoring many standards in the software dislocation a linear crystalline defect around which engineering field [soft] there is atomic misalignment; plastic deforma- DOE Distributed Object Environment: a dis- tion corresponds to the motion of in tributed object-oriented application framework response to an applied shear stress; edge, screw, from SunSoft. [soft] and mixed dislocations are possible. [mat-1] DoE The US Department of Energy [soft] dislocation line the line that extends along the end of the extra half-plane of atoms for an edge domain a volume region of a ferromagnetic or fer- dislocation, and along the center of the spiral of rimagnetic material in which all atomic or ionic a screw dislocation. [mat-1] magnetic moments are aligned in the same direc- tion. [mat-1] Displacement A change in position. A displace- ment may be a translation a rotation or a com- Domain Distributed Operating Multi Access Inter- bination of those. [struc-1] active Network:the proprietary network protocol used by Apollo workstations. [soft] Display PostScript An extended form of PostScript permitting its interactive use with DOMF Distributed Object Management Facility: bitmap displays. [soft] an OMG -compliant object management system; part of DOE . from SunSoft. [soft] Distributed load An external force which acts over a region of length, surface, or area [struc-1] DOORS Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System [soft] DLG Digital Line Graph. A format for map files [soft] the intentional alloying of semiconducting materials with controlled concentrations of donor DL/I The data manipulation language of IMS . or acceptor . [mat-1] [soft] Doping the intentional alloying of semiconducting DLM Distributed Lock Manager on distributed materials with controlled concentrations of donor VMS systems. [soft] or acceptor impurities.[mech-1] DME Distributed Management Environment: an Doppler coefficient Another name used for OSF standard presently at the RFT stage. [soft] the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity. DMS Document Management System. [soft] [nuclear-1] DNS Distributed Name Service: see DECdns . DORIS 3-10 GeV electron-positron [soft] storage / at DESY . [soft] DOC Distributed Object Computing. [soft] Dose, absorbed The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing radiation per unit Document Examiner A high-performance hyper- mass of the substance. It is expressed numeri- text system by Symbolics that provides on-line cally in rads or grays. [nuclear-1] access to their user documentation.DRAFT [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 35

Dose equivalent The product of in by means of a tensile force applied on the exit tissue multiplied by a quality factor and then side.[mech-1] sometimes multiplied by other necessary modi- fying factors at the location of interest. It is ex- Draw slate - A soft slate, , or rock fromap- pressed numerically in rems or . [nuclear- proximately 1 cm to 10 cm thick and lo- 1] cated immediately abovecertain coal seams, which falls quite easily when the coal support Dose rate The ionizing radiation dose delivered per iswithdrawn.[mining-1] unit time. For example, rem or sieverts per . [nuclear-1] Drift - A horizontal passage underground. A drift followsthe vein, as distinguished from a crosscut Dose The absorbed dose, given in rads (or in SI that intersects it, or alevel or gallery, which may units, grays), that represents the energy ab- do either. [mining-1] sorbed from the radiation in a gram of any ma- terial. Furthermore, the biological dose or dose Drift mine An underground coal mine in which the equivalent, given in rem or sieverts, is a measure entry oraccess is above water level and generally of the biological damage to living tissue from ra- on the slope of a hill,driven horizontally into a diation exposure. [nuclear-1] coal seam.[mining-1] Dosimeter A small portable instrument (such as Drill - A machine utilizing rotation, percus- a film badge or thermoluminescent or pocket sion(hammering), or a combination of both to dosimeter) for measuring and recording the total make holes. If the hole ismuch over 0.4m in di- accumulated personal dose of ionizing radiation. ameter, the machine is called a borer.[mining-1] [nuclear-1] Drilling - The use of such a machine to cre- Dosimetry The and application of the prin- ate holes forexploration or for loading with ciples and techniques involved in the measure- explosives.[mining-1] ment and recording of ionizing radiation doses. Drywell The containment structure enclosing a [nuclear-1] boiling water reactor vessel and its recirculation DPS Display PostScript . [soft] system. The drywell provides both a pressure suppression system and a fission product barrier DQO Data Quality Objectives [soft] under accident conditions. [nuclear-1] Dragline A large excavation machine used in sur- DS Dansk Standard. The Danish standards associ- face miningto remove overburden (layers of rock ation. [soft] and ) covering a coalseam. The dragline casts a wire -hung bucket a considerabledistance, DSDM Dynamic Systems Development Method. A collects the dug material by pulling the bucket non-proprietary Rapid Application Development towarditself on the ground with a second wire method [soft] rope (or chain), elevates thebucket, and dumps DSE Editor. [soft] the material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on apile.[mining-1] DSEE Domain Software Engineering Environment: a proprietary CASE framework and configura- DRAGON An Esprit project aimed at providing tion management system from Apollo . [soft] effective support to reuse in real-time distributed Ada applications.. [soft] DSOM Distributed SOM [soft] DRAGOON A distributed concurrent object- DSP Processing. [soft] oriented Ada -based language from the Esprit project. [soft] DSS Decision Support Systems. Software tools to help with management tasks. [soft] the bottom half of a horizontally parted mold. [mat-1] DSSSL Document Style Semantics and Specifica- tion Language. An ISO standard under prepa- Drainage - The process of removing surplus ground ration, addressing the semantics of high-quality orsurface water either by artificial means or by composition in a manner independent of partic- gravity flow.[mining-1] ular formatting systems or processes. DSSSL is intended as a complementary standard to SGML a deformation technique used to fabricate for the specification of semantics - More informa- metal wire and tubing. Deformation is accom- tion. [soft] plished by pulling the materialDRAFT through a die CMI-MDP Programme 36

DTD Document Type Definition: the definition of Dylan An object-oriented dynamic language [soft] a document type in SGML , consisting of a set of markup tags and their interpretation. [soft] Dynamic equilibrium Equilibrium which includes inertial forces. [struc-1] DTIC Defense Technical Information Center of the US Dept. of Defense. [soft] Dynamic Friction Resistance to relative move- ment of two bodies that are already in motion. DTI UK Department of Trade and Industry. [soft] [mech-3] DTL DVI Text Language. An ASCII DVI format. [soft] DTLS Descriptive Top-Level Specification lan- EF guage: used in POSIX . [soft] DTP Desktop publishing. [soft] E A database progamming language developed for the EXODUS project. [soft] DTS Distributed Time Service . [soft] EAPLS European Association for Programming ductile fracture a mode of fracture that is at- Languages and Systems - More information. tended by extensive gross plastic deformation. [soft] [mat-1] EARN European Academic and Research Network. ductile-to-brittle transition the transition from A self-managing network in the research commu- ductile to brittle behavior with a decrease in tem- nity originally sponsored by IBM. It uses BIT- perature exhibited by BCC alloys; the tempera- NET protocols and connects to BITNET in the ture range over which the transition occurs is de- US - More information. [soft] termined by Charpy and Izod impact tests. [mat- 1] , operating basis An earthquake that could be expected to affect the reactor plant site, Ductility a measure of a material’s ability to but for which the plant power production equip- undergo appreciable plastic deformation before ment is designed to remain functional without fracture.[mech-1] undue risk to public health and safety. [nuclear- 1] ductility a measure of a material’s ability to undergo appreciable plastic deformation before EAST A Eureka project developing a software en- fracture; it may be expressed as percent elonga- gineering platform. [soft] tion or percent area reduction from a tensile test. [mat-1] EC Electronic Commerce. Managing business transactions using networking and electronic Ductility Ductility generally refers to the amount means. [soft] of inelastic deformation which a material or structure experiences before complete failure. ECFA European Committee for Accelera- Quantitatively, ductility can be defined as the tors. This body, whose principal role is to take ratio of the total displacement or strain at fail- care of Europe’s requirements for future particle ure, divided by the displacement or strain at the accelerators, has also looked at particle physics elastic limit. [struc-1] data handling on a European-wide basis. [soft] Dummy - A bag filled with sand, clay, etc., used A public database service of the European forstemming a charged hole. [mining-1] Community - More information. [soft] Dump - To unload; specifically, a load of coal or ECHT European Conference on Hypertext . [soft] waste;the mechanism for unloading, e.g. a car ECIP2 An Esprit Project on the definition of a dump (sometimes calledtipple); or, the pile cre- specification language at the requirement level. ated by such unloading, e.g. a waste dump(also [soft] called heap, pile, tip, spoil pike, etc.).[mining-1] ECIS European Committee for Interoperable Sys- DVI Device independent file format. A dvi file con- tems. [soft] taining a description of the formatted document is the usual output of TeX . [soft] ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Asso- ciation [soft] DWARF A debugging information format for UNIX System V [soft] DRAFTECM Enterprise Component Modelling. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 37

ECO Engineering Change Order. [soft] Effective Nut Diameter Twice the effective nut . [mech-3] ECOOP European Conference on Object-oriented Programming. [soft] Effective Nut Radius The radius from the centre of the nut to the point where the contact forces, ECRC Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. A generated when the nut is turned, can be consid- network of US sponsored centers ered to act. [mech-3] that provide support to government and indus- try in developing and implementing strategies for EFF Electronic Frontier . An organisa- business process improvement, implementing en- tion working on civil rights issues in networking abling technologies, and migrating to electronic [soft] commerce [soft] Efficiency, plant The percentage of the total en- EDA Product line from Dazix . [soft] ergy content of a power plant’s fuel that is con- verted into electricity. The remaining energy is Eden An object-oriented distributed operating sys- lost to the environment as heat. [nuclear-1] tem based on an RPC mechanism . [soft] EHTS Emacs HyperText System: an experimental edge dislocation a linear crystalline defect associ- multiuser hypertext system from the University ated with the lattice distortion produced in the of Aalborg. It consists of a text editor (based vicinity of the end of an extra half-plane of atoms on Epoch and GNU and written in elisp) and within a crystal; the Burgers vector is perpendic- a graphical browser (based on XView ) running ular to the dislocation line. [mat-1] under the X Window System and OpenWindows EDH Electronic Document Handling (at CERN ) - Both tools use HyperBase as database. [soft] More information. [soft] EIA Electronic Industries Association. [soft] EDI Electronic Data Interchange: a set of standards Eiffel An object-oriented programming language for exchanging orders and other business trans- developed by B.Meyer et al. and commercialised actions by electronic mail - More information. by ISE [soft] [soft] Eiffel shelf A set of user-contributed classes avail- EDIF Electronic Design Interchange Format . [soft] able with the Eiffel system. [soft] EDM Engineering Data Management. [soft] EIS Executive Information System. [soft] EDMS Electronic Document Management System. EJO Electronic Journals Online. A service of the [soft] OCLC . [soft] EDUCOM A nonprofit consortium of US higher Elastic A material or structure is said to behave education institutions promoting access to and elastically if it returns to its original geometry use of information resources and technology - upon unloading. [struc-1] More information. [soft] elastic deformation nonpermanent deformation, EEMA European Electronic Messaging Associa- totally recovered upon release of an applied tion. [soft] stress. [mat-1] EER An extended entity-relationship model . [soft] The energy stored in deformed elas- Effective Diameter This is the diameter of tic material (e.g., a ). Elastic energy an imaginary cylinder coaxial with the thread, equals where k is the stiffness, and is the as- which has equal metal and space widths. It is sociated deflection. Elastic energy is sometimes often referred to as pitch diameter. Sometimes called elastic because it can be referred to as the simple effective diameter to recovered when the object returns to its original differentiate from the virtual effective diameter. shape; see potential energy. [struc-1] [mech-3] Elastic limit The point beyond which the defor- Effective half-life The time required for the mations of a structure or material are no longer amount of a radioactive element deposited in a purely elastic. [struc-1] living to be diminished 50 percent as a see Modulus of [mech- result of the combined action of radioactive de- 1] cay and biological elimination.DRAFT [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 38

a polymeric material that may experi- electropositive for an atom, having a tendency to ence large and reversible elastic deformations. release valence electrons; also a term to describe [mat-1] metallic elements. [mat-1] Elastomer a polymeric material that may Element One of the 103 known chemical substances experience large and reversible elastic that cannot be broken down further without deformations.[mech-1] changing its chemical properties. Some exam- ples include hydrogen, nitrogen, , lead, and Electrical generator An electromagnetic device uranium. See the periodic table of elements that converts mechanical (rotational) energy into [nuclear-1] . Most large electrical generators are driven by steam or systems. Ellemtel A C++ style guide originated by Ellemtel [nuclear-1] Telecom Systems, Stockholm. [soft] Electrical grounding - To connect with ELOT The Greek standards association. [soft] the ground to makethe earth part of the ELSA Electronic Library Services and Applica- circuit.[mining-1] tions. A library of reusable public domain soft- electrodeposition (1) the deposition of a conduc- ware supported by NASA - More information. tive material from a solution by the appli- [soft] cation of electrical current; (2) the deposition of emacs A popular editor and associated utilities for a substance on an electrode by passing electric UNIX [soft] current through an electrolyte; electroplating, electroforming, electrorefining, and electrotwin- email See Electronic mail . [soft] ning result from electrodeposition. [mat-1] E-mail See Electronic mail . [soft] Electroless A relatively thin, hard coating Embedment Localized plastic deformation which that can be applied to threads and deposited uni- occurs in the vicinity of clamped fasteners or in formly. Bright metallic in appearance this coat- the fastener threads. [mech-3] ing has excellent resistance to wear and corro- sion. [mech-3] EMDIR The CERN Electronic Mail DIRectory utility. [soft] electrolyte a solution through which an may be carried by the motion of ions. Emergency classifications Response by an offsite [mat-1] organization is required to protect local citizens near the site. A request for assistance from off- Electromagnetic radiation A traveling mo- site emergency response organizations may be re- tion resulting from changing electric or magnetic quired. [nuclear-1] fields. Familiar electromagnetic radiation range from x-rays (and gamma rays) of short wave- Emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) Re- length, through the , visible, and in- actor system components (, valves, heat frared regions, to and of rela- exchangers, , and piping) that are specifi- tively long . [nuclear-1] cally designed to remove residual heat from the reactor fuel rods should the normal core cooling electromagnetic radiation energy propagated at system (reactor coolant system) fail. [nuclear-1] the by an electromagnetic field. [mat-1] Emergency feedwater Another name that may be used for auxiliary feedwater. [nuclear-1] Electron An elementary particle with a negative charge and a mass 1/1837 that of the proton. E-Modulus see modulus of elasticity. [struc-1] Electrons surround the positively charged nu- Encapsulation The ability to provide users with cleus and determine the chemical properties of a well-defined interface to a set of functions in the atom. [nuclear-1] a way which hides their internal workings. In electronegative for an atom, having a tendency to object-oriented programming, the technique of accept valence electrons; also a term to describe keeping together data structures and the meth- non-metallic elements. [mat-1] ods (procedures) which act on them. [soft] Electronegativity for an atom, having a tendency Energy A property of a body related to its abil- to accept valence electrons.[mech-1] ity to move a force through a distance opposite the force’s direction; energy is the product of the Electronic Mail A system allowing computer users magnitude of the force times the distance. En- to exchange messages via a network.DRAFT [soft] ergy may take several forms [struc-1] CMI-MDP Programme 39

Engineering technical ceramics for EPICS and Industrial Con- structural applications.[mech-1] trol System. Software for accelerator, experi- ment, and process control from ANL - More in- Entity-Relationship An approach to data mod- formation. [soft] elling proposed by P.Chen in 1976. [soft] Epoch A version of GNU Emacs for the X Window Entity-Relationship diagram A type of diagram system from NCSA . [soft] used in the Entity-Relationship model. [soft] EPO European Patent Office [soft] ENTOMB A method of decommissioning in which radioactive contaminants are encased in a struc- EPS Encapsulated PostScript - More information. turally long-lived material, such as concrete. The [soft] entombment structure is appropriately main- tained and continued is carried out EQA European Quality Award for process improve- until the radioactivity decays to a level permit- ment. [soft] ting decommissioning and ultimate unrestricted equiaxed or grain shapes with approxi- release of the property. [nuclear-1] mately equal . [mat-1] Entry - An underground horizontal or near- Equilibrium An object is in equilibrium if the re- horizontalpassage used for haulage, ventilation, sultant of the system of forces acting on it has or as a mainway; a coalheading; a working place zero magnitude. See static equilibrium and dy- where the coal is extracted from the seam inthe namic equilibrium. [struc-1] initial mining; same as ”gate” and ”roadway,” both Britishterms.[mining-1] equilibrium (phase) the state of a system where the phase characteristics remain constant over Environmentally Assisted Cracking (Eac) A indefinite time periods; at equilibrium the free process that can occur with the use of high energy is a minimum. [mat-1] strength steel fasteners in which crack initiation and growth occurs in the fastener at a compar- ERA Entity-Relationship -Attribute. [soft] atively low stress level as a result of interactions that occur with the environment. Hydrogen is ERC An extended entity-relationship model . [soft] suspected of causing EAC in high strength steel ERCIM European Research Consortium on Infor- fasteners, the hydrogen being produced as a re- matics and Mathematics. An association of Eu- sult of chemical reactions ( in ropean research organizations promoting cooper- a moist environment) or being present from a ative research on key issues in information tech- plating process that may have been applied to nology [soft] the fastener. [mech-3] ERCS Extended Reference Concrete Syntaxes for Environmental qualification A process for en- SGML , to support East Asian and other non- suring that equipment will be capable of with- English languages - More information. [soft] standing the ambient conditions that could exist when the specific function to be performed by ERD Entity-relationship diagram. [soft] the equipment is actually called upon to be per- formed under accident conditions. [nuclear-1] ER Entity-Relationship . [soft] EOQ European Organization for Quality. [soft] ESA European Space Agency standards. [soft] EOUG European ORACLE Users Group. [soft] ESF Eureka Software Factory. [soft] EPCS Experimental Physics Control Systems: a ESI European Software Institute. A network of or- group of the European Physical Society, fo- ganisations co-operating in strategic planning of cussing on all aspects of controls, especially in- process improvement [soft] formatics, in experimental physics, including ac- ESIS Element Structure Information Set produced celerators and . [soft] by SGML parsers. [soft] EPIC Electronic Privacy Information Center. A ESML Extended Systems Modelling Language: US center working on privacy issues relating to a real-time software engineering methodology the National Information Infrastructure - More based on RTSA . [soft] information. [soft] ESPIF European Software Process Improvement DRAFTFoundation [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 40

Esprit A funding programme to develop Informatics Excelerator A set of CASE tools from Index Tech- in the EEC. - More information. [soft] nology Corp. [soft] Estelle A formal description technique developed Exclusion area The area surrounding the reactor for OSI protocol specification. [soft] where the reactor licensee has the authority to determine all activities, including exclusion or re- ESUG European Smalltalk Users’ Group. [soft] moval of personnel and property. [nuclear-1] etching chemical surface corrosion, usually con- Excursion A sudden, very rapid rise in the power ducted in a controlled fashion on a polished sur- level of a reactor caused by supercriticality. Ex- face of a material sample to reveal details of the cursions are usually quickly suppressed by the microstructure. [mat-1] coefficient, the fuel tem- Ethernet A 10-megabit/second local area network perature coefficient or the void coefficient (de- developed by Xerox and now widely adopted. pending upon reactor design), or by rapid inser- Hosts are connected to a , and trans- tion of control rods. [nuclear-1] mission conflicts are avoided by backing off and EXODUS An extensible database project devel- re-sending later. IEEE standard 802.3 defines oped at the University of Wisconsin. [soft] the hardware and transport layers of the net- work. [soft] eXodus A package from White Pines allowing the Macintosh to be used as an X server . [soft] ETLA Extended Three Letter Acronym. [soft] Expert system An intelligent computer program ETM An active DBMS from the University of Karl- that contains a knowledge base, specialized soft- sruhe. [soft] ware, and a set of algorithms or rules that in- ETSI European Telecommunications Standards In- fer new from knowledge and from incoming stitute. [soft] data. [soft]

EUnet The European UNIX network: an Internet Exploration - The search for mineral deposits and service provider. More information. [soft] the workdone to prove or establish the extent of a mineral deposit. Alt:Prospecting and subsequent Eureka A European technological development pro- evaluation.[mining-1] gramme. [soft] Explosive - Any rapidly combustive or expanding EuropaNET A combination of -European substance.The energy released during this rapid backbone services run by DANTE . [soft] combustion or expansion can beused to break rock.[mining-1] EUSIDIC European Association of Information Services [soft] Exposure Being exposed to ionizing radiation or to radioactive material. [nuclear-1] Eutectic Phase one of the two phases found in the eutectic structure.[mech-1] Express A data modelling language adopted by the ISO working group on STEP . [soft] eutectic upon cooling, a liquid phase transforms isothermally and reversibly into two intimately Extensible database A DBMS that allows access mixed solid phases; the lowest melting composi- to data from remote sources as if it were part of tion in a material system. [mat-1] the database. [soft] Eutectoid Phase[mech-1] External force A surface force or body force act- ing on an object. External forces are sometimes eutectoid upon cooling, one solid phase transforms called applied forces. [struc-1] isothermally and reversibly into two new solid phases that are intimately mixed. [mat-1] External Force Or Load Forces exerted on a fastener as a result of an applied loading to the EUUG European UNIX User Group. [soft] joint. [mech-3] Evaluation - The work involved in gaining a knowl- External to ionizing radiation edge ofthe size, shape, position and value of when the radiation source is located outside the coal.[mining-1] body. [nuclear-1] EWOS European Workshop for Open Systems. External Thread A screw thread which is formed [soft] on an external cylinder, such as on bolts, screws, DRAFTstuds etc. [mech-3] CMI-MDP Programme 41

Extraction - The process of mining and removal of Fast fission Fission of a heavy atom (such as cal orore from a mine.[mining-1] uranium-238) when it absorbs a high energy (fast) neutron. Most fissionable materials need Extremities The hands, forearms, elbows, feet, thermal (slow) neutrons in order to fission. knees, leg below the knees, and ankles. (Per- [nuclear-1] missible radiation exposures in these regions are generally greater than in the whole body be- Fast neutron A neutron with greater cause they contain fewer forming organs than its surroundings when released during fis- and have smaller for energy absorption.) sion. [nuclear-1] [nuclear-1] Fatigue failure, at relatively low stress levels, of Extrinsic a semi-conducting ma- structures that are subjected to fluctuating and terial for hich the electrical behavior is deter- cyclic stresses.[mech-1] mined by impurities.[mech-1] FATMEN A distributed file and tape management a forming technique whereby a material system for HEP data - More information. [soft] is forced, by compression, through a die orifice. [mat-1] Fault - A slip-surface between two portions of the earth’ssurface that have moved relative to each Extrusion a forming technique whereby a mate- other. A fault is a failuresurface and is evidence rial is forced, by compression, through a die of severe earth stresses.[mining-1] orifice.[mech-1] Fault zone - A fault, instead of being a single clean- EXUG European X [soft] fracture, may be a zone hundreds or thousands of feet wide. The faultzone consists of numer- face-centered cubic (FCC) a crystal structure ous interlacing small faults or a confused zoneof found in some of the common elemental metals; gouge, breccia, or mylonite.[mining-1] within the cubic unit cell atoms are located at all corner and face-centered positions [mat-1] FDDI Distributed Data Interface: a new ANSI standard for a 100 megabits/second fibre Face cleat - The principal cleavage plane or joint optic token ring local area network [soft] at rightangles to the stratification of the coal seam.[mining-1] FEA Finite Element Analysis. [soft] Face conveyor - Any conveyor used parallel to a Feature An attribute or function of a class in Eiffel workingface which delivers coal into another con- . [soft] veyor or into a car.[mining-1] Feeder - A machine that feeds coal onto a conveyor Face The exposed area of a coal bed from which beltevenly.[mining-1] coal isbeing extracted.[mining-1] feeder part of the gating system that forms the - The ratio of the ultimate break- of molten metal necessary to compen- ingstrength of the material to the force exerted sate for losses due to shrinkage as the metal so- against it. If a ropewill break under a load of lidifies; sometimes referred to as a riser. [mat-1] 6000 lbs., and it is carrying a load of2000 lbs., its factor of safety is 6000 divided by 2000 which Feed-forward A multilayer perceptron network equals3.[mining-1] in which the outputs from all neurons (see McCulloch-Pitts ) go to following but not preced- Fall - A mass of roof rock or coal which has fallen ing layers, so there are no loops. [soft] in anypart of a mine.[mining-1] Feedwater Water supplied to the reactor pressure Fan, auxiliary - A small, portable fan used to sup- vessel (in a BWR) or the steam generator (in a plementthe ventilation of an individual working PWR) that removes heat from the reactor fuel place.[mining-1] rods by boiling and becoming steam. The steam becomes the driving force for the plant turbine Fan, booster - A large fan installed in the main generator. [nuclear-1] aircurrent, and thus in tandem with the main fan.[mining-1] Fermi Energy for a metal, the energy correspond- ing to the highest filled electron state in the va- Fan signal - device designed to lence bond at 0 K.[mech-1] give alarm ifthe main fan slows down or stops.[mining-1] DRAFTFerrimagnetism[mech-1] CMI-MDP Programme 42

permanent and large magnetiza- Fick’s second law the time rate of change of con- tions found in some ceramic materials; it centration is proportional to the second deriva- from antiparallel coupling and incomplete tive of concentration; this relationship is em- magnetic moment cancellation. [mat-1] ployed in nonsteady-state diffusion situations. [mat-1] ferrite (ceramic) ceramic materials com- posed of both divalent and trivalent cations, Fill - Any material that is put back in place of theex- some of which are ferrimagnetic. [mat-1] tracted ore to provide ground support.[mining-1] Ferrite (iron) body-centered cubic crystal an inert foreign substance added to a structure.[mech-1] to improve or modify its properties.[mech-1] ferrite (iron) body-centered cubic iron; also iron Film badge Photographic film used for measure- and steel alloys that have the BCC crystal struc- ment of ionizing radiation exposure for person- ture. [mat-1] nel monitoring purposes. The film badge may contain two or three films of differing sensitivi- Ferroelectric a dielectric material that may ex- ties, and it may also contain a filter that shields hibit polarization in the absence of an electric part of the film from certain types of radiation. field.[mech-1] [nuclear-1] spontaneous alignment of electric FIMS Form Interface Management System. [soft] within a material under the influence of an electric field, resulting in a loop FIPS Federal Information Processing Standard: when the direction of electric field is switched. U.S. Government standards. [soft] [mat-1] Fire damp - The combustible gas, methane, CH4. permanent and large magnetiza- Also, theexplosive methane-air mixtures with be- tions found in some metals (e.g., Fe, Ni, and tween 5 Co), which result from the parallel alignments of neighboring magnetic moments.[mech-1] firing a high temperature heat treatment that in- creases the density and strength of a ceramic ferromagnetism spontaneous alignment of mag- piece. [mat-1] netic dipoles within a material under the influ- ence of a magnetic field, resulting in a hystere- Firing a high-temperature heat treatment that in- sis loop when the direction of magnetic field is creases the density and strength of a ceramic switched. [mat-1] piece.[mech-1] ferrous alloy a metal alloy for which iron is the Fiscal year The 12- period, from October 1 constituent. [mat-1] through September 30, used by the Federal Gov- ernment in budget formulation and execution. Fertile material A material, which is not itself fis- The fiscal year is designated by the year sile (fissionable by thermal neutrons), that can in which it ends. [nuclear-1] be converted into a fissile material by in a reactor. There are two basic fertile materi- Fissile material Although sometimes used as a als: uranium-238 and thorium-232. When these synonym for fissionable material, this term has fertile materials capture neutrons, they are con- acquired a more restricted meaning. Namely, verted into fissile plutonium-239 and uranium- any material fissionable by thermal (slow) neu- 233, respectively. [nuclear-1] trons. The three primary fissile materials are uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239. FFT Fast [soft] [nuclear-1] Fiber any material that has been drawn into a cylin- Fissionable material Commonly used as a syn- der with a length-to-diameter ratio greater than onym for fissile material, the meaning of this about ten.[mech-1] term has been extended to include material that can be fissioned by fast neutrons, such as Fick’s first law the diffusion flux is proportional uranium-238. [nuclear-1] to the concentration gradient; this relationship is employed for steady-state diffusion situations. Fission (fissioning) The splitting of a nucleus into [mat-1] at least two other nuclei and the release of a rel- atively large amount of energy. Two or three neutrons are usually released during this type of DRAFTtransformation. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 43

Fission gases Those fission products that exist in Floppy A Fortran coding checker. The the gaseous state. In nuclear power reactors, this latest version has a feature for generating HTML includes primarily the noble gases, such as kryp- . - More information. [soft] and . [nuclear-1] Desulfurization Any of several forms Fission products The nuclei (fission fragments) ofchemical/physical processes that remove sul- formed by the fission of heavy elements, plus the fur compounds formed duringcoal combustion. formed by the fission fragments’ radioac- The devices, commonly called ”scrubbers,” com- tive decay. [nuclear-1] binethe sulfur in gaseous emissions with another chemical medium to forminert ”sludge” which Fissure - An extensive crack, break, or fracture in must then be removed for disposal.[mining-1] therocks.[mining-1] FITS Flexible Image Transport System. The stan- Fluidized Bed Combustion A process with a high dard data interchange and archive format of the degree ofability to remove sulfur from coal during community [soft] combustion. Crushed coal andlimestone are sus- pended in the bottom of a boiler by an upward Fixed carbon The part of the carbon that remains streamof hot air. The coal is burned in this bub- behindwhen coal is heated in a closed vessel until bling, liquid-like (or”fluidized”) mixture. Rather all of the volatilematter is driven off.[mining-1] than released as emissions, sulfur fromcombus- tion gases combines with the to form a Fixed connection In two dimensions, a fixed con- solid compoundrecovered with the .[mining-1] nection between two members restrains all three degrees of freedom of the connected member with Fluoro-Carbon Thread Coating A low friction respect to one another. A fixed connection is coating applied to threads. This type of coat- sometimes called a rigid connection or moment- ing is frequently used to prevent thread resisting connection. [struc-1] when an assembly containing threaded fasten- Fixed support In two dimensions, a fixed support ers is painted. Unless masked in some way be- restrains three degrees of freedom [struc-1] fore painting, electro deposited primers can cover the threads. If this occurs assembly difficulties Flat-lying - Said of deposits and coal seams with a can result unless the expensive chore of clean- dip upto 5 degrees.[mining-1] ing the threads is completed. A fluoro-carbon thread coating eliminates the need for masking Flexibility Flexibility is the inverse of stiffness. or cleaning since will not adhere to the When a force is applied to a structure, there is coating. This type of coating can also prevent a displacement in the direction of the force; flex- problems caused by weld splatter obstructing ibility is the ratio of the displacement divided the threads of weld nuts during their placement. by the force. High flexibility means that a small Such coatings also have the property of reduc- load produces a large displacement. [struc-1] ing the torque-tension scatter during tightening. Flexure Bending deformation, i.e., deformation by [mech-3] increasing . [struc-1] A term applied to the amount of some type - The metal strap or crossbar attached to the of particle (neutrons, alpha radiation, etc.) or dragchain-and-flight conveyor.[mining-1] energy (photons, heat, etc.) a unit area per unit time. The unit of flux is the number of Float dust - Fine coal-dust particles carried in particles, energy, etc., per square centimeter per suspensionby air currents and eventually de- second. [nuclear-1] posited in return entries. Dustconsisting of particles of coal that can pass through a No. flux chemically or physically active formulation ca- 200sieve.[mining-1] pable of cleaning oxides and enabling of Floating Type Flange Joint A conventional metals with solder. [mat-1] flanged joint in which a gasket is compressed by The finely divided particles of ash sus- bolts - the gasket is not rigidly located. Calcu- pended ingases resulting from the combustion of lation methods such as the ASME code in the fuel. Electrostaticprecipitators are used to re- USA and the EN1591 code in Europe. [mech-3] move fly ash from the gases prior to therelease Floor - That part of any underground work- from a power plant’s smokestack.[mining-1] ing upon which aperson walks or upon which FNAL Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Illi- haulage equipment travels; simply thebot- nois, USA). [soft] tom or underlying surface of an underground excavation.[mining-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 44

a polymer that has been made porous (or Forward engineering The traditional process of spongelike) by the incorporation of gas bubbles. moving from high-level and logi- [mat-1] cal, implementation-independent to the physical implementation of a system. [soft] FOOM Formal Object Oriented Method. [soft] FORWISS Bayerische Forschungszentrum fuer FOOT Forum for Object Oriented Technology at Wissensbasierte Systeme (Bavarian research cen- CERN - More information. [soft] tre for knowledge-based systems) in Passau - Force A directed between two ob- More information (in German). [soft] jects that tends to change the of FOSI Formatted Output Specification Instance both.Since a force has both direction and mag- template for SGML [soft] nitude, it can be expressed as a vector [struc-1] Any naturally occurring fuel of an or- Force System see system of forces. [struc-1] ganicnature, such as coal, crude oil and natural Foresight A software product from Nu Thena pro- gas.[mining-1] viding graphical modelling tools for high level Fourth generation language A high-level lan- system design and simulation. [soft] guage, usually non-procedural, to allow users in- experienced in programming to develop database mechanical forming of a metal by heating applications. [soft] and hammering. [mat-1] FPA Function Point Analysis. [soft] Forging mechanical forming of a metal by heating and hammering.[mech-1] FPM Function Point Metric. [soft] Formal methods Several formal approaches to Fracture - A general term to include any kind ofdis- program specification have been developed, such continuity in a body of rock if produced by me- as those based on VDM or Z . They can be chanical failure,whether by shear stress or ten- used to develop software with high reliability, for sile stress. Fractures include faults,shears, joints, safety-critical or high-volume applications - More and planes of fracture cleavage.[mining-1] information. [soft] Fracture[mech-1] Formation Any assemblage of rocks which have some characterin common, whether of origin, Fracture critical value of the stress age, or composition. Often, the word isloosely factor for which crack extensions used to indicate anything that has been formed occurs.[mech-1] or brought intoits present shape.[mining-1] . [mat-1] FORML Formal Object Role Modeling Language. FrameMaker Commercial publishing software [soft] available on a wide variety of workstations and Formula quantity Strategic special nuclear mate- addressing technical and scientific needs - More rial in any combination in a quantity of 5000 information. [soft] or more computed by the formula, grams Framework In object-oriented systems, a set of = (grams contained U-235) + 2.5 (grams U-233 classes that embodies an abstract design for so- + grams plutonium). This class of material is lutions to a number of related problems [soft] sometimes referred to as a Category I quantity of material. [nuclear-1] Free energy a thermodynamic quantity that is a function of both the and FORTH Greek FOundation for Research and Tech- of a system.[mech-1] nology [soft] free energy a thermodynamic quantity that is a FORTRAN FORmula TRANslating system: a function of both the internal energy and entropy programming language widely used for many (or ) of a system; at equilibrium the years in scientific applications. [soft] free energy is at a minimum. [mat-1] Forward delta The delta which, when combined FreeHEP An organisation offering a repository of with a version , creates a child version. See software and related information for high energy change management [soft] physics applications [soft] Frenkel defect in an ionic solid, a cation-vacancy DRAFTand cation-interstitial pair. [mat-1] CMI-MDP Programme 45

Frenkel Defect in an ionic solid, a cation-vacancy Fuel rod A long, slender tube that holds fissionable and cation-interstitial pair.[mech-1] material (fuel) for nuclear reactor use. Fuel rods are assembled into bundles called fuel elements Fresco An object-oriented API for graphical user or fuel assemblies, which are loaded individually interfaces, under development by the X consor- into the reactor core. [nuclear-1] tium as an open, multi-vendor standard. [soft] Fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity The Friable - Easy to break, or crumbling nat- change in reactivity per degree change in the fuel urally.Descriptive of certain rocks and temperature. The of fuel pellet minerals.[mining-1] material (uranium-238) that causes the uranium Friction Mechanical resistance to the relative to absorb more neutrons away from the fission movement of two surfaces. There are two main process as fuel pellet temperature increases. This types of friction; STATIC FRICTION and DY- acts to stabilize power reactor operations. This NAMIC FRICTION. Typically static friction is coefficient is also known as the Doppler coeffi- greater than dynamic friction. [mech-3] cient. [nuclear-1] Friction Stabilizers Coating materials used on Full-custom A technique used for the design of in- fasteners with the intention of reducing the scat- tegrated circuits that involves the manipulation ter in the thread and bearing surface friction co- of circuit designs at the efficients. [mech-3] level. [soft] Friend Relationship between class es in the lan- Full-time equivalent A measurement equal to one guage C++ . [soft] staff person working a full-time work schedule for one year. [nuclear-1] FSF Free Software Foundation (675 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139, USA): dedicated Functional language A general purpose, high- to promoting the development and use of free level programming language based on the math- software, especially the GNU system. [soft] ematical notion of functions. A functional pro- gram consists of a set of (possibly recursive) func- FSM Finite State Machine. [soft] tion definitions. Its execution consists of the evaluation of a function . Programs written in FTAM File Transfer, Access, and Management: an a functional language are generally compact and application layer protocol for file transfer and re- elegant, but tend to run slowly and consume a mote manipulation (ISO 8571). [soft] lot of memory. [soft] FTP File Transfer Protocol (based on TCP/IP ). Functional programming See Functional lan- Also the name of a utility program available on guage [soft] several operating systems which makes use of this protocol to access and transfer files on remote Function point A unit for estimating the function- computers. [soft] ality of a program - More information. [soft] FTR Formal Technical Review. A software engi- Fundamental Deviation An intentional clear- neering technique - More information. [soft] ance between internal or external thread and the design form of the thread when the thread form Fuel assembly A of fuel rods (or plates). is on it’s maximum metal condition. For met- Also called a fuel element. Many fuel assemblies ric threads the fundamental deviation are des- make up a reactor core. [nuclear-1] ignated by letters, capitals for internal threads Fuel cycle The of steps involved in supply- and small letters for external threads. Some tol- ing fuel for nuclear power reactors. It can in- erance classes have a fundamental deviation of clude mining, milling, isotopic enrichment, fab- zero. For threads the fundamental de- rication of fuel elements, use in a reactor, chem- viation is called the allowance. [mech-3] ical reprocessing to recover the fissionable ma- Fundamental Height The fundamental terial remaining in the spent fuel, reenrichment triangle height is normally designated with the of the fuel material, refabrication into new fuel letter H. This is the height of the thread when the elements, and waste disposal. [nuclear-1] profile is extended to a sharp vee form. For 60 Fuel reprocessing The processing of reactor fuel degree thread forms such as metric and Unified to separate the unused fissionable material from thread series, H equals 0.866025 times the thread waste material. [nuclear-1] DRAFTpitch. [mech-3] CMI-MDP Programme 46

Funicular A funicular shape is one similar to that Galling A severe form of adhesive wear which oc- taken by a suspended chain or subjected curs during sliding contact of one surface relative to a particular loading. [struc-1] to another. Clumps of one part stick to the mat- ing part and break away from the surface. (Can Fuse - A cord-like substance used in the ignition frequently occur when both the nut and bolt are ofexplosives. Black powder is entrained in the zinc coated.) [mech-3] cord and, when lit, burnsalong the cord at a set rate. A fuse can be safely used to ignite acap, gall to damage the surface of a powder which is the for an explosive.[mining-1] compact or die part through adhesion of powder to the die cavity wall or punch surface. [mat-1] FUSE A DEC software development environment for ULTRIX , offering an integrated toolkit galvanic cell (1) a cell in which for developing, testing, debugging and main- is the source of electrical energy; it usually con- tainance. [soft] sists of two dissimilar conductors in contact with each other and with an electrolyte, or of two sim- Fusion An object oriented analysis and design ilar conductors in contact with each other and method developed by Hewlett Packard [soft] with dissimilar ; (2) a cell or system Fusion reaction A reaction in which at least one in which a spontaneous oxidation-reduction re- heavier, more stable nucleus is produced from action occurs, the resulting flow of electrons be- two lighter, less stable nuclei. Reactions of this ing conducted in an external part of the circuit. type are responsible for enormous release of en- [mat-1] ergy, as in the energy of , for example. galvanic corrosion corrosion associated with the [nuclear-1] current of a galvanic cell consisting of two dis- Futurebus+ A high performance bus system spec- similar conductors in an electrolyte or two sim- ified by IEEE Std.896.2 [soft] ilar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes; where the two dissimilar metals are in contact, the re- Fuzzy logic An alternative to traditional logic sulting reaction is referred to as couple action. where values range between 0.0 and 1.0, [mat-1] with 0.0 representing absolute Falseness and 1.0 representing absolute Truth [soft] galvanic couple a pair of dissimilar conductors, commonly metals, in electrical contact. [mat-1] FVWM A for the X Window Sys- tem derived from - More information. [soft] galvanic current the electric current that flows be- tween metals or conductive in a - FWEB See Literate Programming [soft] vanic couple. [mat-1] FWF Free Widget Foundation [soft] galvanize to coat a metal surface with zinc using various processes. [mat-1] gamma iron the face-centered cubic form of pure GH iron, stable from 910 to 1400 C (1670 to 2550 F). [mat-1]

G2 A real-time expert system from Gensym Corpo- Gamma radiation High-energy, short wavelength, ration. [soft] electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nu- cleus. Gamma radiation frequently accompanies GUI Application Interoperability Architec- alpha and beta emissions and always accompa- ture project of OSF [soft] nies fission. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are best stopped or shielded by dense mate- Gallery - A horizontal or a nearly horizon- rials, such as lead or depleted uranium. Gamma tal undergroundpassage, either natural or rays are similar to x-rays. [nuclear-1] artificial.[mining-1] short-wavelength electromagnetic radi- galling (1) a condition whereby excessive friction ation, similar to x-rays but of nuclear origin, with between mating parts results in localized weld- a range of wavelength from about 10−1410−10 m. ing; subsequent spalling and a further roughen- [mat-1] ing of the rubbing surfaces may follow; (2) a se- vere form of scuffing associated with gross - GAMS Guide to Available Mathematical Software age to the surfaces or failure.DRAFT [mat-1] at NIST [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 47

GANDALF A software development environment with an arc between a continuous filler metal from Carnegie Mellon University. [soft] electrode and the workpieces; shielding is ob- tained entirely from an externally supplied gas. Gap The space inside a reactor fuel rod that exists [mat-1] between the fuel pellet and the fuel rod cladding. [nuclear-1] gate the portion of the runner where the molten metal enters the mold cavity. [mat-1] Garbage collection The process of reclaiming stor- age which is no longer in use. [soft] Gathering conveyor; gathering belt - Any con- veyor which isused to gather coal from other A user interface development environment conveyors and deliver it either intomine or for Common Lisp or Macintosh from Carnegie onto another conveyor. The term is frequently Mellon [soft] used withbelt conveyors placed in entries where Gas centrifuge A uranium enrichment process that a number of room conveyorsdeliver coal onto the uses a large number of rotating in a se- belt.[mining-1] ries. These series of centrifuge machines, called GBIP General Purpose Interface Bus (IEEE 488). trains, are interconnected to form cascades. In [soft] this process, UF6 gas is placed in a drum or cylin- der and rotated at high speed. This rotation GCA Graphic Communications Association. [soft] creates a strong gravitational field so that the GCC Gnu Compiler. [soft] heavier gas molecules (containing U-238) move toward the outside of the cylinder and the lighter GDB Gnu DeBugger. [soft] gas molecules (containing U-235) collect closer to the center. The stream that is slightly enriched GDMO Guidelines for the Definition of Managed in U-235 is withdrawn and fed into the next Objects. A standard (ISO/IEC 10165-4 / ITU-T higher stage, while the slightly depleted stream Rec. X.722) for defining data models on ASN.1 is recycled back into the next lower stage. Signif- [soft] icantly more U-235 enrichment can be obtained GEANT A simulation, tracking and drawing pack- from a single unit gas centrifuge than from a sin- age for HEP - More information. [soft] gle unit gaseous diffusion barrier. No gas cen- trifuge plants are operating in the United States, GEI A German software engineering company. however, Louisiana Energy Services (LES) and [soft] the U.S. Enrichment Corporation (USEC) had to submit license applications in 2002 and Geiger-Mueller counter A radiation detection 2004, respectively. [nuclear-1] and . It consists of a gas- filled tube containing electrodes, between which Gas-cooled reactor A nuclear reactor in which a there is an electrical voltage, but no current, gas is the coolant. [nuclear-1] flowing. When ionizing radiation passes through the tube, a short, intense pulse of current passes Gaseous diffusion plant A facility where uranium from the negative electrode to the positive elec- hexafluoride gas is filtered. Uranium-235 is sepa- trode and is measured or counted. The number rated from uranium-238, increasing the percent- of pulses per second measures the intensity of the age of uranium-235 from 1 to about 3 percent. radiation field. It was named for The process requires enormous amounts of elec- and W. Mueller, who invented it in the 1920s. It tric power. [nuclear-1] is sometimes called simply a Geiger counter or Gases A substance possessing perfect molecular a G-M counter and is the most commonly used mobility and the property of indefinite expan- portable radiation instrument. [nuclear-1] sion, as opposed to a solid or liquid; any such Generation (gross) The total amount of electric fluid or mixture of fluids other than air. Nor- energy produced by a generating station as mea- mally, these formless substances completely fill sured at the generator terminals. [nuclear-1] the space, and take the shape of, their container. [nuclear-1] Generation (net) The gross amount of electric en- ergy produced less the electric energy consumed Gasification Any of various processes by which at a generating station for station use. [nuclear- coal isturned into low, medium, or high Btu 1] gases.[mining-1] Genericity The possibility for a language to pro- gas metal an arc welding process that vided parameterized modules or types. e.g. produces coalescence of metalsDRAFT by heating them List(of:) or List(of:People). [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 48

Generic Markup In computerised document glass an amorphous material with three- preparation, a method of adding information to dimensional primary atomic bonding. [mat-1] the text indicating the logical components of a document, such as paragraphs, headers or foot- Glass an inorganic product of fusion which notes: SGML is an example of such a system. has cooled to a rigid condition without Specific instructions for layout of the text on the crystallizing.[mech-1] page do not appear in the markup. [soft] Glass-ceramic a fine-grained crystalline material Genesia An expert system developed by Elec- that was formed as a glass (crystallized).[mech- tricite de France and commercialised by STERIA 1] (). [soft] temperature the temperature at GEN-X An expert system developed by General which, upon cooling, a noncrystalline ceramic Electric. [soft] or polymer transforms from a supercooled liquid into a rigid glass. [mat-1] - One who studies the constitution, structure,and history of the earth’s crust, con- Global change This term usually refers to ducting research into theformation and dissolu- thegradual warming of the earth caused by the tion of rock layers, analyzing fossil and mineral- greenhouse effect. Manybelieve this is the result content of layers, and endeavoring to fix histor- of man-made emissions of greenhouse gasessuch ical sequence ofdevelopment by relating charac- as carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) teristics to known geological influences(historical and methane.[mining-1] geology).[mining-1] GLUT OpenGL Utility Toolkit [soft] GEOS An object-oriented operating system project GMD Gesellschaft fuer Mathematik und Daten- [soft] verarbeitung (German Institute for Mathematics ghostscript The gnu interpreter. [soft] and Data Processing), D-53754 Sankt Augustin - More information. [soft] ghostview An X window interface to the ghostscript interpreter. [soft] GNAT The GNU 95 compiler [soft] determines the relative stability GNU GNU ’s Not UNIX: a popular range of of a material system at constant temperature and portable software from FSF , upwardly compat- pressure;G=H-TS, where H is , T is ible with UNIX [soft] absolute temperature, and S is entropy of the Gob - The term applied to that part of the mine system. [mat-1] from whichthe coal has been removed and the GIF Graphics Interchange Format: a standard for space more or less filled up withwaste. Also, the digitised images compressed with the LZW algo- loose waste in a mine. Also called goaf.[mining-1] rithm - More information. [soft] GOOD An object-oriented framework for graphi- Gigawatthour One billion -hours. [nuclear-1] cal applications from TU Ilmenau running under X Windows with special support to IRIS GL, Gigawatt One billion . [nuclear-1] OpenGL , VOGL, etc. - More information. [soft] GILS Government Information Locator Service. A Gopher A Campus Wide Information System de- plan for a decentralised collection of information signed at the University of [soft] locators and associated public services to find in- formation throughout the US government. [soft] GPIB General Purpose Interface Bus: an 8-bit par- allel bus (IEEE 488). [soft] GINA Generic INteractive Application. A toolkit of useful classes and functions for authoring GUI GPM General Purpose Macrogenerator written by s built on CLM, CLX , from GMD [soft] C. Strachey around 1965. The author said ”It contains in itself all the undesirable features of GKS-3D The three-dimensional version of GKS , a every possible machine code... It can also be al- standard for graphics I/O (ISO 8805). [soft] most impenetrably opaque”. [soft] GKS Graphical System: a standard for GQM Goal/Question/Metrics. A software engi- graphics I/O (ANSI X3.124) - More information. neering assessment method by V. Basili. [soft] [soft] grain an individual crystal in a polycrystalline GL A graphics package from SiliconDRAFT Graphics. [soft] metal or ceramic. [mat-1] CMI-MDP Programme 49

Grain - In petrology, that factor of the of enough to cause rockshaving a low compressional a rockcomposed of distinct particles or crystals strength to deform and be squeezed into and- which depends upon theirabsolute size.[mining- close a borehole or other underground opening 1] not adequatelystrengthened by an artificial sup- port, such as casing or timber. [mining-1] Grammar A grammar is a mathematical system for defining a language, as well as a device for giving Groupware see CSCW . [soft] the sentences in the language a useful structure. [soft] GROW GNU Remote Operations Web. An archi- tecture for building networked applications and Grapevine A distributed system project . [soft] services using WWW [soft] Graphite A form of carbon, similar to that used Guide A hypertext system from the University of in pencils, used as a moderator in some nuclear Kent (GB) and OWL for displaying online doc- reactors. [nuclear-1] umentation . [soft] GRAS A public domain graph-oriented database GUIDE Graphical User Interface Development En- system for software engineering applications vironment from Sun. [soft] from RWTH Aachen [soft] GUI Graphical User Interface. [soft] GRASPIN An Esprit project to develop a personal software engineering environment to support the GUILE An interpreter for the GROW project. construction and verification of distributed and [soft] non-sequential software systems. [soft] Guinier-Preston (G-P) zone a small precipita- Grasshopper An experimental operating system tion domain in a supersaturated metallic solid for persistent systems - More information. [soft] solution; it has no well-defined crystalline struc- ture of its own and contains an abnormally high Gravity An attractive force between two objects; concentration of solute atoms; the formation of each object accelerates at a rate equal to the at- G-P zones constitutes the first stage of precipi- tractive force divided by the object’s mass. Ob- tation and is usually accompanied by a change jects near the surface of the earth tend to accel- in properties of the in which they erate toward the earth’s center at a rate of ; this occur. [mat-1] value is often called the and denoted as g. [struc-1] Gunite - A cement applied by spraying to the roof and sidesof a mine passage.[mining-1] (Gy) The international system (SI) unit of absorbed dose. One gray is equal to an absorbed gunzip The decompression utility corresponding to dose of 1 / (one gray equals 100 gzip . [soft] rads) [nuclear-1] gzip A compression utility available with the gnu GRIB GRid In Binary. World Meteorological Or- software. [soft] ganization data format - More information. [soft] Half-life, biological The time required for the Grip Length Total distance between the underside body to eliminate one half of the material taken of the nut to the bearing face of the bolt head; in by natural biological means. [nuclear-1] includes washer, gasket thickness etc. [mech-3] Half-life, effective The time required for a ra- Grizzly - Course screening or scalping device that dionuclide contained in a biological system, such preventsoversized bulk material form entering as a human or an , to reduce its activity a material transfer system;constructed of rails, by one-half as a combined result of radioactive bars, beams, etc.[mining-1] decay and biological elimination. [nuclear-1] Ground control - The regulation and final arrest- Half-life The time in which one half of the atoms ing of theclosure of the walls of a mined area. of a particular radioactive substance disintegrate The term generally refers tomeasures taken to into another nuclear form. Measured half-lives prevent roof falls or coal bursts.[mining-1] vary from millionths of a second to billions of years. Also called physical or radiological half- Ground pressure - The pressure to which a rock life. [nuclear-1] formation issubjected by the weight of the super- imposed rock and rock material orby diastrophic Half-thickness Any given absorber that will reduce forces created by movements in the rocks form- the intensity of an original beam of ionizing ra- ing theearth’s crust. Such pressuresDRAFT may be great diation to one-half of its initial value. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 50

Hall Effect the phenomenon whereby a force is Haskell A functional language (Hudak et al.). [soft] brought to bear on a moving electron or hole by a magnetic field that is applied perpendicular to Haulage - The horizontal transport of ore, coal, the direction of motion. The force direction is supplies,and waste. The vertical transport of the perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the same is called hoisting.[mining-1] particle motion directions.[mech-1] Haulageway - Any underground entry or passage- way that isdesigned for transport of mined ma- hardenability a measure of the depth to which a terial, personnel, or equipment,usually by the in- specific ferrous alloy may be hardened by the stallation of track or belt conveyor.[mining-1] formation of martensite upon quenching from a temperature above the upper critical tempera- HBOOK A histogramming package in the CERN ture. [mat-1] program library [soft] Hardenability a measure of the depth to which HCI Human Computer Interface (or Interaction) a specific ferrous alloy may be hardened by [soft] the formation of martensite upon quenching from a temperature above the upper critical HCS Heterogeneous Computer System: a dis- temperature.[mech-1] tributed system project . [soft] Hardened Washers The force under the head of hc The compiler for the h hyperbook language. [soft] a bolt or nut can exceed, at high preloads, the HDF Hierarchical Data Format from NCSA - More compressive yield strength of the clamped ma- information. [soft] terial. If this occurs excessive embedding and deformation can result in bolt preload loss. To HDL Hardware description language . [soft] overcome this hardened washers under the bolt HDTV High Definition . [soft] head can be used to distribute the force over a wider area into the clamped material. A more Headframe - The structure surmounting the shaft modern alternative is to use a flange headed nuts whichsupports the hoist rope pulley, and often and bolts. [mech-3] the hoist itself.[mining-1] Hard Joint A joint in which the plates and ma- Heading - A vein above a drift. An interior level or terial between the nut and bolt bearing surfaces airwaydriven in a mine. In longwall workings, have a high stiffness when subjected to compres- a narrow passage driven upwardfrom a gang- sion by the bolt load. A joint is usually defined way in starting a working in order to give a as hard if the bolt is tightened to its full torque looseend.[mining-1] and it rotates through an angle of 30 degrees or less after it has been tightened to its snug condi- Head, reactor vessel The removable top section tion. [mech-3] of a reactor pressure vessel. It is bolted in place during power operation and removed during refu- hardness the measure of a material’s resistance to eling to permit access of fuel handling equipment deformation by surface indentation or by abra- to the core. [nuclear-1] sion. [mat-1] Head section - A term used in both belt and chain Hardness the measure of some materials’ resis- conveyorwork to designate that portion of the tance to deformation by surface indentation or conveyor used for dischargingmaterial.[mining-1] by abrasion.[mech-1] The science concerned with the Hardware description language A language recognition, evaluation, and control of health used for the conceptual design of integrated cir- and environmental hazards that may arise from cuits. Examples are VHDL and Verilog . [soft] the use and application of ionizing radiation. [nuclear-1] Harmony A real-time operating system developed by the SEL in . [soft] Heap leach A method of extracting uranium from ore using a solution. Small ore pieces Harvest An information discovery and access sys- are placed in a heap on an impervious material tem for the Internet from the University of Col- (plastic, clay, asphalt) with perforated pipes un- orado - More information. [soft] der the heap. Acidic solution is then sprayed h A simple markup language intended for quick con- over the ore, dissolving the uranium. The solu- version of existing text to hypertext - More in- tion in the pipes is collected and transferred to formation. [soft] an ion-exchange system for concentration of the DRAFTuranium. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 51 the quantity of heat required to pro- HEP High Energy (Particle) Physics. [soft] duce a unit temperature rise per of mate- rial. [mat-1] HEPiX A recently formed collaboration among var- ious HEP institutes aiming at providing ”com- Heat exchanger Any device that transfers heat patible” versions of the UNIX operating system from one fluid (liquid or gas) to another fluid at their sites [soft] or to the environment. [nuclear-1] HEPnet An association concerned with networking Heat sink Anything that absorbs heat. It is usually requirements for high energy [soft] part of the environment, such as the air, a river, or a lake. [nuclear-1] HEPVM A collaboration among various HEP in- stitutes to implement ”compatible” versions of Heat Tightening Heat tightening utilises the ther- IBM’s VM-CMS operating system at their sites. mal expansion characteristics of the bolt. The [soft] bolt is heated and expands: the nut is indexed (using the angle of turn method) and the system HERA An electron-proton collider at DESY, W. allowed to cool. As the bolt attempts to contract Germany. [soft] it is constrained longitudinally by the clamped An experimental object-oriented dis- material and a preload results. Methods of heat- tributed systems language from IBM Watson Re- ing include direct flame, sheathed heating coil search Centre. [soft] and carbon resistance elements. The process is slow, especially if the strain in the bolt is to be hermetic sealing of an object so it is airtight. [mat- measured, since the system must return to ambi- 1] ent temperature for each measurement. This is not a widely used method and is generally used Hesiod The name server of the Athena project. only on very large bolts. [mech-3] [soft] Heatup The rise in temperature of the reactor fuel Heuristic A rule of thumb, simplification or edu- rods resulting from an increase in the rate of fis- cated guess that reduces or limits the search for sion in the core. [nuclear-1] solutions in domains that are difficult and poorly understood. Unlike algorithms, heuristics do not Heaving - Applied to the rising of the bottom after guarantee solutions. [soft] removalof the coal; a sharp rise in the floor is called a ”hogsback”.[mining-1] Hewlett-Packard [soft] Heavy water (D2O) Water containing signifi- Hexagonal Close-Packed (HCP) a crystal struc- cantly more than the natural proportions (one in ture found for some metals. The HCP unit cell 6,500) of heavy hydrogen (deuterium, D) atoms is of hexagonal geometry and is generated by the to ordinary hydrogen atoms. Heavy water is used stacking of close-packed planes of atoms.[mech-1] as a moderator in some reactors because it slows hexagonal close-packed (HCP) the unit cell is down neutrons effectively and also has a low of hexagonal geometry and is generated by the of absorption of neutrons. [nuclear-1] stacking of close-packed planes of atoms. [mat-1] Heavy water moderated reactor A reactor that High-enriched uranium Uranium enriched to 20 uses heavy water as its moderator. Heavy water percent or greater in the isotope uranium-235. is an excellent moderator and thus permits the [nuclear-1] use of unenriched uranium as a fuel. [nuclear-1] High-level waste Radioactive materials at the end Hebbian Refers to the most common way for a neu- of a useful life cycle that should be properly dis- ral network to learn, namely supervised learning. posed of, including– 1. The highly radioactive Using a training sample which should produce material resulting from the reprocessing of spent known responses, the connection weights are ad- nuclear fuel, including liquid waste directly in justed so as to minimize the differences between reprocessing and any solid material derived from the desired and actual outputs for the training such liquid waste that contains fission products sample. [soft] in concentrations; 2. Irradiated reactor fuel; and Helix A hardware description language from Silvar- 3. Other highly radioactive material that the Lisco. [soft] Commission, consistent with existing law, deter- mines by rule require permanent isolation. High- HEPDB A database management system for HEP level waste (HLW) is primarily in the form of [soft] DRAFTspent fuel discharged from commercial nuclear CMI-MDP Programme 52

power reactors. It also includes HLW from ac- Hoisting - The vertical transport coal or tivities and a small quantity of reprocessed com- material.[mining-1] mercial HLW [nuclear-1] HOL An interactive theorem proving system based High radiation area Any area with dose rates on Higher Order Logic - More information. [soft] greater than 100 millirems (1 millisievert) in one Hold And Drive Bolts Special bolts that have a hour 30 centimeters from the source or from any surface through which the ionizing radiation tang at the threaded end of the shank. This tang is gripped by the tightening tool during assembly penetrates. Areas at licensee facilities must be posted as ”high radiation areas” and access into so that the reaction torque is absorbed whilst the these areas is maintained under strict control. nut is tightened from the same side. Such bolts allow what used to have to be done by two men [nuclear-1] to become a one-man task. [mech-3] High Strength Friction Grip Bolts Sometimes Hole (electron) for semi-conductors and insula- abbreviated to HSFG bolts. Bolts which are of tors, a vacant electron state in the valence band high tensile strength used in conjunction with that behaves as a positive in an high strength nuts and hardened steel washers in electric field.[mech-1] structural steelwork. The bolts are tightened to a specified minimum shank tension so that trans- Home Page The starting point for a WWW ses- verse loads are transferred across the joint by sion. Many system adminstrators set up ”home friction between the plates rather than by shear pages” which are the default page shown when a across the bolt shank. [mech-3] user begins a session. These pages usually have a lot of options and menu items that apply to Highwall miner A highwall mining system consists that particular institution and then have links of aremotely controlled continuous miner which to other places. Here is the CERN home page . extracts coal and conveysit via augers, belt or [soft] chain conveyors to the outside. The cut istypi- cally a rectangular, horizontal cut from a high- Homopolymer a polymer having a chain structure wall bench,reaching depths of several hundred in which all mer units are of the same type.[mech- feet or deeper. [mining-1] 1] Highwall The unexcavated face of exposed over- HOOD Hierarchical Object Oriented Design: a burden andcoal in a surface mine or in a face method for Architectural Design primarily for or bank on the uphill side of acontour mine software to be developed in Ada , leading to auto- excavation.[mining-1] mated checking, documentation and source code generation. [soft] HIGZ High Level Interface to Graphics and Zebra . Part of the PAW system [soft] Hope A functional language (Burstall et al. 1980). [soft] HiPAC An active DBMS from Xerox Advanced In- formation Technology. [soft] Hopfield John Hopfield in the early 1980’s investi- gated a particular kind of neural network which HIPPI HIgh Performance Parallel Interface: a 100 is now commonly referred to as the Hopfield net- Mbyte/sec data transfer system with associated work or Hopfield model. In the Hopfield network, interfaces and switches, developed at Los Alamos there are no special input or output neurons (see National Lab and now ANSI standard X3T9/88- McCulloch-Pitts ), but all are both input and 127. [soft] output, and all are connected to all others in HISTORIAN A source code management system both directions (with equal weights in the two di- sold by OPCODE, Inc.. [soft] rections). Input is applied simultaneously to all neurons which then output to each other and the History For more information on the history of process continues until a stable state is reached, computing, see the The Virtual of Com- which represents the network output. [soft] puting [soft] Horizon - In geology, any given definite position Hogsback - A sharp rise in the floor of a orinterval in the stratigraphic column or the seam.[mining-1] scheme of stratigraphicclassification; generally used in a relative sense.[mining-1] Hoist - A drum on which hoisting rope is wound in theengine house, as the cage or skip is raised in Horseback - A mass of material with a slip- the hoistingshaft.[mining-1] pery surface inthe roof; shaped like a horse’s DRAFTback.[mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 53

Hot A colloquial term meaning highly radioactive. HTML HyperText Markup Language. An SGML [nuclear-1] document type used to mark up hypertext in the WWW [soft] Hot Bolting This term is used for the completion of maintenance work on a bolted joint when the HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol. The proto- joint is under loading. This can involve the re- col used between client and server in the WWW placement of individual bolts. There are risks project. [soft] both to the joint itself and to health and safety associated with this technique. [mech-3] Hydraulic - Of or pertaining to fluids in mo- tion.Hydraulic cement has a composition which hot isostatic pressing (1) a process for simul- permits it to set quicklyunder water. Hydraulic taneously heating and forming a compact in jacks lift through the force transmitted to the- which the powder is contained in a sealed flexi- movable part of the jack by a liquid. Hy- ble sheet metal or glass enclosure and subjected draulic control refers to themechanical control to equal pressure from all directions at a tem- of various parts of machines, such as coal cut- perature high enough to permit plastic deforma- ters,loaders, etc., through the operation or action tion and ; (2) a process that subjects of hydrauliccylinders.[mining-1] a component (casting, powder forgins, etc.) to both elevated temperature and isostatic gas pres- Hydraulic Set Cement a cement that sets sure in an autoclave; simultaneous application through reaction with water.[mech-1] of heat and pressure virtually eliminates inter- Hydraulic Tensioner A hydraulic tool used to nal voids and microporosity through a combina- tighten a fastener by stretching it rather than tion of plastic deformation, creep, and diffusion. applying a large torque to the nut. After the fas- [mat-1] tener has been stretched, the nut is run down the HotJava A WWW browser from Sun based on the thread to snug up with the joint, the hydrauli- Java [soft] cally applied load is then removed resulting in tension being induced into the fastener. [mech- hot pressing a method used to densify a material, 3] whereby heat and pressure are applied simulta- neously, and the pressure is typically applied uni- A family of chemical compounds directionally via rigid tooling. [mat-1] containingcarbon and hydrogen atoms in var- ious combinations, found especially infossil Hot spot The region in a radiation/contamination fuels.[mining-1] area where the level of radiation/contamination is significantly greater than in neighboring re- a strong secondary interatomic gions in the area. [nuclear-1] bond which exists between a bound hydrogen atom (its unscreened proton) and the electrons Hot Working any metal forming operation that of adjacent atoms.[mech-1] is performed above a metal recrystallization temperature.[mech-1] Steel fasteners ex- posed to hydrogen can fail prematurely at hot working any metal forming operation that is a stress level well below the materials yield performed above a metal’s recrystallization tem- strength. Hydrogen embrittlement occurs in fas- perature. [mat-1] teners usually as a result of the part being ex- posed to hydrogen at some time during its man- HP Hewlett-Packard . [soft] ufacturing process but it can also occur through HPLOT A graphical output facility for HBOOK - in-service corrosion. Electroplating is generally More information. [soft] considered to be a major cause of hydrogen ab- sorption in steel fasteners due to the release of HPPI An earlier name for HIPPI . [soft] hydrogen during this process. Higher strength steels are more susceptible to hydrogen embrit- HP-UX The version of UNIX running on Hewlett- tlement than lower strength steels, however it is Packard workstations. [soft] considered that there is no lower strength limit. HP VEE Visual Engineering Environment from As a rule of thumb, steels below Rockwell C 35 Hewlett-Packard: a package similar in inten- are considered to be far less susceptible. Tests tion to LabVIEW running on UNIX workstations such as the incremental load hydrogen embrittle- with OSF . [soft] ment test can be completed to assess if hydrogen embrittlement is present in a batch of fasteners. DRAFT[mech-3] CMI-MDP Programme 54

HyperBase An experimental active multiuser Hypoeutectoid Alloy for an alloy system dis- database for hypertext systems from the Univer- playing a eutectoid, an alloy for which the con- sity of Aalborg, written in C++ .It is built on the centration of solute is less than the eutectoid client-server model enabling distributed, concur- composition[mech-1] rent, and shared access from workstations in a local area network. See EHTS . [soft] Hysteresis (magnetic) the irreversible magnetic flux density-versus-magnetic field strength (B- Hyperbole An information management and hy- versus-H) behavior found for ferromagnetic and pertext system [soft] ferrimagnetic materials.[mech-1] Hypercard A software package for the Macintosh hysteresis (magnetic) the irreversible magnetic for storage and retrieval of information. It can flux density-versus-magnetic field strength (B- handle images, and is designed for browsing. The versus-H) behavior found for ferromagnetic and powerful customisable interactive user interface ferrimagnetic materials; a closed B-H loop is allows new applications to be easily constructed formed upon field reversal. [mat-1] by manipulating objects on the screen, often without conventional programming. [soft] HyTime Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language: an ANSI Standard (ISO/IEC 10744) hypereutectoid alloy for an alloy system display- from the SGML Users’ Group’s Special Interest ing a eutectoid, an alloy for which the concentra- Group on Hypertext and Multimedia ) - More tion of solute is greater than the eutectoid com- information. [soft] position. [mat-1] Hypereutectoid Alloy for an alloy system dis- playing a eutectoid, an alloy for which the con- IJK centration of solute is greater than the eutectoid composition.[mech-1] IAB The Internet Architecture Board of the Inter- Hyper-G A hypertext system from TU Graz - More net Society [soft] information. [soft] IAD A dynamic analyser from IBM giving informa- Hyper-Man A browser available with Epoch capa- tion on run time performance and code utilisa- bility for the UNIX manual. [soft] tion. [soft] Hypermedia Hypertext systems where the nodes IAFA Internet Archives. An IETF working group. can contain text, graphics, audio, video, as well [soft] as source code or other forms of data [soft] IANA Internet Assigned Authority - HyperNeWS A Hypertext system from the Turing More information. [soft] Institute Glasgow, based on NeWS . [soft] IBM International Business Machines [soft] HyperODA ODA extensions for hypermedia . [soft] IBN The Belgian standards institute. [soft]

Hypertalk The language for writing procedures as- ICADD International Committee for Accessible sociated with objects in Hypercard . [soft] Document Design. Dedicated to making printed materials accessible to persons with print disabil- Hypertext An approach to information manage- ities. Works on the generation of Braille, large ment in which text is stored in a network of nodes print or electronically navigable editions of books connected by links. The nodes are meant to be from desktop publishing files [soft] viewed through an interactive browser. A is something which connects a piece of text to a I-CASE Integrated CASE : another term for an destination piece of text; the source and desti- IPSE . [soft] nation areas are usually marked on a display by highlighting or special graphics. You are reading ICCP Institute for Certification of Computing Pro- hypertext now by courtesy of WWW [soft] fessionals. [soft] hypoeutectoid alloy for an alloy system displaying ICSI International Computer Science Isntitute at a eutectoid, an alloy for which the concentration Berkeley, CA. - More information. [soft] of solute is less than the eutectoid composition. IDEA International Data Encryption Algorithm [mat-1] DRAFT(used by PGP ). [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 55

IDE Interactive Development Environments: a US IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification: an Software Engineering Company. [soft] ASME/ANSI standard for the exchange of CAD data. [soft] IDL Interactive Data Language. A package for in- teractive reduction, analysis, and visualization of IIDMS/R Integrated database management sys- scientific data, from Research Systems, Inc. [soft] tem: a DBMS from Cullinet Software Inc. [soft] IDL Interface Definition Language: an OSF stan- IIIS International Institute of Informatics and Sys- dard for defining RPC stubs. [soft] temics. [soft] IDL Interface Definition Language: associated with ILU Inter-Language Unification. A system from Xe- the CORBA [soft] rox PARC that promotes software interoperabil- ity via interfaces [soft] IDSS Intelligent Decision Support Systems. [soft] Immediate roof - The roof strata immediately IEC International Electrotechnical Commission: a above thecoalbed, requiring support during the standardisation body at the same level as ISO excavation of coal.[mining-1] [soft] Immediate version See Child version . [soft] IEEE 1076 The IEEE .. [soft] Impact Wrench A wrench, usually powered by IEEE 488 The IEEE . [soft] electricity or air, in which repeated blows from IEEE 802 The IEEE standards for local area net- little hammers are used to generate torque to works (LAN standard is 802.3, the IBM Token tighten fasteners. The torque applied to the fas- Ring is IEEE 802.5. [soft] tener depends upon the time and the air pressure applied to the tool (for pneumatic wrenches). IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engi- The torque applied by an impact wrench to a fas- neers (USA) - More information. [soft] tener is influenced by the joint stiffness. [mech-3] IEF Information Engineering Facility. A CASE tool IMSE Integrated Modelling Support Environment: from which generates code an Esprit programme. [soft] from graphical business process models. [soft] IMS Information Management System: a DBMS IESG Internet Engineering Steering Group. Part from IBM. [soft] of the Internet Society responsible for technical management of IETF activities and the Internet Inby - In the direction of the working face.[mining- Standards process [soft] 1] IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. A group Incline - Any entry to a mine that is not verti- of people who make technical and other contri- cal (shaft)or horizontal (adit). Often incline is butions to the engineering and evolution of the reserved for those entries thatare too steep for Internet and its technologies. It is the principal a belt conveyor (+17 degrees -18 degrees), in body engaged in the development of new Internet whichcase a hoist and guide rails are employed. Standard specifications [soft] A belt conveyor incline istermed a slope. Alt: Secondary inclined opening, driven upward to- IETM Interactive Electronic Technical Manual. connect levels, sometimes on the dip of a deposit; [soft] also called”inclined shaft”.[mining-1] IFAC International Federation of Automatic Con- inclusion foreign particle present as an undesirable trol, involved in informatics related to control impurity in a material. [mat-1] systems. [soft] Incompetent - Applied to strata, a formation, a IFDL Independent Form Description Language: rock, or arock structure not combining sufficient DEC’s language for describing form-based hu- firmness and flexibility totransmit a and man interfaces in DECforms . [soft] to lift a load by bending.[mining-1] IFIP International Federation of Information Pro- INCOSE International Council on Systems Engi- cessing - More information. [soft] neering. An international organization formed to develop, nurture and enhance the system en- IFPUG International Function-point Users Group gineering approach to multi-disciplinary system [soft] product development [soft] DRAFTIndex of see [mech-1] CMI-MDP Programme 56

Indicated coal resources Coal for which estimates which there are few, if any, samples ormeasure- of therank, quality, and quantity have been com- ments. The estimates are based on an assumed puted partly from sampleanalyses and measure- continuity orrepletion of which there is geologic ments and partly from reasonable geologicprojec- evidence; this evidence mayinclude comparison tions. The points of are to 1 - with deposits of similar type. Bodies that are- sapart. Indicated coal is projected to extend as completely concealed may be included if there is an mile wide beltthat lies more than mile from specific geologicevidence of their presence. The the outcrop or points of observationor measure- points of observation are 1 to 6miles apart. ment. [mining-1] [mining-1] Individual plant examination for external INFN Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare: an events (IPEEE) While the ?individual plant Italian State research organisation [soft] examination? takes into account events that could challenge the design from things that could Informix A relational DBMS vendor. [soft] go awry internally (in the sense that equip- reflow technique in which long wave- ment might fail because components do not work length light (IR) serves as the heat source to re- as expected), the ?individual plant examination flow solder and form solder joints. [mat-1] for external events? considers challenges such as earthquakes, internal fires, and high . INGRES A relational DBMS vendor. [soft] [nuclear-1] Inheritance In object-oriented programming, the Individual plant examination (IPE) As re- ability to derive new classes from existing classes. quested by the NRC in Generic Letter 88-20, A derived class inherits the instance variables ?Individual Plant Examination for Severe Ac- and methods of the base class, and may add new cident Vulnerabilities? (November 23, 1988), a instance variables and methods. A new method risk analysis that considers the unique aspects of may be defined with the same as one in a particular nuclear power plant, identifying the the base class, in which case it overrides the orig- specific vulnerabilities to severe accident of that inal one. [soft] plant. [nuclear-1] inorganic flux an aqueous flux solution of inorganic Inelastic Not surprisingly, the opposite of elastic. A and . [mat-1] deformation of a structure or material under load is described as inelastic when the deformation re- INRIA Institut National de Recherche en Informa- mains after the load is removed. The term plastic tique et Automatique, French computer science is often used with the same meaning. [struc-1] [soft] Inertial Force A fictitious force used for conve- - In the natural or original position. Ap- nience in visualizing the effects of forces on bod- plied to arock, soil, or fossil when occurring in ies in motion. For an accelerating body, the in- the situation in which it wasoriginally formed or ertial force is considered as a body force whose deposited.[mining-1] resultant acts at the object’s center of gravity in A process using a leaching solution a direction opposite the acceleration. The mag- to extract uranium from underground ore bodies nitude of the force is the mass of the object times in place (in other words, in situ). The leaching the magnitude of the acceleration. [struc-1] agent, which contains an oxidant such as oxy- The tendency of an object at rest to remain gen with sodium , is injected through at rest, and of an object in motion to remain in into the ore body in a confined aquifer motion. [struc-1] to dissolve the uranium. This solution is then pumped via other wells to the surface for pro- Inference A program that infers facts from cessing. [nuclear-1] a set of knowledge or inputs. [soft] Instantaneous Centre Of Rotation The point Inference The logical process by which new facts in space that an eccentrically shear loaded joint are derived from known facts. [soft] rotates about. The deformation and the load sus- tained by an individual bolt in a bolt group is de- Inferred coal resources Coal in unexplored ex- pendent upon the distance that the bolt is from tensions ofthe demonstrated resources for which the instantaneous centre. The direction that the estimates of the quality and sizeare based on individual bolt force acts is perpendicular to a geologic evidence and projection. Quantitative line joining that bolt to the instantaneous cen- estimatesare based largely on broad knowledge tre. [mech-3] of the geologic character ofDRAFT thedeposit and for CMI-MDP Programme 57

Instantiation A more precisely defined version of Intermedia Interchange Format A Standard some object which was already partially defined. Hypertext Interchange format from IRIS . [soft] In object-oriented programming, a particular ex- ample of an object produced from its class tem- Intermediate section - A term used in belt and plate. [soft] chainconveyor network to designate a section of the conveyor frameoccupying a position between Instrinsic Semiconductor a semiconductor mate- the head and foot sections.[mining-1] rial for which the electrical behavior is character- istic of the pure material.[mech-1] intermediate solid solution a solid solution or phase having a composition range that does not (electrical) a nonmetallic material that extend to either of the pure components of the has filled valence band at 0 K and a relatively system. [mat-1] wide energy band gap.[mech-1] a compound of two metals that has insulator (electric) a nonmetallic material that a distinct . The bonds in inter- has a filled valence band at 0 K and a relatively metallic compounds are often partly ionic.[mech- wide energy band gap; consequently the room- 1] temperature electrical conductivity is very low. [mat-1] Intermetrics A software engineering company . [soft] Intake - The passage through which fresh air is drawn orforced into a mine or to a section of Internal force Forces which hold an object to- a mine.[mining-1] gether when external forces or other loads are applied. Internal forces are sometimes called re- Integral Fastener A term used to describe types sisting forces since they resist the effects of ex- of fasteners which are highly resistant to vibra- ternal forces. [struc-1] tion loosening and/or removal. Some types have special thread forms. [mech-3] Internal hinge see pin connection. [struc-1] integrated circuit a microcircuit that consists of Internal Thread A screw thread which is formed interconnected elements inseparably associated in holes, such as in nuts. [mech-3] and formed in-situ on or within a single sub- Internet Address A thirty-two-bit number that strate, usually , to perform an electronic uniquely identifies an Internet host. It is usually circuit function. [mat-1] represented as four 8-bit numbers separated by Integrated plant evaluation An evaluation that dots e.g. It consists of a network considers the plant as a whole rather than system number and a host number, and can be subdi- by system. [nuclear-1] vided in several ways. [soft] InterBase A commercial active DBMS . [soft] Internet A loosely-organized international collabo- ration of autonomous, interconnected networks, interdiffusion diffusion of atoms of one metal into supporting host-to-host communication through another metal. [mat-1] voluntary adherence to open protocols and pro- cedures defined by Internet Standards, typically Interface An interface builder for Mo- based on the TCP/IP protocol suite [soft] tif distributed by Hewlett-Packard (see UIMX ). [soft] Interpress A page description language from Xe- rox. [soft] intergranular fracture fracture of polycrystalline materials by crack propagation along grain Interstice[mech-1] boundaries. [mat-1] interstitial site octahedral and tetrahedral open Interleaf A document preparation system available within a close-packed arrangment of on the Sun, VAX, Apollo and other workstations. atoms or ions in which a cation can fit. [mat- [soft] 1] INTERLINK A commercial product comprising interstitial solid solution a solid solution wherein hardware and software for file transfer between relatively small solute atoms occupy interstitial IBM and VAX computers. [soft] positions between the or host atoms. [mat-1] Intermedia A hypertext system developed by a re- search group at IRIS (BrownDRAFT University). [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 58

InterViews An object-oriented toolkit developed ION Implementation-Oriented Notation. A nota- at Stanford University for building graphical user tion designed to graphically document object- interfaces. It is implemented in C++ and pro- oriented programs [soft] vides a library of objects and a set of protocols for composing them. [soft] IP address An Internet address . [soft] Intrinsics A library package on top of Xlib , extend- IPC Inter-Process Communication. [soft] ing the basic functions of the X Window System IPE Integrated Programming Environment. [soft] . It provides mechanisms for building widget sets and application environments.. [soft] IPF Information Presentation Facility. A document markup system for OS/2 . [soft] Point a point on a binary phase diagram at which three phases are in equilibrium.[mech-1] IP Internet transport layer Protocol. [soft] Inventor See Open Inventor . [soft] IPSE Integrated Project Support Environment: a term for a set of management and technical tools Inverse engineering The process of extracting to support software development, usually inte- high-level abstract specifications from source grated in a coherent framework: equivalent to code using program transformations [soft] an SEE. [soft] investment casting this process is based on sur- IPTES Incremental Prototyping Technology for rounding (investing) an expendable pattern, typ- Embedded Realtime Systems, an Esprit project. ically wax, with a ceramic mold and then re- [soft] moving (by melting or vaporizing) the pattern prior to pouring molten alloy into the mold; also IPVR Institute of Parallel and Distributed High- known as lost wax and precision casting. [mat-1] Performance Systems (Stuttgart). [soft] In vitro From the for ”in glass,” isolated from IQA Institute of Quality Assurance (UK). [soft] the living organism and artificially maintained, as in a test tube. [nuclear-1] IRC Internet Relay Chat. A system whereby a number of people can participate in a discussion In vivo From the Latin for ”in one that is living,” in real time on the Internet . [soft] occurring within the living. [nuclear-1] IRD Internet Resource Discovery. [soft] spiking factor The magnitude of a rapid, short-term increase in the appearance rate of ra- IRDS Information Resource Dictionary System. A dioiodine in the reactor coolant system. This in- set of ISO repositories. It governs the definition crease is generally caused by a reactor transient of data dictionaries to be implemented on top of that results in a rapid in reactor coolant relational databases (see repository , data dictio- system pressure relative to the fuel rod internal nary ). [soft] pressure. [nuclear-1] Iris An object-oriented DBMS . [soft] ion an atom with a positive charge because it has IRIS Explorer A visualisation system [soft] had electrons removed or a negative charge be- cause it has had electrons added. [mat-1] IRIS Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship of Brown University (Providence Ion-exchange A common method for concentrat- RI). [soft] ing uranium from a solution. The uranium so- lution is passed through a resin bed where the IRIS See IRIS Explorer [soft] uranium-carbonate complex ions are transferred to the resin by exchange with a negative ion like ISA An Esprit project continuing the ANSA . After build-up of the uranium complex project. [soft] on the resin, the uranium is eluted with a so- ISA International Smalltalk Association (now dis- lution and the uranium is precipitated in another banded). [soft] process. [nuclear-1] ISAM Indexed Sequential Access Method: a file a coulombic interatomic bond that access method supporting both sequential and exists between two adjacent and oppositely indexed access. [soft] charged ions; one of the primary types of atomic bonding in ceramics. [mat-1] ISBN International Standard Book Numbering. DRAFT[soft] CMI-MDP Programme 59

ISCN International Software Consulting Network. Isotope Any two or more forms of an element A network of process improvement experts. [soft] having identical or very closely related chemical properties and the same atomic number but dif- ISDE Integrated Software Development Environ- ferent atomic weights or mass numbers. [nuclear- ment: equivalent to an IPSE . [soft] 1] ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network: a set Isotope atoms of the same element having the dif- of CCITT standards to support many types of ferent .[mech-1] signal traffic (speech, data, video) via a digital transmission system, eventually intended to re- isotropic having identical values of a property in place current systems. The Basic rate all crystallographic directions. [mat-1] is 64 kbits/sec [soft] ISPE International Society for Productivity En- ISEE Integrated Software Engineering Environ- hancement. [soft] ment: equivalent to SEE . [soft] ISTAR An experimental IPSE . from Imperial Soft- ISE Interactive Software Engineering: a software ware Technology. [soft] engineering company marketing Eiffel among other products. [soft] ISV Independent Software Vendor (not a hardware manufacturer). [soft] ISERN International Software Engineering Re- search Network - More information. [soft] ITHACA An Esprit project to put a ”4th genera- tion” object-oriented system to practical use in ISF Information Systems Factory: equivalent to an an industrial environment. The ITHACA envi- SEE . [soft] ronment offers an application support system in- corporating advanced technologies in the fields of ISIS A toolkit for implementing fault-tolerant dis- object-oriented programming, programming lan- tributed systems, developed at Cornell and now guages, database technologies, user interface sys- available commercially [soft] tems and software development tools [soft] ISOC The Internet Society. A professional society IT . [soft] concerned with the growth and evolution of the Internet , with the way it is used, and with re- ITU International Telecommunications Union [soft] lated social, political, and technical issues [soft] Izod Impact Test one of two tests that may be ISODE ISO Development Environment: software used to measure the impact energy of standard that implements a set of OSI upper-layer ser- notched specimen.[mech-1] vices. It supports OSI applications on top of OSI and TCP/IP networks [soft] Izod test a type of impact test in which a V-notched specimen, mounted vertically, is subjected to a ISO International Organisation for Standardisation sudden blow delivered by the weight at the end of [soft] a pendulum arm; the energy required to break off the free end is a measure of the impact strength isomerism the phenomenon whereby two or more or toughness of the material. [mat-1] polymer molecules or mer units have the same composition but different structural arrange- Jackleg - A percussion drill used for drifting or stop- ments and properties. [mat-1] pingthat is mounted on a telescopic leg which has an extension of about2.5 m. The leg and Isopach - A line, on a map, drawn through points machine are hinged so that the drill need not be of equalthickness of a designated unit. Synonym inthe same direction as the leg.[mining-1] for isopachous line;isopachyte.[mining-1] Jackrock A caltrop or other object manufactured isotactic a type of polymer chain configuration with one ormore rounded or sharpened points, where all side groups are positioned on the same which when placed or thrown presentat least one side of the chain molecule. [mat-1] point at such an angle that it is peculiar to and- Isotactic a type of polymer chain configuration designed for use in puncturing or damaging ve- wherein all side groups are positioned on the hicle tires. Jackrocksare commonly used during same side of the chain molecule.[mech-1] labor disputes.[mining-1] isothermal at a constant temperature. [mat-1] Jackson method A proprietary structured method for software analysis, design and programming. DRAFT[soft] CMI-MDP Programme 60

Jam Nuts See LOCKNUT [mech-3] An object-oriented workbench for Sun workstations from Intellicorp. [soft] JANET The Joint Academic NETwork which links U.K. academic and research institutes. [soft] KBS Knowledge-based system. [soft] Java An Object-Oriented language from Sun, now KDD Knowledge Discovery in Databases. A branch widely used in WWW browsers - More informa- of Artificial Intelligence . [soft] tion. [soft] Keps A pre-assembled nut and washer assembly JAZELLE A data management system for HEP (the washer is attached to the nut so that it won’t from SLAC. [soft] fall off)- a trademark of ITW Shakeproof. The origin of the word came from Sha [mech-3] JEDI Joint Electronic Document Interchange [soft] An authentication system from the JEPI Joint Electronic Payment Initiative. A joint Athena project, adopted by OSF as the basis of project between W3C and CommerceNet in the security for DME [soft] field of electronic payment using WWW . [soft] Kerf - The undercut of a coal face.[mining-1] JFIF A data stream-oriented file format used for transmitting JPEG encoded bitmap data [soft] KERMIT A protocol for file transfer. Mainly used for transfers to and from PC’s. [soft] Job Safety Analysis (J.S.A.) - A job breakdown that gives asafe, efficient job procedure.[mining- kernel The essential part of UNIX or other operat- 1] ing systems, responsible for resource allocation etc. [soft] Joint - A divisional plane or surface that di- vides a rockand along which there has been Kettle bottom - A smooth, rounded piece of no visible movement parallel to theplane or rock,cylindrical in shape, which may drop out surface.[mining-1] of the roof of a mine withoutwarning. The origin of this feature is to be the remains ofthe Joint Control Tightening See YIELD CON- stump of a that has been replaced by sed- TROLLED TIGHTENING [mech-3] iments so that theoriginal form has been rather well preserved.[mining-1] JOOP Journal of Object-Oriented Programming. [soft] K Factor The factor in the torque tightening equa- tion: T=KDF where T is the fastener tightening JPEG A standardized image compression - torque in , D is the fastener di- nism. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Ex- ameter in metres, F is the fasteners preload in perts Group, the original name of the committee Newtons and K is a factor whose value is often that wrote the standard. JPEG is designed for taken as 0.2. The formula gives the approximate compressing either full-color or gray-scale digi- tightening torque for standard fasteners used un- tal images of ”natural”, real-world scenes. It der normal conditions. [mech-3] does not work so well on non-realistic images, such as cartoons or line drawings. JPEG does Khoros A visualisation system from Khoral Re- not handle black-and-white (1-bit-per-) im- search . [soft] ages, or motion picture compression. Standards for compressing those types of images are being KIF Knowledge Interchange Format. For knowl- worked on by other committees, named JBIG edge sharing and communication among hetero- and MPEG - More information. [soft] geneous agents. [soft] jpg See JPEG . [soft] killed steel steel treated with a strong deoxidizing agent, such as aluminum or silicon, in order to JSA Japanese Standards Association [soft] reduce the oxygen content to a level so no reac- tion occurs between carbon and oxygen during JSD Jackson System Development [soft] solidification. [mat-1] JTC Joint Technical Committee (of ISO and IEC). kiln a furnace in which ceramics are fired. [mat-1] [soft] Kilo- A Greek prefix meaning ”thousand” in the Kala A persistent data server: a link library pro- of the . This prefix viding an engine for applications needing persis- multiplies a unit by 1000. [nuclear-1] tence, transactions, crash recovery and rollback, versioning, distribution, and other facilities for Kilovolt The unit of electrical potential equal to which DBMSs are commonlyDRAFT used [soft] 1000 . [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 61

Kinetic Energy The energy of a moving mass; IEEE 488 (GPIB) bus. It has powerful graphical equal to . Where m is mass and v is the magni- editing facilities for defining and interconnecting tude of the velocity. [struc-1] ”virtual instruments”. [soft] Kinetic energy The energy that a body possesses LAMPF Los Alamos Physics Facility (An by virtue of its mass and velocity. Also called 800 MeV proton and negative H ion high-current the energy of motion. [nuclear-1] LINAC, 1mA average, 12mA peak). [soft] KISS An Object-Oriented analysis and design ap- Lamp - The electric cap lamp worn for visibility. proach [soft] Also, theflame safety lamp used in coal mines KISS Keep It Simple Stupid. A homespun design to detect methane gasconcentrations and oxygen philosohpy. [soft] deficiency.[mining-1] KMS Knowledge Management System: a dis- Language-Based Editor An editor that is aware tributed hypermedia system for managing of the syntactic, semantic and in some cases the knowledge in organisations A commercial system structural rules of a specific programming lan- from Knowledge Systems Inc running on work- guage and provides a framework for the user to stations, based on previous research with ZOG enter source code. Programs or changes to previ- at Carnegie Mellon University. [soft] ously stored programs are incrementally parsed into an abstract syntax tree and automatically Knoop hardness test an test checked for correctness. [soft] using calibrated machines to force a rhombic- based pyramidal diamond indenter having speci- LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory - Los fied edge angles, under specified conditions, into Alamos, NM, USA - More information. [soft] the surface of the test material and to measure the long after load removal. [mat-1] LAN Local area network [soft] Knowledge Engineering The acquisition of lapping a surface finishing operation used to knowledge from a human expert or similar source achieve a fine polish and close tolerances. [mat-1] and its coding in an expert system . [soft] acronym for light amplification by stimulated Knowledge Representation AsubsetofAI .[soft] emission of radiation; a source of concentrated coherent light generated by stimulating elec- Kohonen T. Kohonen of the University of Helsinki tronic or molecular transitions to lower energy has been studying neural networks for many levels. [mat-1] years with the idea of modelling as closely as pos- sible the behaviour of biological systems, and his laser method of soldering in which the name is commonly associated with a particular heat required to reflow a solder interconnection kind of neural network in which there are only is provided by a laser (YAG or CO2); the solder two kinds of neurons (see McCulloch-Pitts ), in- joints are heated sequentially and cooled rapidly. put and others. All the input neurons are con- [mat-1] nected to all others, and the others are connected only to their other nearest neighbors. The train- the absorbed or re- ing algorithm is a relatively simple one based on leased when a material experiences a phase the geometric layout of the neurons, and makes change. [mat-1] use of annealing . [soft] LaTeX A document preparation system based on KQML Knowledge Query and Manipulation Lan- TeX , popular in the HEP community. It adds a guage. [soft] collection of commands to simplify typesetting, and lets the user concentrate on the structure KR Knowledge Representation . [soft] of the text rather than on formatting commands KUIP Kernel User Interface Package: the human [soft] interface to PAW . [soft] Lattice Parameter the combination of unit cell edge and interaxial angles that defines the unit cell geometry.[mech-1] LMN lattice parameter the length of any side in a crys- tal structure’s unit cell. [mat-1] Labview A package from National Instruments Lattice the regular geometrical arrangement of Corp originally developed to provide a graph- points in crystal space.[mech-1] ical interface to instrumentsDRAFT connected by the CMI-MDP Programme 62

lattice the space arrangement of atoms in a crystal. Rule mathematical expression whereby the [mat-1] relative phase amounts in a two-phase alloy at equilibrium my be computed.[mech-1] Layout - The design or pattern of the main road- ways andworkings. The proper layout of mine lex A lexical analysis tool for the UNIX environ- workings is the responsibility ofthe manager ment. [soft] aided by the planning department.[mining-1] LHC Large Collider: proposed to be built LBE Language-Based Editor . [soft] in the LEP . [soft] LBL Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, Licensing basis The collection of documents or USA. [soft] technical criteria that provides the basis upon which the NRC issues a license to possess ra- LCF Logic for Computable Functions. A system for dioactive materials, conduct operations involving interactive automated reasoning. [soft] emission of radiation, use special nuclear mate- leaching process of liquid solder dissolving a metal rials, or dispose of radioactive waste. [nuclear-1] coating. [mat-1] Lifecycle See Life-Cycle . [soft] lead a wire that connects two points in a circuit; it Life-Cycle The software life-cycle consists of is usually self-supporting. [mat-1] phases: , design, construc- LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring. [soft] tion, testing and maintenance. The development process tends to run iteratively through these LEDA Library of Efficient Data types and Algo- phases rather than linearly; several models (spi- rithms. A class library with graph classes from ral, waterfall etc) have been proposed to describe Uni Saarbruecken. [soft] this process. [soft] Lefthand Thread A screw thread that is screwed LIFIA Laboratoire d’Informatique Fondamentale in by rotating counterclockwise. [mech-3] et d’Intelligence Artificielle. [soft] Legacy Legacy system is a term used to describe LIFN Location Independent File Name [soft] old software systems still in use but which could benefit from re-engineering using more modern Lift - The amount of coal obtained from a continu- methods. [soft] ous minerin one mining cycle.[mining-1] Length Of Engagement The axial distance over LIGHT LIfecycle Global HyperText. A project in which an external thread is in contact with an the CERN ECP/IPT group whereby documents internal thread. [mech-3] resulting from the software life cycle are available as hypertext [soft] LEP Large Electron Positron Collider. A 27km cir- cumference accelerator at CERN , which brings light metal one of the low-density metals, such as bunches of electrons and into collision. aluminum, magnesium, , beryllium, or [soft] their alloys. [mat-1]

Lethal dose (LD) The dose of radiation expected Light water Ordinary water as distinguished to cause to 50 percent of an exposed popu- from heavy water ¡/reading-rm/basic- lation within 30 days (LD 50/30). Typically, the ref/glossary/heavy-water-d2o.html¿. [nuclear-1] LD 50/30 is in the range from 400 to 450 rem (4 Light water reactor A term used to describe re- to 5 sieverts) received over a very short period. actors using ordinary water as coolant, including [nuclear-1] boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized lever rule in a phase diagram, the relative propor- water reactors (PWRs), the most common types tions of the conjugate phases, at a stated value used in the United States. [nuclear-1] of temperature and pressure, or both, is such Limiting condition for operation The section of that a state of mechanical balance would obtain, Technical Specifications that identifies the low- if the corresponding weight of each phase were est functional capability or performance level of placed upon its composition point upon the tie- equipment required for safe operation of the fa- element (tie-line, tie-triangle, etc.) and the ful- cility. [nuclear-1] crum were located at the gross composition point of the mixture. [mat-1] Limiting safety system settings Settings for au- tomatic protective devices related to those vari- DRAFTables having significant safety functions. Where CMI-MDP Programme 63

a limiting safety system setting is specified for a LispView CLOS based on Open- on which a safety limit has been placed, Windows . [soft] the setting will ensure that automatic protective action will correct the abnormal situation before Literate programming Combining the use of a a safety limit is exceeded. [nuclear-1] language such as TeX and a conventional pro- gramming language, so as to maintain documen- Linda A portable parallel language to simplify par- tation and source together [soft] allel programming. Extensions to C and Fortran, available from Scientific Computing Associates, - The character of a rock described in Inc. [soft] terms ofits structure, color, mineral composi- tion, grain size, and arrangementof its compo- Linear A structure is said to behave linearly when nent parts; all those visible features that in its the deformation response is directly propor- theaggregate impart individuality of the rock. tional to the loading (i.e. doubling the load dou- Lithology is the basis ofcorrelation in coal mines bles the displacement response). For a material, and commonly is reliable over a distance ofa few linear means that the stress is directly propor- .[mining-1] tional to the strain. [struc-1] LitProg Literate Programming [soft] Linear Elastic A force-displacement relationship which is both linear and elastic. For a struc- Lml A functional language (Johnson 1984). [soft] ture, this means the deformation is proportional Load An external force. The term load is some- to the loading, and deformations disappear on times used to describe more general actions such unloading. For a material, the concept is the as temperature differentials or movements such same except strain substitutes for deformation, as foundation settlements. [struc-1] and stress substitutes for load. [struc-1] Loading machine - Any device for transferring ex- Linear heat generation rate The heat generation rate per unit length of fuel rod, commonly ex- cavatedcoal into the haulage equipment.[mining- 1] pressed in kilowatts per foot (kw/ft) of fuel rod. [nuclear-1] Loading pocket - Transfer point at a shaft where Line of Action The line of action of a force is the bulkmaterial is loaded by bin, hopper, and chute infinite line defined by extending along the direc- into a skip.[mining-1] tion of the force from the point where the force Load - To place explosives in a drill hole. acts. [struc-1] Also, totransfer broken material into a haulage link see Hypertext [soft] device.[mining-1] lint A C language preprocessor which carries out Local Area Network Usually abbreviated to LAN: more thorough checks on the code than is usual a communications network which is geographi- with C compilers themselves. [soft] cally limited (typically to a 1 km. radius) al- lowing easy interconnection of terminals, micro- An implementation of UNIX written from processors and computers within adjacent build- scratch with no proprietary code for IBM PC ings. Ethernet and FDDI are examples of stan- compatibles by Torvalds and distributed dard LANs. [soft] under the GNU public licence - More informa- tion. [soft] Lock Nut There are two common usage’s of this term: 1. A nut which provides extra resistance The process of converting coal to vibration loosening by either providing some into asynthetic fuel, similar in nature to form of prevailing torque, or, in free spinning crude oil and/or refinedproducts, such as nuts, by deforming and/or biting into mating gasoline.[mining-1] parts when fully tightened. 2. The term is some- Liquidus[mech-1] times used for thin (or jam) nuts used to lock a thicker nut. When used in this way the thin nut liquidus the line on the phase equilibrium diagram should be adjacent to the joint surface and tight- above which only are stable and below ened against the thick nut. If placed on top of which some solid is present; the lowest tempera- the thick nut the thin nut would sustain loads it ture at which a metal or alloy is completely liq- was not designed to sustain. [mech-3] uid. [mat-1] LOC Line of code. Used as a simple software metric. LISP A List Processing Language suitable for sym- [soft] bolic and logical programmingDRAFT [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 64

Locus A distributed system project supporting Low population zone (LPZ) An area of low transparent access to data through a network- population density often required around a nu- wide file system. [soft] clear installation before it’s built. The number and density of residents is of concern in emer- Logic Programming Programming in a language gency planning so that certain protective mea- such as Prolog , which allows the programmer to sures (such as notification and instructions to make a series of assertions which are interpreted residents) can be accomplished in a timely man- by an inference engine [soft] ner. [nuclear-1] LOGISCOPE Software quality analysis tools from Low voltage - Up to and including 660 volts by Verilog SA, used to evaluate the quality of soft- federalstandards.[mining-1] ware both statically (based on software metrics) and dynamically [soft] LSE Language Sensitive Editor: from DEC . [soft] Lojban An artificial language designed to be used Luder bands elongated surface markings or de- by people in communication with each other, and pressions in sheet metal caused by discontinuous possibly in the future with computers [soft] yielding. [mat-1] Longwall Lynx A WWW browser from University of Kansas Looking Glass A desktop manager for UNIX from - More information. [soft] Visix. [soft] LynxOS A POSIX compliant real-time operat- Loop In a pressurized water reactor, the coolant ing system from Lynx Real-Time Systems, Los flow through piping from the reactor pres- Gatos, California, with a UNIX -like interface to sure vessel to the steam generator, to the reactor application programs. [soft] coolant pump, and back to the reactor pressure LZW Lempel-Ziv-Welch algo- vessel. Large PWRs may have as many as four rithm. [soft] separate loops. [nuclear-1] MACAnalyst An analysis CASE tool for the Mac LOOPS Lisp Object-oriented Programming System from Excel Software Inc. [soft] from Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center. [soft] MACDesigner A design CASE tool for the Mac from Excel Software Inc. [soft] Loose coal - Coal fragments larger in size than coaldust.[mining-1] Mach An operating system kernel under devel- Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) Those pos- opment at Carnegie-Mellon University to sup- tulated accidents that result in a loss of reactor port distributed and parallel computation. Mach coolant at a rate in excess of the capability of is designed to support computing environments the reactor makeup system from breaks in the consisting of networks of uniprocessors and mul- reactor coolant pressure , up to and in- tiprocessors. Mach is the kernel of the OSF/1 cluding a break equivalent in size to the double- system . [soft] ended rupture of the largest of the reactor Macintosh A range of personal computers manu- coolant system. [nuclear-1] factured by Apple Computer Inc. [soft] LOTOS A formal description technique used for a huge molecule made up of thou- protocol specfication in ISO standards (ISO of atoms. [mat-1] 8807). [soft] MacX A package allowing the Macintosh to be used Low-level waste A general term for a wide range of as an X server . [soft] wastes having low levels of radioactivity. Indus- tries; hospitals and medical, educational, or re- Madaline A structure of many ADALINE units. search institutions; private or government labo- [soft] ratories; and facilities (e.g., nu- clear power reactors and fuel fabrication plants) magnetic field strength (H) the intensity of an that use radioactive materials generate low-level externally applied magnetic field. [mat-1] wastes as part of their normal operations. These Magnetic Strength the intensity of an ex- wastes are generated in many physical and chem- ternally applied magnetic field.[mech-1] ical forms and levels of contamination Low-level radioactive wastes containing source, special nu- magnetic flux density (B) the magnetic field pro- clear, or byproduct material are acceptable for duced in a substance by an external magnetic disposal in a land disposal facility.DRAFT [nuclear-1] field. [mat-1] CMI-MDP Programme 65

Magnetic Flux Density the magnetic field pro- Man trip - A carrier of mine personnel, by rail or duced in a substance by an external magnetic rubbertire, to and from the work area.[mining-1] field.[mech-1] Manway - An entry used exclusively for personnel Magnetic Induction see Density to travelform the shaft bottom or drift mouth to [mech-1] the working section; it isalways on the intake air side in gassy mines. Also, a small passage atone the proportionality con- side or both sides of a breast, used as a traveling stant between the M and the mag- way for theminer, and sometimes, as an airway, netic field strength H.[mech-1] or chute, or both.[mining-1] Magnetization the total magnetic moment per unit volume of material. Also, a measure of the Maple A mathematics package developed by the contribution to the magnetic flux by some mate- University of Waterloo and ETH Zurich. [soft] rial within an H field.[mech-1] MAP Manufacturers Automation Protocol, a set of magnetization the total magnetic moment per unit protocols developed by General Motors based on volume of material; also, a measure of the con- Token Bus (IEEE 802.4) and giving predictable tribution to the magnetic flux by some material response in real time . [soft] within an H field. [mat-1] MARC MAchine Readable Cataloging: a record Magnitude A value having physical units. format for bibliographic information interchange [struc-1] based on the ANSI / NISO Z39.2 standard. [soft] Main entry - A main haulage road. Where the coal Markowitz The author of the original Simscript hascleats, main entries are driven at right angles language. [soft] to the facecleats.[mining-1] Markup In computerised document preparation, a Main fan - A mechanical ventilator installed at method of adding information to the text indi- thesurface; operates by either exhausting or cating the logical components of a document, or blowing to induce airflowthrough the mine road- instructions for layout of the text on the page. ways and workings.[mining-1] [soft] Maintenance An important part of the software Martensite a metastable Fe-C composition consist- life-cycle. Maintenance is expensive in man- ing of supersaturated carbon in iron that is the power and resources, and software engineering product of a diffusionless (athermal) transforma- techniques aim to reduce its cost. [soft] tion from austenite .[mech-1] Major Diameter This is the diameter of an imag- martensite a metastable iron phase supersaturated inary cylinder parallel with the crests of the in carbon that is the product of a diffusionless thread; in other words it is the distance from (athermal) transformation from austenite. [mat- crest to crest for an external thread, or root to 1] root for an internal thread. [mech-3] Martensitic Transformation[mech-1] Make A popular tool on UNIX systems to automate the recompilation, linking etc. of programs, tak- MASCOT Modular Approach to Software Con- ing account of the interdependencies of modules. struction Operation and Test: a method for soft- [soft] ware design aimed at real-time embedded sys- tems from the Royal and Research Es- Makedoc A program from , Ot- tablishment, UK. [soft] tawa that generates documentation for Objective C programs. It will also generate a class hierar- Mass A property of an object measured by the de- chy diagram. The output format is similar to gree that it resists acceleration. [struc-1] that used by StepStone . [soft] Mass-energy The equation developed malleable cast iron white cast iron that has by , which is usually given as E = been heat treated to convert the cementite into mc2 , showing that, when the energy of a body graphite clusters; a relatively ductile cast iron. changes by an amount E (no matter what form [mat-1] the energy takes), the mass (m) of the body will 2 Manhole - A safety hole constructed in the side of change by an amount equal to E/c . The fac- agangway, tunnel, or slope in which miner can tor c squared, the speed of light in a vacuum (3 be safe from passinglocomotives and car. Also x 10 to the eighth power), may be regarded as called a refuge hole.[mining-1DRAFT] the conversion factor relating units of mass and CMI-MDP Programme 66

energy. The equation predicted the possibility Meanshift The difference in tightening torque val- of releasing enormous amounts of energy by the ues produced by the same tightening tool on hard conversion of mass to energy. It is also called the and soft joints. A hard joint typically gives a Einstein equation. [nuclear-1] higher torque value than a soft joint. Generally speaking, the lower the meanshift of a tightening The number of (neutrons tool, the better it will be in achieving a specified and protons) in the nucleus of an atom. Also torque value irrespective of the joint condition. known as the atomic weight. [nuclear-1] [mech-3] Mathematica A general program for symbolic Measured coal resources Coal for which esti- computing and programming from Wolfram Re- mates of therank, quality, and quantity have search [soft] been computed from sample analysesand mea- Matrix The body constituent of a composite or surements from closely spaced and geologi- two-phase alloy that completely surrounds the cally well-knownsample sites, such as outcrops, dispersed phase and gives the body its bulk trenches, mine workings, and drillholes. The form.[mech-1] points of observation and measurement are so closely spacedand the thickness and extent of matrix the continuous phase in a composite or two- are so well defined that thetonnage is phase alloy microstructure in which a second judged to be accurate within 20 percent of true- phase is dispersed. [mat-1] tonnage. Although the spacing of the points of observation necessaryto demonstrate continuity Maximum dependable capacity (gross) In a of the coal differs from region to regionaccording nuclear power reactor, dependable main-unit to the character of the coal beds, the points of gross generating capacity, winter or summer, observationare no greater than mile apart. Mea- whichever is smaller. The dependable capacity sured coal is projected to extendas a -mile wide varies because the unit efficiency varies during belt from the outcrop or points of observation the year due to temperature variations in cooling ormeasurement.[mining-1] water. It is the gross electrical output as mea- sured at the output terminals of the turbine gen- Mega- A prefix that multiplies a basic unit by erator during the most restrictive seasonal con- 1,000,000 (10 to the sixth power). [nuclear-1] ditions (usually summer). [nuclear-1] Megacurie One million curies. [nuclear-1] Maximum dependable capacity (net) In a nu- Megawatt hour (MWh) One million watt-hours. clear power reactor, gross maximum dependable [nuclear-1] generating capacity less the normal station ser- vice loads. [nuclear-1] Megawatt (MW) One million watts. [nuclear-1] MBONE Multicast backbone: a virtual network on Mellor see Schlaer-Mellor . [soft] top of the Internet to support routing of IP mul- the temperature at which a solid ticast packets, intended for multimedia transmis- substance changes to a liquid state.[mech-1] sion [soft] Member Function In C++ , the name given to a McCulloch-Pitts The McCulloch-Pitts neuron is method . [soft] the basic building block of neural networks. It receives one or more inputs and produces one or Meridian - A surveying term that establishes a line more identical outputs, each of which is a simple ofreference. The bearing is used to designate di- non-linear function of the sum of the inputs to rection. The bearing ofa line is the acute horizon- the neuron. The non-linear function is typically tal angle between the meridian and theline. Az- a threshhold or step function which is usually imuths are angles measured clockwise from any smoothed (i.e. a sigmoid) to facilitate learning. meridian.[mining-1] [soft] MERISE Methode d’Etude et de Realisation In- MCS Meta Class System: a portable object- formatique pour les Systemes d’Enteprise: a oriented extension of Common Lisp from GMD Software Engineering method popular in France; . It integrates the functionality of CLOS . [soft] many IPSE s are based on it. [soft] MDL An early object-oriented language from MIT mer the group of atoms that constitutes a polymer . [soft] chain repeat unit. [mat-1] Mer the group of atoms that constitutes a polymer DRAFTchain repeat unit.[mech-1] CMI-MDP Programme 67

Mesa An early object-oriented programming lan- Metal To Metal Contact Flange Joint A guage developed at the Xerox Palo Alto research flanged joint in which a gasket is compressed by centre. [soft] bolts - the gasket being located in a recess within the joint so that it is compressed by the bolt Message In object-oriented programming sending loads until metal to metal contact occurs. Unlike a message to an object (to invoke a method) is the FLOATING TYPE FLANGE JOINT, for equivalent to calling a procedure in traditional metal to metal type joints there are no standard- programming languages, except that the actual ised gasket factor definitions, test procedures, code executed may only be selected at run-time nor generally acknowledged calculation proce- depending on the class of the object. Thus, in dures available. [mech-3] response to the message ”drawSelf”, the method code invoked would be different if the target ob- metastable (1) nonequilibrium state of a material ject were a or a square. [soft] with respect to some transition, conversion, or reaction but stabilized kinetically either by rapid MetaCard A commercial human interface and hy- cooling or by some molecular characteristics; (2) pertext system for UNIX , similar to Hypercard possessing a state of pseudoequilibrium that has . [soft] a free energy higher than that of the true equi- Meta-CASE tool A term sometimes used for soft- librium state. [mat-1] ware packages (like TBK ) which allow users Metastable nonequilibrium state that may persist to develop or customise their own CASE tools for a very long time.[mech-1] . [soft] Methane A potentially explosive gas formed natu- Metaclass The class of a class. A metaclass is rally fromthe decay of vegetative matter, sim- a class whose instances are themselves classes. ilar to that which formedcoal. Methane, [soft] which is the principal component of natu- ral gas, isfrequently encountered in under- Metadata Data definitions describing aspects of ground coal mining operations and iskept within the actual data items, such as name, format etc. safe limits through the use of extensive mine [soft] ventilationsystems.[mining-1] Metafile Typically a file of graphics data for trans- Methane monitor - An electronic instrument often port between different machines. [soft] mounted ona piece of mining equipment, that de- metal an opaque lustrous elemental chemical sub- tects and measures the methanecontent of mine stance that is a good conductor of heat and elec- air.[mining-1] tricity and, when polished, a good reflector of Methodology A term for a codified set of pro- light; most elemental metals are malleable, duc- cedures for some phase of software engineering, tile, and are generally denser than the other el- such as analysis and design. [soft] emental substances; metals are structurally dis- tinguished from nonmetals by their atomic bond- Method The name given in Smalltalk (and some- ing and electron availability; the electron band times in other object-oriented languages) to a structure of metals is characterized by a partially procedure or routine associated with an object. filled valence band; the ”free electrons” lost from [soft] the outer shells of metallic atoms are available to carry an electric current; the defining property Metric see Software Metrics . [soft] of a metal is that it is an element with a pos- Metric ton Approximately 2200 pounds in the En- itive thermal coefficient of resistivity, meaning glish system of . (Note: In the the electrical resistivity of a metal continuously international system of measurements, 1 metric increases as temperature increases. [mat-1] ton = 1000 kg.) [nuclear-1] metallic bond a primary interatomic bond involv- Meyer Bertrand Meyer, the author of the Eiffel ing the nondirectional sharing of nonlocalized va- Language and many articles on object-oriented lence electrons (”sea of electrons”) which are - software techniques. [soft] tually shared by all the atoms in the metallic solid. [mat-1] Micro- A prefix that divides a unit into one million parts (0.000001). [nuclear-1] metallurgy the science and technology of metals and alloys. [mat-1] Microcurie One millionth of a curie. That amount of radioactive material that disintegrates (de- Metal the electroposite elements and alloys based cays) at the rate of 37 thousand atoms per sec- on these elements.[mech-1] DRAFTond. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 68

Microkernel An approach to operating systems Millirem One thousandth of a rem (0.001 rem). design which puts emphasis on small modules [nuclear-1] which implement the basic features of the sys- tem and can be flexibly configured . [soft] Milliroentgen (mR) One thousandth of a roent- gen (R). 1mR = 10−3 R = 0.001 R. [nuclear-1] micron one millionth of a meter (0.000001), and another term for micrometer (10−6). [mat-1] Mill tailings Naturally radioactive residue from the processing of into yellowcake the investigation of microstructural el- in a mill. Although the milling process recovers ements using some type of , e.g. scan- about 93 percent of the uranium, the residues, or ning electron microscopy (SEM), light optical tailings, contain several naturally-occurring ra- microscopy (LOM). [mat-1] dioactive elements, including uranium, thorium, radium, , and radon. [nuclear-1] Microsoft A vendor of systems and application software for personal computers and similar plat- MIMD Multiple Instruction Multiple Data: a form forms [soft] of parallelism in multiprocessor computing where there are several instruction streams (programs) microstructure the microscopic assemblage of operating concurrently on several data streams. grains, grain boundaries, amorphous phases, [soft] pores, and inclusions, that make up a material. [mat-1] MIME Multimedia Internet Mail Extensions. A method of processing multi-part, multimedia Microstructure the structural features of an al- messages on the Internet 1521-1522 etc.) - More loy that are subject to observation under a information. [soft] microscope.[mech-1] Mine development - The term employed to des- microvoid coalescence (MVC) occurs due to ignate theoperations involved in preparing a the of microvoids, followed by their mine for ore extraction. Theseoperations in- growth and eventual coalescence; initiation is clude tunneling, sinking, cross-cutting, drifting, caused by particle cracking or interfacial failure andraising.[mining-1] between an inclusion or precipitate particle and the surrounding matrix. [mat-1] Mine mouth electric plant A coal burningelectric-generating plant built near Midas A Motif-based toolkit for interactive data a coal mine.[mining-1] analysis by T.Johnson, SLAC. The basis for the Midas-WWW browser. [soft] Mineral - An occurring natu- rally in theearth’s crust, with a distinctive set of Midas-WWW A Motif-based browser for WWW physical properties, and adefinite chemical com- [soft] position. [mining-1] MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface. [soft] Miner - One who is engaged in the business MID Metafile for Interactive Documents. A stan- or occupation ofextracting ore, coal, precious dard sponsored by the DoD . [soft] substances, or other natural materialsfrom the earth’s crust.[mining-1] MIFF Machine Independent File Format. A bitmap format [soft] Mining Engineer - A person qualified by educa- tion,training, and experience in mining engineer- Miller-Bravis Indices a set of four that ing. A trained engineerwith knowledge of the designate crystallographic planes in hexagonal science, economics, and of minerallocation, crystals.[mech-1] extraction, concentration and sale, and the ad- ministrativeand financial problems of practical Miller indices a set of three integers (four importance in connection with theprofitable con- for hexagonal) that designate crystallographic duct of mining. [mining-1] planes, as determined from reciprocals of frac- tional axial intercepts. [mat-1] Mining One of three major undergroundcoal min- ing methods currently in use. Employs a steal Miller Indices a set of three integers that desig- plow, orrotation drum, which is pulled mechan- nate crystallographic planes, as determined from ically back and forth across aface of coal that is reciprocals of fractional axial intercepts.[mech-1] usually several hundred feet long. The loosened- Milli- A prefix that divides a basic unit by 1000. coal falls onto a conveyor for removal from the [nuclear-1] DRAFTmine. [mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 69

Minor Diameter This is the diameter of an imag- Modula-3 A member of the family of lan- inary cylinder which just touches the roots of guages. Designed in the late 1980s at Digital an external thread, or the crests of an internal Equipment Corporation and Olivetti, it aims to thread. [mech-3] correct deficiencies of Pascal and Modula-2 [soft] MINUIT A Program for Function Minimization modulus of elasticity (E) the ratio of stress to and Analysis - More information. [soft] strain when deformation is totally elastic; also a measure of the stiffness of a material. [mat-1] MIPS A vendor . [soft] Modulus of elasticity The proportional constant Misfire - The complete or partial failure of a blast- between stress and strain for material with linear ingcharge to explode as planned.[mining-1] elastic behavior [struc-1] MIS Management Information Systems. [soft] Modulus of Elasticity the ratio of stress to MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology [soft] strain for a material under perfectly elastic deformation.[mech-1] mixed dislocation a dislocation that has both edge and screw components. [mat-1] modulus of rupture breaking strength in a non- ductile solid as measured by bending. [mat-1] Mixed Dislocation a dislocation that has both edge and screw components.[mech-1] Molecule A group of atoms held together by chem- ical forces. A molecule is the smallest unit of a Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel A mixture of uranium compound that can exist by itself and retain all oxide and plutonium oxide used to fuel a reactor. of its chemical properties. [nuclear-1] Mixed oxide fuel is often called ”MOX.” Conven- tional nuclear fuel is made of pure uranium oxide. molecule a group of atoms that are bound together [nuclear-1] by primary interatomic bonds. [mat-1] ML A functional language - More information. [soft] Disulphide A solid lubricant that acts as a high pressure resistant film. Can be MMM A WWW based on the Caml language [soft] used by itself as a dry lubricant as well as in with Model Engineers Thread (M.E.) A thread other solid lubricants and in and greases. based upon the Whitworth thread form that was Used in threads, such lubricants act as a sepa- established in 1912. A very fine thread (a 3/32 rating film to prevent corrosion formation on the inch thread having 60 tpi for example). [mech-3] thread surface (even under adverse temperature and environmental conditions) ensuring the re- Moderator A material, such as ordinary water, lease of the threaded connection. Such films can heavy water, or graphite, that is used in a re- also act as friction stabilisers. [mech-3] actor to slow down high-velocity neutrons, thus increasing the likelihood of fission. [nuclear-1] Moment of inertia has two dis- tinct but related meanings [struc-1] Moderator temperature coefficient of reac- tivity As the moderator (water) increases in Moment Release see pin connection. [struc-1] temperature, it becomes less dense and slows down fewer neutrons, which results in a negative Moment resisting-connection see fixed connec- change of reactivity. This negative temperature tion. [struc-1] coefficient acts to stabilize atomic power reactor Moment The resultant of a system of forces causing operations. [nuclear-1] rotation without translation. A moment can be MODSIM A general-purpose modular block- expressed as a couple [struc-1] structured language from CACI , which pro- Monitoring of radiation Periodic or continuous vides support for object-oriented programming determination of the amount of ionizing radia- and discrete event simulation. It is intended tion or radioactive contamination present in a for building large process-based discrete event region, as a safety measure, for the purpose of simulation models through modular and object- health or . Monitoring oriented mechanisms similar to those of Modula- is done for air, surface and ground water, soil and 2 - More information. [soft] sediment, equipment surfaces, and personnel (for Modula-2 A high-level programming language de- example, bioassay or alpha scans). [nuclear-1] signed by N.Wirth. It is a derivative of Pas- monomer a molecule consisting of a single mer. cal with well-defined interfaces between modules, [mat-1] and facilities for parallel computation.DRAFT [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 70

Monomer a molecule consisting of a single mer Muse An electronic journal project at Johns Hop- .[mech-1] kins [soft] Montage An object-relational database manage- MVC Model View Controller architecture for inter- ment system from Montage Software: the com- active software - More information. [soft] mercialisation of POSTGRES [soft] MVE Modular Visualisation Environment. A type MOOD Material’s Object-Oriented Database. An of application builder for scientific and other vi- object oriented database system from Tohoku sualisation systems (such as AVS , IBM Data University [soft] Explorer , IRIS Explorer ). [soft] MOOSE An object-oriented R&D project at NAG Numerical Algorithms Group [soft] CERN [soft] Nano- A prefix that divides a basic unit by one −9 Mosaic An X-Window based browser for WWW billion (10 ). [nuclear-1] from NCSA [soft] Nanocurie One billionth 10−9 of a curie. [nuclear- MOSES Methodology for Object-oriented Software 1] Engineering of Systems [soft] NAPLPS North American Presentation Layer Pro- MOSFET Metal-oxide-silicon field effect transis- tocol Syntax. [soft] tor, an integrated circuit element.[mech-1] NASA National and Space Adminis- Motif The standard Graphical User Interface and tration (USA). NASA has many software engi- window manager , running on theX Window Sys- neering projects [soft] tem - More information. [soft] NAS Network Application Support: DEC’s ap- MPEG Moving Pictures Experts Group of ISO that proach to applications integration across a dis- generates standards for digital video (sequences tributed multivendor environment. [soft] of images in time) and audio compression . [soft] Natural The circulation of the coolant MPV Extension of the VRTX real-time operating in the reactor coolant system without the use system to support multi-processing. [soft] of the reactor coolant pumps. The circulation is due to the natural resulting from MS-DOS An operating system developed by Mi- the different densities of relative cold and heated croSoft Corporation for computers using the In- portions of the system. [nuclear-1] tel 16 and 32-bit family of processors. [soft] Natural uranium Uranium as found in nature. MSHA - Mine Safety and Health Administra- It contains 0.7 percent uranium-235, 99.3 per- tion; the federalagency which regulates coal mine cent uranium-238, and a of uranium-234 by health and safety.[mining-1] weight. In terms of the amount of radioactivity, it contains approximately 2.2 percent uranium- MTBF Time Between Faults [soft] 235, 48.6 percent uranium-238, and 49.2 percent Mud cap - A charge of high explosive fired in con- uranium-234. [nuclear-1] tact withthe surface of a rock after being cov- Natural ventilation - Ventilation of a mine with- ered with a quantity of wet mud,wet earth, or out the aidof fans or furnaces.[mining-1] sand, without any borehole being used. Also ter- medadobe, dobie, and sandblast (illegal in coal NBS National Bureau of Standards: part of the mining).[mining-1] U.S. Department of Commerce, now NIST . [soft] Multibus A bus standard for microprocessor-based NCOSE National Council On Systems Engineering systems, specified by IEEE Std.796 [soft] (USA) [soft] Multimedia Human computer interaction involv- NCSA National Center for Supercomputing Appli- ing text, graphics, voice, video etc [soft] cations, Urbana, IL, USA - More information. [soft] Multi-media See Multimedia . [soft] NCS Network Computing System: Apollo’s RPC Multiple Inheritance In object-oriented program- system used by DEC and Hewlett-Packard.The ming, the possibility that a sub-class may be de- protocol has been adopted by OSF . [soft] rived from multiple parents which are themselves not derived one from the other. [soft] NCSS Non-Commented Source Statements. Used DRAFTas a simple software metric. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 71

NDL National Database Language: a US standard Neutron An uncharged elementary particle, with for portability of database definitions and appli- a mass slightly greater than that of the proton, cation programs. [soft] found in the nucleus of every atom heavier than hydrogen. [nuclear-1] necking reduction of the cross-sectional area of a material in a localized area caused by uniaxial Neutron capture The reaction that occurs when tension. [mat-1] a nucleus captures a neutron. The probability that a given material will capture a neutron is A hypertext system for computer assisted proportional to its neutron capture cross section software engineering, developed at Tektronix. and depends on the energy of the neutrons and [soft] the nature of the material. [nuclear-1] netCDF Network Common Data Form. A Neutron chain reaction A process in which some machine-independent, self-describing file format of the neutrons released in one fission event cause for scientific data [soft] other fissions to occur. There are three types NetClasses A C++ class library for object trans- of chain reactions: (1) Nonsustaining–An aver- port and remote method invocation from Stan- age of less than one fission is produced by the ford [soft] neutrons released by each previous fission (reac- tor subcriticality); (2) Sustaining–An average of Net summer capability The steady hourly output exactly one fission is produced by the neutrons that generating equipment is expected to sup- released by each previous fission (reactor criti- ply to system load exclusive of auxiliary power, cality); and (3) Multiplying–An average of more as demonstrated by tests at the time of summer than one fission is produced by the neutrons re- peak demand. [nuclear-1] leased by previous fission (reactor supercritical- ity). [nuclear-1] network polymer a polymer composed of trifunc- tional mer units that form three-dimensional Neutron flux A measure of the intensity of neutron molecules. [mat-1] radiation in neutrons/cm2 -sec. It is the number of neutrons passing through 1 square centimeter NeuDL Neural network Description Language from of a given target in 1 second. Expressed as nv, the [soft] where n = the number of neutrons per cubic cen- Neumann’s Law the of the physical timeter and v = their velocity in centimeters per properties of a crystal must include the symme- second. [nuclear-1] try of the of the crystal. [mat-1] Neutron generation The release, thermalization, Neural net See Neural network [soft] and absorption of fission neutrons by a fissile material and the fission of that material pro- Neural network A computing device which con- ducing a second generation of neutrons. In a verts one or more input signals to one or more typical nuclear power reactor system, there are output signals by means of an interconnected set about 40,000 generations of neutrons every sec- of elementary non-linear signal processors called ond. [nuclear-1] neurons. Animal brains are examples of biolog- ical neural networks. Artificial Neural Networks Neutron leakage Neutrons that escape from the are man-made computing devices modelled af- vicinity of the fissionable material in a reactor ter their biological counterparts. The features core. Neutrons that out of the fuel region are which distinguish artificial neural networks from no longer available to cause fission and must be traditional Von Neumann (sequential) comput- absorbed by shielding placed around the reactor ers are: (a) the elementary processors are highly pressure vessel for that purpose. [nuclear-1] non-linear (in the limit, they are simple thresh- Neutron source Any material that emits neutrons, old discriminators), (b) the neurons are highly such as a mixture of radium and beryllium, that interconnencted which allows a high degree of can be inserted into a reactor to ensure a neutron parallelism and (c) there is no idle memory con- flux large enough to be distinguished from back- taining data and programs, but rather each neu- ground to register on neutron detection equip- ron is pre-programmed and continuously active - ment. [nuclear-1] More information. [soft] Neutron, thermal A neutron that has (by colli- Neural See Neural network [soft] sion with other particles) reached an energy state Neuron See Neural network , also McCulloch-Pitts equal to that of its surroundings, typically on the [soft] DRAFTorder of 0.025 eV (electron volts). [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 72

NeWS Network extensible Window System from Nip - Device at the end of the trailing cable of a Sun Microsystems, offering facilities similar to miningmachine used for connecting the trailing those of the X Window System . Communica- cable to the trolley wire andground.[mining-1] tion is based on PostScript , and server functions NISO National Information Standards Organisa- can be extended. [soft] tion (USA). NISO Standards cover many aspects NewWave A graphical user interface and object- of library science, publishing, and information oriented environment from Hewlett-Packard, services, and address the application of both tra- based on Windows and available on UNIX work- ditional and new technologies to information ser- stations. [soft] vices [soft]

NeXTstep A graphical interface builder, object- NIST National Institute of Standards and Technol- oriented application builder, and windowing soft- ogy, USA (formerly NBS) - More information. ware for the NeXT and IBM AIX systems. [soft] [soft] NFF Neutral File Format. A minimal scene descrip- NITF National Imagery Transmission Format [soft] tion language - More information. [soft] NLP Natural Language Processing. [soft] NFS Network File System: developed by Sun to NLS Native Language System: a set of interfaces allow a computer to access files over a network specified by X/Open for developing applications as if they were on local disks; now public domain, to run in different natural language environ- a de facto standard. [soft] ments. [soft] NFT Network File Transfer. An INTERLINK com- NLSR Natural Language Software Registry. A mand. [soft] summary of the capabilities and sources of language processing software available to re- Nial Nested Interactive Array Language. A high- searchers [soft] level array-oriented procedural language based on a mathematical theory of arrays, developed NMF Network Management Forum of OSI [soft] at Queen’s University. It combines APL data NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol: the pro- structure ideas with LISP -style evaluation con- tocol used for distributing news on the Internet cepts and a conventional control structure syntax . [soft] - More information. [soft] Noble gas A gaseous that does NIAM Natural Language (or Nijssen) Informa- not readily enter into chemical combination tion Analysis Method: a method for data mod- with other elements. An inert gas. Examples elling. (see ”Conceptual Scheme and Relational are helium, , , xenon, and radon. Database Design”, Nijssen and Halpin, Prentice- [nuclear-1] Hall, 1989) [soft] noble metal a metal with high resistance to chemi- Nicked Threads Nicks or indentations in threads cal reaction, especially oxidation and solution by can occur during the manufacturing process organic acids; sometimes called a precious metal. and during fastener transportation. In general, [mat-1] nicked thread problems tend to increase as the thread diameter increases and for fine pitches. see Hypertext [soft] There are acceptance tests for nicked threads Nominal Diameter The diameter equal to the that involve measuring the maximum torque re- external diameter of the threads. [mech-3] quired to drive a GO gauge down the thread. Ex- amples of acceptance tests are SAE J123 and the noncrystalline the solid state wherein there is no Ford Motor specification WA990 1993. Nicks and long-range atomic order; sometimes the terms indentations in threads are sometimes referred to amorphous, glassy, and vitreous are used synony- as gouges. [mech-3] mously. [mat-1] NIHCL A class library for C++ - More informa- Noncrystalline the solid state wherein there is no tion. [soft] long-range atomic order. Sometimes used syn- onymously with the terms amorphous .[mech-1] NIH The US National Institutes of Health [soft] (NDT) a procedure for de- NII National Information Infrastructure (USA) termining the quality or characteristics of a ma- [soft] terial, part, or assembly without permanently al- tering it or its properties; examples include ultra- DRAFTsonic and radiographic inspection. [mat-1] CMI-MDP Programme 73

Nonpower reactor Reactors used for research, Nozzle As used in power water reactors and boiling training, and test purposes, and for the produc- water reactors, the interface (inlet and outlet) tion of radioisotopes for medical and industrial between reactor plant components (pressure ves- uses. [nuclear-1] sel, coolant pumps, steam generators, etc.) and their associated piping systems. [nuclear-1] nonsteady-state diffusion the diffusion condition for which there is some net accumulation or de- NQIC National Quality Information Centre of the pletion of diffusing species; the diffusion flux is IQA systems. [soft] dependent on time. [mat-1] NQS Batch processing software for UNIX systems. Non-stochastic effect The health effects of radi- [soft] ation, the severity of which vary with the dose and for which a threshold is believed to exist. NREN National Research and Education Network Radiation-induced cataract formation is an ex- (USA) [soft] ample of a non-stochastic effect (also called a NSAI National Stsndards Authority of Ireland. deterministic effect). [nuclear-1] [soft] Non-vital plant systems Systems at a nuclear fa- NSE Network Software Environment: a proprietary cility that may or may not be necessary for the CASE framework from Sun Microsystems. [soft] operation of the facility (i.e., power production) but that would have little or no effect on public NSF National Science Foundation (USA) [soft] health and safety should they fail. These systems are not safety related. [nuclear-1] NSRD National Software Reuse Directory. A di- rectory of reusable software in the ASSET sys- Normal form A relation in a relational database tem, now incorporated in the Asset Reuse Li- is said to be in normal form if it satisfies certain brary. [soft] constraints. Codd’s original work defined three such forms. [soft] NTIS National Technical Information Service of the US Department of Commerce. [soft] normalizing for ferrous alloys, austenitizing above the upper critical temperature, then cooling in NTP Network Time Protocol: a protocol built on air; the objective of this heat treatment is to en- top of TCP/IP that allows local to be syn- hance toughness by refining the grain size. [mat- chronised with reference clocks on the Internet . 1] [soft] Normal strain Strain measuring the intensity of Nuclear energy The energy liberated by a nuclear deformation along an axis. Normal strain is usu- reaction (fission or fusion) or by radioactive de- ally denoted by . Average normal strain between cay. [nuclear-1] two points is calculated as , where L is the orig- A powerful short-ranged attractive inal distance between the points, and L is the force that holds together the particles inside an change in that distance. Normal strain is often . [nuclear-1] simply called strain. [struc-1] Nuclear power plant An electrical generating fa- Normal stress Stress acting perpendicular to an cility using a nuclear reactor as its heat source to imaginary plane cutting through an object. Nor- provide steam to a turbine generator. [nuclear-1] mal stress has two [struc-1] Nuclear steam supply system The reactor and NoteCards An ambitious hypertext system devel- the reactor coolant pumps (and steam generators oped at Xerox PARC, ”designed to support the for a pressurized water reactor) and associated task of transforming a chaotic collection of un- piping in a nuclear power plant used to generate related into an integrated, orderly in- the steam needed to drive the turbine generator terpretation of ideas and their interconnections”. unit. [nuclear-1] [soft] Nuclear waste A particular type of radioactive Novell A proprietary local area network protocol waste that is produced as part of the nuclear fuel developed by Novell Netware for the intercon- cycle (i.e., those activities needed to produce nu- nection of PC s over Ethernet . [soft] clear fission, or splitting of the atom). These NOWEB A system of structured programming and include extraction of uranium from ore, concen- documentation from M.Speh in DESY. See Lit- tration of uranium, processing into nuclear fuel, erate Programming [soft] DRAFTand disposal of byproducts. Radioactive waste is CMI-MDP Programme 74

a broader term that includes all waste that con- made to ensure that the applied torque is inde- tains radioactivity. Residues from water treat- pendent of joint stiffness. Nyloc Nut [mech-3] ment, contaminated equipment from oil drilling, and tailings from the processing of metals such Nyloc Nut A torque prevailing nut that uses a as and copper also contain radioactiv- patented insert to provide a locking fea- ity but are not ”nuclear waste” because they are ture. The nylon insert, it is claimed, helps to produced outside of the nuclear fuel cycle. NRC seal the bolt thread against seepage of water, generally regulates only those wastes produced in oil, petrol, paraffin and other liquids. The nut the nuclear fuel cycle (uranium mill tailings, de- is covered by UK patent 8028437 and European pleted uranium, spent fuel rods, etc.). [nuclear- patent 81303450-1. Nyloc is a registered trade 1] name of Forest Fasteners. [mech-3] nucleation the initial stage in a phase transforma- tion; it is evidenced by the formation of small particles (nuclei) of the new phase which are ca- OPQ pable of growing. [mat-1] Nucleation the initial stage in a phase transforma- An early name for Java [soft] tion. It is evidenced by the formation of small particles (nuclei) of the new phase, which are ca- OATH Object-oriented Abstract Type , a pable of growing.[mech-1] class library from Texas Instruments [soft] Common name for a constituent particle A programming language developed by N. of the atomic nucleus. At present, applied to Wirth and J. Gutknecht as a successor to Modula protons and neutrons, but may include any other 2 [soft] particles found to exist in the nucleus. [nuclear- ObjectBroker A distributed object system from 1] DEC based on the CORBA standard. [soft] Nucleus The small, central, positively charged re- ObjectCenter A product offering similar facilities gion of an atom. Except for the nucleus of or- to CodeCenter language, plus class browsing fa- dinary hydrogen, which has only a proton, all cilities etc (formerly Saber-C++) - More infor- atomic nuclei contain both protons and neutrons. mation. [soft] The number of protons determines the total pos- itive charge or atomic number. This number Objecteering An Object Oriented design tool from is the same for all the atomic nuclei of a given Softeam, based on the Class Relation Methodol- chemical element. The total number of neutrons ogy, with C++ code generation [soft] and protons is called the mass number. [nuclear- 1] Object In object-oriented programming, an in- stance of a data structure defined according to Nuclide A general term referring to all known iso- the template provided by its class, and which topes, both stable (279) and unstable (about can respond to the messages defined by its class. 2,700), of the chemical elements. [nuclear-1] [soft] NURBS Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines, a tech- Objective C A Smalltalk -like extension of the C nique used in CAD [soft] language which provides the possibility to use object-oriented programming constructs [soft] Nut Dilation Under load, the wedging action of the threads causes dilation of the nut resulting Objective PASCAL An extension of the PASCAL in an increase in the minor diameter of the nut, language which provides the possibility to use and reducing the effective shear areas of both the object-oriented programming constructs. [soft] external and internal threads. [mech-3] Object management system In an IPSE , the Nu Thena A software vendor specialising in rapid system which maintains information about the prototyping tools for real-time hardware and system under development. [soft] software systems, collaborating with DAZIX . [soft] Object-oriented Applied to analysis, design and programming. The basic concept in this ap- NuThena See Nu-Thena [soft] proach is that of objects, which consist of data Nut Runner A torque control fastener tightening structures encapsulated with a set of routines, tool that is usually powered by . often called ”methods” which operate on the The design of the tool is suchDRAFT that attempts are data. Operations on the data must be performed CMI-MDP Programme 75

via these methods, which are common to all in- ODL Object Definition Language from ODMG . stances of objects of a particular class. Thus, the [soft] interface to objects is well defined, and allows the code implementing the methods to be changed so ODMG Object Data Management Group. A ven- long as the interface remains the same [soft] dor consortium developing standards for Object Data Definition and Manipulation Languages - Object-oriented database A system offering More information. [soft] DBMS facilities in an object-oriented environ- ment. [soft] ODP Open Distributed Processing. An ISO stan- dardisation activity. [soft] Object-oriented programming see object- oriented [soft] ODT Open Desktop. [soft] Objectworks An object-oriented development en- OEW Object Engineering Workbench. A design vironment developed by ParcPlace, available un- tool for C++ - More information. [soft] der Smalltalk . [soft] OFF Object File Format for interchange and archiv- OBST A persistent object management system de- ing of 3D objects, from Digital Equipment Cor- veloped by FZI Karlsruhe for the STONE [soft] poration [soft] Occam A programming language which facilitates OLE Object Linking and Embedding. A distributed writing parallel programs, allowing the program- object system from Microsoft [soft] mer to specify whether processes are to be exe- OLTP On-Line Transaction Processing: the pro- cuted sequentially or in parallel. Based on CSP cessing of transactions by computers in real time , it was originally developed for the Transputer . [soft] [soft] OMA Object Management Architecture: a set of OCLC Online Computer Library Center [soft] standards under study by OMG . [soft] OCR Optical Character Recognition: recognition of OMF Object Management Facility: part of the printed or written characters by computer [soft] DAA proposed by Hewlett-Packard and Sun. OCS Object Compatibility Standard: an 88open [soft] standard for compilers and linkers. [soft] OMF Open Model Forum for modelling and simu- Octagon Head A bolt or screw whose head cross lation tool standards - More information. [soft] section is a regular with 8 sides. [mech- OMG Object Management Group: a consortium 3] aimed at setting standards in object-oriented Octahedral position the void space among closed- programming, especially for distributed applica- packed, hard sphere atoms or ions for which tions [soft] there are six nearest neighbors. An OML Object Manipulation Language from ODMG (double ) is curcumscribed by lines con- . [soft] structed from centers of adjacent .[mech- 1] OML OPEN Modelling Language [soft] octahedral position the void space among close- OMT An object-oriented methodology . [soft] packed, hard sphere atoms or ions for which there are six nearest neighbors; an octahedron (dou- OMTool A graphical tool from General Electric ble pyramid) is circumscribed by the lines con- Advanced Concepts Center for design and anal- structed from centers of adjacent spheres. [mat- ysis of systems with the OMT methodology with 1] some C++/SQL code generation [soft] ODAC The ODA consortium. [soft] ONC Open Network Computing: Sun’s network protocols. [soft] ODA Open (formerly Office) Document Architec- ture: an ISO standard (8613) for describing doc- OnX A graphics package from LAL Orsay [soft] uments. It allows text, graphics, and facsimile OOA Object-oriented Analysis. [soft] documents to be transferred between different systems. [soft] OODBMS Object-oriented database management system. [soft] ODIF Open Document Interchange Format: part of the ODA standard. [soft] DRAFTOODL Object-oriented Dynamic Language. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 76

OOD Object-oriented Design. [soft] Operational mode In a nuclear power reactor, an operational mode corresponds to any one in- OO Object-oriented : for example Analysis clusive combination of core reactivity condition, (OOA), Design (OOD), Programming (OOP), power level, and average reactor coolant temper- Programming Language (OOPL), Data Bases ature. [nuclear-1] (OODBMS) etc. [soft] OQL Object Query Language from ODMG . [soft] OOPL Object-oriented programming language: a language such as C++ , Objective-C etc designed Oracle A vendor of database management systems: to support object-oriented programming. [soft] also their relational DBMS . [soft] OOP Object-oriented programming. [soft] Oracle Card A hypercard -like product from Ora- cle for constructing DB applications, running on OOPSLA Conference on Object-oriented Program- PC and Macintosh. [soft] ming Systems, Languages and Applications. [soft] Oracle [soft] OOSD Object-oriented structured design: a design Oracle Toolkit See Adaptable User Interface . [soft] method elaborated from structured design and incorporating the essential features of the object- ORB Object Request Broker: part of the OMG oriented approach. [soft] standard. [soft] Open Desktop A UNIX environment from SCO . ordering positioning of host and substitution ions (part of the ACE initiative). [soft] in an ordered, repetitious pattern rather than in a random arrangement. [mat-1] OpenDoc A compound document architecture from CIL based on CORBA . It aims to enable ore a natural mineral mined and treated for extrac- embedding of features from different applications tion of its components. [mat-1] into a single working document [soft] arrangements in space of the axes of a Open end pillaring - A method of mining pillars crystal lattice with respect to a coordinate sys- in which nostump is left; the pockets driven are tem. [mat-1] open on the gob side and theroof is supported by ORKID Open Real-time Kernel Interface Defini- timber.[mining-1] tion. [soft] OpenGL An emerging graphics standard providing OS/2 An operating system from IBM and Microsoft advanced rendering capabilities [soft] for the PS/2 range of microcomputers [soft] Open Inventor An object-oriented toolkit for de- OSA Open Scripting Architecture. A CIL approach veloping interactive 3D graphics applications. It to the coexistence of multiple scripting systems. also defines an ASCII file format for exchanging [soft] 3D data among applications, which is the basis for VRML [soft] OSE Open Systems Environment. [soft] Open Look A graphical user interface and window OSF Open Software Foundation. A foundation cre- manager from Sun and AT&T. [soft] ated by nine computer vendors, (Apollo, DEC, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Bull, Nixdorf, Philips, Open Software Foundation See OSF . [soft] Siemens and Hitachi) to promote ”Open Com- puting”. It is planned that common operating OpenWindows A server program for the Sun systems and interfaces, based on developments which handles SunView and X Window System of UNIX , the X Window System , etc. will be protocols. [soft] forthcoming for a wide range of different hard- Operable A system, subsystem, train, component, ware [soft] or device is operable or has operability when it is OSI Open Systems Interconnection: a seven-layer capable of performing its specified functions and reference model developed by ISO as a frame- when all necessary attendant instrumentation, work for the development of standards for inter- controls, electrical power, cooling or seal water, connecting heterogeneous computers [soft] , or other auxiliary equipment that are required for the system, subsystem, train, OSTC Open Systems Testing Consortium. An open component, or device to perform its functions are organisation operating harmonised conformance also capable of performing their related support testing services for OSI telecommunications and functions. [nuclear-1] DRAFTIT protocols. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 77

OTI Open Tool Interface. [soft] Panic bar - A switch, in the shape of a bar, used to cutoff power at the machine in case of an Outby; outbye - Nearer to the shaft, and hence emergency.[mining-1] farther fromthe working face. Toward the mine entrance. The opposite of inby.[mining-1] Pansophic A Software Engineering company in the US. [soft] Outcrop Coal that appears at or near the surface.[mining-1] PLUS A configurable object- oriented CASE tool from Proto Soft Inc. - More outgassing gaseous emission or de-aeration of a ma- information. [soft] terial. [mat-1] a relatively weak form of mag- Overburden Layers of soil and rock covering a netism that results from the independent align- coalseam. Overburden is removed prior to sur- ment of atomic dipoles (magnetic) with an ap- face mining and replaced afterthe coal is taken plied magnetic field.[mech-1] from the seam.[mining-1] paramagnetism property of a material that, when Overcast (undercast) - Enclosed airway which placed in a magnetic field, is magnetized parallel permits oneair current to pass over (under) an- to the field to an extent proportional to the field; other without interruption.[mining-1] this does not apply at very low temperatures or Overtapping Tapping of a thread following a plat- in extremely large magnetic fields. [mat-1] ing operation so that the thread tolerances com- PaRC A cluster for engineering com- ply within specification allowing the internal and puting at CERN [soft] external threads to assemble. It is normal prac- tice to overtap the internal rather than the ex- PARC See Xerox PARC . [soft] ternal thread. [mech-3] Parent A radionuclide that upon radioactive de- OVL Object Verification Language from ODMG . cay or disintegration yields a specific nuclide (the [soft] daughter). [nuclear-1] OWL A software company offering the Guide hy- Parlog++ An object-oriented extension to Mac- pertext system . [soft] Parlog. It combines object-oriented and parallel logic programming , giving the benefits of both oxidation a reaction in which there is an increase in within a single coherent development valence resulting from a loss of electrons; often environment. [soft] associated with the corrosion of metals, where the corroded metal forms an oxide; elevated tem- Parser A function that recognizes valid sentences of peratures increase the rate of oxidation. [mat-1] a language by analysing the syntax structure of a set of tokens passed to it from a lexical analyzer. P2P Person to Person. A range of desktop confer- [soft] encing products from IBM [soft] Parting - (1) A small joint in coal or rock; (2) a PACS Public Access Computer Systems. [soft] layer ofrock in a coal seam; (3) a side track or Page Description Language A language such as turnout in a haulageroad.[mining-1] Adobe PostScript or Xerox Interpress which al- Parts per million (ppm) Parts (molecules) of a low the appearance of a printed page to be de- substance contained in a million parts of another scribed in a high-level device-independent way. substance (e.g., water). [nuclear-1] then becomes a two-stage process: an application produces a description in the lan- Pascal A programming language designed by guage, which is then interpreted by a specific N.Wirth for teaching purposes, emphasising output device. Such a language can serve as an structured programming constructs, data struc- interchange standard for transmission and stor- tures and strong typing. [soft] age of printable documents - More information. [soft] PATCHY A FORTRAN code management pro- gram written at CERN . [soft] Panda An Internet navigation and information re- trieval system from the University of Iowa [soft] Pattern A formal way to describe a solution to a commonly recurring programming problem [soft] Panel - A coal mining block that generally com- prises oneoperating unit.[mining-1] PAW++ An extended version of PAW with a Motif DRAFThuman interface. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 78

PAW Physics Analysis Workbench - general pur- Pellet, fuel As used in pressurized water reactors pose portable tool for analysis and presentation and boiling water reactors, a pellet is a small of physics data [soft] cylinder approximately 3/8-inch in diameter and 5/8-inch in length, consisting of uranium fuel in PCA A dynamic analyser from DEC giving infor- a ceramic form–, UO2 . Typical mation on run time performance and code utili- fuel pellet enrichments in nuclear power reactors sation. [soft] range from 2.0 percent to 3.5 percent uranium- P-CAD A CAE system marketed by CADAM, an 235. [nuclear-1] IBM company. [soft] PEM Privacy Enhanced Mail. An Internet stan- PCL Portable Common LOOPS . A portable CLOS dard (RFC 1421-1424). [soft] implementation. [soft] PEP Protocol Extension Protocol. A proposed sys- PCL Printer Control Language (from Hewlett tem to allow HTTP clients and servers to nego- Packard). [soft] tiate protocol extensions. [soft] PC Personal Computer . [soft] Percentage extraction - The proportion of a coal seam whichis removed from the mine. The PCTE+ A European NATO specification based on remainder may represent coal in pillarsor coal PCTE with security enhancements. [soft] which is too thin or inferior to mine or lost in- mining. Shallow coal mines working under town- PCTE Portable Common Tool Environment: an , , etc.,may extract 50 ECMA standard framework for software tools de- veloped in the Esprit programme. It is based on Perceptron This term is sometimes used to refer to an entity-relationship Object Management Sys- a single McCulloch-Pitts neuron, but may also tem and defines the way in which tools access refer to a network of neurons in which the out- this [soft] put(s) of some neurons are connected through weighted connections to the input(s) of other PCX A bitmap format from Zsoft [soft] neurons. The term multilayer perceptron specif- PDDM Product Data and Document Management. ically refers to a network composed of more than [soft] one layer of neurons, with some or all of the out- puts of each layer connected to one or more of PDF Portable Document Format from Adobe Sys- the inputs of another layer. The first layer is tems - More information. [soft] called the input layer, the one is the output layer, and in between there may be one or more PDL Page Description Language . [soft] hidden layers. [soft] PDL Program Design Language. [soft] Percussion drill - A drill, usually air powered, PDM Product Data Management. An integrated thatdelivers its energy through a pounding or system for managing all types of technical data hammering action.[mining-1] concerning a product. [soft] Performance-based regulation Required results PDSA cycle Plan, Do, See, Approve (from Japan). or outcome of performance rather than a [soft] prescriptive process, technique, or procedure. [nuclear-1] PDS Planetary Data Systems format from - More information. [soft] Performance-based regulatory action Licensee attainment of defined objectives and results Pearlite a two-phase microstructure found in some without detailed direction from the NRC on how steels and cast irons. It results from the trans- these results are to be obtained. (See the Com- formation of austenite of eutectoidcompositions munication Plan for Performance-Based Regula- and consists of alternating layers of alpha-ferrite tion by using accession number ML021120533 in and cementite.[mech-1] ADAMS ¡/reading-rm/adams.html¿.) [nuclear- 1] Peat The partially decayed plant matter found in swamps andbogs, one of the earliest stages of coal Periodic table An arrangement of chemical ele- formation.[mining-1] ments in order of increasing atomic number. El- ements of similar properties are placed one under Peierls stress the stress required to move a dislo- the other, yielding groups or families of elements. cation. [mat-1] Within each group, there is a variation of chemi- DRAFTcal and physical properties, but in general, there CMI-MDP Programme 79

is a of chemical behavior within each pewter tin-base white metal containing group. [nuclear-1] and copper; 1 to 8% Sb and 0.25to 3% Cu. [mat- 1] peritectic an isothermal in met- als where a liquid phase reacts with a solid phase PEX (PHIGS Extension to X) Extension to the X to produce a single (and different) solid phase Window System providing 3-D graphics support. upon cooling. [mat-1] [soft] Peritectic[mech-1] PGP Pretty Good Privacy. A set of encryption tools for electronic mail etc. [soft] peritectoid an isothermal reversible reaction where a solid phase reacts with a second solid phase to Phase a homogeneous region of matter.[mech-1] produce a single (and different) solid phase upon cooling. [mat-1] phase a portion of a material system whose proper- ties and composition are homogeneous and which Peritectoid[mech-1] is physically distinct from other parts of the sys- tem. [mat-1] Perl Practical Extraction and Report Language. An interpreted scripting language for scanning Phase Diagram a graphical representation of the text files, extracting information, and printing relationships between environmental constraints, reports. It combines features of c , sed , awk and composition, and regions of phase stability, ordi- sh [soft] narily under conditions of equilibrium.[mech-1] permeability (1) passage or diffusion of a gas, va- phase diagram graphical representation of the por, liquid, or solid through a material without temperature and composition limits of phase physically or chemically affecting it; (2) term fields in an alloy or ceramic system; it can used to express various relationships between be an equilibrium diagram, approximation to magnetic induction and magnetizing force; ei- an equilibrium diagram, or a representation of ther absolute permeability or specific (relative) metastable conditions or phases. [mat-1] permeability. [mat-1] this states that the maximum number Permissible - That which is allowable or permit- of phases (P ) that may coexist at equilibrium is ted. It ismost widely applied to mine equipment two plus the number of components (C) in the and explosives of all kindswhich are similar in all mixture minus the number of degrees of freedom respects to samples that have passed certaintests (F): P+F=C+2. [mat-1] of the MSHA and can be used with safety in ac- cordance withspecified conditions where hazards Phase Transformation a change in the number from explosive gas or coal dustexist.[mining-1] and/or character of the phases that constitute the microstructure of an alloy.[mech-1] Permit As it pertains to mining, a document is- sued by aregulatory agency that gives approval phase transformation changes that can occur for mining operations to takeplace.[mining-1] within a given material system; how one or more phases in an alloy change into a new phase or Permittivity the proportionality constant between mixture of phases; transformation occurs be- the dielectric displacement D and the electric cause the initial state of the alloy is unstable rel- field E.[mech-1] ative to the final state; at constant temperature and pressure the relative stability of a system is Personal Computer A general-purpose single-user determined by its Gibbs free energy. [mat-1] microcomputer designed to be operated by one person at a time. [soft] PHIGS Programmers Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System: an ANSI/ISO standard. [soft] Personnel monitoring The use of portable sur- vey meters to determine the amount of radioac- a single of vibrational or elastic tive contamination on individuals, or the use of energy.[mech-1] dosimetry to determine an individual’s occupa- tional radiation dose. [nuclear-1] science of replicating complex circuitry onto the surface of a specimen. [mat-1] Petri net A graphical representation of concurrent systems in terms of tokens, places and transition A quantum (or packet) of energy emit- bars [soft] ted in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Gamma rays and x-rays are examples of photons. DRAFT[nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 80

Photon a quantum unit of electromagnetic Pillar robbing - The systematic removal of the energy.[mech-1] coal pillarsbetween rooms or chambers to reg- ulate the subsidence of the roof. Alsotermed pH the negative of hydrogen-ion activ- ”bridging back” the pillar, ”drawing” the pillar, ity denoting the degree of acidity or basicity of or ”pulling”the pillar.[mining-1] a solution; at 25 degrees C 7.0 (on a scale of 0 to 14) is the neutral value, with decreasing val- PIM Product Information Management. See PDM ues below 7.0 indicating increasing acidity, and [soft] increasing values above 7.0 indicating increasing basicity. [mat-1] Pinch A compression of the roof and floor of a coal seam soas to ”squeeze” out the coal.[mining-1] pickling the chemical removal of surface oxides and other contaminants from a material by immer- Pinch - A compression of the walls of a vein or the sion in an aqueous acid solution; sulfuric and hy- roofand floor of a coal seam so as to ”squeeze” drochloric acids are common pickling solutions. out the coal.[mining-1] [mat-1] Pin connection In two dimensions, a pin connec- Pico- A prefix that divides a basic unit by one tril- tion restrains two translation degrees of freedom lion (10−12 ). [nuclear-1] but does not restrain rotation. Since the rota- tion degree of freedom is unrestrained at a pin Picocurie One trillionth (10−12 ) of a curie. connection, it transfers no moment. [struc-1] [nuclear-1] PinK PinK is not KUIP . An interface between Tcl PICS Platform for Internet Content Selection. , BLT, ADAMO from DESY [soft] [soft] Pinning - Roof bolting.[mining-1] Piezoelectric a dielectric material in which polar- ization is induced by the application of external Pin support In two dimensions, a pin support re- forces.[mech-1] strains two translation degrees of freedom but does not restrain rotation. When considering re- elastic strain caused when an elec- action forces, a pin support is usually considered trical current is applied to a piezoelectric mate- to have two force components [struc-1] rial and conversely, an electric current produced when pressure is applied to a piezoelectric mate- Pitch - The inclination of a seam; the rise of a rial; these materials exhibit the crys- seam.[mining-1] tal structure. [mat-1] Pitch The nominal distance between two adjacent Pig A colloquial term describing a container (usu- thread roots or crests. [mech-3] ally lead or depleted uranium) used to ship or Plan - A map showing features such as mine store radioactive materials. The thick walls of workings orgeological structures on a horizontal this shielding device protect the person handling plane.[mining-1] the container from radiation. Large containers used for spent fuel storage are commonly called Planck’s Constant a universal constant that has casks. [nuclear-1] a value of 6.63 x 10-34 J.[mech-1] pig a metal casting used in remelting. [mat-1] plane strain thin plate and ω = 0; 2D strain / 3D stress. [mat-1] Piggy-back - A bridge conveyor.[mining-1] plane stress thick sections; 2D stress / 3D strain. PII Process Improvement Institute [soft] [mat-1] Pile A colloquial term describing the first nuclear Planned special exposure An infrequent expo- reactors. They are called piles because the earli- sure to radiation, separate from and in addition est reactors were ”piles” of graphite and uranium to the annual dose limits . [nuclear-1] blocks. [nuclear-1] Plastic a solid material in the primary ingredient Piles Term used in structural engineering for the of which is an organic polymer of high molecular joint plates. [mech-3] wight.[mech-1] Pillar - An area of coal left to support the overly- Plastic Deformation deformation that is perma- ingstrata in a mine; sometimes left permanently nent or nonrecoverable after release of the ap- to support surfacestructures.DRAFT [mining-1] plied load.[mech-1] CMI-MDP Programme 81 plastic deformation the permanent (inelastic) dis- Poisson’s ratio the ratio of the transverse contract- tortion of a material under an applied stress that ing strain to the longitudinal elongational strain strains the material beyond its elastic limit; the when a tensile stress is applied to a material. ability of a material to be permanently deformed [mat-1] without fracture. [mat-1] polarization displacement of the centers of positive Plasticizer a low molecular weight polymer addi- and negative charge. [mat-1] tive that enhances flexibility and workability and reduces stiffness and brittleness.[mech-1] Polarization (electronic) for an atom, the dis- placement of the center of the negatively charged Plastic see inelastic. [struc-1] electron relative to the positive nucleus, which is induced by an electric field.[mech-1] plating forming an adherent layer of metal on an object; often used as a shop term for electroplat- Polarization (ionic) polarization as a result of the ing. [mat-1] displacement of anions and cations in opposite directions.[mech-1] Plausible accidents Postulated events that meet a probability test rather than the more chal- Polarization (orientation) polarization resulting lenging test represented by a design-basis event. from the alignment (by rotation) of permanent [nuclear-1] electric dipole moments with an applied electric field.[mech-1] Plexus A set of modular WWW server software written in Perl [soft] Polar Molecule a molecule in which there exists a permanent by virtue of Plutonium (Pu) A heavy, radioactive, manmade the asymmetrical distribution of positively and metallic element with atomic number 94. Its negatively charged regions.[mech-1] most important isotope is fissile plutonium-239, which is produced by neutron irradiation of Polycrystalline referring to crystalline materials uranium-238. It exists in only trace amounts in that are composed of more than one crystal or nature. [nuclear-1] grain.[mech-1] Ply A single thickness of steel forming part of a polyimide thermosetting ring chain polymer char- structural joint. [mech-3] acterized by -NH group; it’s increasingly used as in high performance circuits. [mat-1] PMM Process Maturity Model. [soft] Polymer a solid, nonmetallic (normally organic) Pneumoconiosis - A chronic of the compound of high molecular weight the struc- arising frombreathing coal dust.[mining-1] ture of which is composed of small repeat (or PNG Portable Network Graphics. A standard for mer) units.[mech-1] bitmapped image files - More information. [soft] polymorphism different crystal structures at dif- Pocket dosimeter A small ionization detection in- ferent temperatures or for a single com- strument that indicates ionizing radiation expo- pound. [mat-1] sure directly. An auxiliary charging device is Polymorphism In object-oriented programming, usually necessary. [nuclear-1] the term is used to describe variables which may Point Defect a crystalline defect associated with refer at run-time to objects of different classes. one or, at most, several atomic sites.[mech-1] For example, the variable ”myVehicle” could re- fer to an object of class ”motorCar” or ””. , neutron In reactor physics, a material [soft] other than fissionable material in the vicinity of the reactor core that will absorb neutrons. Polymorphism the ability of a solid material The addition of poisons, such as control rods or to exist in more than one form or crystal boron, into the reactor is said to be an addition structure.[mech-1] of negative reactivity. [nuclear-1] Pooching Pooching is a term sometimes used to Poisson’s Ratio for elastic deformation, the nega- describe the effect of the area immediately sur- tive ratio of lateral and axial strains that result rounding a tapped hole being raised up as a re- from an applied axial stress.[mech-1] sult of the tension from the stud. Tapped holes are often bored out for the first couple of threads DRAFTto eliminate this problem. [mech-3] CMI-MDP Programme 82

Pool reactor A reactor in which the fuel elements Power coefficient of reactivity The change in are suspended in a pool of water that serves as reactivity per percent change in power. The the reflector, moderator, and coolant. Popularly power coefficient is the summation of the mod- called a ”swimming pool reactor,” it is used for erator temperature coefficient of reactivity, the research and training, not for electrical genera- fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity, and the tion. [nuclear-1] void coefficient of reactivity. [nuclear-1] porosity fine holes, voids, interstitials, or open Power defect The total amount of reactivity added spaces between grains or trapped in grains of a due to a given change in power. It can also be material’s microstructure. [mat-1] expressed as the integrated power coefficient over the range of the power change. [nuclear-1] Portal bus - Track-mounted, self-propelled person- nelcarrier that holds 8 to 12 people.[mining-1] Power reactor A reactor designed to produce heat for electric generation (as distinguished from re- Portal - The structure surrounding the immedi- actors used for research), for producing radiation ate entranceto a mine; the mouth of an adit or or fissionable materials or for reactor component tunnel.[mining-1] testing. [nuclear-1] [mech-1] PPP Point to Point Protocol. [soft] Positron Particle equal in mass but opposite in charge to the electron. A positive electron. PPTP Point to Point Tunneling Protocol. [soft] [nuclear-1] Pragma A standardised form of kluge in Ada . [soft] POSIX Portable Operating System Interface for Precipitation hardening and computer environments. A set of IEEE stan- strengthening of a metal alloy by extremely small dards designed to provide application portabil- and uniformly dispersed particles that precipi- ity. IEEE1003.1 defines a UNIX -like operating tate from a supersaturated solid solution.[mech- system interface, 1003.2 the shell and utilities, 1] and 1003.4 real-time extensions. [soft] increase the hardness of Possession-only license A form of license that al- a supersaturated solid solution by lows possession but not operation. [nuclear-1] it to cause a second phase to precipitate out; co- POSS Persistent Object Service Specification: an herency of the precipitate/matrix interface and OMG specification. [soft] how well the two lattices match up greatly influ- ence the effect of precipitate. [mat-1] POSTGRES An active DBMS from Univ. of Calif. Berkeley. [soft] precipitation heat treatment artificial aging of metals in which a constituent precipitates from Postscript A page description language from a supersaturated solid solution. [mat-1] Adobe Systems Inc. Its primary application is to describe the appearance of text, graphical precipitation in metals, the separation of a new shapes and sampled images on printed or dis- phase from solid or liquid solution, usually with played pages. A program in PostScript can com- changing conditions of temperature, pressure, or municate a document description from a compo- both. [mat-1] sition system to a printing system in a device- independent way. Many printers now interpret Predicate A notation for representing PostScript directly [soft] logical statements which goes beyond proposi- tional calculus in certain ways. [soft] Post - The vertical member of a timber set.[mining- 1] Preload The tension created in a fastener when first tightened. Reduces after a period of time Potential Energy The energy stored in a raised due to embedding and other factors. [mech-3] object (e.g. the weights in a ). Potential energy equals mgh, where m is mass, g PREMO Presentation Environment for Multime- is the acceleration of gravity, and h is the vertical dia Objects. An ISO standard under develop- distance from a reference location. It is called ment for creation, presentation and interaction potential energy because the energy can be re- with information using single or multiple media gained when the object is lowered. This type [soft] of potential energy is sometimes called gravita- Preparation plant - A place where coal is cleaned, tional potential energy in order to distinguish it sized,and prepared for market.[mining-1] from elastic potential energyDRAFT [struc-1] CMI-MDP Programme 83

Prepreg continuous fiber reinforcement pre- (3) What are the consequences? NRC identi- impregnated with a polymer resin which is then fies important scenarios from such an assessment. partially cured.[mech-1] [nuclear-1] Presentation Manager The user interface to the ProDoc A set of tools for software documentation OS/2 system. [soft] from SPC [soft] Pressure Pressure is a similar idea to stress, the Production expense Production expenses are a force intensity at a point, except that pressure component of generation expenses that includes means something acting on the surface of an ob- costs associated with operation, maintenance, ject rather than within the material of the object. and fuel. [nuclear-1] When discussing the pressure within a fluid, the Project assurance The process of specifying the meaning is equivalent to stress. [struc-1] support system: techniques, internal standards, Pressure vessel A strong-walled container housing measurements, tools, and training for a project; the core of most types of power reactors. It usu- counseling the project team in the application of ally also contains the moderator, neutron reflec- these elements and monitoring the adherence to tor, thermal shield, and control rods. [nuclear-1] the standards. [soft] Pressurized water reactor (PWR) A power re- Project management The process of planning, or- actor in which heat is transferred from the core to ganizing, staffing, directing, and controlling the an exchanger by high temperature water kept un- production of a system. Software tools are avail- der high pressure in the primary system. Steam able to help with this [soft] is generated in a secondary circuit. Many re- Project planning See Project management . [soft] actors producing are pressurized water reactors. [nuclear-1] PROLOG A language for PROgramming in LOGic. [soft] Pressurizer A or vessel that acts as a head tank (or surge volume) to control the pressure in A high-level programming language a pressurized water reactor. [nuclear-1] designed for logic, mathematics, and artificial in- telligence. It contains elements from C, Pascal, Prevailing Torque The torque required to run LISP and Prolog plus novel features [soft] a nut down a thread on certain types of nuts designed to resist vibration loosening. The re- Proof Load The proof load of a nut is the axi- sistance can be provided by a plastic insert or a ally applied load the nut must withstand with- noncircular head. [mech-3] out thread stripping or rupture. The proof load of a bolt, screw or stud is the specified load the Primary Bond interatomic bonds that are rela- product must withstand without permanent set. tively strong and for which bonding energies are [mech-3] relatively large.Proportional Limit[mech-1] Prop - Coal mining term for any single post used Primary roof - The main roof above the immediate as roofsupport. Props may be timber or steel; if top. Itsthickness may vary from a few to several steel–screwed, yieldable,or hydraulic.[mining-1] thousand feet.[mining-1] Property Class A designation system which de- Primary system A term that may be used for re- fines the strength of a bolt or nut. For metric fas- ferring to the reactor coolant system. [nuclear-1] teners, property classes are designated by num- Primer (booster) - A package or cartridge of ex- bers where increasing numbers generally repre- plosivewhich is designed specifically to transmit sent increasing tensile strengths. The designa- detonation to otherexplosives and which does not tion symbol for bolts consists of two parts: 1. contain a detonator.[mining-1] The first numeral of a two digit symbol or the first two numerals of a three digit symbol approx- Probabilistic risk analysis A systematic method imates 1/100 of the minimum tensile strength in for addressing the risk triplet as it relates to MPa. 2. The last numeral approximates 1/10 of the performance of a to under- the ratio expressed as a percentage between min- stand likely outcomes, sensitivities, areas of im- imum yield stress and minimum tensile stress. portance, system interactions, and areas of un- Hence a fastener with a property class of 8.8 has . The risk triplet is the set of three ques- a minimum tensile strength of 800 MPa and a tions that the NRC uses to define ?risk?: (1) yield stress of 0.8x800=640 MPa. The designa- What can go wrong? (2) How likely is it? and tion system for metric nuts is a single or double DRAFTdigit symbol. The numerals approximate 1/100 CMI-MDP Programme 84

of the minimum tensile strength in MPa. For ex- PSA Problem Statement Analyzer: see PSL/PSA . ample a nut of property class 8 has a minimum [soft] tensile strength of 800 MPa. A bolt or screw Pseudocode A notation resembling a programming of a particular property class should be assem- language but not intended for actual compila- bled with the equivalent or higher property class tion. It usually combines some of the struc- of nut to ensure that thread stripping does not ture of a programming language with an infor- occur. [mech-3] mal natural-language description of the compu- Proportional counter A radiation instrument in tations to be carried out. It is often produced by which an electronic detection system receives CASE systems as a basis for later hand coding. pulses that are proportional to the number of [soft] ions formed in a gas-filled tube by ionizing radi- ation. [nuclear-1] PSL Problem Statement Language: see PSL/PSA . [soft] Propositional calculus A system of symbolic logic. [soft] PSL Problem Statement Language: see PSL/PSA . [soft] Proprietary information Privately owned knowl- edge or data, such as that protected by a regis- PSL/PSA Problem Statement Language/Problem tered patent, copyright, or trademark. [nuclear- Statement Analyser: a CASE system developed 1] by D.Teichroew. It allows computer-based devel- opment and analysis of a statement of require- PROST Programme for Research in Open Systems ments, and assistance during the design phase. Testing of the DTI [soft] [soft] Protocol An agreement about how to transmit PS PostScript . [soft] data, especially across networks. Low level pro- tocols define the electrical and physical stan- PSP Personal Software Process. Methods to im- dards to be observed, and deal with the transmis- prove the quality of work of software engineers. sion and error detection and correction of the bit [soft] stream. High level protocols deal with the data PTI Portable Tool Interface: a standard such as formatting, including the form of messages, the PCTE , allowing interworking between different terminal to computer dialogue, files, etc. [soft] software tools via defined interfaces to the user Proton An elementary nuclear particle with a pos- and to the repository or object management sys- itive electric charge located in the nucleus of an tem. [soft] atom. [nuclear-1] p-type Semiconductor a semiconductor for which Prototyper An interface builder for the Macintosh the predominant charge carriers responsible for from Smethers Barnes . [soft] electrical conduction are holes. Normally, ac- ceptor impurity atoms give rise to the excess Prototyping The creation of a model and the sim- holes.[mech-1] ulation of all aspects of a product. CASE tools support different degrees of prototyping. Some PureLink An incremental linker from Pure Soft- offer the end-user the ability to review all aspects ware [soft] of the user interface and the structure of docu- Purify A debugging tool from Pure Software [soft] mentation and reports before code is generated. [soft] PURL Persistent URL . Instead of pointing directly to the location of an Internet resource, a PURL Proximate analysis - A physical, or non-chemical, points to a resolution service that associates the test ofthe constitution of coal. Not precise, but PURL with the actual URL and returns that very useful for determiningthe commercial value. URL to the client. See the OCLC PURL Ser- Using the same sample (1 gram) under con- vice . [soft] trolledheating at fixed temperatures and time pe- riods, moisture, volatilematter, fixed carbon and PV WAVE Interactive scientific visualisation soft- ash content are successfullydetermined. Sulfur ware from Visual Numerics - More information. and Btu content are also generally reported with [soft] aproximate analysis.[mining-1] - A hard, heavy, shiny, yellow mineral, FeS2 Prying The amplification of an external force act- or irondisulfide, generally in cubic crystals. Also ing on a bolt by a lever action which can oc- called iron pyrites,fool’s gold, sulfur balls. Iron cur when that force is an eccentric tensile load. pyrite is the most common sulfidefound in coal [mech-3] DRAFTmines.[mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 85

QAM Quality Assurance Management. [soft] Radiation shielding Reduction of radiation by in- terposing a shield of absorbing material between QA Quality Assurance. [soft] any radioactive source and a person, work area, QBE A query language. [soft] or radiation-sensitive device. [nuclear-1] QIP Quality Improvement Paradigm. [soft] Radiation sickness (syndrome) The complex of symptoms characterizing the disease known as Quality factor The factor by which the absorbed radiation , resulting from excessive expo- dose (rad or gray) is to be multiplied to obtain sure (greater than 200 rads or 2 gray) of the a quantity that expresses, on a common scale whole body (or large part) to ionizing radiation. for all ionizing radiation, the biological damage The earliest of these symptoms are nausea, fa- (rem or sievert) to an exposed individual. It is tigue, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be fol- used because some types of radiation, such as lowed by loss of hair (epilation), hemorrhage, in- alpha particles, are more biologically damaging flammation of the mouth and throat, and general internally than other types. [nuclear-1] loss of energy. In severe cases, where the radia- tion exposure has been approximately 1000 rad Quantify A performance analysis tool from Pure (10 gray) or more, death may occur within two Software [soft] to four . Those who survive six weeks af- Quantum theory The concept that energy is ra- ter the receipt of a single large dose of radiation diated intermittently in units of definite magni- to the whole body may generally be expected to tude, called quanta, and absorbed in a like man- recover. [nuclear-1] ner. [nuclear-1] Radiation source Usually a sealed source of radi- ation used in teletherapy and industrial radiog- quench rapidly cool a material; typically done to re- raphy, as a power source for batteries (as in use tain a structure at room temperature that other- in space craft), or in various types of industrial wise is only stable at high temperature. [mat-1] gauges. Machines, such as accelerators and ra- Query language A language such as SQL whereby dioisotope generators, and natural users of a database system can interactively for- may be considered sources. [nuclear-1] mulate requests, generate reports etc. [soft] Radiation standards Exposure standards, per- missible concentrations, rules for safe handling, regulations for transportation, regulations for in- RST dustrial control of radiation, and control of ra- dioactive material by legislative means. [nuclear- 1] Racking The distortion of a rectangular shape to a Radiation warning symbol An officially pre- skewed . [struc-1] scribed symbol (a magenta or black trefoil) on a Radiation area Any area with radiation levels yellow background that must be displayed where greater than 5 millirems (0.05 millisievert) in one certain quantities of radioactive materials are hour at 30 centimeters from the source or from present or where certain doses of radiation could any surface through which the radiation pene- be received. [nuclear-1] trates. [nuclear-1] Radioactive contamination Deposition of ra- Radiation detection instrument A device that dioactive material in any place where it may detects and displays the characteristics of ioniz- harm persons or equipment. [nuclear-1] ing radiation. [nuclear-1] Radioactive decay Large unstable atoms can be- Radiation (ionizing radiation) Alpha parti- come more stable by emitting radiation. This cles, beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, neu- process is called radioactive decay. This radia- trons, high-speed electrons, high-speed protons, tion can be emitted in the form of a positively and other particles capable of producing ions. charged alpha particle, a negatively charged beta [nuclear-1] particle, or gamma rays or x-rays. Radioactive Decay of an Atom [nuclear-1] Radiation, nuclear Particles (alpha, beta, neu- trons) or photons (gamma) emitted from the nu- Radioactive series A succession of , each cleus of unstable radioactive atoms as a result of of which transforms by radioactive disintegra- radioactive decay. [nuclear-1] tion into the next until a stable nuclide results. The first member is called the parent, the inter- DRAFTmediate members are called daughters, and the CMI-MDP Programme 86

final stable member is called the end product. Radon (Rn) A radioactive element that is one of [nuclear-1] the heaviest gases known. Its atomic number is 86. It is a daughter of radium. [nuclear-1] radioactivity spontaneous decay of some isotopes in nuclei. [mat-1] RAD Rapid Application Development. Often ap- Radioactivity The spontaneous emission of radia- plied to tools such as Microsoft Visual Basic , tion, generally alpha or beta particles, often ac- Borland Delphi, Oracle Power Objects. [soft] companied by gamma rays, from the nucleus of Rad The special unit for radiation absorbed dose, an unstable isotope. Also, the rate at which ra- which is the amount of energy from any type dioactive material emits radiation. Measured in of ionizing radiation (e.g., alpha, beta, gamma, units of becquerels or disintegrations per second. neutrons, etc.) deposited in any medium (e.g., Radioactive Decay of an Atom [nuclear-1] water, tissue, air). A dose of one rad means the radiography nondestructive method of internal ex- absorption of 100 (a small but measurable amination in which metal objects are exposed to amount of energy) per gram of absorbing tissue a beam of X-ray or gamma radiation; differences (100 rad = 1 gray). [nuclear-1] in thickness, density, or absorption caused by in- RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A ternal defects or inclusions are apparent in the technique. [soft] shadow image produced on a fluorescent screen or photographic film placed behind the object. Raise - A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, [mat-1] verticalor near-vertical opening driven upward form a level to connect withthe level above, or Radiography The making of a shadow image on to explore the ground for a limited distance photographic film by the action of ionizing radi- aboveone level.[mining-1] ation. [nuclear-1] Radioisotope An unstable isotope of an element RAL Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) [soft] that decays or disintegrates spontaneously, emit- Ramp - A secondary or tertiary inclined opening, ting radiation. Approximately 5,000 natural driven toconnect levels, usually driven in a down- and artificial radioisotopes have been identified. ward direction, and used forhaulage.[mining-1] [nuclear-1] Random Copolymer a polymer in which two dif- Radiological survey The evaluation of the radia- ferent mer units are randomly distributed along tion hazards accompanying the production, use, the molecular chain.[mech-1] or existence of radioactive materials under a spe- cific set of conditions. Such evaluation custom- Ranks of coal The classification of coal by degree arily includes a physical survey of the disposi- ofhardness, moisture and heat content. ”An- tion of materials and equipment, measurements thracite” is hard coal, almostpure carbon, used or estimates of the levels of radiation that may mainly for heating homes. ”Bituminous” is soft- be involved, and a sufficient knowledge of pro- coal. It is the most common coal found in the cesses affecting these materials to predict haz- United States and isused to generate electricity ards resulting from expected or possible changes and to make coke for the steelindustry. ”Subbi- in materials or equipment. [nuclear-1] tuminous” is a coal with a heating value between- Radiology That branch of dealing with bituminous and lignite. It has low fixed carbon the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ra- and high percentagesof volatile matter and mois- diant energy, including x-rays and radioisotopes. ture. ”Lignite” is the softest coal and hasthe [nuclear-1] highest moisture content. It is used for gener- ating electricityand for conversion into synthetic Radionuclide A radioisotope. [nuclear-1] gas. In terms of Btu or ”heating”content, an- Radiosensitivity The relative susceptibility of thracite has the highest value, followed by bitu- cells, tissues, organs, , or other sub- minous,subbituminous and lignite.[mining-1] stances to the injurious action of radiation. RARE Reseaux Associes pour la Recherche Eu- [nuclear-1] ropeenne: an association of national and inter- Radium (Ra) A radioactive metallic element with national European networks and users - More atomic number 88. As found in nature, the most information. [soft] common isotope has a mass number of 226. It RBSE Repository Based Software Engineering. A occurs in quantities associated with ura- NASA research and development programme nium in pitchblende, camotite, and other miner- [soft] als. [nuclear-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 87

RCS A code management system. [soft] underway as soon as the coal has been removed- from a mine site. The process includes restoring RDBA Remote Database Access: a standard per- the land to itsapproximate original appearance mitting the exchange of information between dif- by restoring topsoil and plantingnative grasses ferent DBMS systems. [soft] and ground covers.[mining-1] Rdb DEC’s SQL-based relational DBMS for Recovery - The proportion or percentage of VAX/VMS. [soft] coal or oremined from the original seam or RDBMS Relational database management system. deposit.[mining-1] [soft] Recrystallization the formation of a new set Reaction Any process involving a chemical or nu- of strain-free grains within a previously cold- clear change. [nuclear-1] worked material; normally an annealing heat treatment is necessary.[mech-1] Reaction A reaction is a force exerted by a support on an object [struc-1] dog - A nonvolatile combustion product of the oxidationof coal or coal refuse. Most commonly Reactivity A term expressing the departure of a re- applied to material resultingfrom in situ, uncon- actor system from criticality. A positive reactiv- trolled burning of coal or coal refuse piles. It ity addition indicates a move toward supercrit- issimilar to coal ash.[mining-1] icality (power increase). A negative reactivity addition indicates a move toward subcriticality Redocumentation The creation or revision of a se- (power decrease). [nuclear-1] mantically equivalent representation within the same relative abstraction level. The resulting Reactor coolant system The system used to re- forms of representation are usually considered move energy from the reactor core and transfer alternate views intended for a human audience. that energy either directly or indirectly to the [soft] . [nuclear-1] Reduced Shank Bolt A bolt whose shank diam- Reactor, nuclear A device in which nuclear fis- eter is smaller than the nominal diameter of the sion may be sustained and controlled in a self- bolt (normally the shank diameter of such a bolt supporting . The varieties are is approximately equal to the effective diameter many, but all incorporate certain features, in- of the thread). [mech-3] cluding fissionable material or fuel, a moderating material (unless the reactor is operated on fast Reengineering see Reverse engineering [soft] neutrons), a reflector to conserve escaping neu- Re-engineering The examination and modification trons, provisions of removal of heat, measuring of a system to reconstitute it in a new form and and controlling instruments, and protective de- the subsequent implementation of the new form vices. The reactor is the heart of a nuclear power - More information. [soft] plant. [nuclear-1] Reference man A person with the anatomical and Real-time Generally used to describe systems that physiological characteristics of an average indi- must guarantee a response to an external event vidual that is used in calculations assessing in- within a given time [soft] ternal dose (also may be called ”standard man”). Realtime see real-time [soft] [nuclear-1] Reasonable Rational, sensible, or resulting from REFINE A set of reverse engineering tools from sound judgment. [nuclear-1] Reasoning Systems [soft] a group of points arranged about Reflection deflection of a light beam at the inter- a center in such a way that the line joining each face between two media.[mech-1] point of the center is perpendicular to a family Reflector A layer of material immediately sur- of planes in the crystal, and the length of this rounding a reactor core that scatters back (or line is inversely proportional to their interplanar reflects) into the core many neutrons that would distance. [mat-1] otherwise escape. The returned neutrons can Reciprocal Lattice[mech-1] then cause more fissions and improve the neutron economy of the reactor. Common reflector mate- Reclamation The restoration of land and environ- rials are graphite, beryllium, water, and natural mentalvalues to a surface mine site after the coal uranium. [nuclear-1] is extracted. ReclamationoperationsDRAFT are usually CMI-MDP Programme 88

reflow soldering process of joining metallic sur- REQUEST REliability and QUality of European faces through the mass heating of solder/solder Software Technology. An Esprit project (now to form solder fillets at metallized areas; terminated). [soft] it creates a mechanical and electrical connection between components and a PCB. [mat-1] Requirements The first stage of software develop- ment should be to define requirements with the Refraction bending of a light beam upon passing potential users. In modern methods these re- from one medium into another.[mech-1] quirements should be testable, and will usually be traceable in later development stages [soft] Refractive Index the ratio of the velocity of light in a vacuum to the velocity of light in some Reserve That portion of the identified coal resource medium.[mech-1] thatcan be economically mined at the time of determination. The reserve isderived by apply- a heat-resistant material. [mat-1] ing a recovery factor to that component of thei- Refractory a metal or ceramic that may be exposed dentified coal resource designated as the reserve to extremely high temperatures without deterio- base.[mining-1] rating rapidly or without melting.[mech-1] internal stress in a material often Regulator - Device (wall, door) used to control the resulting from thermal or mechanical straining. volumeof air in an air split.[mining-1] [mat-1] Reinforcement[mech-1] resilience the tendency of a material to return to its original shape after the removal of a stress Relational database See Relational DBMS . [soft] that has produced elastic strain. [mat-1] Relational DBMS A DBMS based on the rela- resin an organic polymer that crosslinks to form a tional model developed by Codd. It allows the thermosetting plastic when mixed with a definition of data structures, storage and re- agent. [mat-1] trieval operations, and integrity constraints. In such a database, the data and relations between Resin bolting - A method of permanent roof them are organised in tables. INGRES and Or- support in whichsteel rods are grouted with acle are well-known examples. [soft] resin.[mining-1] Relation A table in a relational database [soft] resin flux a resin and small amounts of organic ac- tivators in an organic solvent. [mat-1] Relative Magnetic Permeability the ratio of the magnetic permeability of some medium to that resistance welding type of welding process in of a vacuum.[mech-1] which the work pieces are heated by the passage of an electric current through the contact; this The loss of clamping force in a bolt includes spot welding, seam or line welding, and which commonly occurs as a result of embed- percussion welding; flash and butt welding are ment. Can also be caused by gasket creep, differ- sometimes considered as resistance welding pro- ential temperature expansion or vibration loos- cesses. [mat-1] ening. [mech-3] Released version A version of an object that is not Resisting force see internal force. [struc-1] modifiable, as designated by some person. Also Resistivity the reciprocal of electrical conductivity, known as baseline. See change management . and a measure of a material’s resistance to the [soft] passage of electric current.[mech-1] Rem The acronym for equivalent man is Resources Concentrations of coal in such forms a standard unit that measures the effects of ion- thateconomic extraction is currently or may be- izing radiation on humans. The dose equivalent come feasible. Coalresources broken down by in rems is equal to the absorbed dose in rads identified and undiscoveredresources. Identified multiplied by the quality factor of the type of coal resources are classified as demonstratedand radiation. [nuclear-1] inferred. Demonstrated resources are further Rendezvous In Ada , the method of synchronising broken down asmeasured and indicated. Undis- the activity of different tasks. [soft] covered resources are broken down ashypotheti- cal and speculative.[mining-1] Repository The core of a CASE tool is typically a DBMS where all development documents are Respirable dust - Dust particles 5 microns or less stored. [soft] DRAFTinsize.[mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 89

Respirable dust sample - A sample collected with RFT Request For Technology - process established anapproved coal mine dust sampler unit attached by OSF to get proposals for new standards. [soft] to a miner, or sopositioned as to measure the con- centration of respirable dust to whichthe miner study of flow characteristics. [mat-1] is exposed, and operated continuously over an Rib - The side of a pillar or the wall of an entry. entire workshift of such miner.[mining-1] Thesolid coal on the side of any underground Restricted area Any area to which access is con- passage. Same as ribpillar.[mining-1] trolled for the protection of individuals from ex- Rider - A thin seam of coal overlying a thicker posure to radiation and radioactive materials. one.[mining-1] [nuclear-1] RIFF Resource Interchange File Format from Mi- Restructuring The transformation from one rep- crosoft [soft] resentation form to another at the same relative abstraction level, while preserving the subject Righthand Thread A screw thread that is system’s external behavior (functionality and se- screwed in by rotating clockwise. The majority mantics). [soft] of screw threads are right handed. [mech-3] Resultant The resultant of a system of forces is a Rigid An idealized concept meaning something single force or moment whose magnitude, direc- which does not deform under loading. In , all tion, and location make it statically equivalent objects deform under loading, but in modelling to the system of forces. [struc-1] it can be useful to idealize very stiff objects as rigid. [struc-1] Retreat mining - A system of robbing pil- lars in which therobbing line, or line through Rigid connection see fixed connection. [struc-1] the faces of the pillars beingextracted, re- treats from the boundary toward the shaft or RIPE Reseaux IP Europeens. A collaborative or- minemouth.[mining-1] ganisation of European Internet service providers - More information. [soft] Return idler - The idler or roller underneath the cover orcover plates on which the conveyor belt Ripper - A coal extraction machine that works by rides after the load which itwas carrying has been tearingthe coal from the face.[mining-1] dumped at the head section and starts the re- RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer; one turntrip toward the foot section.[mining-1] whose design is based on the rapid execution of Return - The air or ventilation that has passed a sequence of simple instructions rather than on through allthe working faces of a split.[mining-1] the provision of a large variety of complex in- structions. [soft] Reusability The possibility of using code devel- oped for one application in another application: Risk-based decisionmaking An approach to reg- traditionally achieved using program libraries. ulatory decisionmaking in which such decisions Object-oriented programming offers the poten- are made solely based on the results of a proba- tial for greater reusability of code via its tech- bilistic risk analysis. [nuclear-1] niques of inheritance , genericity etc. Class li- Risk-informed decisionmaking An approach to braries with intelligent browsers and application decisionmaking in which insights from proba- generators are under development to help in this bilistic risk analyses are considered with other process. [soft] engineering insights. [nuclear-1] Reuse The planned use of software artefacts for the Risk-informed regulation Incorporating an as- solution of multiple problems [soft] sessment of safety significance or relative risk in Reverse Engineering The process of analyzing an NRC regulatory actions. Making sure that the existing system to identify its components and regulatory burden imposed by individual regu- their interrelationships, and create representa- lations or processes is commensurate with the tions of the system in another form or at a higher importance of that regulation or process to pro- level of abstraction. Usually undertaken in order tecting public health and safety and the environ- to redesign the system for better maintainability ment. [nuclear-1] [soft] Risk-significant When used to qualify an object, RFC Request For Comment. The name by which such as a system, structure, component, accident Internet standards are knownDRAFT [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 90

sequence, or cut set, this term identifies that ob- Roof bolt - A long steel bolt driven into the ject as exceeding a predetermined criterion re- roof ofunderground excavations to support the lated to its contribution to the risk from the fa- roof, preventing and limitingthe extent of roof cility being addressed. One that is associated falls. The unit consists of the bolt (up to 4 with a level of risk that exceeds a predetermined feetlong), steel plate, expansion shell, and pal significance criterion. [nuclear-1] nut. The use of roofbolts eliminates the need for timbering by fastening together, or”laminating,” Risk The combined answers to (1) What can go several weaker layers of roof strata to build wrong? (2) How likely is it? and (3) What are a”beam.”[mining-1] the consequences? [nuclear-1] Roof fall - A coal mine cave-in especially in perma- RLF Reuse Library Framework of the DoD [soft] nentareas such as entries.[mining-1] RM-ODP The ISO Reference Model for Open Dis- Roof jack - A screw- or pump-type hydraulic ex- tributed Environments. [soft] tension postmade of steel and used as temporary RMP Reliable Multicast Protocol [soft] roof support.[mining-1] RNIS Reseau Numerique a Integration de Services. Roof sag - The sinking, bending, or curving of French for ISDN . [soft] the roof,especially in the middle, from weight or pressure.[mining-1] Robbed out area - Describes that part of a mine from whichthe pillars have been Roof stress - Unbalanced internal forces in the roof removed.[mining-1] orsides, created when coal is extracted.[mining- 1] Rob - To extract pillars of coal previously left forsupport.[mining-1] Roof support Posts, jacks, roof bolts and beams used tosupport the rock overlying a coal seam Roentgen (R) A unit of exposure to ionizing ra- in an underground mine. A goodroof sup- diation. It is the amount of gamma or x-rays port plan is part of mine safety and coal required to produce ions resulting in a charge of extraction.[mining-1] 0.000258 /kilogram of air under stan- dard conditions. Named after Wilhelm Roent- Roof - The stratum of rock or other material above gen, the German who discovered x-rays a coalseam; the overhead surface of a coal work- in 1895. [nuclear-1] ing place. Same as ”back” or”top.”[mining-1]

Roll - (1) A high place in the bottom or a low place Roof - A combination of steel rods an- in thetop of a mine passage, (2) a local thickening chored intothe roof to create zones of com- of roof or floor strata,causing thinning of a coal pression and tension forces and providebet- seam.[mining-1] ter support for weak roof and roof over wide Rolled Thread A thread formed by plastically areas.[mining-1] deforming a blank rather than by cutting. The Room and pillar mining A method of under- majority of standard fasteners have their threads ground mining inwhich approximately half of the formed by rolling. Most threads are rolled be- coal is left in place to support theroof of the ac- fore any heat treatment operation. Significant tive mining area. Large ”pillars” are left while improvements in fatigue life can be achieved by ”rooms”of coal are extracted. [mining-1] rolling the thread after heat treatment, this im- provement is due to compressive stresses being Room neck - The short passage from the entry into induced in the roots of the thread. However, be- aroom.[mining-1] cause of the increased hardness of the bolt blank, the die life can be significantly reduced. Rolling ROOM Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling. An the thread also generally improves the surface Object-Oriented analysis and design approach - finish which can have a beneficial effect on fa- More information. [soft] tigue life. [mech-3] ROOT An object oriented framework for large scale Roller support In two dimensions, a roller sup- data analysis at CERN [soft] port restrains one translation degree of freedom. Root Diameter Identical to MINOR DIAMETER [struc-1] [mech-3] Roll protection - A framework, safety canopy, or Root version The initial value of an object. See similarprotection for the when equip- change management . [soft] ment overturns.[mining-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 91 rosin a hard, natural resin, consisting of abietic acid into rubble and buried in the structure’s founda- and pimaric acids and their isomers, some fatty tion below ground. The site surface is then cov- acids, and terepene ; the resin is ex- ered, regraded and, landscaped for unrestricted tracted from pine trees and subsequently refined. use. [nuclear-1] [mat-1] Rule-based Having to do with systems that infer rosin flux rosin in an organic solvent or rosin as a or use ”rules” (i.e.logical statements). [soft] paste with activators. [mat-1] Run-of-mine - Raw material as it exists in the Rotation Motion of an object where the path of mine;average grade or quality.[mining-1] every point is a circle or circular arc. A rotation is defined by a point and vector which determine Rupture failure that is accompanied by significant the axis of rotation. The direction of the vector plastic deformation.[mech-1] is the direction of the axis and the magnitude of SAA Systems Application Architecture: IBM’s the vector is the . [struc-1] family of standard interfaces which enable soft- Round - Planned pattern of drill holes fired in se- ware to be written independently of hardware quence intunneling, shaft sinking, or stopping. and operating systems. [soft] First the cut holes are fired,followed by relief, Saber-C see CodeCenter . [soft] lifter, and rib holes.[mining-1] Saber-C++ see ObjectCenter . [soft] Royalty - The payment of a certain stipulated sum on themineral produced. [mining-1] SADT Structured Analysis and Design Technique. [soft] RPC Remote Procedure Call: a call to a routine that results in code being executed on a differ- Safeguards As used in regulation of domestic nu- ent system from the one where the request origi- clear facilities and materials, the use of mate- nated. An RPC system allows calling procedures rial control and accounting programs verify that and called procedures to execute on different sys- all special nuclear material is properly controlled tems without the programmer needing to explic- and accounted for, and the physical protection itly code for this. [soft] (also referred to as physical security) equipment and security forces. As used by the International RSA Rivest, Shamir, Adleman public key encryp- Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), verifying that tion technique (used by PGP ) [soft] the ”peaceful use” commitments made in bind- RSVP Rapid System Virtual Prototyping. [soft] ing non-proliferation agreements, both bilateral and multilateral, are honored. [nuclear-1] RTEE Real Time Engineering Environment: a set of CASE tools produced by Westmount Technol- Safe shutdown earthquake Is the maximum ogy B.V. [soft] earthquake potential for which certain struc- tures, systems, and components, important to RTF Rich Text Format: an interchange format from safety, are designed to sustain and remain func- Microsoft for exchange of documents between tional. [nuclear-1] Word and other document preparation systems - More information. [soft] Safety fuse - A train of powder enclosed in cotton, juteyarn, or waterproofing compounds, which RTL Register Transfer Language: a kind of HDL burns at a uniform rate; usedfor firing a cap con- used in describing the registers of a computer or taining the detonation compound which in turn digital electronic system, and the way in which setsoff the explosive charge.[mining-1] data is transferred between them. [soft] Safety injection The rapid insertion of a chemi- RTSA Real-time structured analysis: versions of cally soluble neutron poison (such as boric acid) structured analysis capable of modelling real- into the reactor coolant system to ensure reactor time aspects of software. [soft] shutdown. [nuclear-1] Rubbing surface - The total area (top, bottom, Safety lamp - A lamp with steel wire gauze cover- and sides)of an airway.[mining-1] ing everyopening from the inside to the outside Rubblization A decommissioning technique in- so as to prevent the passage offlame should ex- volving demolition and burial of formerly operat- plosive gas be encountered.[mining-1] ing nuclear facilities. All equipment from build- Safety limit A restriction or range placed upon im- ings is removed and the surfaces are decontam- portant process variables that are necessary to inated. Above-grade structuresDRAFT are demolished CMI-MDP Programme 92

reasonably protect the integrity of the physical SBM Solution Based Modelling. a software devel- barriers that guard against the uncontrolled re- opment process described in the book ”Develop- lease of radioactivity. [nuclear-1] ing Object-Oriented Software for the Macintosh” written by Neal Goldstein and Jeff Alger, pub- Safety related In the regulatory arena, this term lished by Addison Wesley in 1992. [soft] applies to systems, structures, components, pro- cedures, and controls of a facility or process that Scalar A mathematical entity which has a numeric are relied upon to remain functional during and value but no direction (in contrast to a vector). following design-basis events. Their functional- [struc-1] ity ensures that key regulatory criteria, such as - Removal of loose rock from the roof or levels of radioactivity released, are met. Exam- walls.This work is dangerous and a long bar ples of safety related functions include shutting (called a scaling bar)is oftenused.[mining-1] down a nuclear reactor and maintaining it in a safe shutdown condition. [nuclear-1] Scattered radiation Radiation that, during its passage through a substance, has been changed Safety-significant When used to qualify an object, in direction. It may also have been modified by such as a system, structure, component, accident a decrease in energy. It is one form of secondary sequence, or cut set, this term identifies that ob- radiation. [nuclear-1] ject as having an impact on safety, whether de- termined through risk analysis or other means, SCCS Source Code : a popular code that exceeds a predetermined significance crite- management systems. [soft] rion. [nuclear-1] Schematic capture The process of entering the SAFSTOR A method of decommissioning in which logical design of an into a CAE the nuclear facility is placed and maintained in system by creating a schematic representation of such condition that the nuclear facility can be components and interconnections. [soft] safely stored and subsequently decontaminated Scheme A dialect of Lisp . [soft] to levels that permit release for unrestricted use. [nuclear-1] Schlaer-Mellor An Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) modeling method that addresses the the SAGE System Administrators Guild. A Special integration of structural and behavioral proper- Technical Group within USENIX . [soft] ties. [soft] Sampling - Cutting a representative part of an ore Scintillation detector The combination of phos- (orcoal) deposit, which should truly represent its phor, , and associated elec- average value.[mining-1] tronic circuits for counting light emissions pro- Sandstone - A consisting of duced in the by ionizing radiation. sandunited by some cementing material, [nuclear-1] such as iron oxide or calciumcarbonate.[mining- SCI Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE Std 1596- 1] 1992 [soft] saponifier an alkaline chemical added to water to SCM Software Configuration management or improve its ability to dissolve rosin flux residues. Source Code management . [soft] [mat-1] Scoop - A rubber tired-, battery- or diesel-powered SARA Stichting Academisch Rekencentrum Ams- pieceof equipment designed for cleaning runways terdam (Academic Computing Services Amster- and hauling supplies. [mining-1] dam) [soft] SCOPE Software Assessment and Certification SASD Structured Analysis, Structured Design. Programme. An Esprit [soft] [soft] SCO The Santa Cruz Operation, a leading sup- SA Structured Analysis. [soft] plier of UNIX systems for systems based on Intel . Suppliers of Xenix and Open SATAN Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Desktop [soft] Networks - More information. [soft] SCPI Standard Commands for Programmable In- Sather An object-oriented programming language struments: a standard complementing IEE 488 that is a simplified optimized variant of Eiffel developed by Hewlett-Packard and promoted [soft] by the SCPI Consortium, 8380 Drive, DRAFTSuite P3, La Mesa, CA 91942, USA [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 93

Scram The sudden shutting down of a nuclear re- SDS Schema Definition Set in PCTE . [soft] actor, usually by rapid insertion of control rods, either automatically or manually by the reactor SD Structured Design: a program design method. operator. May also be called a reactor trip. It is [soft] actually an acronym for ”safety control rod axe Sealed source Any radioactive material or byprod- man,” the worker assigned to insert the emer- uct encased in a capsule designed to prevent leak- gency rod on the first reactor (the Chicago Pile) age or escape of the material. [nuclear-1] in the U.S. [nuclear-1] Seam - A stratum or bed of coal.[mining-1] Screw A headed threaded fastener that is designed to be used in conjunction with a pre formed in- Secondary radiation Radiation originating as the ternal thread or alternatively forming its own result of absorption of other radiation in matter. thread. Historically, it was a threaded fastener It may be either electromagnetic or particulate with the thread running up to the head of the in nature. [nuclear-1] fastener that has no plain shank. However this definition has largely been superseded to avoid Secondary roof - The roof strata immediately confusion over the difference between a bolt and above thecoalbed, requiring support during the a screw. [mech-3] excavating of coal.[mining-1] Screw Thread A ridge of constant section which is Secondary system The steam generator tubes, manufactured so that a helix is developed on the steam turbine, condenser, and associated pipes, internal or external surface of a cylinder. [mech- pumps, and heaters used to convert the heat 3] energy of the reactor coolant system into for electrical generation. ScriptX A dynamic object-oriented programming Most commonly used in reference to pres- language and class library for multimedia from surized water reactors. (see also ¡/reading- Kaleida Labs - More information. [soft] rm/doc-collections/cfr/part020/part020- 1003.html¿10 CFR 20.1003 ¡/reading-rm/doc- Scrubber Any of several forms of chemical/physical collections/cfr/part020/part020-1003.html¿). devicesthat remove sulfur compounds formed [nuclear-1] during coal combustion. Thesedevices, tech- nically know as flue gas desulfurization sys- Section - A portion of the working area of a mine. tems, combinethe sulfur in gaseous emissions [mining-1] with another chemical medium to forminert ”sludge,” which must then be removed for Section Modulus A property of a cross sectional disposal.[mining-1] shape, which depends on shape, and orientation. Section modulus is usually denoted S, and S = SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface. [soft] I/c, where I = moment of inertia about an axis through the centroid, and c is the distance from SDD Software Design Description. ANSI/IEEE the centroid to the extreme edge of the section. 1016-1987 specifies IEEE Recommended Prac- [struc-1] tice for SDD. [soft] SDE Software Development Environment: equiva- SEE Simultaneous Engineering Environment: a lent to SEE . [soft] CAE framework from DAZIX. [soft] SDIF SGML Document Interchange Format. [soft] SEE Software Engineering Environment: a set of management and technical tools to support soft- SDL Specification and Design Language: defined ware development, usually integrated in a coher- by the CCITT (recommendation Z100) to pro- ent framework; equivalent to an IPSE. [soft] vide a tool for unambiguous specification and de- scription of the behaviour of telecommunications Seismic category I Structures, systems, and com- systems. The area of application also includes ponents that are designed and built to withstand process control and real-time applications. SDL the maximum potential earthquake stresses for provides a Graphic Representation (SDL/GR) the particular region where a nuclear plant is and a textual Phrase Representation (SDL/PR), sited. [nuclear-1] which are equivalent representations of the same SEI Software Engineering Institute (Carnegie Mel- semantics. A system is specified as a set of in- lon University) - More information. [soft] terconnected abstract machines which are exten- sions of the Finite State Machine (FSM) [soft] Selective mining - The object of selective mining is toobtain a relatively high-grade mine product; SDM Schematic Data Model. [DRAFTsoft] CMI-MDP Programme 94

this usually entails theuse of a much more expen- SE-ODP Support Environment for Open Dis- sive stopping system and high exploration andde- tributed Processing: an ECMA standard. [soft] velopment costs in searching for and developing the separatebunches, stringers, , and bands SEP A SASD . [soft] of ore.[mining-1] SERC Software Engineering Research Center (Pur- due University). [soft] Selector In Smalltalk or Objective-C , the syntax of a message which selects a particular method Server A computer which, by means of network in the target object. [soft] connections, carries out parts of a computing task on behalf of one or more remote comput- Self An object oriented programming language from ers. [soft] Stanford, and an object oriented programming system from Sun Microsystems [soft] SE Software Engineering, the methods used in de- veloping software. [soft] Self-contained apparatus - A self- containedsupply of oxygen used during rescue SES/workbench An iconic simulation and design work from coal mine fires andexplosions; same tool, linked to some of the major CASE systems as SCSR (self-contained self rescuer).[mining-1] now available or in development. [soft] Self-rescuer A small filtering device carried by a Setext A markup scheme intended for documents coalminer underground, either on his belt or in that are both human- and computer-readable his pocket, to provide himwith immediate pro- [soft] tection against and in case ofa mine fire or explosion. It is a small Set Screw A set screw is a threaded fastener canister with a mouthpiecedirectly attached to that is typically used to hold a sleeve, collar or it. The wearer breathes through the mouth, on a shaft to prevent relative motion. It thenose being closed by a clip. The canister con- is a threaded member that normally does not tains a layer of fusedcalcium chloride that ab- have a head. Unlike most other threaded fasten- sorbs water from the mine air. Thedevice ers it is basically a compression device normally is used for escape purposes only because it does used to generate axial thrust. Various socket not sustainlife in containing defi- types are provided to allow the set screw to be cient oxygen. The length of time aself-rescuer rotated. These types include socket, can be used is governed mainly by the fluted socket, screwdriver slot and square head. in themine air, usually between 30 and Various point designs are available (the part of one hour.[mining-1] the set screw that rotates against the shaft being secured) and include: - Hollowed end, is the SEL Software Engineering Laboratory. The Insti- most commonly used point style. Used when the tute for Information Technology of the National digging in of the point is not undesirable. Cone - Research Council Canada - More information . Pointed end, this type generates the highest tor- Also NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center [soft] sional holding power and is typically used for a permanent connection. Oval - Rounded end that Semaphore The classic method for restricting ac- is typically used when frequent adjustment is re- cess to data shared between several cooperating quired. The oval end prevents/reduces indenta- processes . [soft] tion. Flat - Cause little damage to the shaft and Sems A screw and washer assembly. A screw or are used when frequent adjustment is required. bolt which has a captive washer. The washer is Dog - Flat end with the threads stopping short of frequently loose on the plain shank of the fas- the end with the end fitting into a hole. [mech-3] tener, the shank diameter being equal to the ef- SET Standard d’Echange et de Transfert: a French fective diameter of the thread; the thread be- standard for exchange of CAD data. [soft] ing rolled from this diameter. The origin of the word is a frequent question. In the 1930’s E. Severance The separation of a mineral interest C. Crowther was a representative for a company from otherinterests in the land by grant or reser- that sold both shakeproof washers and screws. vation. A mineral dead or grantof the land re- He came up with the idea of placing the washer serving a mineral interest, by the landowner be- on the screw before it was thread rolled. The ma- foreleasing, accomplishes a severance as does his jor diameter of the screw being larger than the execution of a minerallease.[mining-1] washer hole prevents it from coming off. The Illi- nois Tool Works made machines that produced Severe accident A type of accident that may chal- these patented pre-as [mech-3] lenge safety systems at a level much higher than DRAFTexpected. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 95

SFA Software Frameworks Association - More in- Shear strain Strain measuring the intensity of formation. [soft] racking in the material. Shear strain is measured as the change in angle of the corners of a small SGI Silicon Graphics Incorporated, a vendor of square of material. [struc-1] graphical workstations and software [soft] Shear stress Stress acting parallel to an imaginary SGML Open A non-profit, international consor- plane cut through an object. [struc-1] tium of providers of products and services, ded- icated to accelerating the further adoption, ap- Shelf A public library of classes for the Eiffel lan- plication, and implementation of SGML - More guage. [soft] information. [soft] Shell Script A program written to be interpreted SGML Standard Generalised Markup Language by the shell of an operating system, especially (ISO 8879). A generic markup language for rep- UNIX . [soft] resenting documents. SGML is a system for defining structured document types, and markup Shell The outer part of an operating system, espe- languages to represent instances of those docu- cially UNIX , which provides the user interface, ment types [soft] as opposed to the kernel which provides the ba- sic services to processes. The commonest UNIX Shaft - A primary vertical or non-vertical open- shells are the c shell (csh) and the Bourne shell ing throughmine strata used for ventilation (sh) . [soft] or drainage and/or for hoisting ofperson- nel or materials; connects the surface with Shen A security scheme for WWW [soft] undergroundworkings.[mining-1] Shielding Any material or obstruction that absorbs Shaft mine An underground mine in which the radiation and thus tends to protect personnel or main entry oraccess is by means of a vertical materials from the effects of ionizing radiation. shaft.[mining-1] [nuclear-1] Shale - A rock formed by consolidation of clay, SHIFT Scalable Heterogeneous Integrated Facility mud, orsilt, having a laminated structure and Testbed. A parallel processing project at CERN composed of mineralsessentially unaltered since . [soft] deposition.[mining-1] Shift - The number of hours or the part of any Shank That portion of a bolt between the head dayworked.[mining-1] and the threaded portion. [mech-3] Shortwall An underground mining method in ShapeTools A code management system for UNIX which small areasare worked (15 to 150 feet) by from TU Berlin. [soft] a continuous miner in conjunction withthe use of hydraulic roof supports.[mining-1] Shape VC A code management system which offers version control functionality similar to systems Shoulder Screws A threaded fastener with a like RCS with some extensions and a more UNIX plain, precision machined, shank that is used for -like command interface. [soft] location purposes. They are typically used for pulleys and linkages. [mech-3] SHARE An international users group of IBM and compatible hardware and software [soft] Shutdown A decrease in the rate of fission (and heat production) in a reactor (usually by the in- Shear An system of internal forces whose resultant sertion of control rods into the core). [nuclear-1] is a force acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a structural member or assembly [struc-1] Shutdown margin The instantaneous amount of reactivity by which the reactor is subcritical or Shearer - A mining machine for longwall faces would be subcritical from its present condition that uses arotating action to ”shear” the ma- assuming all full-length rod cluster assemblies terial from the face as it progressesalong the (shutdown and control) are fully inserted except face.[mining-1] for the single rod cluster assembly of highest re- activity worth that is assumed to be fully with- The ratio of shear stress divided by drawn. [nuclear-1] the corresponding shear strain in a linear elastic material. [struc-1] Shuttle car A self-discharging truck, generally with DRAFTrubbertires or caterpillar-type treads, used for CMI-MDP Programme 96

receiving coal from theloading or mining ma- Skidmore Bolt Tension Calibrator The chine and transferring it to an underground- Skidmore-Wilhelm bolt tension calibrator is a loading point, mine railway or belt conveyor hydraulic load cell used to determine the tension system.[mining-1] in a bolt or other threaded fastener. The tension in the bolt compresses fluid in a hydraulic cylin- SICL Standard Instrument Control Library: a der, a pressure gauge connected to the cylinder platform-independent API for software to con- is then calibrated to read in terms of force rather trol and test electronic instruments conforming than pressure. [mech-3] to IEE 488 [soft] Skip - A car being hoisted from a slope or SICS Swedish Institute for Computer Science [soft] shaft.[mining-1] Sievert (Sv) The international system (SI) unit Slack - Small coal; the finest-sized soft coal, usual- for dose equivalent equal to 1 Joule/kilogram. lyless than one inch in diameter.[mining-1] 1 sievert = 100 rem. Named for Rolf Sievert. [nuclear-1] Slag - The waste product of the process of .[mining-1] SIGhyper Special Interest Group on Hypertext and Multimedia of the SGML [soft] Slate - A miner’s term for any shale or slate ac- SIMD Single Instruction Multiple Data: a form of companyingcoal. Geologically, it is a dense, fine- parallelism in multiprocessor computing where textured, ,which has excellent there is a single instruction stream (programs) parallel cleavage so that it breaks into thinplates operating concurrently on several data streams. or pencil-like shapes.[mining-1] [soft] Slate bar - The proper long-handled tool used to SIMEX A set of C++ classes from the University of pry downloose and hazardous material from roof, Minnesota, that provides a framework for build- face, and ribs.[mining-1] ing discrete event simulation models [soft] Slickenside - A smooth, striated, polished surface SIMON System of Internet Mapping for Organised producedon rock by friction.[mining-1] Navigation [soft] Slip - A fault. A smooth joint or crack where the Simscript A free-form, English-like general- stratahave moved on each other.[mining-1] purpose simulation language. SIMSCRIPT II.5 SLIP Serial Line IP . [soft] from CACI has evolved from the original work on SIMSCRIPT by H.Markowitz. [soft] Slope mine An underground mine with an opening that slopesupward or downward to the coal seam. SIMULA A program based on Algol 60 with ex- [mining-1] tensions for simulation, which was a precursor of the object-oriented approach. [soft] Slope - Primary inclined opening, connection the surfacewith the underground workings.[mining- Single Inheritance The property of an object- 1] oriented language which restricts a sub-class to be derived from only one parent. [soft] Sloughing - The slow crumbling and falling away of materialfrom roof, rib, and face.[mining-1] Sinking - The process by which a shaft is driven.[mining-1] Smalltalk A pioneering object-oriented program- sintering densification of a particulate ceramic ming system developed at the Xerox Palo Alto compact involving a removal of the pores be- research centre. It includes a language (usually tween the starting particles (accompanied by interpreted), a programming environment, and equivalent shrinkage) combined with coalescence an extensive object library [soft] and strong bonding between adjacent particles. SMA Association. [soft] [mat-1] SMCC Sun Microsystems Computer Corporation Sisal Streams and Iterations in a Single-Assignment [soft] Language. A general-purpose functional lan- guage . [soft] SMDL Standard Description Language, based on HyTime [soft] Skid - A track-mounted used to hold trips or carsfrom running out of control. Also it is a SMG Screen Management Guidelines - a VMS flat-bottom personnel orequipment carrier used package of run-time library routines providing in low coal.[mining-1] DRAFTwindows on VT100 terminals. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 97

SML/NJ Standard ML of New Jersey. [soft] Software bus A support environment for heteroge- neous distributed processing, such as the ANSA SML Standard ML : a functional language . [soft] Testbench. [soft] SMSL Standard Multimedia Scripting Language Software Engineering A systematic approach to [soft] the analysis, design, implementation and main- SNA Systems Network Architecture - IBM’s net- tenance of software. It usually involves the use working standard. [soft] of CASE tools . There are various models of the software life-cycle, and many methodologies for Sniff A C++/C programming environment provid- the different phases. [soft] ing browsing, cross-referencing, design visualiza- tion, documentation, and editing support. De- Software Metrics Measures of software quality veloped by UBS Switzerland and marketed by which indicate the , understandabil- takeFive Salzburg. (See also SNiFF+ ) [soft] ity, , description and intricacy of code. [soft] SNOBOL String Oriented Symbolic Language. A language from the 1960s for string manipluation. Software through Pictures see StP . [soft] [soft] SOIF Summary Object Interchange Format in the Snugging The process of pulling parts of a joint Harvest system. [soft] together, most of the input turn during this pro- solder a low melting point alloy, usually of lead (Pb) cess is absorbed in the joint with little tension and tin (Sn), that can wet copper, conduct cur- being given to the bolt. [mech-3] rent, and mechanically join conductors. [mat-1] Snug Torque The torque required to pull plates solder balls small spheres of solder adhering to the together so that direct contact occurs; often used laminate, mask, or conductor surfaces usually af- in angle control tightening. The snug torque en- ter wave or reflow soldering. [mat-1] sures that metal to metal contact occurs at all the interfaces within the joint. It is only at this solder bridging when solder paste or solder on two point that the required angle of rotation start in or more adjacent pads come into contact to form order that the bolt is tightened sufficiently. The a conductive path or bridge. [mat-1] snug torque is usually determined experimentally on the actual joint. [mech-3] soldering process of joining metallic surfaces with solder without melting the base material. [mat- Socket Head Cap Screw A screw with a round 1] head, usually with a hexagon indentation in the head for tightening purposes. Used on machine solder mask a dielectric material used to cover the parts and is typically made from high strength entire surface (except where the joints are to be steel (grade 12.9 in metric). [mech-3] formed) of a PCB primarily to protect the cir- cuitry from environmental damage; it also helps SoftBench An IPSE from Hewlett-Packard. [soft] to reduce bridging. [mat-1] Soft Joint A joint in which the plates and ma- solder paste mixture of minute spherical solder terial between the nut and bolt bearing surfaces particles, activators, solvent, and a gelling or sus- have a low stiffness when subjected to compres- pension agent. [mat-1] sion by the bolt load. In such a joint, the bolt (or nut) typically has to be tightened by two or more solidification range the temperature between the complete turns, after it has been torqued to the liquidus and . [mat-1] snug condition, before the full tightening torque solidification shrinkage crack a crack that forms is achieved. Often the placement of a gasket in due to internal stresses developed from shrink- a joint results in a soft joint. [mech-3] age during solidification of a metal casting; also Softlab A software engineering company strong in called a hot crack. [mat-1] UK and Germany. [soft] solidification the change from liquid state to solid Soft Torque An alternative name, used by some state upon cooling through the melting temper- manufacturers, for snug torque. [mech-3] ature or melting range. [mat-1] Software AG SE company from FRG. [soft] Solid - Mineral that has not been under- mined, sheared out,or otherwise prepared for Software BackPlane A CASE framework from blasting.[mining-1] Atherton . [soft] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 98

solid solution a single, solid, homogeneous crys- SPC Software Productivity Centre. A non-profit talline phase containing two or more chemical organization based in Vancouver, BC, Canada species. [mat-1] with the mandate to assist software developers to improve their software engineering process [soft] solidus the temperature in a phase equilibrium di- agram below which no liquids are present; the SPDL Standard Page Description Language : a highest temperature at which a metal or alloy is draft within the ODA standard. [soft] completely solid. [mat-1] Special nuclear material Plutonium, uranium- solution heat treatment heating an alloy to a 233, or uranium enriched in the isotopes suitable temperature, holding at that tempera- uranium-233 or uranium-235. [nuclear-1] ture for enough time to allow one or more con- Specific gravity - The weight of a substance com- stituents to enter into solid solution, and then pared withthe weight of an equal volume of pure rapidly cooling to hold the consituents in solu- water at 4 degrees .[mining-1] tion. [mat-1] Specific markup In computerised document solvent solution capable of dissolving a solute. preparation, a method of adding formatting com- [mat-1] mands to the text to control layout, such as new line, new page, center text etc. (see Generic solvus the on a phase equilibrium diagram markup ). [soft] that defines the limits of solid solubility. [mat-1] SPEC Standard Performance Evaluation Corpora- SOMA Semantic Object Modelling Approach. An tion. Formed to establish, maintain and endorse Object-Oriented analysis and design approach - a standardized set of relevant benchmarks that More information. [soft] can be applied to the newest generation of high- Somatic effects of radiation Effects of radia- performance computers [soft] tion limited to the exposed individual, as distin- Spent (depleted) fuel Nuclear reactor fuel that guished from genetic effects, that may also affect has been used to the extent that it can no longer subsequent unexposed generations. [nuclear-1] effectively sustain a chain reaction. [nuclear-1] SOM System Object Model. An implementation of Spent fuel pool An underwater storage and cool- CORBA [soft] ing facility for spent (used) fuel elements that have been removed from a reactor. [nuclear-1] Sounding - Knocking on a roof to see whether it is soundand safe to work under. [mining-1] Spent nuclear fuel Fuel that has been removed from a nuclear reactor because it can no longer Source material Uranium or thorium, or any com- sustain power production for economic or other bination thereof, in any physical or chemical . [nuclear-1] form or that contain by weight 1/20 of one percent (0.05 percent) or more of (1) uranium, structure a fine homogeneous mixture (2) thorium, or (3) any combination thereof. of two phases that form by growth of compo- Source material does not include special nuclear sition waves in a solid solution during suitable material. [nuclear-1] heat treatment; the phases differ in composition from each other and the parent phase, but have Spad A spad is a flat spike hammered into a wooden the same crystal structure as the parent phase. pluganchored in a hole drilled into the mine ceil- [mat-1] ing from which isthreaded a plumbline. The spad is an underground survey stationsimilar to the SPIN Software Process Improvement Network. Lo- use of stakes in marking survey points on thesur- cal interest groups sponsored by SEI . [soft] face. A pointer spad, or sight spad, is a station SPI Software Process Improvement. [soft] that allows foreman to visually align en- tries or breaks from the mainspad. [mining-1] Split - Any division or branch of the ventilating cur- rent.Also, the workings ventilated by one branch. Span - The horizontal distance between the side Also, to divide a pillarby driving one or more supports orsolid abutments along sides of a roads through it.[mining-1] roadway.[mining-1] Spreadsheet A type of application which manip- SPARC see ANSI/SPARC Architecture . [soft] ulates data in rows and columns of cells. The Sparcstation A family of workstations from Sun . value in a cell is calculated by a formula which [soft] can involve other cells. Popular in commercial DRAFTapplications. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 99

Spring A distributed object-oriented operating sys- StarBurst An active DBMS from IBM Almaden tem from Sun [soft] Research Center. [soft] Sprite An operating system from Berkeley support- STARS Software Technology for Adaptable Reli- ing multiprocessing and distributed files. [soft] able Systems. A DARPA project [soft] SPT Software Process Technology. [soft] Startup An increase in the rate of fission (and heat production) in a reactor (usually by the removal SQL2 An extended version of the SQL standard. of control rods from the core). [nuclear-1] [soft] STAS Scientific and Technical Attribute and ele- SQL/DS A database package from IBM including ment Set. Defines standard identifiers for refer- a relational DBMS. [soft] ring to searchable fields in scientific databases. SQL Structured Query Language: ISO , ANSI stan- [soft] dard user front end to a relational database man- State Diagram see State Transition Diagram. agement system. [soft] [soft] Squeeze - The settling, without breaking, of State transition diagram A diagram consisting the roof andthe gradual upheaval of the floor of to represent states and directed line of a mine due to the weight of theoverlying segments to represent transitions between the strata.[mining-1] states. One or more actions may be associated SRI Stanford Research Institute. [soft] with each transition. The diagrom represents a Finite State Machine. [soft] SSADM A software engineering method and toolset required by some UK government agen- Statically determinate A statically determinate cies. [soft] structure is one where there is only one distribu- tion of internal forces and reactions which - SSII Societe de Service en Ingenierie Informatique. isfies equilibrium. In a statically determinate [soft] structure, internal forces and reactions can be de- SSL Secure Sockets Layer. A scheme for secure termined by considering nothing more than equa- WWW communications [soft] tions of equilibrium. [struc-1] Stability Stability is best defined as the opposite Statically equivalent Two force systems are stat- of instability, which is the occurrence of large ically equivalent when their resultants are equal. structural deformations which are not the result Physically, this means that the force systems of material failure. [struc-1] tend to impart the same motion when applied to an object; note that the distribution of result- Stable isotope An isotope that does not undergo ing internal forces in the object may be different. radioactive decay. [nuclear-1] [struc-1] stainless steel any steel containing at least 10.5% Statically indeterminate A statically indetermi- Cr as the principal alloying element. [mat-1] nate structure is one where there is more than one distribution of internal forces and/or reac- Standard Review Plan A document that provides tions which satisfies equilibrium. [struc-1] guidance to the staff for reviewing an application to obtain an NRC license to construct or oper- Static equilibrium Equilibrium which does not in- ate a nuclear facility or to possess or use nuclear clude inertial forces. [struc-1] materials. [nuclear-1] Static Friction Friction at rest; a force is required Standards Although boring, standards are neces- to initiate relative movement between two bodies sary for interworking, portability and reusabil- - static friction is the force that resists such rel- ity. They may be de facto standards for various ative movement. Sometimes referred to as stic- communities, or officially recognised national or tion. [mech-3] international standards. Some important bodies concerned in one way or another with Software Stay time The period during which personnel may standards are ISO , ANSI , ECMA , IETF [soft] remain in a restricted area in a reactor before ac- cumulating some permissible occupational dose. Standard Technical Specifications NRC staff [nuclear-1] guidance on model technical specifications for an operating license. (See also Technical Specifica- STD State Transition Diagram . [soft] tions.) [nuclear-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 100

STDWIN A windowing interface from CWI with STL Semantic Transfer Language. IEEE 1175: windows, menus, modal dialogs, mouse and key- IEEE Trial-Use Standard Reference Model for board input, scroll bars, drawing primitives, etc Computing System Tool Interconnections. [soft] that is portable between platforms. STDWIN is available for Macintosh and the X Window Sys- STL Standard Template Library for C++ - More tem . [soft] information. [soft] Steam generator The heat exchanger used in some Stochastic effects Effects that occur by chance, reactor designs to transfer heat from the pri- generally occurring without a threshold level of mary (reactor coolant) system to the secondary dose, whose probability is proportional to the (steam) system. This design permits heat ex- dose and whose severity is independent of the change with little or no contamination of the sec- dose. In the context of radiation protection, the ondary system equipment. [nuclear-1] main stochastic effects are and genetic ef- fects. [nuclear-1] steel an iron-based alloy containing , usually carbon, and other alloying elements. refers generally to the composition [mat-1] of a material and specifically to the relative atomic proportions of cations and anions. [mat- Steeply inclined - Said of deposits and coal seams 1] with adip of from 0.7 to 1 rad (40 degrees to 60 degrees).[mining-1] STONE A Structured and Open Environment: a project supported by the German Ministry of Stemming - The noncombustible material used on Research and Technology (BMFT) to design, im- top or infront of a charge or explosive.[mining-1] plement and distribute a SEE for research and teaching. [soft] Step-Lock Bolt (Slb) The Step-Lock Bolt (SLB) is a thread form that has been modified to re- StP Software through Pictures: a set of CASE tools sist vibration loosening. The thread has several - More information. [soft] horizontal portions (i.e. no lead angle) whose purpose is to prevent being developed Strain The intensity of deformation at a point in in the bolt as a result of the loosening pur- an object. See normal strain and shear strain. pose. It is these horizontal portions that are [struc-1] known as steps. Published indicates strain the unit of change in the size or shape of a that the thread form performs well when tested body due to force; a dimensionless number that on a transverse vibration test machine. How- characterizes the change in dimensions of an ob- ever manufacturing difficulties may prevent its ject during a deformation or flow process. [mat- widespread adoption. [mech-3] 1] STEP Standard for the exchange of product model Strand A concurrent programming language from data: a draft ISO standard for the exchange of Strand Software Technologies Limited. [soft] CAD data. [soft] Strength A very general term that may be ap- StepStone Corporation founded by Brad Cox, re- plied to a material or a structure. In a material, sponsible for Objective-C . [soft] strength refers to a level of stress at which there Stiffness This is a general term which may be ap- is a significant change in the state of the ma- plied to materials or structures. When a force is terial, e.g., yielding or rupture. In a structure, applied to a structure, there is a displacement in strength refers to a level of level of loading which the direction of the force; stiffness is the ratio of produces a significant change in the state of the the force divided by the displacement. High stiff- structure, e.g., inelastic deformations, , ness means that a large force produces a small or collapse. [struc-1] displacement. When discussing the stiffness of a Strength Grade See PROPERTY CLASS [mech- material, the concept is the same, except that 3] stress substitutes for force, and strain substi- tutes for displacement; see modulus of elasticity. Stress Area The effective cross sectional area of [struc-1] a thread when subjected to a tensile force. It is based upon a diameter which is the mean of the Stiffnut A term used to describe a lock nut which pitch (or effective) and the minor (or root) di- has a prevailing torque. [mech-3] ameters of the thread. The use of this diameter stems from the work of E. M. Slaughter in the DRAFT1930’s. He completed carefully controlled tests CMI-MDP Programme 101

using various of standard threads and com- boundaries, representing things which hold the pared their strength with machined bars made structure in place. [struc-1] from the same bar of material. He found that Structured analysis One of a number of require- this mean diameter gave results that agreed with ments analysis methods used in software engi- the tensile test results to within about 3%. The neering. [soft] error on the minor and pitch was about 15%. Tests completed subsequent to these Structured design One of a number of systematic by other investigators have also shown that the top-down design techniques used in software en- stress diameter is a reasonable approximation to gineering, usually after structured analysis. [soft] a thread’s tensile strength. (Referance: ’Tests on Thread Sections Show Exact Strengthening Stud A fastener which is threaded at both ends Effect of Threads.’ by E. M. Slaughter, Metal with an unthreaded shank in between. One end , vol 23, March 1933 pp. 18-20) [mech- (which often has a thread tolerance which results 3] in more thread interference) is secured into a tapped hole, the other is used with a nut. [mech- (K) a scale factor to define 3] the magnitude of the crack-tip stress field; the Stump - Any small pillar.[mining-1] functionality depends on the configuration of the cracked component and the manner in which the Subbituminous Coal of a rank intermediate be- loads are applied. [mat-1] tween ligniteand bituminous.[mining-1] stress ω, force per unit area. [mat-1] Subcriticality The condition of a nuclear reactor system when the rate of production of fission Stress resultant A system of forces which is stat- neutrons is lower than the rate of production in ically equivalent to a stress distribution over an the previous generation owing to increased neu- area. [struc-1] tron leakage and poisons. [nuclear-1] Stress The intensity of internal force acting at a Sublanguage One of the languages associated with point in an object. Stress is measured in units a DBMS , for example data-definition language of force per area. See shear stress and normal or query language . [soft] stress. [struc-1] Subsidence The gradual sinking, or sometimes Strike - The direction of the line of intersection abruptcollapse, of the rock and soil layers of a bedor vein with the horizontal plane. The into an undergroundmine. Structures and sur- strike of a bed is thedirection of a straight line face features above the subsidence area can that connects two points of equalelevation on the beaffected.[mining-1] bed.[mining-1] Sumping - To force the cutter bar of a machine into Stripping ratio The unit amount of overburden orunder the coal. Also called a sumping cut, or that must beremoved to gain access to a similar sumping in.[mining-1] unit amount of coal or mineralmaterial.[mining- Sump - The bottom of a shaft, or any other place 1] in a mine,that is used as a collecting point for Struct A data type in C corresponding to a record drainage water.[mining-1] in Ada . [soft] SunOS The version of UNIX running on Sun work- Structural Bolt A structural bolt is a heavy stations. [soft] hexagon head bolt having a controlled thread Sun Sun Microsystems, a US workstation manu- length intended for use in structural connections facturer with manufacturing capacity in Europe. and assembly of such structures as buildings and [soft] bridges. The controlled thread length is to en- able the thread to stop before the joint ply inter- SunView A windowing system from Sun Microsys- face to improve the fastener’s direct shear perfor- tems, superseded by NeWS . [soft] mance.This term is used in civil and structural Superclass The class from which another class in- engineering but is not frequently used in mechan- herits (see Inheritance ). [soft] ical engineering. [mech-3] Supercriticality The condition for increasing the Structural model An idealization for analysis pur- level of operation of a reactor. The rate of poses of a real or conceived structure. A struc- fission neutron production exceeds all neutron tural model includes boundaries limiting the losses, and the overall neutron population in- scope of the analysis. SupportsDRAFT occur at these creases. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 102

Supercritical reactor A reactor in which the Sybase A relational DBMS vendor. [soft] power level is increasing with time. [nuclear-1] Symmetrical Thread A symmetrical thread is The heating of a vapor, particu- one which has both flanks of the thread profile larly steam, to a temperature much higher than inclined at the same angle. [mech-3] the at the existing pressure. This is done in some power plants to improve effi- Syncline - A fold in rock in which the ciency and to reduce water damage to the tur- strata dip inwardfrom both sides toward the bine. [nuclear-1] axis. The opposite of anticline.[mining-1]¡p align=”center”¿¡a name=”T”¿¡font face=”CG Support A support contributes to keeping a struc- Times” size=”4”¿T¡/font¿¡/a¿¡/p¿ ture in place by restraining one or more degrees of freedom. In a structural model, supports rep- System of Forces One or more forces and/or mo- resent boundary entities which are not included ments acting simultaneously. [struc-1] in the model itself, e.g., foundations, abutments, System V One of the two major versions of the or the earth itself. For each restrained transla- UNIX system, due to AT&T. (see BSD ). [soft] tion degree of freedom at a support, there is a corresponding reaction force; for each restrained TAE Plus A GUI builder from Century Computing rotation degree of freedom, there is a reaction - More information. [soft] moment. [struc-1] TAFIM Technical Architecture Framework for In- Support - The all-important function of keep- formation Management: a DoD standard [soft] ing the mineworkings open. As a verb, it refers to this function; as a noun itrefers to Tailgate - A subsidiary gate road to a conveyor face all the equipment and materials–timber, roof asopposed to a main gate. The tailgate com- bolts,concrete, steel, etc.–that are used to carry monly acts as the returnairway and supplies road out this function.[mining-1] to the face.[mining-1] Surface force A force applied to the surface of an Tailpiece - Also known as foot section pulley. The object. [struc-1] pulleyor roller in the tail or foot section of a belt conveyor around whichthe belt runs.[mining-1] surface insulation resistance the electrical resis- tance of an insulating material between a pair of Tail section - A term used in both belt and chain contacts or conductors; SIR is determined under conveyorwork to designate that portion of the specified environmental and electrical conditions. conveyor at the extreme oppositeend from the [mat-1] delivery point. In either type of conveyor it con- sists ofa frame and either a sprocket or a drum Surface mine A mine in which the coal lies near on which the chain or belttravels, plus such other the surfaceand can be extracted by removing the devices as may be required for adjusting beltor covering layers of rock andsoil.[mining-1] chain tension.[mining-1] surface mount technology method of assembling Taligent A software company set up by Apple, IBM printed circuit boards where the components are and Hewlett-Packard - More information. [soft] mounted onto the surface of the board rather than being inserted into holes in the board. [mat- Taos An operating system kernel for parallel sys- 1] tems from Tao Systems - More information. [soft] Survey meter Any portable radiation detection instrument especially adapted for inspecting an TAPI Telephony Application Programming Inter- area or individual to establish the existence and face. A CTI standard from Microsoft and Intel. amount of radioactive material present. [nuclear- [soft] 1] Taylor-Forge Method A method developed by - Weaker strata hanging from stronger, four engineers of the Taylor-Forge Company in overlyingstrata by means of roof bolts.[mining-1] Chicago in the 1930’s that subsequently formed the basis of the ASME code for flanged joint de- SVID System V Interface Definition: allowing sign. The assumptions made by the method are source code portability between different plat- now generally regarded as too simplistic. This forms running UNIX System V . [soft] method gives rise to the m and y gasket factors. [mech-3] SWOT Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats commercial productDRAFT analysis. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 103

TBK Tool Builder Kit: a product from IPSYS Template code Pseudocode generated by an auto- which allows users to develop CASE tools appro- mated CASE system and requiring further hand- priate to any software engineering methodology coding before compilation. [soft] [soft] Tension - The act of stretching.[mining-1] TCA Trigger, Condition, Action model. [soft] Tension Washers A general name given to spring TC/IX The LynxOS kernel ported to the MIPS washers, curved washers, Belleville washers and R3000 RISC processor by CDC. [soft] disc springs. This type of washer provides a rel- atively low stiffness (compared to the joint stiff- Tcl/Tk See Tk . [soft] ness) and can be used to act as a spring take-up with a bolt to prevent movement between parts. Tcl Tool command language. A command lan- [mech-3] guage and associated library package running on a number of platforms [soft] Terrestrial radiation The portion of the nat- ural background radiation that is emitted by TCP/IP A reliable connection-oriented protocol naturally occurring radioactive materials, such originated by DARPA for internetworking, en- as uranium, thorium, and radon in the earth. compassing both network and transport level [nuclear-1] protocols. While the terms TCP and IP specify two protocols, TCP/IP is often used to refer to Tertiary - Lateral or panel openings (e.g., the entire DoD protocol suite based upon these, ramp,crosscut).[mining-1] including Telnet , UDP . [soft] TestCenter A testing environment for C and C++ Teamwork A SASD tool from CADRE Technolo- programs from CenterLine Software - More in- gies. [soft] formation. [soft] Tecate A software system for exploratory visual- Testing The process of exercising a product to ization of data from networked sources including identify differences between expected and actual WWW - More information. [soft] results and performance. Typically testing is bottom-up: unit test, integrate test and finally Technical Ceramic a ceramic that exhibits a system test - More information. [soft] high degree of industrial efficiency through care- fully designed and superb di- TET Test Environment Toolkit project coordinated mensional precision.[mech-1] by X/Open [soft] Technical Specifications Part of an NRC license TeX A computer typesetting program by authorizing the operation of a nuclear production D.E.Knuth popular for document prepara- or utilization facility. A Technical Specification tion in the HEP community. It provides specific establishes requirements for items such as safety markup for text processing - More information. limits, limiting safety system settings, limiting . [soft] control settings, limiting conditions for opera- Texel An object-oriented methodology (see ”Object tion, surveillance requirements, design features, Oriented Methods” by Ian Graham). [soft] and administrative controls. (See also Standard Technical Specifications.) [nuclear-1] Thermal breeder reactor A breeder reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by TEI Text Encoding Initiative. Defines a com- thermal neutrons. [nuclear-1] mon interchange format for literary and linguis- tic data [soft] change in dimensions of a ma- terial resulting from a change in temperature. TELEPAC The Swiss PTT X.25 Network. [soft] [mat-1] TeleUSE An interface builder for Motif . [soft] Thermalization The process undergone by high- energy (fast) neutrons as they lose energy by col- Telnet The Internet standard protocol for re- lision. [nuclear-1] mote terminal connection service, running over TCP/IP . Telnet allows a user to log onto a re- Thermal power The total core heat transfer rate mote host computer. [soft] to the reactor coolant. [nuclear-1] TELOS The object system of LeLisp Version 16 and Thermal reactor A reactor in which the fission EULISP. [soft] chain reaction is sustained primarily by thermal neutrons. Most current reactors are thermal re- DRAFTactors. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 104

Thermal shield A layer, or layers, of high-density Through-steel - A system of dust collection from material located within a reactor pressure vessel rock orroof drilling. The drill steel is hollow, and or between the vessel and the biological shield a vacuum is applied atthe base, pulling the dust to reduce radiation heating in the vessel and the through the steel and into a receptacle onthe ma- biological shield. [nuclear-1] chine. [mining-1] thermal stresses induced in a material be- TickIT A software industry quality assessment cause of a rapid temperature change or a thermal scheme [soft] gradient. [mat-1] TIFF Tag Image File Format from Aldus [soft] Thermoluminescent dosimeter A small device used to measure radiation by measuring the Timber - A collective term for underground amount of visible light emitted from a crystal in woodensupports.[mining-1] the detector when exposed to ionizing radiation. Timbering - The setting of timber supports in [nuclear-1] mine workingsor shafts for protection against falls from roof, face, or rib.[mining-1] Thermonuclear An adjective referring to the pro- cess in which very high temperatures are used Timber set - A timber frame to support the roof, to bring about the fusion of light nuclei, such sides, andsometimes the floor of mine roadways as those of the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and or shafts.[mining-1] , with the accompanying liberation of en- ergy. [nuclear-1] Tin/Zinc Alloy Electroplating Tin/zinc alloy coatings (typically 70% tin and 30% zinc) are Think C An extension of ANSIC for the Macin- applied to threaded fasteners to provide a corro- tosh by Symantec Corporation, similar to C++ sion resistant coating. One of the advantages of , to support object-oriented programming tech- such coatings is that bimetallic corrosion will not niques. [soft] occur when placed into contact with such metals as or steel. [mech-3] Thread Crest The top part of the thread. For external threads, the crest is the region of the Tipple - Originally the place where the mine cars thread which is on it’s outer surface, for internal weretipped and emptied of their coal, and still threads it is the region which forms the inner used in that same sense,although now more diameter. [mech-3] generally applied to the surface structures of amine, including the preparation plant and load- Thread Flank The thread flanks join the thread ing tracks.[mining-1] roots to the crest. [mech-3] Tk An extension to Tcl providing an interface to Thread Height This is the distance between the the X windows . [soft] minor and major diameters of the thread mea- sured radially. [mech-3] TLA Three Letter Acronym. [soft] Thread Length Length the portion of the fastener Token A basic, grammatically indivisible unit of a with threads. [mech-3] language. [soft] Threadlocker Can be a term used for a number Token ring A arbitration of vibration resistant products but is now usu- scheme in which conflicts in the transmission of ally reserved for threadlocking adhesives. Specif- messages are avoided by the granting of ”tokens” ically, a liquid anaerobic adhesive applied to nut which give permission to send. A station keeps or bolt thread, once hardened it fills the inner the token while transmitting a message, if it has spaces between the threads to produce a solid a message to transmit, and then passes it on to plastic of a known . [mech-3] the next station. [soft] Thread Root The thread root is the bottom of the Tolerance Class A combination of tolerance grade thread, on external threads the roots are usually and a fundamental deviation which is given to rounded so that fatigue performance is improved. an internal or external thread. A tolerance class [mech-3] for an internal thread when combined with the tolerance class for an external thread gives the Thread Runout The portion at the end of a class of fit for the mating threads. [mech-3] threaded shank which is not cut or rolled to full depth, but which provides a transition be- Tolerance Grade The difference between maxi- tween full depth threads and the fastener shank mum and minimum metal conditions for a tol- or head. [mech-3] DRAFTerance applied to a screw thread. For metric CMI-MDP Programme 105

threads the tolerance grade is given a number. Transient A change in the reactor coolant system [mech-3] temperature and/or pressure due to a change in power output of the reactor. Transients can be Ton A short or net ton is equal to 2,000 pounds; a caused (1) by adding or removing neutron poi- long orBritish ton is 2,240 pounds; a metric ton sons, (2) by that is increasing or decreasing elec- is approximately 2,205pounds.[mining-1] trical load on the turbine generator, or (3) by Toolbuilder see TBK [soft] accident conditions. [nuclear-1] Top - A mine roof; same as ”back.”[mining-1] a metal having available electron energy levels occupied so that the d-band con- TOP Technical/Office Protocol: a protocol stack tains less than its maximum number of ten elec- for office automation developed by Boeing fol- trons per atom; the incompletely filled d-levels lowing the OSI model. This protocol is very sim- cause the unique properties of the transition met- ilar to MAP except at the lowest levels, where it als; included in this class are iron, , nickel, uses Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) rather than Token and tungsten. [mat-1] Bus (IEEE 802.4). [soft] transition temperature an arbitrarily defined Torque Multiplier A gearbox used to increase the temperature that lies within the tempera- torque produced by a small hand wrench. [mech- ture range where metal fracture characteristics 3] change rapidly; an example is the ductile-to- A manual wrench which incor- brittle transition temperature (DBTT). [mat-1] porates a gauge or other method to indicate the Translation Motion of an object where the path of amount of torque transferred to the nut or bolt. every point is a straight line. [struc-1] [mech-3] Transmissibility The principle stating that a force Torque wrench - A wrench that indicates, as on has the same external effect on an object re- a dial, theamount of torque (in units of foot- gardless of where it acts along its line of action. pounds) exerted in tightening aroof bolt.[mining- [struc-1] 1] Transputer A family of microprocessors from In- toughness a measure of the energy absorbed before mos with interprocessor links, programmable in and during the fracture process; it is equal to the area under the tensile stress-strain curve. [mat-1] Occam . [soft] - A battery-operated piece of equipment Transuranic element An artificially made, ra- that pullstrailers, skids, or personnel carriers. dioactive element that has an atomic number Also used for supplies.[mining-1] higher than uranium in the periodic table of el- ements such as , plutonium, ameri- Tram - Used in connection with moving self- cium, and others. [nuclear-1] propelled miningequipment. A tramming motor may refer to an electric usedfor haul- Transuranic waste Material contaminated with ing loaded trips or it may refer to the motor in a transuranic elements that is produced primar- cuttingmachine that supplies the power for mov- ily from reprocessing spent fuel and from use ing or tramming themachine.[mining-1] of plutonium in fabrication of nuclear . [nuclear-1] Transaction A unit of interaction with a DBMS or similar system. It must be treated in a coherent Trellis An object-oriented application development and reliable way independent of other transac- system from DEC, based on the Trellis language. tions . [soft] [soft] Transfer - A vertical or inclined connection be- the science and technology of interacting tween two ormore levels and used as an ore surfaces in relative motion and of the practices pass.[mining-1] related thereto; the science concerned with the design, friction, lubrication, and wear of contact- Transfer point - Location in the materials ing surfaces that move relative to one another handling system,either haulage or hoist- (e.g. bearings, cams, ). [mat-1] ing, where bulk material is transferred betweenconveyances.[mining-1] triclinic having three axes of any length with none of the included angles being equal to one another transgranular through or across crystals or grains; or 90 degrees. [mat-1] also called intracrystalline or transcrystalline. [mat-1] DRAFTTrip - A train of mine cars.[mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 106

Trip, reactor A term that is used by pressurized Turbine generator (TG) A steam (or water) tur- water reactors for a reactor scram (see Scram). bine directly coupled to an electrical generator. [nuclear-1] The two devices are often referred to as one unit. [nuclear-1] Tritium A radioactive isotope of hydrogen (one pro- ton, two neutrons). Because it is chemically iden- Turn Of The Nut Method See ANGLE CON- tical to natural hydrogen, tritium can easily be TROLLED TIGHTENING [mech-3] taken into the body by any ingestion path. It twin bands bands across a crystal grain where crys- decays by beta emission. It has a radioactive tallographic orientations have a image re- half-life of about 12.5 years. [nuclear-1] lationship to the orientation of the matrix grain Troughing idlers - The idlers, located on the up- across a composition plane usually parallel to the perframework of a belt conveyor, which sup- sides of the band. [mat-1] port the loaded belt. They areso mounted twin two portions of a crystal with a definite orien- that the loaded belt forms a trough in the di- tation relationship; the orientation of one portion rection oftravel, which reduces spillage and in- is a of the orientation of the other creases the carrying capacity ofa belt for a given portion across a twinning plane or an orientation width.[mining-1] derived by rotating one portion about a twinning true strain the ratio of the change in dimension, axis. [mat-1] resulting from a given load, to the magnitude of TXL A hybrid functional and rule-based lan- the dimension immediately prior to applying the guage for source transformation applications load; the natural logarithm of the ratio of the from Queen’s Univ. Canada. [soft] gage length at the moment of observation to the original gage length. [mat-1] true stress the load applied to a material divided by the cross sectional area over which it acts. UVW [mat-1] TRUSIX TRUSted unIX operating system. [soft] UAA Unified Agent Architecture. [soft] U Bolt A U shaped fastener threaded at both ends TSAPI Telephony Services Application Program- ming Interface. A CTI standard from Novell and used primarily in suspension and related areas of . [mech-3] AT&T. [soft] UCS Universal Character Set (Universal Multiple- TSEE Technical and Engineering Environment: Octet Coded Character Set) of ISO 10646. [soft] part of the RTEE toolset. [soft] UDP User Datagram Protocol: the Internet stan- TULIP The University Licensing Program. A co- dard protocol for sending datagrams between operative research project for networked delivery user programs. This protocol neither guarantees and use of journals, by Elsevier Science and nine delivery nor does it require a connection. As a US Universities. [soft] result it is lightweight and efficient, but all er- Tunes A project to design a new computing envi- ror processing and retransmission must be taken ronment at all levels of software [soft] care of by the application program. This proto- col is built on top of IP and uses IP for datagram Tunnel - A horizontal, or near-horizontal, un- delivery (see TCP/IP ). . [soft] dergroundpassage, entry, or haulageway, that is open to the surface at bothends. A tun- UIL User Interface Language: in OSF /Motif , a nel (as opposed to an adit) must pass com- language for specifying widget etc. pletely through ahill or mountain.[mining-1]¡p [soft] align=”center”¿¡a name=”U”¿¡font face=”CG UIMS User Interface Management System: a sys- Times” size=”4”¿U¡/font¿¡/a¿¡/p¿ tem supporting the development and execution Turbine A rotary engine made with a series of of user interfaces, usually on top of windowing curved vanes on a rotating shaft, usually turned systems. [soft] by water or steam. Turbines are considered the UIMX An interface builder for Motif from Visual most economical means to turn large electrical Edge. [soft] generators. [nuclear-1] UIS A VMS graphics programming interface pack- DRAFTage for VAXstations. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 107

UI UNIX International: a consortium including unit cell the smallest repetitive volume that com- Sun and AT&T, promoting an open environment prises the complete pattern of a crystal. [mat-1] base on UNIX System V including the Open Look windowing system. [soft] Unit train A long train of between 60 and 150 or morehopper cars, carrying only coal between a Ultimate analysis - Precise determination, by single mine anddestination.[mining-1] chemicalmeans, of the elements and compounds in coal.[mining-1] Universal coal cutter - A type of coal cutting ma- chinewhich is designed to make horizontal cuts Ultimate Tensile Strength[mech-1] in a coal face at any pointbetween the bottom and top or to make cuts at any point- Ultrasonic Extensometer An instrument which between the two ribs of the place. The cutter can measure the change in length of a fastener ul- bar can be twisted tomake cuts at any angle to trasonically as the fastener is tightened (or mea- the horizontal or vertical.[mining-1] sure the length before and after it is tightened). [mech-3] UNIX Computer operating system developed by . Since it was written in C , it was Ultraviolet Electromagnetic radiation of a wave- possible to port it to run on different hardware length between the shortest visible and low energy x-rays. [nuclear-1] architectures. It is now offered by many manu- facturers and is the subject of an international Ultrix A version of UNIX based on the Berkeley standardisation effort. See also OSF [soft] version, designed and implemented by DEC to run on their VAX and DECstation series of pro- UNIX International A consortium of AT&T and cessors. [soft] others formed to advise on the development of UNIX . [soft] range Defines an within which a numerical result is expected to lie within Unnecessary regulatory burden Regulatory cri- a specified level of confidence. The interval of- teria that go beyond the levels that would be ten used is the 5-95 percentile of the distribution reasonably expected to be imposed on licensees reporting the uncertainty. [nuclear-1] given that regulations apply to conditions that incorporate normal operation and design-basis under-cooling cooling a material below the tem- conditions. [nuclear-1] perature of an equilibrium phase change fast enough to not allow the occurrence of the trans- UNO Universal Network Objects. [soft] formation. [mat-1] Unrestricted area The area outside the owner- Undercut - To cut below or undermine the coal face controlled portion of a nuclear facility (usually bychipping away the coal by pick or mining ma- the site boundary). An area in which a person chine. In some localitiesthe terms ”undermine” could not be exposed to radiation levels in ex- or ”underhole” are used.[mining-1] cess of 2 millirems in any one hour from external sources. [nuclear-1] Underground mine Also known as a ”deep” mine. Usuallylocated several hundred feet below the Unstable isotope A radioactive isotope (see also earth’s surface, an undergroundmine’s coal is re- stable isotope). [nuclear-1] moved mechanically and transferred by shuttle Upcast shaft - A shaft through which air car orconveyor to the surface. [mining-1] leaves themine.[mining-1]¡p align=”center”¿¡a Underground station - An enlargement of an name=”V”¿¡font face=”CG Times” entry, drift, orlevel at a shaft at which cages size=”4”¿V¡/font¿¡/a¿¡/p¿ stop to receive and discharge cars,personnel, and material. An underground station is any Uranium A radioactive element with the atomic location wherestationary electrical equipment number 92 and, as found in natural ores, an is installed. This includes pumprooms, com- atomic weight of approximately 238. The two pressor rooms, hoist rooms, battery-charging principal natural isotopes are uranium-235 (0.7 rooms,etc.[mining-1] percent of natural uranium), which is fissile, and uranium-238 (99.3 percent of natural uranium), UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione: the which is fissionable by fast neutrons and is fertile. Italian national standards body, a member of Natural uranium also includes a minute amount ISO . [soft] of uranium-234. [nuclear-1] Unit Cell the basic structural unit of a crystal structure.[mech-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 108

Uranium fuel fabrication facility A facility that Validation The process of evaluating software at (1) manufactures reactor fuel containing ura- the end of the development process to ensure nium for any of the following: (i) preparation compliance with software requirements. [soft] of fuel materials; (ii) formation of fuel materi- als into desired shapes; (iii) application of pro- Valuation - The act or process of valuing or of es- tective cladding; (iv) recovery of scrap material; timatingthe value or worth; appraisal.[mining-1] and (v) storage associated with such operations; van der Waals Bond a secondary interatomic or (2) conducts research and development activ- bond between adjacent molecular dipoles, which ities. [nuclear-1] may be permanent or induced.[mech-1] Uranium hexafluoride production facility A Vapor The gaseous form of substances that are nor- facility that receives natural uranium in the form mally in liquid or solid form. [nuclear-1] of ore concentrate, processes the concentrate, and converts it into uranium hexafluoride (UF6). V A testbed for distributed system research . [soft] [nuclear-1] VAX A range of 32-bit computers manufactured by URC Uniform (previously Universal) Resource DEC. [soft] Characteristic (Citation) - More information. [soft] VAX DOCUMENT A document preparation sys- tem from DEC. [soft] URI Uniform (previously Universal) Resource Iden- tifier - More information. [soft] VAXset A set of software development tools from DEC, including a language-sensitive editor, com- URL Uniform (previously Universal) Resource Lo- pilers etc. [soft] cator [soft] VAXstation A family of workstations from DEC URN Uniform (previously Universal) Resource based on their VAX computer architecture. [soft] Name [soft] VAX/VMS see VMS . [soft] Usenet The practice of using computer networks to exchange items of information grouped into VB Visual Basic [soft] ”newsgroups” by topic. This is supported by a number of diverse and informally applied mech- VDL Vienna Definition Language: an algebraic def- anisms and conventions [soft] inition language, see VDM . [soft] USENIX The UNIX and Advanced Computing VDM Vienna Definition Method: a program de- Systems Professional and Technical Association velopment method based on formal specification [soft] using the Meta-IV language [soft] USL UNIX System Laboratories: the software sub- VDM Virtual Device Metafile. [soft] sidiary of AT&T, responsible for UNIX System Vector A mathematical entity having a magnitude V and related software. [soft] and a direction in space. [struc-1] USMARC See MARC . [soft] VEE see HP VEE . [soft] UTF UCS Transformation Format of ISO 10646. Velocity A vector quantity equal to the rate that [soft] position changes with time. [struc-1] UTF Universal Text Format, an SGML standard Velocity - Rate of airflow in lineal feet per for the news distribution indistry [soft] minute.[mining-1] UUCP The large international network of UNIX machines using the UUCP protocol to exchange Ventilation - The provision of a directed flow news and electronic mail. . [soft] of fresh andreturn air along all underground roadways, traveling roads, workings,and service Vacancy a normally occupied lattice site from parts.[mining-1] which an atom or ion is missing.[mech-1] Verification The process of determining whether or vacancy an unfilled lattice site in a crystal struc- not the products of a given phase in the life-cycle ture. [mat-1] fulfill a set of established requirements. [soft] valence the charge on an ion based on the number of Verilog A Hardware Description Language for elec- electrons transferred or shared within a specific tronic design level simulation. [soft] structure. [mat-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme 109

Verilog SA A French real-time - the ratio of the magnitude of an ap- ing company. [soft] plied shear stress to the velocity gradient that it produces.[mech-1] Version A variant of the original value of an object. See change management [soft] Visual Basic A programming language and devel- opment environment for Windows - More infor- Very high radiation area An area accessible to mation. [soft] individuals, in which radiation levels exceed 500 rad (5 gray) in one hour at 1 meter from the Visualisation A method by which a computer sys- source or from any surface that the radiation tem presents data to the user - More information. penetrates. [nuclear-1] [soft] VHDL Very High Speed Integrated Circuit De- Visualization A method by which a computer sys- scription Language: a high-level VLSI design tem presents data to the user - More information. language, now standardised as IEEE Std.1076 - [soft] More information. [soft] VITAL VHDL Initiative Towards ASIC Libraries VHE Virtual Home Environment: a tool for using [soft] NFS on HP UX . [soft] VITA VMEbus International Trade Association. Viability assessment A Department of Energy de- [soft] cisionmaking process to judge the prospects for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes VLIW Very Long Instruction Word. [soft] at Yucca Mountain based on (1) specific design VLSI Very Large Scale Integration. Refers to semi- work on the critical elements of the repository conductor chips composed of very many tightly and waste package, (2) a total system perfor- packed logic elements or memories - More infor- mance assessment that will describe the probable mation. [soft] behavior of the repository, (3) a plan and cost es- timate for the work required to complete a license VM/CMS Virtual Machine / Conversational Mon- application, and (4) an estimate of the costs to itor System: an IBM operating system running construct and operate the repository. [nuclear-1] on 43xx and 30xx series machines, providing ef- ficient support for of interactive VIFF Visualization Image File Format [soft] users. [soft] Viola An experimental hypercard -like interpreted VMEbus A widely accepted backplane interconnec- hypertext system by Pei Y. Wei of Berkeley. tion bus system developed by a consortium of [soft] led by Motorola, now standardized as Violation - The breaking of any state or federal IEEE Std. 1014. [soft] mininglaw.[mining-1] VME Common abbreviation for VMEbus . [soft] VIPA VMEbus International Physics Association. VM see VM/CMS . [soft] [soft] VMS The operating system offered by DEC as the VIP Virtual Internet Protocol - More information. standard system for their VAX range of proces- [soft] sors. [soft] virgin a metal made directly from ore by smelting. Void - A general term for pore space or other re- [mat-1] openings inrock. In addition to pore space, the Virgin - Unworked; untouched; often said of areas term includes vesicles, solutioncavities, or any wherethere has been no coal mining.[mining-1] openings either primary or secondary. [mining-1]

Virtual Effective Diameter The effective diam- Void coefficient of reactivity A rate of change in eter of a thread but allowing for errors in pitch the reactivity of a water reactor system resulting and flank angles. [mech-3] from a formation of steam bubbles as the power level and temperature increase. [nuclear-1] a type of deformation exhibiting the mechanical characteristics of viscous flow and Void In a nuclear power reactor, an area of lower elastic deformation.[mech-1] density in a moderating system (such as steam bubbles in water) that allows more neutron leak- viscosity coefficient of resistance to flow. [mat-1] age than does the more dense material around DRAFTit. [nuclear-1] CMI-MDP Programme 110

Volatile matter - The gaseous part, mostly hydro- Warehouse See Data Warehouse . [soft] , ofcoal.[mining-1]¡p align=”center”¿¡a name=”W”¿¡font face=”CG Times” WARIA Workflow And Reengineering Interna- size=”4”¿W¡/font¿¡/a¿¡/p¿ tional Association [soft] VPN Virtual Private Network. A computer net- Wasserman A.I.(Tony) Wasserman: president of work that appears to be a dedicated network to IDE . [soft] a particular set of users, whilst in fact using the Waste, radioactive Radioactive materials at the infrastructure of public switched networks. [soft] end of a useful life cycle or in a product that is VRML Virtual Modeling Language [soft] no longer useful and should be properly disposed of. [nuclear-1] VRTX Virtual Real-Time Executive: a real-time operating system from ReadySystems for the Waste - That rock or mineral which must be re- Motorola 68000 family of microprocessors. [soft] moved from amine to keep the mining scheme practical, but which has no value.[mining-1] VSF Virtual Software Factory: a product from Sys- tematica which allows users to develop CASE Waterfall A software life-cycle model showing the tools appropriate to any software engineering phases of the cycle and their interrelations on a methodology. [soft] characteristic diagram. [soft] VSX Verification Suite.for X/open [soft] Water Gauge (standard U-tube) - Instrument that measuresdifferential pressures in of VTS A suite of test programs for Motif from OSF . water.[mining-1] [soft] Watt An electrical unit of power. 1 watt = 1 VUE Visual User Environment: a desktop manager Joule/second. It is equal to the power in a circuit from Hewlett-Packard. [soft] in which a current of one flows across a potential difference of one . [nuclear-1] VUIT Visual User Interface Tool: a WYSIWYG editor from DEC for building human interfaces Watt-hour An electrical energy unit of measure to applications using OSF . It provides an in- equal to 1 watt of power supplied to, or taken teractive interface to UIL and the Motif toolkit. from, an electrical circuit steadily for 1 hour. [soft] [nuclear-1] Vulcanization nonreversible in- WE A hypertext authoring system developed at the volving sulfur or other suitable agent wherein University of North Carolina. [soft] cross-links are formed between molecular chains in rubber materials.[mech-1] WEB See Literate Programming and also World- Wide Web [soft] VxWorks A real-time software development envi- ronment and multitasking operating system from Web See WWW . [soft] River Systems that uses the VRTX kernel. [soft] - A piece of wood tapering to a thin edge and usedfor tightening in conventional W3C Wide Web Consortium [soft] timbering.[mining-1] W3 See WWW . [soft] Weight - Fracturing and lowering of the roof strata at theface as a result of mining operations, as in WABI A software package to emulate Windows un- ”taking weight”.[mining-1] der X [soft] Weighting factor (WT) Multipliers of the equiv- Waisted Shank Bolt A bolt whose diameter is alent dose to an organ or tissue used for radi- less than the minor diameter of the thread. Fre- ation protection purposes to account for differ- quently the shank of the bolt is 0.9 times the root ent sensitivities of different organs and tissues to diameter. [mech-3] the induction of stochastic effects of radiation. WAIS Wide Area Information Servers: a dis- [nuclear-1] tributed document retrieval system supported Weight The force on an object resulting from grav- by Apple, Thinking Machines and Dow Jones. ity. [struc-1] Servers answer questions from personal worksta- tions following a standard protocol [soft] welding the joining of two metal surfaces that have been heated, melted, and fused together. [mat-1] WAN Wide Area Network. [softDRAFT] CMI-MDP Programme 111

Well-logging All operations involving the lowering WIMP Windows, Icons, Menus and Pointers and raising of measuring devices or tools that (or maybe Windows, Icons, Mouse, Pull-down contain licensed material or are used to detect menus). The style of user interface made popu- licensed materials in wells for the purpose of ob- lar by the Apple Macintosh and now available in taining information about the well or adjacent other GUI s, such as OSF and NeWS . [soft] formations that may be used in oil, gas, mineral, Windowing The ability to interact at will with sev- groundwater, or geological exploration. [nuclear- 1] eral processes in a computer through reserved ar- eas, or windows, on a VDU screen. [soft] Westmount A Netherlands software engineering Window manager In a window system , a pro- vendor of RTEE and other products. [soft] gram which manages windows on a screen. It WFMS WorkFlow Management System. Software is responsible for moving and resizing windows, to manage workflow in an organisation. [soft] and other practical functions. [soft] Wheeling service The movement of electricity Windows 4GL INGRES/Windows 4GL is a graph- from one system to another over transmission ical tool running on top of workstation native facilities of intervening systems. Wheeling ser- windowing systems, to help developers to build vice contracts can be established between two or user interfaces to INGRES applications. [soft] more systems. [nuclear-1] Windows A window system and user interface soft- Whetstone A benchmark program. [soft] ware from Microsoft for MS-DOS . [soft] White damp - Carbon monoxide, CO. A gas that Window system Software which supports window- may be presentin the afterdamp of a gas- or coal- ing . Examples are the X Window System , and dust explosion, or in the gasesgiven off by a mine proprietary systems on the Macintosh, NeXT fire; also one of the constituents of the gasespro- and Sun. [soft] duced by blasting. Rarely found in mines un- Winning - The excavation, loading, and removal der othercircumstances. It is absorbed by the of coal orore from the ground; winning follows of the blood to theexclusion of oxy- development.[mining-1] gen. One-tenth of 1 Winze - Secondary or tertiary vertical or near- Whole-body counter A device used to identify verticalopening sunk from a point inside a mine and measure the radioactive material in the for the purpose of connectingwith a lower level or body of human beings and . It uses of exploring the ground for a limited depthbelow heavy shielding to keep out naturally existing a level.[mining-1] background radiation and ultrasensitive radia- tion detectors and electronic counting equip- Wipe sample A sample made for the purpose of ment. [nuclear-1] determining the presence of removable radioac- tive contamination on a surface. It is done by Whole-body exposure Whole body exposure in- wiping, with slight pressure, a piece of soft filter cludes at least the external exposure, head, paper over a representative type of . trunk, arms above the elbow, or legs above the It is also known as a ”swipe” or ”smear” sample. knee. Where a radioisotope is uniformly dis- [nuclear-1] tributed throughout the body tissues, rather than being concentrated in certain parts, the ir- Wire rope - A steel wire rope used for wind- radiation can be considered as whole-body expo- ing in shaftsand underground haulages. Wire sure. [nuclear-1] are made from medium carbonsteels. Var- ious of wire rope are designated Widget In the X Window System , a window with by thenumber of strands in the rope and the its associated input and output functions. Wid- number of wires in eachstrand. The following gets, provided by a library package, are used as are some common terms encountered: - building blocks to construct a wide variety of ap- trand; cablelaid rope; cane rope; elevator rope; plication environments [soft] extra-flexiblehoisting rope; flat rope; flattened- strand rope; guy rope; guy strand;hand rope; Width - The thickness of a lode measured at right haulage rope; hawser; hoisting rope; lang lay angles tothe dip.[mining-1] rope; lay;left lay rope; left twist; nonspinning Willow A Motif -based user interface program for rope; regular lay; reverse-laidrope; rheostat rope; bibliographic information retrieval systems, from right lay; right twist; running rope; specialflexi- Washington University [soft] ble hoisting rope; standing rope; towing hawser; DRAFTtransmissionrope.[mining-1] CMI-MDP Programme 112

Wire Thread Insert A threaded insert that is Workstation A general-purpose computer designed typically used for tapped hole repair or to im- to be used by one person at a time and which of- prove the thread stripping strength of softer met- fers higher performance than normally found in a als such as zinc and aluminium. The inserts are PC, especially with respect to graphics, process- assembled into a previously tapped hole using a ing power and the ability to carry out several special driving tool. A thread locking compound tasks at the same time. [soft] is frequently used to secure the insert if the as- sembly is subject to vibration. [mech-3] WOSC World Organisation of Systemics and Cy- bernetics. [soft] WISE Web-Integrated Software metrics Environ- ment. A WWW based software management and wrought alloy an alloy that is suitable for mechan- metrics system from NASA [soft] ical forming below melting-point temperatures. [mat-1] WISE World Wide Information System for Sup- port of R&D Efforts. A project funded by the commercial iron that contains less Commission of the European Communities to than 0.3% carbon and 1.0 or 2.0% slag, giving it encourage ”Transborder Telework and Research ductility and toughness. [mat-1] Co-operation” [soft] WSL Wide Spectrum Language developed for pro- WIT WWW Interactive Talk [soft] gram transformation - More information. [soft] WizDOM Software for distributed UNIX system WSRD Worldwide Software Resources Discovery. management from TIVOLI Systems of Austin, An ASSET service. [soft] Texas [soft] WWW World-Wide Web: a project originated at Word A document processing program from Mi- CERN , aimed at providing hypertext -style ac- crosoft. [soft] cess to information from a wide range of sources [soft] work angle in arc welding, the angle between the electrode and one of the joints. [mat-1] WYSIWYG What You See Is What You Get: a feature of document preparation systems allow- Workflow The way in which work units (informa- ing the user to work on a document displayed tion or actions) are routed through an organi- on a screen in exactly the same form as it will sation. It can be formalised in terms of rules appear when printed. [soft] incorporating dependencies, staff roles etc. and hence automated - More information. [soft] (strain hardening) increase dis- XYZ location density in metals through straining a material with an applied stress; degree of hard- ening may be manipulated through recovery and X11R4 Version 11 release 4 of the X protocol ; the recrystallization. [mat-1] current standard. [soft] Working face - Any place in a mine where material X11R5 Version 11 release 5 of the X protocol ; the isextracted during a mining cycle.[mining-1] new standard. [soft] Working place - From the outby side of the last X.25 A standard networking protocol suite ap- opencrosscut to the face.[mining-1] proved by the CCITT and ISO . This protocol suite defines standard physical, link, and net- Working section - From the faces to the point working layers (layers 1 through 3). X.25 net- where coal isloaded onto belts or rail cars to be- works are in use throughout the world. [soft] gin its trip to the outside.[mining-1] X3J16 The C++ standard technical committee. Workings - The entire system of openings in a mine [soft] for thepurpose of exploitation.[mining-1] X.400 The set of CCITT communications stan- Working - When a coal seam is being squeezed by dards covering mail services provided by data pressurefrom roof and floor, it emits creaking networks. [soft] noises and is said to be”working”. This often serves as a warning to the miners thatadditional X.500 The set of CCITT standards covering elec- support is needed.[mining-1] tronic mail directory services. [soft] DRAFTX An abbreviation for the X Window System . [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 113

Xanadu An project due to X protocol A standard used by clients (applica- Ted Nelson, the inventor of the term hypertext tions) and servers in the X Window System for [soft] exchanging requests for window manipulations. [soft] Xaw The Athena Set: a set of widgets distributed with the X Window System . [soft] X-radiation electromagnetic radiation of the same nature as visible light, but having a wavelength X client An application process in the X Window approximately one thousandth that of visible System : it gains access to windowing services light. [mat-1] via the Xlib library. These are translated by the system into messages to an X server . [soft] X-rays Penetrating electromagnetic radiation (pho- ton) having a wavelength that is much shorter X Consortium A vendor consortium supporting than that of visible light. These rays are usu- development of the X Window System [soft] ally produced by excitation of the electron field around certain nuclei. In nuclear reactions, it is X-designer A user interface builder for Motif from customary to refer to photons originating in the Imperial Software Technology. [soft] nucleus as x-rays. [nuclear-1] X.desktop A desktop manager for UNIX from IXI. X-ray tube a device that produces X-rays by the [soft] impact of high-speed electrons on a metal target. XDR eXternal Data Representation - universal ma- [mat-1] chine independent form of data sent by RPC sys- XRemote A serial line protocol for the X Window tems. Described in RFC 1014. [soft] System . [soft] XENIX UNIX . [soft] XRN A newsreader program for Usenet news base Xerox PARC The Palo Alto Research Center of on the X Window System . host. [soft] the Xerox Corporation [soft] X server A process which controls a bitmap display Xerox The Document Company [soft] device.in an X Window System . It performs operations on request from client applications. XIE X Image Extension: extensions to the X pro- [soft] tocol to handle images. [soft] XSI X/Open System Interface specification: part Xlib X library: program interface to the X Window of the X/Open Common Applications Environ- System . [soft] ment. [soft] XML Xperimental Markup Language based on X terminal An intelligent terminal which operates CML . [soft] as an X server directly connected to Ethernet . [soft] xmosaic See Mosaic [soft] X-terminal An intelligent terminal with a built- XMP The X/Open Management Protocols. [soft] in implementation of an X server , which can therefore communicate with computers running XNS Xerox Network Services: a proprietary net- X clients . [soft] working architecture developed by Xerox. [soft] Xterminal See X-terminal [soft] XOM The X/Open Abstract Data Manipulation API . [soft] XTI X/open Transport Interface. [soft] X/Open An international consortium of vendors Xt The intrinsics of theX Window System Toolkit. whose purpose is to define the X/Open Com- [soft] mon Applications Environment designed to pro- vide applications portability [soft] XUI X User Interface: program interface to the X Window System supported by DEC. [soft] Xopen See X/Open [soft] Xv++ A library of classes from Interface Engineer- XPG3 Version 3 of XPG . [soft] ing, Stevenage, providing a C++ Application Programmer’s Interface to the XView toolkit. XPG X/open Portability Guide: defines the inter- [soft] faces of the X/Open Common Applications En- vironment. [soft] XView A toolkit from Sun, derived from SunView , providing an Open Look user interface for X DRAFTapplications. [soft] CMI-MDP Programme 114

XVT eXtensible Virtual Toolkit: a product allow- Young’s Modulus see Modulus of Elasticity the ing applications to be developed independent of ratio of stress to strain when deformation is to- GUI . [soft] tally elastic.[mech-1] Xwindow See X Window System [soft] YP Yellow Pages: a name server in NFS to link clients desiring a service with servers who can X Windows See X Window System . [soft] provide it. [soft] X Window System A specification for device- YSM Yourdon Structured Method [soft] independent windowing operations on bitmap display devices, developed by MIT and now a de Z39.50 Information Retrieval Service Definition facto standard supported by the X consortium - and Protocol Specification for Library Applica- More information. [soft] tions. Developed by NISO , this standard speci- fies an OSI application layer service to allow an yacc Yet Another Compiler Compiler. A parser gen- application on one computer to query a database erator for UNIX by S.C.Johnson [soft] on another; it is used by WAIS [soft] YACL Yet Another Class Library - More informa- Z A formal specification language developed at Ox- tion. [soft] ford University for describing computing sys- Y++ An Object-Oriented analysis and design ap- tems, based on set theory and predicate calculus proach [soft] [soft] Yellowcake Yellowcake is the product of the ura- ZEBRA A data management package in the CERN nium extraction (milling) process; early produc- Program Library [soft] tion methods resulted in a bright yellow com- Zinc/Cobalt Alloy Electroplating This coating pound, hence the name /yellowcake/. The ma- is similar to zinc electroplating completed in an terial is a mixture of uranium oxides that can acid chloride bath - a small amount of cobalt vary in proportion and in color from yellow to or- (typically about 1%) is added to increase the ange to dark (blackish) depending at which plating speed. [mech-3] temperature the material was dried (level of hy- dration and impurities). Higher temper- Zinc Electroplating Zinc electroplating is a com- atures produce a darker, less soluble material. mon way to protect threaded fasteners from the Yellowcake is commonly referred to as U3O8 and effects of corrosion. Zinc electroplating can be is assayed as pounds U3O8 equivalent. This fine completed in acid chloride, alkaline or powder is packaged in drums and sent to a con- baths. Supplemental coatings are frequently ap- version plant that produces uranium hexafluo- plied to zinc electroplating. These coatings, ride (UF6) as the next step in the manufacture such as zinc or chromate conversion, of nuclear fuel. [nuclear-1] provide a protective layer on the zinc which assists in reducing the corrosion rate. Yield Controlled Tightening A fastener tight- [mech-3] ening method which allows a fastener to be tight- ened to yield. The angle of rotation of the fas- Zinc Phosphate Conversion Coating A zinc tener is measured relative to the applied torque, phosphate conversion coating is frequently added yield being assessed when the slope of the rela- to zinc electroplated parts, such as bolt threads, tionship changes to below a certain value. Some- to improve corrosion resistance. This type of times called joint controlled tightening. [mech-3] chemical conversion coating provides a protec- tive passivation layer on the zinc improving its Yield strain A material deformed beyond its yield corrosion resistance. [mech-3] strain, no longer exhibits linear elastic behavior. See yield stress. [struc-1] ZOG A high-performance hypertext system devel- oped at Carnegie-Mellon University. [soft] Yield Strength the stress required to produce a very slight yet specified amount of plastic zone any group of crystal planes that are all parallel strain.[mech-1] to one line, called the zone axis. [mat-1] Yield stress A material loaded beyond its yield stress, no longer exhibits linear elastic behavior. Metals, particularly mild steel, generally have a very well defined yield stress compared to other materials. Yield stress is sometimes called yield strength. [struc-1] DRAFT CMI-MDP Programme . AB